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Sample records for high performance desalination

  1. High performance hydrophilic pervaporation composite membranes for water desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A three-layer thin film nanofibrous pervaporation composite (TFNPVC) membrane was prepared by sequential deposition using electrospraying/electrospinning. The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) top barrier layer was first electrosprayed on aluminum foil and its thickness can be easily controlled by adjusting the collecting time. Next a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous scaffold was deposited by electrospinning as a mid-layer support. A nonwoven PET layer is used to complete the composite membrane. The pervaporation desalination performance of TFNPVC membranes was tested using NaCl solutions at 100. Pa and at room temperature. The TFNPVC membranes show excellent desalination performance (high water flux and salt rejection >. 99.5%) for different salt concentrations with virtually no change in performance after 50. h of operation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Improved performance of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell with enlarged anode and high applied voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bo; Luo, Haiping; Lu, Yaobin; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Li, Xiao

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve performance of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) using enlarged anode and high applied voltages. MEDCCs with anode lengths of 9 and 48cm (i.e., the 9cm-anode MEDCC and 48cm-anode MEDCC, respectively) were tested under different voltages (1.2-3.0V). Our results demonstrated for the first time that the MEDCC could maintain high performance even under the applied voltage higher than that for water dissociation (i.e., 1.8V). Under the applied voltage of 2.5V, the maximum current density in the 48cm-anode MEDCC reached 32.8±2.6A/m 2 , which is one of the highest current densities reported so far in the bioelectrochemical system (BES). The relative abundance of Geobacter was changed along the anode length. Our results show the great potential of the BES with enlarged anode and high applied voltages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and desalination performance of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dengsong; Shi Liyi; Fang Jianhui; Dai Kai; Li Xuanke

    2006-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by catalytic decomposition of methane at 680-700 deg. C, using nickel oxide-silica binary aerogels as the catalyst. The morphological structure of MWCNTs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that MWCNTs had a diameter of 40-60 nm, with high quality and high length/diameter ratio, and some metal catalyst particles were encapsulated at the tip of nanotubes. Using MWCNTs as the electrodes of flow-through capacitor (FTC), desalination performance was investigated. The results showed that modification methods had great effect on desalination performance of MWCNTs. The removal amount of NaCl was generally dependent on the surface area and pore volume of MWCNTs. After modification in diluted HNO 3 solution with ultrasonic and then ball milling, the metal catalyst particles at the tip of nanotubes disappeared, the nanotube length became short, the cap at the tip of nanotubes was opened, the internal surface area could be effectively used, leading to increasing the specific surface area and pore volume for MWCNTs, and thus, the desalination performance thereof was the best of all

  4. Water desalination price from recent performances: Modelling, simulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaiche, M.; Kettab, A.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of the present article is the technical simulation of seawater desalination, by a one stage reverse osmosis system, the objectives of which are the recent valuation of cost price through the use of new membrane and permeator performances, the use of new means of simulation and modelling of desalination parameters, and show the main parameters influencing the cost price. We have taken as the simulation example the Seawater Desalting centre of Djannet (Boumerdes, Algeria). The present performances allow water desalting at a price of 0.5 $/m 3 , which is an interesting and promising price, corresponding with the very acceptable water product quality, in the order of 269 ppm. It is important to run the desalting systems by reverse osmosis under high pressure, resulting in further decrease of the desalting cost and the production of good quality water. Aberration in choice of functioning conditions produces high prices and unacceptable quality. However there exists the possibility of decreasing the price by decreasing the requirement on the product quality. The seawater temperature has an effect on the cost price and quality. The installation of big desalting centres, contributes to the decrease in prices. A very important, long and tedious calculation is effected, which is impossible to conduct without programming and informatics tools. The use of the simulation model has been much efficient in the design of desalination centres that can perform at very improved prices. (author)

  5. Performance of indigenously fabricated pyramid type solar desalination unit at Nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.H.; Rajpar, A.H.; Memon, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of locally fabricated pyramid type solar desalination unit was studied and compared with the conventional basin type solar still. Both stills were initially filled with same quantity of brackish water. Their performance was studied in terms of the quality of water produced, quantity of water desalinated per hour and total quantity of water desalinated per day during the time under study. The experiments were conducted and various parameters were recorded from 9-15 hours daily. These results showed that pyramid solar still produced 20% higher desalinated water as compared to the conventional double slope basin type solar still. This study showed that the productivity rate of soar still is dependent upon geometrical configuration of solar still. It was observed that the units can highly reduce the salinity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and EC (Electrical Conductivity) of the saline ground water providing the availability of safe drinking water. (author)

  6. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Both electricity and fresh water become basic human needs in modern days. This paper describes the coupling methods of high power pressurized water reactors and desalination system, and evaluates the economics of coupling systems. OPR1000 designed by Korea was chosen for the reference reactor. Because MED (Mulct-Effect Distillation) with TVC (Thermal Vapor Compressor) have been evaluated as an effective desalination system for high power reactors, it was used for the reference desalination method in simulation. In order to simulate the secondary circuit of PWRs with heat exchangers for MED-TVC, PEPSE program which is normally used for performance evaluation of power system efficiencies was used. The coupling of OPR1000 and desalination systems were set under the restriction it had to make as small changes as possible. From the results PEPSE simulation, the economics of the coupling systems were calculates using equations form DEEP4.0 (Desalination Economic Evaluation Program) which was developed by IAEA because Deep simulates just two simple couplings which are back pressure and condensation/extraction. In the secondary circuit simulation seven coupling cases were set and outlet powers to heat exchanger for desalination were varied to be dependent on the thermohydraulic conditions on each part. The results of changed electrical power generation were calculated with the thermal outputs for desalination. It is concluded that two coupling method using the steam from high-pressure turbine have high performance and are economical among the simulated cases. The first one is to add a heat exchanger on the branch from high-pressure turbine into moisture separator and the other is on the branch into feedwater heating parts. It proves desalination plants can be added to current high power PWRs.

  7. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young Deuk; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water

  8. Numerical simulation and performance investigation of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Kim, Youngdeuk; Myat, Aung; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles offer high potential as one of the most economically viable and environmental-friendly desalination methods. This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption

  9. Performance investigation of a salt gradient solar pond coupled with desalination facility near the Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Qudeiri, J.A.; Al-Nimr, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ponds provide the most convenient and least expensive option for heat storage for daily and seasonal cycles. This is particularly important for a desalination facility, if steady and constant water production is required. If, in addition to high storage capacity, other favorable conditions exist, the salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) are expected to be able to carry the entire load of a large-scale flash desalination plants without dependence upon supplementary sources. This paper presents a performance investigation of a SGSP coupled with desalination plant under Jordanian climatic conditions. This is particularly convenient in the Dead Sea region characterized by high solar radiation intensities, high ambient temperature most of the year, and by the availability of high concentration brine. It was found that a 3000 m 2 solar pond installed near the Dead Sea is able to provide an annual average production rate of 4.3 L min -1 distilled water compared with 3.3 L min -1 that would be produced by El Paso solar pond, which has the same surface area. Based on this study, solar ponds appear to be a feasible and an appropriate technology for water desalination near the Dead Sea in Jordan. -- Research highlights: → A performance investigation of a solar pond coupled with desalination plant. → Dead Sea area is characterized by availability of high solar radiation and brine. → The Dead Sea solar pond can provide production rate of 4.3 L min -1 . → El Paso solar pond has production rate of 3.32 L min -1 . The improvement is about 30%. → The solar pond with desalination investigated showed to be a feasible technology.

  10. Result of desalinating filter performance at representative coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Nobuyosi; Wada, Tadamasa

    1989-01-01

    In Japan, Nuclear energy facilities are usually located within 1 km from sea shore. Lately, manufacturing plants for semiconductors and precision machines have also taken locations at the sea side. At these locations, salt particles coming from the sea flow into a plant through its air-intakes. This is a problem, because if can cause electric equipment and other important equipment to deteriorate and may influence production yield. An effective solution to this problem is to install a filter at the air-intake. However, few data in this area is available, because the salt concentration in the air is too low to verify acutual affects of installed filters. This report describes the performance of a filter system installed in an actual building located 300 m from the sea shore. We used a radioactivation analysis method with a detection limit up to 0.01 μg/m 3 to measure concentrations at the up stream and down stream of the filter. A flame spectrochemical analysis measured salt adhering to filter materials. The particle collection performance averaged 80 % for the prefilter and 90 % for a desalinating filter. We also investigated the possibility that captured NaCl might rescatter with the deliquescence due to high humidity, and we found this phenomenon at least in the prefilter. (author)

  11. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Performance evaluation of a continuous flow inclined solar still desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; El-Samadony, Y.A.F.; Kabeel, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model was presented to analyze the performance of inclined still. • The effect of air speed, water masses, film thickness and velocity was studied. • Productivity for the Model 3 was higher than conventional still by 57.2%. • The performance was strongly affected by water film thickness and velocity. • Model 3 gave the highest performance while Model 1 gave the lowest performance. - Abstract: In the present work, theoretical study of the performance evaluation of a continuous water flow inclined solar still desalination system is performed. Three models are studied for inclined solar still desalination system with and without water close loop. The effects of the water mass, water film thickness, water film velocity and air wind velocity on the performance of the three models are studied. The results show that the inclined solar still with a makeup water is superior in productivity (57.2% improvement) compared with a conventional basin-type solar still. Also, the application of inclined solar still with open water loop is recommended when combined with other still desalination system due to high water temperature output. The inclined solar still with a makeup (Model 3) gives the highest performance while Model 1 gives the lowest performance. Finally, the water film thickness, and velocity as well as wind velocity plays important roles in improving the still productivity and efficiency

  15. Performance analysis in stepped solar still for effluent desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Naveen Kumar, K.J.; Noorul Haq, T.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a stepped solar still and an effluent settling tank are fabricated and tested for desalinating the textile effluent. The effluent is purified in an effluent settling tank. In this tank, large and fine solid particles are settled and clarified. The settled effluents are used as raw water in the stepped solar still. For better performance, the stepped solar still consists of 50 trays with two different depths. First 25 trays with 10 mm height and the next 25 trays with 5 mm height are used. Fin, sponge, pebble and combination of the above are used for enhancing the productivity of the stepped solar still. A maximum increase in productivity of 98% occurs in stepped solar still when fin, sponge and pebbles are used in this basin. Theoretical analysis agrees well with experimental results. (author)

  16. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental results of a constructed distiller when working with vacuum glass tubes and vacuum tubes with copper core inside. Conclusions about the possibility of using solar collectors for water desalination, are tips and tricks to improve the performance of solar desalination plant.

  17. Numerical simulation and performance investigation of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles offer high potential as one of the most economically viable and environmental-friendly desalination methods. This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle that employs internal heat recovery between the evaporator and the condenser, utilizing an encapsulated evaporator-condenser unit for effective heat transfer. A simulation model has been developed based on the actual sorption characteristics of the adsorbent-adsorbate pair, energy and mass balances applied to the components of the AD cycle. With an integrated design, the temperature in the evaporator and the vapor pressurization of the adsorber are raised due to the direct heat recovery from the condenser, resulting in the higher water production rates, typically improved by as much as three folds of the conventional AD cycle. In addition, the integrated design eliminates two pumps, namely, the condenser cooling water and the chilled water pumps, lowering the overall electricity consumption. The performance of the cycle is analyzed at assorted heat source and cooling water temperatures, and different cycle times as well as the transient heat transfer coefficients of the evaporation and condensation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Desalination Processes Evaluation at Common Platform: A Universal Performance Ratio (UPR) Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2018-01-31

    The inevitable escalation in economic development have serious implications on energy and environment nexus. The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) predicted that the Non Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (non-OECD) countries will lead with 71% rise in energy demand in contrast with only 18% in developed countries from 2012-2040. In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, about 40% of primary energy is consumed for cogeneration based power and desalination plants. The cogeneration based plants are struggling with unfair primary fuel cost apportionment to electricity and desalination. Also, the desalination processes performance evaluated based on derived energy, providing misleading selection of processes. There is a need of (i) appropriate primary fuel cost appointment method for multi-purposed plants and (ii) desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy. As a solution, we proposed exergetic analysis for primary fuel percentage apportionment to all components in the cycle according to the quality of working fluid utilized. The proposed method showed that the gas turbine was under charged by 40%, steam turbine was overcharged by 71% and desalination was overcharged by 350% by conventional energetic apportionment methods. We also proposed a new and most suitable desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy, called universal performance ratio (UPR). Since UPR is based on primary energy, it can be used to evaluate any kind of desalination processes, thermally driven, pressure driven & humidification-dehumidification etc. on common platform. We showed that all desalination processes are operating only at 10-13% of thermodynamic limit (TL) of UPR. For future sustainability, desalination must achieve 25-30% of TL and it is only possible either by hybridization of different processes or by innovative membrane materials.

  19. Performance analysis of a low-temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination prototype

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Yanagi, Hideharu; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance analysis of an advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with an internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. The AD cycle employs the adsorption-desorption principles to convert sea

  20. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water (as low as 55°C). Passive heating of the feed water (no direct heating) is adopted using total internal heat recovery from the kinetic energy of desorbed vapor and water vapor uptake potential of the adsorbent. Thus, the evaporation in the MEAD cycle ensues at low temperatures ranging from 35°C to 7°C yet providing significantly high performance ratio. The energy from the regenerated vapor is recovered for multiple evaporation/condensation of saline water by a water-run-around circuit between the top brine temperature (TBT) effect and the AD condenser. The adsorbent material is the hydrophilic mesoporous silica gel with high pore surface area. Numerical simulation for such a cycle is developed based on experimentally verified model extending to multi-effect cycle. The system is investigated under several operation conditions such as cycle time allocation, heat source temperature and the number of intermediate effects. It is observed that most of the evaporating-condensing effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35°C as opposed to conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) cycle. For a MEAD cycle with 7 intermediate effects, the specific water production rate, the performance ratio and the gain output ratio are found to be 1.0m3/htonne of silica gel, 6.3 and 5.1, respectively. Low scaling and fouling potentials being evaporation at low temperatures yet high recovery ratio makes the cycle suitable for effectively and efficiently handling highly concentrated feed water such as produced water, brine rejected from other desalination plants and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle for improved performance. • Passive heating of saline water recovering kinetic energy from desorption. • All effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35 °C unlike conventional cycle. • High PR (6.3) with low temperature heat source. • Analyzed using p–T–q diagram tracking the temperatures and uptakes. - Abstract: This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water (as low as 55 °C). Passive heating of the feed water (no direct heating) is adopted using total internal heat recovery from the kinetic energy of desorbed vapor and water vapor uptake potential of the adsorbent. Thus, the evaporation in the MEAD cycle ensues at low temperatures ranging from 35 °C to 7 °C yet providing significantly high performance ratio. The energy from the regenerated vapor is recovered for multiple evaporation/condensation of saline water by a water-run-around circuit between the top brine temperature (TBT) effect and the AD condenser. The adsorbent material is the hydrophilic mesoporous silica gel with high pore surface area. Numerical simulation for such a cycle is developed based on experimentally verified model extending to multi-effect cycle. The system is investigated under several operation conditions such as cycle time allocation, heat source temperature and the number of intermediate effects. It is observed that most of the evaporating–condensing effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35 °C as opposed to conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) cycle. For a MEAD cycle with 7 intermediate effects, the specific water production rate, the performance ratio and the gain output ratio are found to be 1.0 m"3/h tonne of silica gel, 6.3 and 5.1, respectively. Low scaling and fouling

  2. Performance Investigation of O-Ring Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Alhathal Alanezi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new O-ring flat sheet membrane module design was used to investigate the performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD for water desalination using two commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF flat sheet hydrophobic membranes. The design of the membrane module proved its applicability for achieving a high heat transfer coefficient of the order of 103 (W/m2 K and a high Reynolds number (Re. VMD experiments were conducted to measure the heat and mass transfer coefficients within the membrane module. The effects of the process parameters, such as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, vacuum degree, and feed concentration, on the permeate flux have been investigated. The feed temperature, feed flow rate, and vacuum degree play an important role in enhancing the performance of the VMD process; therefore, optimizing all of these parameters is the best way to achieve a high permeate flux. The PTFE membrane showed better performance than the PVDF membrane in VMD desalination. The obtained water flux is relatively high compared to that reported in the literature, reaching 43.8 and 52.6 (kg/m2 h for PVDF and PTFE, respectively. The salt rejection of NaCl was higher than 99% for both membranes.

  3. Exergy Evaluation of Desalination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera Gnaneswar Gude

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of sea or brackish water sources to provide clean water supplies has now become a feasible option around the world. Escalating global populations have caused the surge of desalination applications. Desalination processes are energy intensive which results in a significant energy portfolio and associated environmental pollution for many communities. Both electrical and heat energy required for desalination processes have been reduced significantly over the recent years. However, the energy demands are still high and are expected to grow sharply with increasing population. Desalination technologies utilize various forms of energy to produce freshwater. While the process efficiency can be reported by the first law of thermodynamic analysis, this is not a true measure of the process performance as it does not account for all losses of energy. Accordingly, the second law of thermodynamics has been more useful to evaluate the performance of desalination systems. The second law of thermodynamics (exergy analysis accounts for the available forms of energy in the process streams and energy sources with a reference environment and identifies the major losses of exergy destruction. This aids in developing efficient desalination processes by eliminating the hidden losses. This paper elaborates on exergy analysis of desalination processes to evaluate the thermodynamic efficiency of major components and process streams and identifies suitable operating conditions to minimize exergy destruction. Well-established MSF, MED, MED-TVC, RO, solar distillation, and membrane distillation technologies were discussed with case studies to illustrate the exergy performances.

  4. Enhanced water desalination performance through hierarchically-structured ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Tong; Lei, Libin; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Yao; Winnubst, Louis; Chen, Chusheng; Ye, Chunsong; Chen, Fanglin

    2017-01-01

    Developments of membrane water desalination are impeded by low water vapor flux across the membrane. We present an innovative membrane design to significantly enhance the water vapor flux. A bilayer zirconia-based membrane with a thick hierarchically-structured support and a thin functional layer is

  5. Improving the performance of water desalination through ultra-permeable functionalized nanoporous graphene oxide membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Azamat, Jafar; Erfan-Niya, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the water desalination performance of nanoporous graphene oxide (NPGO) membranes. The simulated systems consist of a NPGO as a membrane with a functionalized pore in its center immersed in an aqueous ionic solution and a graphene sheet as a barrier. The considered NPGO membranes are involved four types of pore with different size and chemistry. The results indicated that the NPGO membrane has effective efficiency in salt rejection as well as high performance in water flux. For all types of pore with the radius size of 2.9-4.5 Å, the NPGO shows salt rejection of >89%. Functional groups on the surface and edge of pores have a great effect on water flux. To precisely understand the effect of functional groups on the surface of nanostructured membranes, nanoporous graphene was simulated under the same condition for comparison. Hydrophilic groups on the surface make the NPGO as an ultra-permeable membrane. As a result, the obtained water flux for NPGO was about 77% greater than graphene. Also, it was found that the water flux of NPGO is 2-5 orders of magnitude greater than other existing reverse osmosis membranes. Therefore, the investigated systems can be recommended as a model for the water desalination.

  6. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  7. Performance Limits and Opportunities for Low Temperature Thermal Desalination

    OpenAIRE

    Nayar, Kishor Govind; Swaminathan, Jaichander; Warsinger, David Elan Martin; Lienhard, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional low temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) uses ocean thermal temperature gradients to drive a single stage flash distillation process to produce pure water from seawater. While the temperature difference in the ocean drives distillation and provides cooling in LTTD, external electrical energy is required to pump the water streams from the ocean and to maintain a near vacuum in the flash chamber. In this work, an LTTD process from the literature is compared against, the thermody...

  8. Investigation of Dip-Coating Parameters Effect on The Performance of Alumina-Polydimethylsiloxane Nanofiltration Membranes for Desalination

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hadi Yousefi; Mohamad Mehdi Zerafat; Majid Shokri Doodeji; Samad Sabbaghi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of dip-coating parameters on the performance of Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes for water desalination. Ceramic supports used in this work were prepared with a 340 nm average pore size and 34% total porosity. The aim is to determine optimum conditions of dipping time, PDMS concentration, and withdrawal speed in order to achieve high rejection and flux values. Dip-coating parameters were considered as dipping time (60 - 120 s...

  9. Performance analysis of a low-temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination prototype

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-10-01

    This paper discusses the performance analysis of an advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with an internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. The AD cycle employs the adsorption-desorption principles to convert sea or brackish water into high-grade potable water with total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 10 ppm (mg/L) utilizing low-temperature heat source. The salient features of the AD cycle are the utilization of low temperature waste heat (typically 55 C to 85 C) with the employment of an environment-friendly silica gel/water pair and the low maintenance as it has no major moving parts other than the pumps and valves. For improved performance of the AD pilot plant, the internal heat recovery scheme between the condenser and evaporator has been implemented with a run-about water circuit between them. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed in terms of key performance indicators such as the specific daily water production (SDWP) and the performance ratio (PR). Extensive experiments were performed for assorted heat source temperatures ranging from 70 C to 50 C. From the experiments, the SDWP of the AD cycle with the proposed heat recovery scheme is found to be 15 m3 of water per ton of silica gel that is almost twice that of the yield obtained by a conventional AD cycle for the same operation conditions. Another important finding of AD desalination plant is that the advanced AD cycle could still be operational with an inlet heat source temperature of 50 C and yet achieving a SDWP of 4.3 m3 - a feat that never seen by any heat-driven cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho

    2013-01-01

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system

  11. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho [Korea Institute of Machinery Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system.

  12. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  13. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  14. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratz, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Seawater desalination has been the cornerstone of the Middle East's water supply strategy since the mid-1950s, and most of the installed desalination capacity is still provided by multistage flash evaporators. But, desalination is changing. In fact, the term 'desalination' is no longer limited to seawater applications; desalination technologies are now routinely employed to desalinate brackish groundwater and repurify municipal effluents. Recent advances in desalination technology have simultaneously reduced costs while dramatically improving performance and reliability to the point where desalination technologies now compete with 'conventional' treatment processes in many applications. New commercial strategies and a realisation of the economies-of-scale have led to further improvements in plant economics, and an increase in the size of plants now being developed and constructed. This presentation reviews advances in membrane and membrane pretreatment systems, energy recovery devices, materials of construction, hybrid process configurations, increased unit capacities, and the use of public-private partnerships; all of which have led to reduced capital and operating costs, enabling desalination to be economically competitive with traditional treatment options. Advances in desalination technology have resulted in better performances, lower capital and operating costs, and increased application of desalination systems. In the face of increased water shortages and growing costs of 'conventional treatment', this trend will certainly continue. (author)

  16. Mesoporous Three-Dimensional Graphene Networks for Highly Efficient Solar Desalination under 1 sun Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Yu, Sunyoung; An, Cheolwon; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2018-05-09

    Solar desalination via thermal evaporation of seawater is one of the most promising technologies for addressing the serious problem of global water scarcity because it does not require additional supporting energy other than infinite solar energy for generating clean water. However, low efficiency and a large amount of heat loss are considered critical limitations of solar desalination technology. The combination of mesoporous three-dimensional graphene networks (3DGNs) with a high solar absorption property and water-transporting wood pieces with a thermal insulation property has exhibited greatly enhanced solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency. 3DGN deposited on a wood piece provides an outstanding value of solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency, about 91.8%, under 1 sun illumination and excellent desalination efficiency of 5 orders salinity decrement. The mass-producible 3DGN enriched with many mesopores efficiently releases the vapors from an enormous area of the surface by heat localization on the top surface of the wood piece. Because the efficient solar desalination device made by 3DGN on the wood piece is highly scalable and inexpensive, it could serve as one of the main sources for the worldwide supply of purified water achieved via earth-abundant materials without an extra supporting energy source.

  17. Multi-stage-flash desalination plants of relative small performance with integrated pressurized water reactors as a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, G.; Peltzer, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Krupp-GKSS joint study MINIPLEX the requirements for seawater-desalination plants with a performance in the range of 10 000 to 80 000 m 3 distillate per day heated by a nuclear reactor are investigated. The reactor concept is similar to the Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (IPWR) of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN. The design study shows that IPWR systems have specific advantages up to 200 MWth compared to other reactor types at least being adapted for single- and dual-purpose desalination plants. The calculated costs of the desalinated water show that due to fuel cost advantages of reactors small and medium nuclear desalination plants are economically competetive with oil-fired plants since the steep rise of oil price in autumn 1973. (author)

  18. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  19. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  20. Development of performance model of CDI electrode for desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk

    2010-02-15

    Demand for clean water is increasing rapidly due to population growth, desertification, and pollution. Capacitive deionization, CDI, is a newly interested technology with its economic merits over existing ones like evaporation and reverse osmosis. The one of main issues on this technology lies on the electrode development. From the first success on a stable electrode development like carbon aerogel, various types of electrodes have been emerged. However, key mechanism and parameters of this technology are not yet provided. This research focuses on revealing how the CDI works and what parameter affects the performance most. For the current experimental techniques have limits in producing well-defined pore arrangement, a simulation tool based on the most sophisticated governing equations has been developed. The governing equations involve Nernst-Planck equation with a convection term to follow ion movement and Poisson equation to follow potential development. The above tool is verified by comparing with analytical solutions and other researcher's results. The first simulation tool for CDI uses the decoupled implicit scheme: however, the scheme faces the numerical constraint of poor convergence. The maximum time step size is highly limited to 1.E-8s. Then an under-relaxation scheme is introduced with the limited success: we can increase its time step size by about 1,000 times higher than that of the decoupled scheme. Finally, the coupled implicit scheme, which solves the equations on concentration and potential simultaneously, is adopted. The newly developed scheme does not suffer from the convergence problem and is found to be optimal for CDI simulation. As the simulation domain, we select a region containing one pore and one electrode gap, to efficiently appreciate key parameters. Key performance indicator, KPI, and system parameters are determined. KPI is defined by the salt removal rate: salt removal amount per electrode volume divided by salt removal time

  1. Development of performance model of CDI electrode for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byong Guk

    2010-02-01

    Demand for clean water is increasing rapidly due to population growth, desertification, and pollution. Capacitive deionization, CDI, is a newly interested technology with its economic merits over existing ones like evaporation and reverse osmosis. The one of main issues on this technology lies on the electrode development. From the first success on a stable electrode development like carbon aerogel, various types of electrodes have been emerged. However, key mechanism and parameters of this technology are not yet provided. This research focuses on revealing how the CDI works and what parameter affects the performance most. For the current experimental techniques have limits in producing well-defined pore arrangement, a simulation tool based on the most sophisticated governing equations has been developed. The governing equations involve Nernst-Planck equation with a convection term to follow ion movement and Poisson equation to follow potential development. The above tool is verified by comparing with analytical solutions and other researcher's results. The first simulation tool for CDI uses the decoupled implicit scheme: however, the scheme faces the numerical constraint of poor convergence. The maximum time step size is highly limited to 1.E-8s. Then an under-relaxation scheme is introduced with the limited success: we can increase its time step size by about 1,000 times higher than that of the decoupled scheme. Finally, the coupled implicit scheme, which solves the equations on concentration and potential simultaneously, is adopted. The newly developed scheme does not suffer from the convergence problem and is found to be optimal for CDI simulation. As the simulation domain, we select a region containing one pore and one electrode gap, to efficiently appreciate key parameters. Key performance indicator, KPI, and system parameters are determined. KPI is defined by the salt removal rate: salt removal amount per electrode volume divided by salt removal time taken

  2. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-01

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO 2 emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was studied

  3. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-15

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was

  4. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination

  5. Unlocking High-Salinity Desalination with Cascading Osmotically Mediated Reverse Osmosis: Energy and Operating Pressure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yip, Ngai Yin

    2018-02-20

    Current practice of using thermally driven methods to treat hypersaline brines is highly energy-intensive and costly. While conventional reverse osmosis (RO) is the most efficient desalination technique, it is confined to purifying seawater and lower salinity sources. Hydraulic pressure restrictions and elevated energy demand render RO unsuitable for high-salinity streams. Here, we propose an innovative cascading osmotically mediated reverse osmosis (COMRO) technology to overcome the limitations of conventional RO. The innovation utilizes the novel design of bilateral countercurrent reverse osmosis stages to depress the hydraulic pressure needed by lessening the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane, and simultaneously achieve energy savings. Instead of the 137 bar required by conventional RO to desalinate 70 000 ppm TDS hypersaline feed, the highest operating pressure in COMRO is only 68.3 bar (-50%). Furthermore, up to ≈17% energy saving is attained by COMRO (3.16 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.79 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). When COMRO is employed to boost the recovery of seawater desalination to 70% from the typical 35-50%, energy savings of up to ≈33% is achieved (2.11 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.16 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). Again, COMRO can operate at a moderate hydraulic pressure of 80 bar (25% lower than 113 bar of conventional RO). This study highlights the encouraging potential of energy-efficient COMRO to access unprecedented high recovery rates and treat hypersaline brines at moderate hydraulic pressures, thus extending the capabilities of membrane-based technologies for high-salinity desalination.

  6. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuyu; Liang, Tengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongli; Yin, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic substrate, can exhibit 100% desalination and a freshwater flux that is 3-20 times higher than existing polymeric membranes. Thermal accounting experiments demonstrated that the carbon composite membrane saved over 80% of the latent heat consumption. Theoretical calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations revealed the unique microscopic process occurring in the membrane. When the salt solution is stopped at the openings to the nanoscale porous channels and forms a meniscus, the vapour can rapidly transport across the nanoscale gap to condense on the permeate side. This process is driven by the chemical potential gradient and aided by the unique smoothness of the carbon surface. The high thermal conductivity of the carbon composite membrane ensures that most of the latent heat is recovered.

  7. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2018-03-05

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic substrate, can exhibit 100% desalination and a freshwater flux that is 3-20 times higher than existing polymeric membranes. Thermal accounting experiments demonstrated that the carbon composite membrane saved over 80% of the latent heat consumption. Theoretical calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations revealed the unique microscopic process occurring in the membrane. When the salt solution is stopped at the openings to the nanoscale porous channels and forms a meniscus, the vapour can rapidly transport across the nanoscale gap to condense on the permeate side. This process is driven by the chemical potential gradient and aided by the unique smoothness of the carbon surface. The high thermal conductivity of the carbon composite membrane ensures that most of the latent heat is recovered.

  8. Performance investigation on a 4-bed adsorption desalination cycle with internal heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2016-10-08

    Multi-bed adsorption cycle with the internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator is investigated for desalination application. A numerical model is developed for a 4-bed adsorption cycle implemented with the master-and-slave configuration and the aforementioned internal heat recovery scheme. The present model captures the reversed adsorption/desorption phenomena frequently associated with the unmatched switching periods. Mesoporous silica gel and water vapor emanated from the evaporation of the seawater are employed as the adsorbent and adsorbate pair. The experimental data and investigation for such configurations are reported for the first time at heat source temperatures from 50 °C to 70 °C. The numerical model is validated rigorously and the parametric study is conducted for the performance of the cycle at assorted operation conditions such as hot and cooling water inlet temperatures and the cycle times. The specific daily water production (SDWP) of the present cycle is found to be about 10 m/day per tonne of silica gel for the heat source temperature at 70 °C. Performance comparison is conducted for various types of adsorption desalination cycles. It is observed that the AD cycle with the current configuration provides superior performance whilst is operational at unprecedentedly low heat source temperature as low as 50 °C.

  9. Techno-economic analysis of seawater desalination using high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Linchun; Qin Zhenya

    2001-01-01

    Our world, including China (especially in big cities and foreland), is facing the increased global shortage of potable water and pollution of water. It is ideal to promote seawater desalination to satisfy the potable water demand in these areas. Among the various processes, MED, RO and VC have proven well developed and promising. Due to the inherent safety and its vapor produced with high parameters and features of small size and modular design, HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 2x200MW is chosen as the energy source for the desalination in dual production of clean water and power. This paper discusses the techno-economic feasibility of different seawater desalting systems using 2x200MW HTGR in the areas mentioned above, that is, ST-MED (Steam Turbine Cycle), RO, MED/TVC, RO/MED and GT-MED (Gas Turbine Cycle). The exergy concept is used in calculating availability to get cost of energy in desalination, and power credit method is used in economic assessment of different systems to get reasonable evaluating, while economic-life levelized cost method is adopted for calculating electricity cost of referred HTGR plant. In addition, sensitivity analysis on ST-MED economy is also presented. (author)

  10. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  11. Performance evaluation of a solar energy assisted hybrid desiccant air conditioner integrated with HDH desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabeel, A.E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed; Zakaria, Yehya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a solar hybrid air conditioner integrated with HDH desalination system is numerically investigated. • For increase the regeneration air from 70 to 130 m 3 /h, the distillate water productivity increases from 2.988 to 4.78 L/h. • For increase the regeneration air from 70 to 130 m 3 /h, COP overall daily decreases from 4.66 to 3.386. • For increases the regeneration air temperature from 75 to 95 °C, the distillate water increases from 3.1752 to 5.011 L/h. • For increases the regeneration air temperature from 75 to 95 °C, COP overall daily decreases from 4.392 to 3.636. - Abstract: In this study, the performances of a solar energy assisted hybrid desiccant air conditioning system integrated with humidification–dehumidification (HDH) desalination system are numerically investigated. The aim of this study is to benefit from the temperature rise of the regeneration air outside of the desiccant conditioning system as well as the water vapor content in this regeneration air by feeding it to the humidification-dehumidification water desalination unit to produce distillate water. The distillate water productivity, human thermal comfort issues, and energy saving represent the main objective of the present numerical study. The simulated results developed for subsystems are validated with the published experimental results. The effects of regeneration air temperature and flow rate on supply cooled air temperature, distillate water productivity, the cooling coefficient of performance and overall daily coefficient of performance of the proposed system are investigated. The results show that (i) the distillate water productivity increases from 3.175 to 5.011 L/h and overall daily coefficient of performance decreases from 4.392 to 3.636 with increasing the regeneration air temperature from 75 to 95 as (ii) the increase in the regeneration air flow rate from 70 to 130 m 3 /h, increases the distillate water productivity from 2.988 to 4

  12. Performance and cost assessment of solar driven humidification dehumidification desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M. Ifras; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Antar, M.A.; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Ibrahim, Nasiru I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of a new HDH system integrated solar evacuated tubes collectors was conducted. • The mathematical models developed for the collector and the HDH system were validated. • A multi-location analysis was then performed for six locations in Saudi Arabia. • Sharurah was found to have the highest annual output and Dhahran the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L. • The cost per liter of water produced varies from $0.032 to $0.038, depends on the location. - Abstract: A humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with solar evacuated tubes was optimized. Then, the optimized system was assessed for the operation in different geographical locations, and the rate of freshwater production and cost per liter were determined in each location. The system design proposed in this paper uses a heat pipe design evacuated tube collector, which performs significantly better based on cost. An HDH desalination system with a closed-air/open-water loop, connected to the collector, was evaluated to determine the optimum operating parameters and the system performance during daytime (from 8 am to 3 pm), as well as the average day of each month for an entire year. The impact of the effectiveness of the humidifier and the dehumidifier, as well as, the number of collectors, were also studied. The analyses were performed for Dhahran, Jeddah, Riyadh, Sharurah, Qassim, and Tabuk to determine the effects of varying the geographical location. Sharurah has the highest calculated productivity of freshwater and Dhahran has the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L, respectively. To have a comprehensive study of the system proposed, a cost analysis was also performed to determine the feasibility of the system and the cost of water production. Results show that the price varied from $0.032 to $0.038 per liter for the locations evaluated.

  13. Heat transfer performance of condenser tubes in an MSF desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, T.; Kalendar, A.; Al Saftawi, A.; Zedan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the amount of condensed fresh water off the outer-side surface of heat exchangers in an MSF system. The quantitative modeling of condensed water on the outer surface of comparable tubes, enhanced and plain, in a simulated MSF technique is investigated. An adapted simulation design on a test-rig facility, accounting for the condenser tubing in actual industrial desalination plate-form, is used with corrugated and smooth aluminum-brass material tubes 1100mm long and 23mm bore. A single phase flow of authentic brine water that typifies real fouling is utilized to simulate the actual environmental life of a multi-stage flashing desalination system, with coolant flow velocity 0.1 m/s in the two delineated types of condenser tubing. It is demonstrated that the condensate water amount from the specified enhanced tube is about 1.22 times the condensate water amount from the smooth tube, adaptive for 140 running hours under deliberated constrains. The topic covers a comparative analysis of thermal performance. Comparing results with fresh water confirm the effect of fouling on significantly lowering the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient versus time. Fouling resistance R f is reported with the critical coolant flow speed of 0.1 m/s. Comparison between the fouling resistance for both smooth and corrugated tubes versus time is performed. The fouling thermal resistance of the corrugated tube is 0.56 of the fouling thermal resistance of the smooth tube after140 running hours of the experiment are concluded. Overall, in the case of real brine, results prove that heat performance for the corrugated tube is superior to the plain tube over the studied time period (140 hrs) for the chosen range of flow speeds

  14. Performance Evaluation of An Innovative-Vapor- Compression-Desalination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna R. Lubis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF. RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy-intensive. Innovative system of vapor compression desalination is proposed in this study. Comprehensive mathematics model for evaporator is also described. From literature study, it is indicated that very high overall-heat-transfer coefficient for evaporator can be obtained at specific condition by using dropwise condensation in the steam side, and pool boiling in the liquid side. Smooth titanium surface is selected in order to increase dropwise condensation, and resist corrosion. To maximize energy efficiency, a cogeneration scheme of a combined cycle consisting of gas turbine, boiler heat recovery, and steam turbine that drivescompressor is used. The resource for combined cycle is relatively too high for the compressor requirement. Excess power can be used to generate electricity for internal and/or externalconsumptions, and sold to open market. Four evaporator stages are used. Evaporator is fed by seawater, with assumption of 3.5% salt contents. Boiling brine (7% salt is boiled in low pressure side of the heat exchanger, and condensed vapor is condensed in high pressure side of the heat exchanger. Condensed steam flows at velocity of 1.52 m/s, so that it maximize the heat transfer coefficient. This unit is designed in order to produce 10 million gallon/day, and assumed it is financed with 5%, 30 years of passive obligation. Three cases are evaluated in order to determine recommended condition to obtain the lowest fixed capital investment. Based on the evaluation, it is possible to establish four-stage unit of mechanical vapor compression distillation with capital $31,723,885.

  15. Suitability of second pass RO as a substitute for high quality MSF product water in Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, V.; Venkatesh, P.; Balasubramanian, C.; Nagaraj, R.; Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant at Kalpakkam consists of both Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) and Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) process to produce desalinated water. It supplies part of highly pure water from MSF to Madras Atomic Power Station for its boiler feed requirements and remaining water is blend with SWRO product water and sent to other common facilities located inside Kalpakkam campus. A critical techno-economic analysis is carried out to find out the suitability of second pass RO to sustain the availability of highly pure water in case of MSF plant shutdown. (author)

  16. Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property

  17. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  18. Performance investigation on a 4-bed adsorption desalination cycle with internal heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Yanagi, Hideharu; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Multi-bed adsorption cycle with the internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator is investigated for desalination application. A numerical model is developed for a 4-bed adsorption cycle implemented with the master

  19. A multi-stage-flash desalination plant of relative small performance with an integrated pressurized water reactor as a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.; Petersen, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the Krupp-GKSS joint study MINIPLEX the requirements for seawater-desalination-plants with a performance in the range of 10,000 to 80,000 m 3 /d heated by a nuclear reactor are investigated. The reactor concept is similar to the integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN. The calculated costs of the desalinated water show, that due to the fuel cost advantages of reactors small and medium nuclear desalination plants are economically competetive with oil-fired plants since the steep rise of oil price in autumn 1973. (orig.) [de

  20. Investigation of Dip-Coating Parameters Effect on The Performance of Alumina-Polydimethylsiloxane Nanofiltration Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Yousefi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of dip-coating parameters on the performance of Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes for water desalination. Ceramic supports used in this work were prepared with a 340 nm average pore size and 34% total porosity. The aim is to determine optimum conditions of dipping time, PDMS concentration, and withdrawal speed in order to achieve high rejection and flux values. Dip-coating parameters were considered as dipping time (60 - 120 s, withdrawal speed (5 - 15 mm/s and PDMS concentration (10 - 20 wt. %. Hybrid membranes were characterized using FE-SEM and FTIR analysis techniques. Pure water flux and salt rejection were also measured to evaluate the rejection performance. Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes fabricated with dipping time = 120 s, withdrawal speed = 15 mm/s and 10 wt. % PDMS exhibited the best performance giving 30.5% rejection for NaCl and 53.8% for Na2SO4.

  1. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    . In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...... by placing electrodes at the same side of the wall. Thus it may be possible to desalinate tile panels, without any physical damage of the fragile glaze, by placing electrodes on the back of the wall or by removing some tiles, placing electrodes in their spaces, and extracting the salts from there before...... the tiles are placed back again....

  2. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-01-01

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54 psu) compared with seawater controls (37 psu) over 6 weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2–4 weeks at 54 psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. - Highlights: • We separated salt effects of desalination brine from other deleterious components. • Sublethal salinity stress depended on both salinity increase and exposure time. • Very effective osmoregulation led to tolerance of short intervals of high salinity.

  3. Energetic and exergetic analysis of cogeneration power combined cycle and ME-TVC-MED water desalination plant: Part-1 operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Pilidis, Pericles; Al-Mutawa, Nawaf; Al-Weshahi, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a comprehensive model for a very advanced cogeneration plant using real data. • Evaluate ME-TVC-MED unit using the latest thermodynamic properties of seawater. • Evaluate the desalination unit contribution to the overall efficiency. • Evaluate the stage exergetic efficiency in the ME-TVC-MED unit. • Numerous possibilities have been suggested to improve the proposed system. - Abstract: A comprehensive model of cogeneration plant for electrical power and water desalination has been developed based on energetic and exergetic analyses using real operational data. The power side is a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), while the desalination side is a multi-effect thermal vapour compression plant coupled with a conventional multi-effect plant (ME-TVC-MED). IPSEpro software was utilized to model the process, which shows good agreement with the manufacturer's data and published research. The thermodynamic properties of saline water were obtained from the latest published data in the literature. The performance of the cogeneration plant was examined for different ambient temperatures, pressure ratios, loads, feed water temperatures, number of effects and entrainment ratios. The results show that gas turbine engines produce the highest level of useful work in the system at around 34% of the total fuel input. At the same time, they constitute a major source of irreversibility, which accounts for 84% of the total exergy destruction in the plant, while the lowest source of irreversibility is in the steam turbine of 3.3% due to the type of working fluid and reheating system. In the ME-TVC-MED desalination unit, the highest source of irreversibilities occurs in the effects and in the thermo-compressor. The first two effects in the ME-TVC parallel section were responsible for about 40.6% of the total effect exergy destruction, which constitutes the highest value among all the effects. Operating the system at full load while reducing ambient

  4. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuyu; Liang, Tengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongli; Yin, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic

  5. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced desalination performance of membrane capacitive deionization cells by packing the flow chamber with granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yanhong; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Changyong; Huang, Xia

    2015-11-15

    A new design of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) cell was constructed by packing the cell's flow chamber with granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC packed-MCDI (GAC-MCDI) delivered higher (1.2-2.5 times) desalination rates than the regular MCDI at all test NaCl concentrations (∼ 100-1000 mg/L). The greatest performance enhancement by packed GAC was observed when treating saline water with an initial NaCl concentration of 100 mg/L. Several different GAC materials were tested and they all exhibited similar enhancement effects. Comparatively, packing the MCDI's flow chamber with glass beads (GB; non-conductive) and graphite granules (GG; conductive but with lower specific surface area than GAC) resulted in inferior desalination performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the GAC-MCDI had considerably smaller internal resistance than the regular MCDI (∼ 19.2 ± 1.2 Ω versus ∼ 1222 ± 15 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The packed GAC also decreased the ionic resistance across the flow chamber (∼ 1.49 ± 0.05 Ω versus ∼ 1130 ± 12 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The electric double layer (EDL) formed on the GAC surface was considered to store salt ions during electrosorption, and facilitate the ion transport in the flow chamber because of the higher ion conductivity in the EDLs than in the bulk solution, thereby enhancing the MCDI's desalination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance investigation of a waste heat-driven 3-bed 2-evaporator adsorption cycle for cooling and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2016-06-13

    Environment-friendly adsorption (AD) cycles have gained much attention in cooling industry and its applicability has been extended to desalination recently. AD cycles are operational by low-temperature heat sources such as exhaust gas from processes or renewable energy with temperatures ranging from 55 °C to 85 °C. The cycle is capable of producing two useful effects, namely cooling power and high-grade potable water, simultaneously. This article discusses a low temperature, waste heat-powered adsorption (AD) cycle that produces cooling power at two temperature-levels for both dehumidification and sensible cooling while providing high-grade potable water. The cycle exploits faster kinetics for desorption process with one adsorber bed under regeneration mode while full utilization of the uptake capacity by adsorbent material is achieved employing two-stage adsorption via low-pressure and high-pressure evaporators. Type A++ silica gel with surface area of 863.6 m2/g and pore volume of 0.446 cm3/g is employed as adsorbent material. A comprehensive numerical model for such AD cycle is developed and the performance results are presented using assorted hot water and cooling water inlet temperatures for various cycle time arrangements. The cycle is analyzed in terms of key performance indicators i.e.; the specific cooling power (SCP), the coefficient of performance (COP) for both evaporators and the overall system, the specific daily water production (SDWP) and the performance ratio (PR). Further insights into the cycle performance are scrutinized using a Dühring diagram to depict the thermodynamic states of the processes as well as the vapor uptake behavior of adsorbent. In the proposed cycle, the adsorbent materials undergo near saturation conditions due to the pressurization effect from the high pressure evaporator while faster kinetics for desorption process is exploited, subsequently providing higher system COP, notably up to 0.82 at longer cycle time while the

  8. Advances in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) at Kalpakkam aims to demonstrate the safe and economic production of good quality water by desalination of seawater comprising 4,500 m 3 /d Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and 1,800 m 3 /d Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant. The design of the hybrid MSF-RO plant to be set up at an existing nuclear power station is presented. The MSF plant based on long tube design requires less energy. The effect on performance of the MSF plant due to higher seawater intake temperature is marginal. The preheat RO system part of the hybrid plant uses reject cooling seawater from the MSF plant. This allows lower pressure operation, resulting in energy saving. The two qualities of water produced are usable for the power station as well as for drinking purposes with appropriate blending. The post treatment is also simplified due to blending of the products from MSF and RO plants. The hybrid plant has a number of advantages: part of high purity desalted water produced from the MSF plant will be used for the makeup demineralised water requirement (after necessary polishing) for the power station; blending of the product water from RO and MSF plants would provide requisite quality drinking water; and the RO plant will continue to be operated to provide water for drinking purposes during the shut down of the power station. Commissioning of the RO section is expected in 2002 and that of the MSF section in 2003. Useful design data are expected from the plant on the coupling of small and medium size reactors (SMR) based on PHWR. This will enable us to design a large size commercial plant up to 50,000 m 3 /d capacity. India will share the O and M experience of NDDP to member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) when the plant is commissioned. The development work for producing good quality water for power station from high salinity water utilizing low grade waste heat is presented. About 40 and 100 MWth low temperature waste heat is

  9. International Conference on water reuse and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The International conference on water reuse and desalination was held on the 13 November 1984 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Papers delivered on this conference covered the following aspects: desalination technology, industrial effluent control, economics of desalination of wastewaters, consumable supplies in desalination, the world market for seawater desalination equipment, reverse osmosis, evaporation and ultrafiltration, treatment of hazardous wastes, role of reverse osmosis in waste water treatment, as well as the desalination, recovery and recycle of water with high efficiency. A paper was also delivered on the mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination - as an example the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process: a 1,500 mz/day unit installed in the Nuclear power plant of Flamanville in France

  10. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7g-N/L during 30days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80g-N/m2/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5W/m2 was generated at 2.85A/m2. Both current driven NH4+ migration...... and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative...

  12. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-02-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L during 30 days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80 g-N/m(2)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m(2) was generated at 2.85 A/m(2). Both current driven NH4(+) migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Desalination processes and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  14. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  15. Novel cellulose ester substrates for high performance flat-sheet thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Rui Chin; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung; de Wit, Jos S.; Helmer, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    and seawater desalination with high performance. The performance of TFC-FO membranes prepared from the hydrophilic cellulose ester containing a high degree of OH and a moderate degree of Pr substitutions clearly surpasses those prepared from cellulose esters

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  17. Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new, energy-sustainable method for using organic matter in wastewater as the energy source for desalination. The electric potential gradient created by exoelectrogenic bacteria desalinates water by driving ion transport through a series of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). The specific MDC architecture and current conditions substantially affect the amount of wastewater needed to desalinate water. Other baseline conditions have varied among studies making comparisons of the effectiveness of different designs problematic. The extent of desalination is affected by water transport through IEMs by both osmosis and electroosmosis. Various methods have been used, such as electrolyte recirculation, to avoid low pH that can inhibit exoelectrogenic activity. The highest current density in an MDC to date is 8.4A/m2, which is lower than that produced in other bioelectrochemical systems. This implies that there is a room for substantial improvement in desalination rates and overall performance. We review here the state of the art in MDC design and performance, safety issues related to the use of MDCs with wastewater, and areas that need to be examined to achieve practical application of this new technology. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Xiaoxin

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shownhere that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Ω to 970 Ω at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Enhanced performance of PVDF nanocomposite membrane by nanofiber coating: A membrane for sustainable desalination through MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efome, Johnson E; Rana, Dipak; Matsuura, Takeshi; Lan, Christopher Q

    2016-02-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising separation technique capable of being used in the desalination of marine and brackish water. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) flat sheet nano-composite membranes were surface modified by coating with electro-spun PVDF nano-fibres to increase the surface hydrophobicity. For this purpose, the nano-composite membrane containing 7 wt.% superhydrophobic SiO2 nano-particles, which showed the highest flux in our previous work, was first subjected to pore size augmentation by increasing the concentration of the pore forming agent (Di-ionized water). Then, the prepared flat sheet membranes were subjected to nanofibres coating by electro-spinning. The uncoated and coated composite fabricated membranes were characterized using contact angle, liquid entry pressure of water, and scanning electron microscopy. The membranes were further tested for 6 h desalination by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and vacuum membrane distillation (VMD), with a 3.5 wt.% synthetic NaClaq as the feed. In DCMD the feed liquid and permeate side temperature were maintained at 27.5 °C and 15 °C, respectively. For VMD, the feed liquid temperature was 27 °C and a vacuum of 94.8 kPa was applied on the permeate side. The maximum permeate flux achieved was 3.2 kg/m(2).h for VMD and 6.5 kg/m(2).h for DCMD. The salt rejection obtained was higher than 99.98%. The coated membranes showed a more stable flux than the uncoated membranes indicating that the double layered membranes have great potential in solving the pore wetting problem in MD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption Desalination: A Novel Method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-11-15

    The search for potable water for quenching global thirst remains a pressing concern throughout many regions of the world. The demand for new and sustainable sources and the associated technologies for producing fresh water are intrinsically linked to the solving of potable water availability and hitherto, innovative and energy efficient desalination methods seems to be the practical solutions. Quenching global thirst by adsorption desalination is a practical and inexpensive method of desalinating the saline and brackish water to produce fresh water for agriculture irrigation, industrial, and building applications. This chapter provides a general overview of the adsorption fundamentals in terms of adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and heat of adsorption. It is then being more focused on the principles of thermally driven adsorption desalination methods. The recent developments of adsorption desalination plants and the effect of operating conditions on the system performance in terms of specific daily water production and performance ratio are presented. Design of a large commercial adsorption desalination plant is also discussed herein.

  1. Performances of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes for desalination: characterization and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussouga, Y. A.; Lhassani, A.

    2017-03-01

    The nanofiltration and the reverse osmosis processes are the most common techniques for the desalination of water contaminated by an excess of salts. In this present study, we were interested in the characterization of commercial, composite and asymmetric membranes of nanofiltration (NF90, NF270) and low pressure reverse osmosis (BW30LE). The two types of characterization that we opted for our study: (i) characterization of electrical proprieties, in terms of the surface charge of various membranes studied by the measurement of the streaming potential, (ii) hydrodynamic characterization in terms of hydraulic permeability with pure water, mass transfer and phenomenological parameters for each system membrane/salt using hydrodynamic approaches. The irreversible thermodynamics allowed us to model the observed retention Robs of salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) for the different membranes studied, to understand and to predict a good filtration with a membrane. A study was conducted on the type of mass transfer for each system membrane/salt: convection and diffusion. The results showed that all tested membranes are negatively charged for the solutions at neutral pH, this is explained by their material composition. The results also showed competitiveness between the different types of membranes. In view of that the NF remains effective in terms of selective retention with less energy consumption than LPRO.

  2. Performance investigation of a waste heat-driven 3-bed 2-evaporator adsorption cycle for cooling and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chua, Kian Jon; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Environment-friendly adsorption (AD) cycles have gained much attention in cooling industry and its applicability has been extended to desalination recently. AD cycles are operational by low-temperature heat sources such as exhaust gas from processes

  3. Nuclear power for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Siddhanth; Lanjekar, Sanket; Jagdale, Bhushan; Srivastava, V.K.

    2015-01-01

    Water is one of the most important assets to mankind and without which the human race would cease to exist. Water is required by us right from domestic to industrial levels. As notified by the 'American Nuclear Society' and 'World Nuclear Association' about 1/5 th of the world population does not access to portable water especially in the Asian and African subcontinent. The situation is becoming adverse day by day due to rise in population and industrialization. The need of alternative water resource is thus becoming vital. About 97.5% of Earth is covered by oceans. Desalination of saline water to generate potable water is thus an important topic of research. Currently about 12,500 desalination plants are operating worldwide with a capacity of about 35 million m 3 /day using mainly fossil fuels for generation of large amount of energy required for processing water. These thermal power station release large amount of carbon dioxide and other green house gases. Nuclear reactors are capable of delivering energy to the high energy-intensive processes without any environmental concerns for climate change etc., giving a vision to sustainable growth of desalination process. These projects are currently employed in Kazakhstan, India, Japan, and Pakistan and are coupled to the nuclear reactor for generating electricity and potable water as well. The current climatic scenario favors the need for expanding dual purpose nuclear power plants producing energy and water at the same location. (author)

  4. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    All existing commercial seawater desalination processes, i.e. thermally-driven and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), are operated with universal performance ratios (UPR) varying up to 105, whilst the UPR for an ideal or thermodynamic limit (TL) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More innovative desalination methods must be sought to meet the needs of future sustainable desalination and these methods should attain an upper UPR bound of about 25 to 30% of the TL. In this paper, we examined the efficacy of a multi-effect distillation (MED) system operated with thermocline energy from the sea; a proven desalination technology that can exploit the narrow temperature gradient of 20°C all year round created between the warm surface seawater and the cold-seawater at depths of about 300–600m. Such a seawater thermocline (ST)-driven MED system, simply called the ST-MED process, has the potential to achieve up to 2 folds improvement in desalination efficiency over the existing methods, attaining about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the ST-MED is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential, best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths of 300m or more.

  5. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  6. Status of CEA studies on desalination on July 1, 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyghe, J.; Vignet, P.; Courvoisier, P.; Frejacques, M.; Coriou, M.; Agostini, M.; Lackme, C.; CORPEL, M.; Thiriet, L.

    1967-01-01

    This publication contains a set of articles reporting studies on desalination performed within the CEA: preliminary draft of a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor; the reverse osmosis; corrosion problems in seawater desalination plants; optimisation program of a distillation-based seawater desalination plant; activities of the department of analysis and applied chemistry in the field of desalination; abstract of a lecture on studies on price functions; studies of the department of steady isotopes on the formation of tartar depositions and their prevention; studies performed within the thermal transfer department

  7. Study of the Utilization BWR Type Nuclear Power Reactor for Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Sumijanto; Dhandhang Purwadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The needs of fresh water increased by rapid population growth and industrials expansion, but these demands can not be prepared naturally. Following this case, seawater desalination becomes the primer option which can fulfill the need through the nuclear desalination technology. The coupled nuclear power reactor enables to supply thermal energy for auxiliary equipment and pumps operation. The utilization study of power reactor type BWR coupled with desalination process has been performed. The goal of study is to obtain characteristic data of desalted water specification which desalination system coupling with nuclear power plant produced energy for desalination process. The study is carried out by browsing data and information, and comprehensive review of thermal energy correlation between NPP with desalination process installation. According to reviewing are found that the thermal energy and electric power utilization from the nuclear power reactor are enable to remove the seawater to produce desalted water and also to operate auxiliary equipments. The assessment results is VK-300 reactor prototype, BWR type 250 MW(e) power are cogeneration unit can supplied hot steam temperature 285 °C to the extraction turbine to empower 150 MW electric power, and a part of hot steam 130 °C is use to operate desalination process and remind heat is distribute to the municipal and offices at that region. The coupled of VK-300 reactor power type BWR with desalination installation of MED type enable to produce desalted water with high quality distillate. Based on the economic calculation that the VK-300 reactor power of BWR type produced water distillate capacity is 300.000 m 3 /hour with cost US$ 0.58/m 3 . The coupling VK-300 reactor power type BWR with MED desalination plant is competitive economically. (author)

  8. Nuclear Desalination Newsletter, No. 2, September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Seawater desalination is increasingly becoming a vital option for alleviating severe water shortages around the world, and especially in developing countries. Worldwide seawater desalination capacity is expected to increase beyond the current contracted estimate of about 60 million m3/d. The need for an adequate supply of potable water for growing populations and complex problems is now globally recognized. Desalination using nuclear energy could play a vital role in supplying the much needed potable water for sustainable development and alleviate some of the environment impact of using fossil fuels for desalination. The IAEA programme on nuclear desalination continues to provide support to Member States through various forums of information exchange, technical cooperation projects, and publications. In the last year, the IAEA launched a new coordinated research programme which aims at investigating new technologies for seawater desalination using nuclear energy; updated and released a new version of the IAEA DEEP software; released a newly developed toolkit on nuclear desalination; and organized (jointly with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP) a training workshop on Technology and Performance of Desalination Systems

  9. Performance of Potassium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride Draw Solutions for Desalination of Saline Water Using Forward Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nematzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO has recently drawn attention as a promising membrane based method for seawater and brackish water desalination. In this study, we focus on the use of calciun chloride (CaCl2 and potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 as inorganic salt draw solution candidates due to their appropriate performance in water flux and reverse salt diffusion as well as reasonable cost. The experiments were carried at 25 °C and cross-flow rate of 3 L min−1.  At the same osmotic pressure, the water flux of CaCl2 draw solution tested against deionized feed water, showed 20% higher permeation than KHCO3, which it was attributed to the lower internal concentration polarization (ICP. The reverse diffusion of CaCl2 was found higher than KHCO3 solution which it would be related to the smaller ionic size and the higher permeation of this salt through the membrane. The water flux for both draw solutions against 0.33 M NaCl feed solution was about 2.8 times lower than deionized feed water because of ICP. Higher concentrations of draw solution is required for increasing the water permeation from saline water feed towards the draw side.

  10. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: an in situ photophysiology experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-11-10

    Seawater reverse osmosis desalination concentrate may have chronic and/or acute impacts on the marine ecosystems in the near-field area of the discharge. Environmental impact of the desalination plant discharge is supposedly site- and volumetric- specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess detrimental effects to organisms, especially for species with no mechanism of osmoregulation, e.g., presumably corals. Previous studies on corals indicate sensitivity toward hypo- and hyper-saline environments with small changes in salinity already affecting coral physiology. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increased salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days) in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. While we measured a pronounced increase in salinity and temperature at the direct outlet of the discharge structure, effects were indistinguishable from the surrounding environment at a distance of 5 m. Interestingly, corals were not affected by varying salinity levels as indicated by measurements of the photosynthetic efficiency. Similarly, cultured coral symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium displayed remarkable tolerance levels in regard to hypo- and hypersaline treatments. Our data suggest that increased salinity and temperature levels from discharge outlets wear off quickly in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, F. granulosa seem to tolerate levels of salinity that are distinctively higher than reported for other corals previously. It remains to be determined whether Red Sea corals in general display increased salinity tolerance, and whether this is related to prevailing levels of high(er) salinity in the Red Sea in comparison to other oceans.

  11. Design and development of solar desalination plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Thaneissha a/p

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct sunlight has been utilized long back for desalination of water. The desalination process takes place in solar still. Solar still is a device that converts saline water to potable water. This process requires seawater and sunlight which are widely available on Earth. However, the current solar desalination generation capacity is generally low and has high installation cost. Hence, there is a need for the enhancement of the productivity which can be achieved through few modifications. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities of solar water desalination worldwide. It presents a comprehensive review of solar desalination technologies that have been developed in recent years which covers the economic and environmental aspects.

  12. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  13. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  14. Performance of different hollow fiber membranes for seawater desalination using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation requires a highly porous hydrophobic membrane with low surface energy. In this paper, we compare the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of four different types of in-house fabricated hollow fiber membranes and two different commercially available hollow fiber membranes. Hollow fiber membranes are fabricated using wet-jet phase inversion technique and the polymeric matrices used for the fabrication are polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Commercial hollow fiber membrane materials are made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). PVDF hollow fibers showed a superior performance among all the hollow fibers tested in the DCMD process and gave a water vapor flux of 31 kg m-2h-1 at a feed and coolant inlet temperatures of 80 and 20°C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the water vapor flux observed for PP, PTFE, and PVC hollow fiber membranes are 13, 11, and 6 kg m-2h-1, respectively, with 99.99% salt rejection observed for all membranes used.

  15. Performance of different hollow fiber membranes for seawater desalination using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    Membrane distillation requires a highly porous hydrophobic membrane with low surface energy. In this paper, we compare the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of four different types of in-house fabricated hollow fiber membranes and two different commercially available hollow fiber membranes. Hollow fiber membranes are fabricated using wet-jet phase inversion technique and the polymeric matrices used for the fabrication are polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Commercial hollow fiber membrane materials are made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). PVDF hollow fibers showed a superior performance among all the hollow fibers tested in the DCMD process and gave a water vapor flux of 31 kg m-2h-1 at a feed and coolant inlet temperatures of 80 and 20°C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the water vapor flux observed for PP, PTFE, and PVC hollow fiber membranes are 13, 11, and 6 kg m-2h-1, respectively, with 99.99% salt rejection observed for all membranes used.

  16. Model-based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, Rachel; Dees, Elizabeth

    2017-03-23

    The focus of this research effort centered around water recovery from high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) extracted waters (180,000 mg/L) using a combination of water recovery (partial desalination) technologies. The research goals of this project were as follows: 1. Define the scope and test location for pilot-scale implementation of the desalination system, 2.Define a scalable, multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, salt from saline brines, and 3. Validate overall system performance with field-sourced water using GE pre-pilot lab facilities. Conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) technology was established as a baseline desalination process. A quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to the base case FF-MVR technology, including but not limited to: membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO). Technoeconomic analysis of high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) was performed comparing the following two cases: 1. a hybrid seawater RO (SWRO) plus HPRO system and 2. 2x standard seawater RO system, to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate. Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Improvements in membrane materials of construction were considered as necessary next steps to achieving further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Several modifications showed promising results in their ability to withstand close to 5,000 PSI without gross failure.

  17. Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new, energy-sustainable method for using organic matter in wastewater as the energy source for desalination. The electric potential gradient created by exoelectrogenic bacteria desalinates water by driving

  18. Desalination for a thirsty world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Shortages of fresh water for some, unbridled consumption by others create intolerable planetary imbalances. The treatment of seawater and brackish water can really be effective in readjusting this inequality. Because they are reliable and efficient and their output is stable, the techniques preferred by the desalination industry are thermal distillation and reverse osmosis. Because thermal distillation processes consume considerable energy, they are often paired with gas-, coal- or fuel oil-fired heating plant to take advantage of the steam produced. More than three-quarters of this energy is effectively used to preheat the seawater. In the nuclear option (fresh water + electric power), the reactors simultaneously produce fresh water and electric power, ensuring a stable, continuous supply of energy. A portion of the steam produced by the turbine of the plant's secondary circuit is customarily used to run the alternator to generate electricity. The other portion can be fed to a desalination installation, which may be composed of a combination of several systems (hybrid installations). Highly competitive, this type of cogeneration is particularly appropriate for large scale desalination installations. This is the case for some of the Gulf Emirates and for Jordan: both are investigating the nuclear option to cover their electric power and fresh water requirements. The first nuclear desalination plant dedicated to producing fresh water was built for the city of Aktau (170,000 inhabitants) in Kazakhstan on the Caspian Sea in 1963 and continued operation through 1999. Experiments for producing potable water are taking place in India, Pakistan, Egypt and Libya. In Japan, around ten small desalination units coupled with nuclear power plants produce fresh water for industrial use, and nuclear-run district heating projects are currently being developed in Russia and China. The problem of what to do with the hyper-saline brine produced by desalination and its affect on

  19. Cogeneration cycles applied to desalination in the Arab World: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, Jamal Saleh

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of cogeneration cycles applied to water desalination in most of the Arab countries. The scarcity of fresh water resources in many countries around the world, and in particular Gulf countries and north African countries such as Libya and Tunisia forced the local authorities to establish many desalination plants to compensate the water shortage. Some plants are conventional for desalination processes only and others are with cogeneration cycle. The high performance of cogeneration cycles encouraged establishing combined power and desalination plants. The present study is intended to provide an overview of cogeneration cycles in conjunction with desalination technologies under the two main resources of energy, fossils and renewables. Thermal technologies, which utilize fossil resource constitute the mainstay of large-scale desalination in the Arab countries and enjoy a relatively important position worldwide. While the technologies which utilize renewable resources such as solar are getting more attention year by year and still under research and almost for small units.(Author)

  20. Economics of seawater desalination with innovative nuclear reactors and other energy sources: the EURODESAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Volpi, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises our recent investigations undertaken as part of the EURODESAL project on nuclear desalination, which were carried out by a consortium of four EU and one Canadian, Industrials and two leading EU R and D organisations. Major results of the project, in particular of its economic evaluation work package as discussed in this paper, are: 1. A coherent demonstration of the technical feasibility of nuclear desalination through the development of technical principles for the optimum cogeneration of electricity and water and by exploring the unique capabilities of the innovative nuclear reactors and desalination technologies; verification that the integrated system design does not adversely affect nuclear reactor safety. 2. The development of codes and methods for an objective assessment of the competitiveness and sustainability of proposed solutions through comparison, in European conditions, with fossil and renewable energy based solutions. The results obtained so far seem to be quite encouraging as regards the economical viability of nuclear desalination options. Thus, for example, specific desalination costs ($/m 3 of desalted water) for nuclear systems such as the AP600 and the French PWR900 (reference base case), coupled to Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) or the Reverse Osmosis (RO) processes, are 30% to 60% lower than fossil energy based systems using pulverised coal and natural gas with combined cycle, at low discount rates and recommended fuel prices. Even in the most unfavourable scenarios for nuclear energy (discount rates = 10%, low fossil fuel prices) desalination costs with the nuclear options with the nuclear reactors are 7% to 15% lower, depending upon the desalination capacities. Furthermore, with the high performance coupling schemes developed by the EURODESAL partners, the specific desalination costs of nuclear systems are reduced by another 2% to 14%, even without system and design optimisation. (author)

  1. Performance modeling of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) seawater desalination process using a commercial composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Junggil; Kim, Youngdeuk; Kim, Wooseung; Francis, Lijo; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2015-01-01

    membrane and the heat transfer across the membrane and through the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surfaces. Experimental results and model predictions for permeate flux and performance ratio are compared and shown to be in good agreement

  2. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Myat, Aung; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units

  3. Energetic, Exergetic, and Economic Analysis of MED-TVC Water Desalination Plant with and without Preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Eshoul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Desalination is the sole proven technique that can provide the necessary fresh water in arid and semi-arid countries in sufficient quantities and meet the modern needs of a growing world population. Multi effect desalination with thermal vapour compression (MED-TVC is one of most common applications of thermal desalination technologies. The present paper presents a comprehensive thermodynamic model of a 24 million litres per day thermal desalination plant, using specialised software packages. The proposed model was validated against a real data set for a large-scale desalination plant, and showed good agreement. The performance of the MED-TVC unit was investigated using different loads, entrained vapour, seawater temperature, salinity and number of effects in two configurations. The first configuration was the MED-TVC unit without preheating system, and the second integrated the MED-TVC unit with a preheating system. The study confirmed that the thermo-compressor and its effects are the main sources of exergy destruction in these desalination plants, at about 40% and 35% respectively. The desalination plant performance with preheating mode performs well due to high feed water temperature leading to the production of more distillate water. The seawater salinity was proportional to the fuel exergy and minimum separation work. High seawater salinity results in high exergy efficiency, which is not the case with membrane technology. The plant performance of the proposed system was enhanced by using a large number of effects due to greater utilisation of energy input and higher generation level. From an economic perspective, both indicators show that using a preheating system is more economically attractive.

  4. Performance modeling of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) seawater desalination process using a commercial composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Junggil

    2015-01-10

    This paper presents the development of a rigorous theoretical model to predict the transmembrane flux of a flat sheet hydrophobic composite membrane, comprising both an active layer of polytetrafluoroethylene and a scrim-backing support layer of polypropylene, in the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. An integrated model includes the mass, momentum, species and energy balances for both retentate and permeate flows, coupled with the mass transfer of water vapor through the composite membrane and the heat transfer across the membrane and through the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surfaces. Experimental results and model predictions for permeate flux and performance ratio are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The permeate flux through the composite layer can be ignored in the consideration of mass transfer pathways at the composite membrane. The effect of the surface porosity and the thickness of active and support layers on the process performance of composite membrane has also been studied. Among these parameters, surface porosity is identified to be the main factor significantly influencing the permeate flux and performance ratio, while the relative influence of the surface porosity on the performance ratio is less than that on flux.

  5. Integration of renewables and reverse osmosis desalination – Case study for the Jordanian energy system with a high share of wind and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, T.; Ćosić, B.; Pukšec, T.

    2015-01-01

    and solar potential but practically no utilization with 99% of the produced electricity coming from imported fossil fuels resulting in high CO2 emissions and a potential security of supply issue. The utilization of reverse osmosis desalination in a combination with brine operated pump storage units and wind......Jordan is a country faced with several environmental and energy related issues. It is the Worlds' fourth most water deprived country with a water consumption of only 145m3 per capita annually, less than a third of the established severe water poverty line. Jordan is also a country rich in wind...... and (PV) photovoltaic plants can tackle both issues. The desalination plants can produce the much needed water and act as a flexible demand to increase the penetration of intermittent renewables supported by the brine operated pump storage units. This paper presents six scenarios for the development...

  6. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  7. Theoretical investigation of solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.I.; El-Minshawy, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We evaluated the performance of sea water HDD system powered by solar PTC. → The proposed design to the expected desalination plant performance was introduced. → The collector thermal efficiency was a function of solar radiation value. → The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season. → The production time reaches 42% of the day time in the summer season. - Abstract: This paper deals with the status of solar energy as a clean and renewable energy applications in desalination. The object of this research is to theoretically investigate the principal operating parameters of a proposed desalination system based on air humidification-dehumidification principles. A parabolic trough solar collector is adapted to drive and optimize the considered desalination system. A test set-up of the desalination system was designed and a theoretical simulation model was constructed to evaluate the performance and productivity of the proposed solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system. The theoretical simulation model was developed in which the thermodynamic models of each component of the considered were set up respectively. The study showed that, parabolic trough solar collector is the suitable to drive the proposed desalination system. A comparison study had been presented to show the effect of the different parameters on the performance and the productivity of the system. The productivity of the proposed system showed also an increase with the increase of the day time till an optimum value and then decreased. The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season, when high direct solar radiation and long solar time are always expected. The production time reaches a maximum value in the summer season, which is 42% of the day.

  8. Reverse osmosis desalination of chitosan cross-linked graphene oxide/titania hybrid lamellar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Sun, Penzhan; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-07-08

    With excellent mass transport properties, graphene oxide (GO)-based lamellar membranes are believed to have great potential in water desalination. In order to quantify whether GO-based membranes are indeed suitable for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, three sub-micrometer thick GO-based lamellar membranes: GO-only, reduced GO (RGO)/titania (TO) nanosheets and RGO/TO/chitosan (CTS) are prepared, and their RO desalination performances are evaluated in a home-made RO test apparatus. The photoreduction of GO by TO improves the salt rejection, which increases slowly with the membrane thickness. The RGO/TO/CTS hybrid membranes exhibit higher rejection rates of only about 30% (greater than threefold improvement compared with a GO-only membrane) which is still inferior compared to other commercial RO membranes. The low rejection rates mainly arise from the pressure-induced weakening of the ion-GO interlayer interactions. Despite the advantages of simple, low-cost preparation, high permeability and selectivity of GO-based lamellar membranes, as the current desalination performances are not high enough to afford practical application, there still remains a great challenge to realize high performance separation membranes for water desalination applications.

  9. Nuclear desalination newsletter, No. 1, September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This issue discusses the recent IAEA and Member States activities in the field of desalination. Reports about these activities in Algeria, China, Germany, India, Cuba, France, Indonesia, Kuwait, Libya, South Africa, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Spain and USA are given. The new version of the DEEP software - DEEP 3.2 - is presented. A newly developed toolkit on nuclear desalination is also presented. The ongoing IAEA activities include organization and participation in meetings on nuclear desalination, or related topics, like Technical Meeting on Non Electric Applications, held in Daejeon, Rep. of Korea, 3-6 March 2009; Management of Water Use and Consumption in Water Cooled Nuclear Power; Joint ICTP/IAEA Training Workshop on Technology and Performance of Desalination Systems; Advances in Nuclear Power for Process Heat Applications. The plans for future activities and meetings are also presented

  10. State-of-art report on the seawater desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-11-01

    Desalination technologies have been developed over the last 40 years and become a reliable industrial process for water production from sea or blackish water. At present, various desalination processes are available for the effective use of seawater or blackish water as valuable water resources. Since a large amount of energy is required for seawater desalination, the cost of energy is important for desalination. For the regions of severe water shortage, however, desalination is the most economical way of water supply compare to any other alternatives. Currently, water supply by seawater desalination is being increased in the areas of the Caribbean, North African and Middle East. Also, desalination of blackish water is being increased in the south-east region of USA. In general, the distillation process and the membrane technology are used for seawater esalination and the membrane and the electric-dialysis for blackish water. However, the selection of the desalination process is highly dependent on the use of produced water and the local environmental conditions where the desalination plant installed. The local condition is the most important parameters for the selection of the desalination process

  11. State-of-art report on the seawater desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-11-01

    Desalination technologies have been developed over the last 40 years and become a reliable industrial process for water production from sea or blackish water. At present, various desalination processes are available for the effective use of seawater or blackish water as valuable water resources. Since a large amount of energy is required for seawater desalination, the cost of energy is important for desalination. For the regions of severe water shortage, however, desalination is the most economical way of water supply compare to any other alternatives. Currently, water supply by seawater desalination is being increased in the areas of the Caribbean, North African and Middle East. Also, desalination of blackish water is being increased in the south-east region of USA. In general, the distillation process and the membrane technology are used for seawater esalination and the membrane and the electric-dialysis for blackish water. However, the selection of the desalination process is highly dependent on the use of produced water and the local environmental conditions where the desalination plant installed. The local condition is the most important parameters for the selection of the desalination process.

  12. Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property surfaces of adsorbent-adsorbate system and the adsorption interaction potential between them. Employing the proposed formulations, the coefficient of performance (COP) and overall performance ratio (OPR) of adsorption cycle are computed for various pore widths of solid adsorbents. These results are compared with experimental data for verifying the proposed thermodynamic formulations. It is found from the present analysis that the COP and OPR of adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle is influenced by (i) the physical characteristics of adsorbents, (ii) characteristics energy and (iii) the surface-structural heterogeneity factor of adsorbent-water system. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of adsorbents having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  13. Examining the economics of seawater desalination using the DEEP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This Technical Document presents analysis of the results of the study initiated by the IAEA on comparison of costs of nuclear and fossil fuel energy sources coupled with selected seawater desalination processes, including regional studies and sensitivity analysis. The economical modelling was performed with use of the Desalination Economic Evaluation Program code (DEEP) released in 1998 which incorporated the latest advances in economic modelling and technological changes in both desalination and reactor technologies

  14. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... treatment, indicating that supply of ions from the poultice at the electrodes into the tile was limited. Electroosmotic transport of water was seen when low ionic content was reached. Experiments were also conducted with XVIII-century tiles, which had been removed from Palacio Centeno (Lisbon) during...

  15. Nuclear desalination for the northwest of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega C, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic. It is evident that before the high cost of the hydrocarbons and its high environmental impact, the nuclear generation alternative of energy becomes extremely attractive, mainly for desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was revised the state of the art of the nuclear desalination on the world and it is simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, from the thermodynamic and economic viewpoint with the purpose of identifying the main peculiarities of this technology. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be couple to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. It is used for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out an economic preliminary evaluation. Was found cost very competitive of 0.038-0.044 US$/kWh for the electric power production and 0.60 to 0.77 US$/m 3 for the drink water produced, without including the water transport cost or the use of carbon certificates. (Author)

  16. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  17. Photosynthetic microbial desalination cells (PMDCs) for clean energy, water and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabian, Bahareh; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2013-12-01

    Current microbial desalination cell (MDC) performances are evaluated with chemical catalysts such as ferricyanide, platinum catalyzed air-cathodes or aerated cathodes. All of these methods improve power generation potential in MDCs, however, they are not preferable for large scale applications due to cost, energy and environmental toxicity issues. In this study, performance of microbial desalination cells with an air cathode and an algae biocathode (Photosynthetic MDC - PMDC) were evaluated, both under passive conditions (no mechanical aeration or mixing). The results indicate that passive algae biocathodes perform better than air cathodes and enhance COD removal and utilize treated wastewater as the growth medium to obtain valuable biomass for high value bioproducts. Maximum power densities of 84 mW m(-3) (anode volume) or 151 mW m(-3) (biocathode volume) and a desalination rate of 40% were measured with 0.9 : 1 : 0.5 volumetric ratios of anode, desalination and algae biocathode chambers respectively. This first proof-of-concept study proves that the passive mechanisms can be beneficial in enhancing the sustainability of microbial desalination cells.

  18. Series Assembly of Microbial Desalination Cells Containing Stacked Electrodialysis Cells for Partial or Complete Seawater Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach for desalinating water based on using the electrical current generated by exoelectrogenic bacteria. Previously developed MDCs have used only one or two desalination chambers with substantial internal resistance, and used low salinity catholytes containing a buffered or acid solution. Here we show that substantially improved MDC performance can be obtained even with a nonbuffered, saline catholyte, by using an electrodialysis stack consisting of 5 pairs of desalting and concentrating cells. When 4 stacked MDCs were used in series (20 total pairs of desalination chambers), the salinity of 0.06 L of synthetic seawater (35 g/L NaCl) was reduced by 44% using 0.12 L of anode solution (2:1). The resistive loss in the electrodialysis stack was negligible due to minimization of the intermembrane distances, and therefore the power densities produced by the MDC were similar to those produced by single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) lacking desalination chambers. The observed current efficiency was 86%, indicating separation of 4.3 pairs of sodium and chloride ions for every electron transferred through the circuit. With two additional stages (total of 3.8 L of anolyte), desalination was increased to 98% salt removal, producing 0.3 L of fresh water (12.6:1). These results demonstrate that stacked MDCs can be used for efficient desalination of seawater while at the same time achieving power densities comparable to those obtained in MFCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Misra, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to gainfully employ the years of experience and expertise in various aspects of desalination activity, BARC (India) has undertaken installation of a hybrid nuclear desalination plant coupled to 170 MW(e) PHWR station at Kalpakkam, Chennai in the Southeast coast of India. The integrated system, called the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), will thus meet the dual needs of process water for nuclear power plant and drinking water for the neighbouring people. NDDP aims for demonstrating the safe and economic production of good quality water by nuclear desalination of seawater. It comprises a 4500 m 3 /d Multistage Flash (MSF) and a 1800 m 3 /d Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant. MSF section uses low pressure steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The objectives of the NDDP (Kalpakkam) are as follows: to establish the indigenous capability for the design, manufacture, installation and operation of nuclear desalination plants; to generate necessary design inputs and optimum process parameters for large scale nuclear desalination plant; to serve as a demonstration project to IAEA welcoming participation from interested member states. The hybrid plant is envisaged to have a number of advantages: a part of high purity desalted water produced from MSF plant will be used for the makeup demineralised water requirement (after necessary polishing) for the power station; blending of the product water from RO and MSF plants would provide requisite quality drinking water; the RO plant will continue to be operated to provide the water for drinking purposes during the shutdown of the power station

  20. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    ) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More

  1. Integrating Desalination and Energy Storage using a Saltwater-based Hybrid Sodium-ion Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaowei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xiaoli; Hou, Mengyan; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-06-11

    Ever-increasing freshwater scarcity and energy crisis problems require efficient seawater desalination and energy storage technologies; however, each target is generally considered separately. Herein, a hybrid sodium-ion supercapacitor, involving a carbon-coated nano-NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 -based battery anode and an activated-carbon-based capacitive cathode, is developed to combine desalination and energy storage in one device. On charge, the supercapacitor removes salt in a flowing saltwater electrolyte through Cl - electrochemical adsorption at the cathode and Na + intercalation at the anode. Discharge delivers useful electric energy and regenerates the electrodes. This supercapacitor can be used not only for energy storage with promising electrochemical performance (i.e., high power, high efficiency, and long cycle life), but also as a desalination device with desalination capacity of 146.8 mg g -1 , much higher than most reported capacitive and battery desalination devices. Finally, we demonstrate renewables to usable electric energy and desalted water through combining commercial photovoltaics and this hybrid supercapacitor. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fluidized bed electrodes with high carbon loading for water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbusch, G.J.; Dykstra, J.E.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Suss, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of carbon flow electrodes has significantly impacted electrochemical energy storage and capacitive deionization (CDI), but device performance is limited as these electrodes cannot surpass ∼20 wt% carbon while maintaining flowability. We here introduce flowable fluidized bed electrodes

  3. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  4. Analytical monitoring of systems for the production of high-purity, desalinated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert, I.

    1988-01-01

    The purity requirements to be met by high-purity water currently push the most sensitive analytical methods to their utmost limits of sensitivity. The required degree of purity of the water at present can only be achieved by application of membrane processes, and pre-purification of the feedwater to a quality corresponding to that of the raw water source. The contribution in hand discusses the analytical monitoring of the raw water treatment plant, the water treatment prior to the treatment by reverse osmosis, monitoring and control of the modules for reverse osmosis, and the monitoring of high-purity water production for the microelectronics industry. (orig./RB) [de

  5. Med-Ro Hybrid desalination as option to supply fresh water in BABEL Islands Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Sudi Ariyanto; June Mellawati; Budiarto

    2011-01-01

    Med-Ro hybrid desalination systems are combining both thermal (Med) and membrane (Ro) desalination processes with power generation systems. This configuration has more economical and operational benefits in comparison with single desalination plant. Hybrid configurations are characterized by flexibility in operation, specific energy consumption (33.50 kWh/m 3 ) is lower than Med (36.54 kWh/m 3 ) and high plant availability. The objective of study is to analyze the Med-Ro hybrid desalination as an option to add supply fresh water in Babel Islands Province, in terms of technology and economy aspects. The result of study showed that adopting nuclear power plants as dual-purpose for power generation and producing fresh water is has economic competitiveness than fossil-fired generation plants. Med-Ro hybrid configuration, with feed Ro from heat rejection of Med system is suitable as fresh water supply add option because increase of Ro feed temperature will increase flux. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using the Deep-3.2. Water cost of hybrid Med-Ro desalination with energy of NPP (0.581 $/m ) is lower than that of Med water cost (0.752 $/m ) . Water cost of hybrid Med-Ro with energy of NPP (0.581 $/m ) is lower than that of water cost of energy with fossil-fired generation plants (0.720 $/m 3 ). (author)

  6. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young

    2012-01-01

    REX-10 is a small-sized integral pressurized water reactor designed by Seoul National Univ. (SNU) for supplying electricity and district heating in micro-grid. REX-10 has a rated thermal output of 10 MW and the reactor assemblies are equipped with the thorium-fueled core, the helical-coil steam generator, and the steam-gas pressurizer inside a reactor pressure vessel. Unique technical features and reactor system designs of REX-10 are presented in this paper. To evaluate the system performance and investigate the transient behaviors of REX-10, a thermal-hydraulic system code named TAPIR is developed by SNU on the basis of the momentum integral model. The TASS/SMR code developed by KAERI is also applicable to the transient analyses of the advanced integral reactors. Main design decisions of the REX-10 reactor coolant system are assessed using both codes from the steady-state calculation. In addition, a transient analysis on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion event is performed to evaluate the reactor dynamics coupled with the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10. The predicted results from TAPIR and TASS/SMR are compared with each other and good agreements are obtained

  7. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    REX-10 is a small-sized integral pressurized water reactor designed by Seoul National Univ. (SNU) for supplying electricity and district heating in micro-grid. REX-10 has a rated thermal output of 10 MW and the reactor assemblies are equipped with the thorium-fueled core, the helical-coil steam generator, and the steam-gas pressurizer inside a reactor pressure vessel. Unique technical features and reactor system designs of REX-10 are presented in this paper. To evaluate the system performance and investigate the transient behaviors of REX-10, a thermal-hydraulic system code named TAPIR is developed by SNU on the basis of the momentum integral model. The TASS/SMR code developed by KAERI is also applicable to the transient analyses of the advanced integral reactors. Main design decisions of the REX-10 reactor coolant system are assessed using both codes from the steady-state calculation. In addition, a transient analysis on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion event is performed to evaluate the reactor dynamics coupled with the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10. The predicted results from TAPIR and TASS/SMR are compared with each other and good agreements are obtained.

  8. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy

  9. Mechanical vapor compression Desalination plant at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Kishore, G.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Desalination plants based on Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) technology are inherently the most thermodynamically efficient. The thermodynamic efficiency of the MVC process is derived from the application of the heat pump principle. A single unit of two-effect MVC desalination pilot plant of capacity 50 m3/day has recently been commissioned at Trombay, Mumbai. The desalination unit is very compact and unique of its kind in the seawater desalination technologies and is being operated by using electricity only. Horizontal tube thin film spray desalination evaporators are used for efficient heat transfer. It is suitable for a site, where feed water is highly saline and condenser cooling water is absent and where a thermal heat source is not available. The unit produces high quality water, nearly demineralized (DM) quality directly from seawater. There is no need of polishing unit and product water can be utilized directly as make up of boiler feed and for other high quality process water requirements in the industries. This paper includes the design and highlights the technical features of this unit. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy and water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince-Ringuet, L.

    1976-01-01

    A short state-of-the-art survey is given of desalination methods, the involvement of nuclear power reactors in some desalination process, the cost of certain methods, and quantities produced and required in different parts of the world

  11. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  12. Simulation of the performance and economical study of a hybrid thermal desalination (solar and natural gas); Simulacao do desempenho e estudo economico de um dessalinizador hibrido (solar e gas natural)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria E.V. da; Coutinho, Lecimara D.E.; Soares, Bruno de L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Schwarzer, Klemens [Universidade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Aachen (Germany); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents a simulation of the performance and the results of an economic study of a hybrid thermal desalination equipment to produce drinkable water using solar energy and natural gas at its energy sources. The components of the desalination equipment are two solar flat plate collectors with reflectors, a natural gas burner, and a desalination tower. A piping circuit connects the tower to the collectors and the burner. In this circuit, a fluid transports heat from the thermal sources (collectors or burner) to the salty water in the first stage of the tower. When the salty water receives heat, it warms up and evaporates. The vapor produced flows up the bottom walls of the next stage, where it condenses, as it transfers the phase change heat to the water in this upper stage. The condensate flows in lateral channels to be collected outside the tower. Experimental measurements results obtained for a desalination unit with 4m{sup 2} of collector area and a seven stage tower, and the natural gas properties were used in the calculation. In the economic study, fabrication, installation, and maintenance costs were included. The results also show the water daily production for solar and hybrid. (author)

  13. Economy Aspect for Nuclear Desalination Selection in Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudi, Ariyanto; Alimah, Siti

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of economy aspect for nuclear desalination selection has been carried out. This study compares the costs of water production for the Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF), Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process coupled to PWR. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using the DEEP-3.1. The results of the performed case study of Muria Peninsula showed that the water cost to desalination process coupled with PWR nuclear power plant (at 5% interest rate, 2750 m 3 /day capacity, 28 o C temperature, 28.700 ppm TDS) with MSF plant is the highest (1.353 $/m 3 ), compared to 0.885 $/m 3 and 0.791 $/m 3 with the MED and RO plants respectively. As for MSF process, water cost by RO are also sensitive to variables, such as the interest rate, temperature and total salinity. However, MED process is sensitive to interest rate and temperature based on the economic aspect. MSF and MED plants produce a high-quality product water with a range of 1.0 - 50 ppm TDS, while RO plants produce product water of 200 - 500 ppm TDS. Water requirements for reactor coolant system in PWR type is about 1 ppm. Based on economic aspect and water requirements for reactor coolant system in PWR type, so co-generation of PWR and MED may be a favourable option for being applied in Muria Peninsula. (author)

  14. Economic Aspect for Nuclear Desalination Selection in Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudi, Ariyanto; Alimah, Siti

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of economy aspect for nuclear desalination selection has been carried out. This study compares the costs of water production for the Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF), Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process coupled to PWR. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using the DEEP-3.1. The results of the performed case study of Muria Peninsula showed that the water cost to desalination process coupled with PWR nuclear power plant (at 5% interest rate, 2750 m 3 /day capacity, 28 o C temperature, 28.700 ppm TDS) with MSF plant is the highest (1.353 $/m 3 ), compared to 0.885 $/m 3 and 0.791 $/m 3 with the MED and RO plants respectively. As for MSF process, water cost by RO are also sensitive to variables, such as the interest rate, temperature and total salinity. However, MED process is sensitive to interest rate and temperature based on the economic aspect. MSF and MED plants produce a high-quality product water with a range of 1.0 - 50 ppm TDS, while RO plants produce product water of 200 - 500 ppm TDS. Water requirements for reactor coolant system in PWR type is about 1 ppm. Based on economic aspect and water requirements for reactor coolant system in PWR type, so co-generation of PWR and MED may be a favourable option for being applied in Muria Peninsula. (author)

  15. Water desalination by electrical resonance inside carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jia-Wei; Ding, Hong-Ming; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-10-12

    Although previous studies have indicated that the carbon nanotube (CNT) can be used for directed transportation of water and ions, it is still a challenging problem to design a CNT-based device for high performance water desalination. In this study, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we successfully design one type of CNT as a highly efficient desalination membrane through electrical resonance. By decorating the two ends of the CNT with vibrational charges, an alternating electric field is created inside the CNT. When the amplitude of the vibrational charge is 0.05 e, and the vibrational frequency is between 10 THz and 20 THz, the CNT can completely block the transportation of ions. The decrease of the amplitude or the deviation of the frequency in an appropriate range will gradually increase the ion flow. Besides, we also reveal the underlying molecular mechanism of ion blockage, i.e., the electric resonance can disrupt the water structure inside the CNT and then alter the hydration energy of ions inside the CNT. More importantly, we further demonstrate that this mechanism is universal, which is independent of the type of ions and the size of CNT. The present work could be useful for designing water desalination membranes with lower energy consumption and higher fresh water production.

  16. A Well Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination Unit Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfil, H.; Hila, M.; Hannachi, A.; Yeza, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this present work the diagnosis results of a reverse osmosis desalination unit are reported. Since 1997, the desalination unit was supplying a 1200 bed hotel. The feed water was driven from a well situated 300 m away form the sea. The water has an approximate salinity of 6gg.L -1 . The unit was producing 600 m 3 per day of desalinated water with a Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) of nearly 400 mg.L -1 . The desalination unit has two stages with 67 pour cent and 42 pour cent yields respectively giving an average yield of 81 pour cent. The behavior of all water streams with respect to aggressiveness and scaling tendency was assessed. The 2nd stage reject water was shown to exhibit a very high scaling behavior with an instantaneous precipitation in the absence of feed water chemical treatment. The analyses have shown that the produced water was very aggressive. The second stage module autopsy has revealed a sharp decrease of the membrane performances because of mineral as well as organic fooling buildup. The inorganic scale was essentially made of coesite and calcite and kaolinite clay. The presence of silica and clay could be attributed to an inadequate filtration pre-treatment process that was not able to retain all the suspended matter in the feed water. Whereas the presence calcite crystals at the membrane surface, reveals that the chemical inhibition performed at the pre-treatment process without adjusting the water pH was not able to prevent calcium carbonate precipitation. A periodic acid wash of the 2nd stage membranes is then necessary to guarantee this stage desired objectives.

  17. Implication of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1983-01-01

    Available dual purpose nuclear desalination schemes are reviewed. Three specific issues namely, impact of availability and reliability of the desalination stage of the plant, integration of the desalination and power production stages and new safety concerns of dual system, relating to desalination schemes are discussed. Results of operational and reliability studies of nuclear power stations, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation desalination plants are considered. Operational aspects of nuclear-multistage flash distillation, nuclear-reverse osmosis and nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis are compared. Concludes that the combined nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis plant arrangement permits very large production capacity, high availability, improvement of plant reliability and proovision of savings on the cost of water and power produced. 23 Ref

  18. Desalination and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeijn, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The techniques for fresh water production from seawater have matured and capacities have increased considerably over the past decades. It is feasible to combine seawater desalination with the generation of electricity since power stations can provide energy and low grade heat during off peak periods for the purpose of fresh water production. A dual purpose installation, combining a seawater desalination facility with a light water reactor power generation station promises interesting possibilities. The case in South Africa, where nuclear power stations are most economically sited far from the inland coal fields, is discussed. 1 ill

  19. High-performance multi-functional reverse osmosis membranes obtained by carbon nanotube·polyamide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Shigeki; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Ortiz-Medina, Josue; Morelos-Gomez, Aaron; Takeuchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Takuya; Tanioka, Akihiko; Araki, Takumi; Tejima, Syogo; Noguchi, Toru; Terrones, Mauricio; Endo, Morinobu

    2015-01-01

    Clean water obtained by desalinating sea water or by purifying wastewater, constitutes a major technological objective in the so-called water century. In this work, a high-performance reverse osmosis (RO) composite thin membrane using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and aromatic polyamide (PA), was successfully prepared by interfacial polymerization. The effect of MWCNT on the chlorine resistance, antifouling and desalination performances of the nanocomposite membranes were studied. We found that a suitable amount of MWCNT in PA, 15.5 wt.%, not only improves the membrane performance in terms of flow and antifouling, but also inhibits the chlorine degradation on these membranes. Therefore, the present results clearly establish a solid foundation towards more efficient large-scale water desalination and other water treatment processes. PMID:26333385

  20. RO-PRO desalination: An integrated low-energy approach to seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prante, Jeri L.; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Childress, Amy E.; Achilli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In the novel RO-PRO system, the energy produced by PRO is utilized to offset the energy consumed by the RO. • The specific energy consumption of a RO-PRO system was modeled for the first time. • A novel module-based PRO model for full-scale applications was developed. • The minimum net specific energy consumption of the modeled RO-PRO system was 1.2 kW h/m 3 at 50% RO recovery. • A sensitivity analysis showed a min RO-PRO specific energy consumption of 1.0 kW h/m 3 and a max power density of 10 W/m 2 . - Abstract: Although reverse osmosis (RO) is currently the most energy efficient desalination technology, it still requires a great deal of energy to create the high pressures necessary to desalinate seawater. An opposite process of RO, called pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), utilizes the salinity gradient between a relatively fresh impaired water source and seawater to produce pressure and hence, energy. In this paper, PRO is evaluated in conjunction with RO, in a system called RO-PRO desalination, to reduce the energy requirement of seawater RO desalination. RO-PRO specific energy consumption was modeled using RO conditions at the thermodynamic restriction and a newly developed module-based PRO model. Using a well-characterized cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane, the minimum net specific energy consumption of the system was found to be approximately 40% lower than state-of-the-art seawater RO. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of membrane characteristics on the specific energy production of the PRO process in the RO-PRO system. The sensitivity analysis showed that the minimum specific energy consumption using virtual membranes is approximately 1.0 kW h per m 3 of RO permeate at 50% RO recovery and that a maximum power density of approximately 10 W/m 2 could be achieved

  1. Enhancing forward osmosis water recovery from landfill leachate by desalinating brine and recovering ammonia in a microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a microbial desalination cell (MDC) was employed to desalinate the FO treated leachate for reduction of both salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The FO recovered 51.5% water from a raw leachate and the recovery increased to 83.5% from the concentrated leachate after desalination in the MDC fed with either acetate or another leachate as an electron source and at a different hydraulic retention time (HRT). Easily-degraded substrate like acetate and a long HRT resulted in a low conductivity desalinated effluent. Ammonia was also recovered in the MDC cathode with a recovery efficiency varying from 11 to 64%, affected by current generation and HRT. Significant COD reduction, as high as 65.4%, was observed in the desalination chamber and attributed to the decrease of both organic and inorganic compounds via diffusion and electricity-driven movement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Sashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2006-05-01

    A majority of large-scale desalination plants all over the world employ multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation process. Many of these MSF desalination plants have been set up near to nuclear power plants (generally called as nuclear desalination plants) to effectively utilize the low-grade steam from the power plants as the source of energy. A computer program called MSFSIM has been developed to simulate the MSF desalination plant operation both for steady state and various transients including start up. This code predicts the effect of number of stages, flashing temperature, velocity of brine flowing through the tubes of brine heater and evaporators, temperature of the condensing thin film etc. on the plant performance ratio. Such a code can be used for the design of a new plant and to predict its operating and startup characteristics. The code has been extensively validated with available start up data from the pilot MSF desalination plant of 425-m3/day capacity at Trombay, Mumbai. A MSF desalination plant of 4500-m3/day capacity is under construction by BARC at Kalpakkam, which will utilize the steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). In this present work extensive parametric study of the 4500-m3/day capacity desalination plant at Kalpakkam has been done using the code MSFSIM for optimizing the operating parameters in order to maximize the performance ratio for stable plant operation. The aim of the work is prediction of plant performance under different operating conditions. (author)

  3. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  4. Life Cycle Assessment for desalination: a review on methodology feasibility and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chang, Victor W-C; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-15

    As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ZVI (Fe0) desalination: catalytic partial desalination of saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, David D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Globally, salinization affects between 100 and 1000 billion m3 a-1 of irrigation water. The discovery that zero valent iron (ZVI, Fe0) could be used to desalinate water (using intra-particle catalysis in a diffusion environment) raises the possibility that large-scale in situ desalination of aquifers could be undertaken to support agriculture. ZVI desalination removes NaCl by an adsorption-desorption process in a multi-stage cross-coupled catalytic process. This study considers the potential application of two ZVI desalination catalyst types for in situ aquifer desalination. The feasibility of using ZVI catalysts when placed in situ within an aquifer to produce 100 m3 d-1 of partially desalinated water from a saline aquifer is considered.

  6. Energy Implications of Seawater Desalination (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater has traditionally come from rivers, lakes, streams, and groundwater aquifers. As demand increases and climate change alters the location and timing of water supply, these traditional sources are becoming unavailable, more difficult, or increasingly expensive to develop. As a result, many communities are switching to alternative sources of water. Interest in pursuing seawater desalination is high in many coastal communities. In California, for example, 17 plants are proposed for development along the California coast and two in Mexico. Water managers are pursing desalination because is a local supply that can help diversify the water supply portfolio. Additionally, it is a reliable supply, which can be especially valuable during a drought. But removing the salt from seawater is an energy-intensive process that consumes more energy per gallon than most other water supply and treatment options. These energy requirements are key factors that will impact the extent and success of desalination in California. Energy requirements for seawater desalination average about 4.0 kWh per cubic meter (m3) of water produced. By comparison, the least energy-intensive options of local sources of groundwater and surface water require 0 - 0.90 kWh per m3; wastewater reuse, depending on treatment levels, may require from 0.26 - 2.2 kWh per m3. Beyond the electricity required for the desalination facility itself, producing any new source of water, including through desalination, increases the amount of energy required to deliver and use the water produced as well as collect, treat, and dispose of the wastewater generated. Energy is the largest single variable cost for a desalination plant, varying from one-third to more than one-half the cost of produced water. Building a desalination plant may reduce a water utility's exposure to water reliability risks at the added expense of an increase in exposure to energy price risk. In dependent on hydropower, electricity prices tend to

  7. Application of S-CO{sub 2} Cycle for Small Modular Reactor coupled with Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Korean small modular reactor, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, 100MWe), is designed to achieve enhanced safety and improved economics through reliable passive safety systems, a system simplification and component modularization. SMART can generate electricity and provide water by seawater desalination. However, due to the desalination aspect of SMART, the total amount of net electricity generation is decreased from 100MWe to 90MWe. The authors suggest in this presentation that the reduction of electricity generation can be replenished by applying S-CO{sub 2} power cycle technology. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle, which is recently receiving significant attention as the next generation power conversion system, has some benefits such as high cycle efficiency, simple configuration, compactness and so on. In this study, the cycle performance analysis of the S-CO{sub 2} cycles for SMART with desalination system is conducted. The simple recuperated S-CO{sub 2} cycle is revised for coupling with desalination system. The three revised layout are proposed for the cycle performance comparison. In this results of the 3rd revised layout, the cycle efficiency reached 37.8%, which is higher than the efficiency of current SMART with the conventional power conversion system 30%.

  8. Application of S-CO_2 Cycle for Small Modular Reactor coupled with Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woong; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    The Korean small modular reactor, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, 100MWe), is designed to achieve enhanced safety and improved economics through reliable passive safety systems, a system simplification and component modularization. SMART can generate electricity and provide water by seawater desalination. However, due to the desalination aspect of SMART, the total amount of net electricity generation is decreased from 100MWe to 90MWe. The authors suggest in this presentation that the reduction of electricity generation can be replenished by applying S-CO_2 power cycle technology. The S-CO_2 Brayton cycle, which is recently receiving significant attention as the next generation power conversion system, has some benefits such as high cycle efficiency, simple configuration, compactness and so on. In this study, the cycle performance analysis of the S-CO_2 cycles for SMART with desalination system is conducted. The simple recuperated S-CO_2 cycle is revised for coupling with desalination system. The three revised layout are proposed for the cycle performance comparison. In this results of the 3rd revised layout, the cycle efficiency reached 37.8%, which is higher than the efficiency of current SMART with the conventional power conversion system 30%

  9. Comparative study of economic competitive for nuclear seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing

    2001-01-01

    The method of levelized discounted production water cost and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) are used. Many cases of seawater desalination by nuclear energy or fossil energy combined with reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-effect distillation (MED) or multi-stage flash (MSF) technology in south-east Asia is performed and their economic competitive is analyzed. Their results indicate, the nuclear desalination plants have stronger economic competitive comparing to the fossil in the RO, MED and MSF technology. The desalination water cost is very changeable depending on the difference of desalination technology and water plant size. Its range is 0.56 dollar · m -3 - 1.89 dollar · m -3 , the lowest desalination water cost is product by RO and the highest is by MSF. The sensitive factors of the economic competitive are orderly the discounted rate, desalination plant size, seawater temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS), fossil fuel price and specific power plant investment. The highest rate of water cost is about 19.3% comparing to base case

  10. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  11. Present and future activities of nuclear desalination in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, A.; Hirai, M.

    2004-01-01

    Seawater desalination plants have been installed at several nuclear power plants in Japan in order to satisfy the regulations for nuclear plant installation. This has been done where there is a limited source of water due to the geological conditions. These desalination plants are being operated to ensure supplemental water by using thermal or electrical energy from the nuclear power plant. The desalination plant is not operated continuously during the year because the major function of the plant is to ensure the supply of supplemental water for the nuclear power plant. Regarding maintenance of the desalination plant, some piping was exchanged due to corrosion by high temperature seawater, however, the desalination plants are being operated without any trouble as of today. Recently, the development of innovative and/or small reactor designs, that emphasise safety features, has been promoted in Japan to use for seawater desalination and for installation in developing countries. An advanced RO system with lower energy consumption technology is also being developed. Furthermore, some Japanese industries and universities are now very interested in nuclear desalination. (author)

  12. Why do local communities support or oppose seawater desalination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Heck, N.; Faraola, S.; Paytan, A.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater shortages have become a global problem due to increasing water consumption and environmental changes which are reducing the reliability of traditional water resources. One option to address water shortages in coastal areas is the use of seawater desalination. Desalination technology is particularly valued for the production of high quality drinking water and consistent production. However, seawater desalination is controversial due to potential environmental, economic, and societal impacts and lack of public support for this water supply method. Compared to alternative potable water production methods, such as water recycling, little is known about public attitudes towards seawater desalination and factors that shape local support or rejection. Our research addresses this gap and explores variables that influence support for proposed desalination plants in the Monterey Bay region, where multiple facilities have been proposed in recent years. Data was collected via a questionnaire-based survey among a random sample of coastal residents and marine stakeholders between June-July, 2016. Findings of the study identify the influence of socio-demographic variables, knowledge about desalination, engagement in marine activities, perception of the environmental context, and the existence of a National Marine Sanctuary on local support. Research outcome provide novel insights into public attitudes towards desalination and enhances our understanding of why communities might support or reject this water supply technology.

  13. Sustainable desalination using ocean thermocline energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-09-22

    The conventional desalination processes are not only energy intensive but also environment un-friendly. They are operating far from thermodynamic limit, 10–12%, making them un-sustainable for future water supplies. An innovative desalination processes are required to meet future sustainable desalination goal and COP21 goal. In this paper, we proposed a multi-effect desalination system operated with ocean thermocline energy, thermal energy harnessed from seawater temperature gradient. It can exploit low temperature differential between surface hot water temperature and deep-sea cold-water temperature to produce fresh water. Detailed theoretical model was developed and simulation was conducted in FORTRAN using international mathematical and statistical library (IMSL). We presented four different cases with deep-sea cold water temperature varies from 5 to 13°C and MED stages varies from 3 to 6. It shows that the proposed cycle can achieve highest level of universal performance ratio, UPR = 158, achieving about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the proposed cycle is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential (GWP), best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths up to 300m or more.

  14. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.; Malaeb, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity

  15. Fundamental and application aspects of adsorption cooling and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; El-Sharkawy, Ibrahim I.; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Thu, Kyaw; Ang, Li; Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption (AD) cycle is recently pioneered for cooling and desalination applications. For water treatment, the cycle can be used to treat highly concentrated feed water, ranging from seawater, ground water and chemically-laden waste water

  16. Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Li, Zhenyu; Francis, Lijo; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Missimer, Thomas; Lattemann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    specific energy consumption (kWh/m) required by conventional desalination technologies, further exasperated by high unit costs ($/m) and environmental impacts including GHG emissions (g CO-eq/m), organism impingement/entrainment through intakes, and brine

  17. Desalination by biomimetic aquaporin membranes: Review of status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review is to prov......Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review...... is to provide an overview of the properties of aquaporins, their preparation and characterization. We discuss the challenges in exploiting the remarkable properties of aquaporin proteins for membrane separation processes and we present various attempts to construct aquaporin in membranes for desalination......; including an overview of our own recent developments in aquaporin-based membranes. Finally we outline future prospects of aquaporin based biomimetic membrane for desalination and water reuse....

  18. Parametric optimization of the MVC desalination plant with thermomechanical compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagin, E. V.; Biryuk, V. V.; Anisimov, M. Y.; Shimanov, A. A.; Gorshkalev, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    This article deals with parametric optimization of the Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) desalination plant with thermomechanical compressor. In this plants thermocompressor is used instead of commonly used centrifugal compressor. Influence of two main parameters was studied. These parameters are: inlet pressure and number of stages. Analysis shows that it is possible to achieve better plant performance in comparison with traditional MVC plant. But is required reducing the number of stages and utilization of low or high initial pressure with power consumption maximum at approximately 20-30 kPa.

  19. Desalination of brackish and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Dilip R.

    2005-01-01

    In Pali, Rajasthan, a population of 4 lacs gets about 6 million liters of water. Only 34 out of 116 municipalities in AP get regular water. Desalination found acceptance because of the decreasing water table leading to high salinity and making conventional treatment methods irrelevant. While choosing amongst the competitive desalination techniques that are available today for conversion of large quantities of saline water, Reverse Osmosis (RO) and distillation techniques stand out. RO rules the brackish water market where feed salinity is over 700 mg/L. Waste heat is nowadays a non-entity in power plants due to the developments of waste heat recovery systems in power plant technology. Most of the large plants tend to choose thermal desalination. Improved RO economics have in turn increased the attractiveness and use of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) technology for many large drinking water projects through out the world. Energy cost is the single largest factor in the cost of Sea Water System (usually 20 to 30% of total cost of water). Nuclear Power Corporation, Kudankulam proposed to build a SW desalination system based on RO technology to meet the water requirement of the Anu Vijay Nagar township and Nuclear Power Station. Energy recovery turbine helps reduce the overall system energy requirement. (author)

  20. Improving bioelectricity generation and COD removal of sewage sludge in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Darzi, Ghasem Najafpour

    2018-05-01

    Improving wastewater treatment process and water desalination are two important solutions for increasing the available supply of fresh water. Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common electrolytes display relatively low organic matter removal and high cost. In this study, sewage sludge was used as the substrate in the Microbial desalination cell (MDC) under three different initial salt concentrations (5, 20 and 35 g.L -1 ) and the maximum salt removal rates of 50.6%, 64% and 69.6% were obtained under batch condition, respectively. The MDC also produced the maximum power density of 47.1 W m -3 and the averaged chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 58.2 ± 0.89% when the initial COD was 6610 ± 83 mg L -1 . Employing treated sludge as catholyte enhanced COD removal and power density to 87.3% and 54.4 W m -3 , respectively, with counterbalancing pH variation in treated effluent. These promising results showed, for the first time, that the excess sewage sludge obtained from biological wastewater treatment plants could be successfully used as anolyte and catholyte in MDC, achieving organic matter biodegradation along with salt removal and energy production. In addition, using treated sludge as catholyte will improve the performance of MDC and introduce a more effective method for both sludge treatment and desalination.

  1. Desalination demonstration plant using nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Misra, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the desalination plants which are operating throughout the world utilize the energy from thermal power station which has the main disadvantage of polluting the environment due to combustion of fossil fuel and with the inevitable rise in prices of fossil fuel, nuclear driven desalination plants will become more economical. So it is proposed to set up nuclear desalination demonstration plant at the location of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The desalination plant will be of a capacity 6300 m 3 /day and based on both Multi Stage Flash (MSF) and Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) processes. The MSF plant with performance ratio of 9 will produce water total dissolved solids (TDS-25 ppm) at a rate of 4500 m 3 /day from seawater of 35000 ppm. A part of this water namely 1000 m 3 /day will be used as Demineralised (DM) water after passing it through a mixed bed polishing unit. The remaining 3500 m 3 /day water will be mixed with 1800 m 3 /day water produced from the SWRO plant of TDS of 400 ppm and the same be supplied to industrial/municipal use. The sea water required for MSF and SWRO plants will be drawn from the intake/outfall system of MAPS which will also supply the required electric power pumping. There will be net 4 MW loss of power of MAPS namely 3 MW for MSF and 1 MW for SWRO desalination plants. The salient features of the project as well as the technical details of the both MSF and SWRO processes and its present status are given in this paper. It also contains comparative cost parameters of water produced by both processes. (author)

  2. World interest in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear power will be used in a desalination plant for the first time in a USSR plant now nearing completion. Studies are in progress to expand the concept of linking the power to chemical industries. These and other developing ideas were subjects of keen discussion by world experts at an Agency conference on nuclear desalination in Madrid. (author)

  3. General Overview of Desalination Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari-Nugroho

    2004-01-01

    Desalination, as discussed in this journal, refers to a water treatment process that removes salts from water. Desalination can be done in a number of ways, but the result is always the same : fresh water is produced from brackish or seawater. The quality of distillate water is indicated by the contents of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) in it, the less number of TDS contents in it, the highest quality of distillate water it has. This article describes the general analysis of desalination technologies, the varies of water, operation and maintenance of the plant, and general comparison between desalination technologies. Basically, there are two common technologies are being used, i.e. thermal and membrane desalination, which are Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), respectively. Both technologies differ from the energy source. Thermal desalination needs heat source from the power plant, while membrane desalination needs only the electricity to run the pumps. In thermal desalination, the vapour coming from boiling feedwater is condensate, this process produces the lowest saline water, about 10 part per million (ppm). The membrane technology uses semipermeable membrane to separate fresh water from salt dissolve. This technology produces the fresh water about 350-500 ppm. (author)

  4. IAEA's role in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; )

    2010-01-01

    Currently, several Member States have shown interest in the utilization of the nuclear energy for seawater desalination not only because recent studies have demonstrated that nuclear desalination is feasible, but also economical and has been already demonstrated in several countries. Therefore, the article will provide a highlight on sea water desalination using nuclear energy as a potential for a sustainable development around the world and the IAEA role in this regards. Special emphasis is placed on past, present, and future nuclear desalination experience in various IAEA Member States. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) role could be summarized in facilitating cutting-edge developments in the area of seawater desalination using nuclear energy, and establishing a framework for facilitating activities in Member States through information exchange and provision of technical assistance. (author)

  5. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  6. Membraneless seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Richard A.; Knust, Kyle N.; Perdue, Robbyn K.

    2018-04-03

    Disclosed are microfluidic devices and systems for the desalination of water. The devices and systems can include an electrode configured to generate an electric field gradient in proximity to an intersection formed by the divergence of two microfluidic channels from an inlet channel. Under an applied bias and in the presence of a pressure driven flow of saltwater, the electric field gradient can preferentially direct ions in saltwater into one of the diverging microfluidic channels, while desalted water flows into second diverging channel. Also provided are methods of using the devices and systems described herein to decrease the salinity of water.

  7. Transient behaviour and coupling aspects of a hybrid MSF-RO nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Misra, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    BARC is setting up a 6300 M 3 /day (1.4 MGD) hybrid MSF-RO nuclear desalination plant for sea water desalination at Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) coupled to a 170 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The transient behaviour and coupling aspects of this dual purpose plant has been discussed. A hybrid desalination plant appears to offer high availability factor. (author)

  8. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  9. An exergy approach to efficiency evaluation of desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-05-02

    This paper presents an evaluation process efficiency based on the consumption of primary energy for all types of practical desalination methods available hitherto. The conventional performance ratio has, thus far, been defined with respect to the consumption of derived energy, such as the electricity or steam, which are susceptible to the conversion losses of power plants and boilers that burned the input primary fuels. As derived energies are usually expressed by the units, either kWh or Joules, these units cannot differentiate the grade of energy supplied to the processes accurately. In this paper, the specific energy consumption is revisited for the efficacy of all large-scale desalination plants. In today\\'s combined production of electricity and desalinated water, accomplished with advanced cogeneration concept, the input exergy of fuels is utilized optimally and efficiently in a temperature cascaded manner. By discerning the exergy destruction successively in the turbines and desalination processes, the relative contribution of primary energy to the processes can be accurately apportioned to the input primary energy. Although efficiency is not a law of thermodynamics, however, a common platform for expressing the figures of merit explicit to the efficacy of desalination processes can be developed meaningfully that has the thermodynamic rigor up to the ideal or thermodynamic limit of seawater desalination for all scientists and engineers to aspire to.

  10. Seawater desalination using an advanced small integral reactor - SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Chang, Moon Hee; Lee, Man Ki

    1999-01-01

    A concept of a dual-purpose integrated nuclear desalination plant coupled with the advanced small integral reactor SMART was established. The design concept of the plant aims to produce 40,000m 5 /day of water with the MED process and to generate about 90 MWe of electricity. In order to examine the technical, economic, and safety considerations in coupling SMART with desalination, a preliminary analysis on water production costs and a safety review of potential disturbances of the integrated nuclear desalination plant have been performed. The results of economic evaluation show that the use of SMART for seawater desalination is either comparative to or more economical, with respect to the water production cost, than the use of fossil fuels in comparison with the data published by the IAEA. It was also found that any possible transient event of the desalination plant does not impact on the reactor safety. The key safety parameters of the transient events induced by the potential disturbances of the desalination plant are bounded by the limits of safety analysis of SMART

  11. An exergy approach to efficiency evaluation of desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Choon; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Son, Hyuk Soo; Hamed, Osman A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an evaluation process efficiency based on the consumption of primary energy for all types of practical desalination methods available hitherto. The conventional performance ratio has, thus far, been defined with respect to the consumption of derived energy, such as the electricity or steam, which are susceptible to the conversion losses of power plants and boilers that burned the input primary fuels. As derived energies are usually expressed by the units, either kWh or Joules, these units cannot differentiate the grade of energy supplied to the processes accurately. In this paper, the specific energy consumption is revisited for the efficacy of all large-scale desalination plants. In today's combined production of electricity and desalinated water, accomplished with advanced cogeneration concept, the input exergy of fuels is utilized optimally and efficiently in a temperature cascaded manner. By discerning the exergy destruction successively in the turbines and desalination processes, the relative contribution of primary energy to the processes can be accurately apportioned to the input primary energy. Although efficiency is not a law of thermodynamics, however, a common platform for expressing the figures of merit explicit to the efficacy of desalination processes can be developed meaningfully that has the thermodynamic rigor up to the ideal or thermodynamic limit of seawater desalination for all scientists and engineers to aspire to.

  12. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-12-02

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat sources, from either the renewable or the exhaust gases, and having almost no major moving parts. We present an AD cycle for seawater desalination due to its unique ability to integrate higher water production yields with the existing desalination methods such as reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flashing (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), etc. The hybrid cycles exploit the thermodynamic synergy between processes, leading to significant enhancement of the systems\\' performance ratio (PR). In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally the synergetic effect between the AD and MED cycles that results in quantum improvement in water production. The unique feature is in the internal latent heat recovery from the condenser unit of AD to the top-brine stage of MED, resulting in a combined, or simply termed as MEAD, cycle that requires no additional heat input other than the regeneration of an adsorbent. The batch-operated cycles are simple to implement and require low maintenance when compared with conventional desalination methods. Together, they offer a low energy and environmentally friendly desalination solution that addresses the major issues of the water-energy-environment nexus. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Desalination by renewable energy: A mini review of the recent patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rawajfeh Aiman Eid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent patents on water desalination by using renewable energy technologies are critically reviewed with highlighting on environmental impacts and sustainable development. An overview of using wind, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, wind/solar, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for desalinated water production are assessed. Solar energy is the mother of all other renewable energies; it does not pollute, it is free and available everywhere. Several patents have been invented systems and methods that collected and converted solar energy to electrical energy via solar energy which can be used for water desalination. Wind farm with wind-driven pressurizing devices is used to desalinate salt water by reverse osmosis. Geothermal has been used as an effective method for water desalination. It is highly recommended to provide seawater desalination powered by a renewable energy source in remote areas. On the other hand, sequentially staged of energy conversion steps operate at low efficiencies.

  14. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  15. Seawater desalination in micro grids. An integrated planning approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognar, Kristina; Behrendt, Frank [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Blechinger, Philipp [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Islands often depend on the import of fossil fuels for power generation. Due to the combined effect of high oil prices and transportation costs, energy supply systems based on renewable energies are already able to compete successfully with fossil fuel systems for a number of these islands. Depending on local and regional conditions, not only energy supply is a challenge, but also the finding of a reliable supply of water. A promising alternative to freshwater shipments is seawater desalination. Desalination processes can act as a flexible load whenever excess electricity generated by renewable sources is present. Numerical simulations of combined energy and water supply systems for the Caribbean island, Petite Martinique, Grenada, are accomplished. Considering renewable energy sources like wind and solar radiation, energy storage technologies, and desalination processes, various scenarios are introduced and simulated, and the results are compared. An extension of the current energy supply system with renewable energy technologies reduces power generation costs by approximately 40%. The excess energy generated by renewables can supply a significant share of a desalination plant's energy demand. The levelized costs of electricity and water show that the integration of desalination as a deferrable load is beneficial to the considered micro grid. The implementation of renewable energy generation and desalination as deferrable load is recommendable in Petite Martinique. Possible refinancing strategies depending on the combination of different electricity and water tariffs can be derived and applied to similar business cases in remote regions. (orig.)

  16. PBMR desalination options: An economic study - HTR2008-58212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, R.; Van Ravenswaay, J. P.; Hannink, R.; Kuhr, R.; Bhagat, K.; Zervos, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development in South Africa, is an advanced helium-cooled graphite moderated high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The heat output of the PBMR is primarily suited for process applications or power generation. In addition, various desalination technologies can be coupled to the PBMR to further improve the overall efficiency and economics, where suitable site opportunities exist. Several desalination application concepts were evaluated for both a cogeneration configuration as well as a waste heat utilization configuration. These options were evaluated to compare the relative economics of the different concepts and to determine the feasibility of each configuration. The cogeneration desalination configuration included multiple PBMR units producing steam for a power cycle, using a back-pressure steam turbine generator exhausting into different thermal desalination technologies. These technologies include Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), Multi-Effect Distillation with Thermal Vapor Compression (MED-TVC) as well as Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) with all making use of extraction steam from back-pressure turbines. These configurations are optimized to maximize gross revenue from combined power and desalinated water sales using representative economic assumptions with a sensitivity analysis to observe the impact of varying power and water costs. Increasing turbine back pressure results in a loss of power output but a gain in water production. The desalination systems are compared as incremental investments. A standard MED process with minimal effects appears most attractive, although results are very sensitive with regards to projected power and water values. (authors)

  17. Influence of fuel costs on seawater desalination options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methnani, Mabrouk

    2007-01-01

    Reference estimates of seawater desalination costs for recent mega projects are all quoted in the range of US$0.50/m 3 . This however does not reflect the recent trends of escalating fossil fuel costs. In order to analyze the effect of these trends, a recently updated version of the IAEA Desalination Economic Evaluation Program, DEEP-3, has been used to compare fossil and nuclear seawater desalination options, under varied fuel cost and interest rate scenarios. Results presented for a gas combined-cycle and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor design, show clear cost advantages for the latter, for both Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Water production cost estimates for the Brayton cycle nuclear option are hardly affected by fuel costs, while combined cycle seawater desalination costs show an increase of more than 40% when fuel costs are doubled. For all cases run, the nuclear desalination costs are lower and if the current trend in fossil fuel prices continues as predicted by pessimist scenarios and the carbon tax carried by greenhouse emissions is enforced in the future, the cost advantage for nuclear desalination will be even more pronounced. Increasing the interest rate from 5 to 8% has a smaller effect than fuel cost variations. It translates into a water cost increase in the range of 10-20%, with the nuclear option being the more sensitive. (author)

  18. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Nuclear desalination activities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main emphasis of this article is on utilization of nuclear energy for desalination. Nuclear desalination is cheaper, eco-friendly and assists in sustainable growth of total energy generation programme in a country. PHWR type reactors are the main stay of nuclear energy programme in India. Nuclear waste heat for desalination is available in the moderator system of the 220 MW(e) and 500 MW(e) PHWRs. The low temperature evaporation technology (LET) for producing pure water from sea water is also discussed

  20. Water desalination using different capacity reactors options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Vargas, S.; Del Valle, E.; Ramirez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity, cogeneration of potable water production and nuclear electricity is an option to be assessed. In this paper we will perform an economical comparison for cogeneration using a big reactor, the AP1000, and a medium size reactor, the IRIS, both of them are PWR type reactors and will be coupled to the desalination plant using the same method. For this cogeneration case we will assess the best reactor option that can cover both needs using the maximum potable water production for two different desalination methods: Multistage Flash Distillation and Multi-effect Distillation. (authors)

  1. Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jun W.; Hu, Eric J.; Biggs, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination (AD) system have been identified all possible evaporator temperature scenarios. ► Temperature of evaporator determines the cycle. ► Higher evaporator temperature leads to higher water production if no cooling is required. -- Abstract: The potential to use waste heat to co-generate cooling and fresh water from saline water using adsorption on silica is attracting increasing attention. A variety of different thermodynamic cycles of such an adsorption desalination (AD) system arise as the temperature of the saline water evaporator is varied relative to temperature of the water used to cool the adsorbent as it adsorbs the evaporated water. In this paper, all these possible thermodynamic cycles are enumerated and analysed to determine their relative performances in terms of specific energy consumption and fresh water productivity.

  2. Investigations of the Effects of Biocide Dosing and Chemical Cleaning on the Organic Carbon Removal in an Integrated Ultrafiltration - Nanofiltration Desalination Pilot Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Khojah, Bayan A.

    2017-12-01

    Membrane desalination has become one of the most important desalination technologies used in the world. It provides high water quality for numerous applications and it demonstrates excellent desalination efficiency. One of the most troubling drawbacks of membrane desalination is membrane fouling. It decreases the performance of the membranes and increases the energy requirement. Two of the most important causes of fouling are microbes and organic matter. Hence, to maintain an optimized desalination performance, routine inspection of microbial and organic contents of water is crucial for desalination plants. In this study, water samples were obtained from different treatment points in an ultrafiltration (UF)/nanofiltration (NF) seawater desalination pilot plant. This was performed to better understand how the water quality changes along the desalination scheme. The effect of fouling control techniques, including Chemically Enhanced Backwash (CEB), Cleaning in Place (CIP), and the addition of a biocide (DBNPA) was studied. Different analytical tools were applied, including Bactiquant, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC), and Liquid Chromatography for Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD). Out results showed that UF did not decrease TOC but it was sufficient in removing up to 99.7% of bacteria. Nanofiltration, removed up to 95% of TOC. However, NF permeate had a high increase in AOC as compared to the raw seawater sample. The LC-OCD results suggested that this might be due to the increased low molecular weight neutrals which were the most common organic species in the NF permeate. The fouling control techniques showed various effects on the desalination efficiency. Daily CEB did not cause a reduction in TOC or bacteria but decreased AOC in the UF filtrate. The biocide addition resulted in an adequate membranes protection from fouling and it did not affect the investigated water parameters. When the dosing of biocide was stopped, the water quality

  3. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  4. New solar desalination system using humidification/ dehumidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Dayem, Adel M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, 5555 Makah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    An innovative solar desalination system is successfully designed, manufactured and experimentally tested at Makkah, 21.4 °N. The system consists of 1.15 m2 flat-plate collector as a heat source and a desalination unit. The unit is about 400 liter vertical cylindrical insulated tank. It includes storage, evaporator and condenser of hot salt-water that is fed from the collector. The heated water in the collector is raised naturally to the unit bottom at which it is used as storage. A high pressure pump is used to inject the water vertically up through 1-mm three nozzles inside the unit. The hot salt-water is atomized inside the unit where the produced vapor is condensed on the inner surfaces of the unit outer walls to outside. The system was experimentally tested under different weather conditions. It is obtained that the system can produce about 9 liter a day per quadratic meter of collector surface area. By that it can produce about 1.6 liters per kWh of solar energy. Moreover the water temperature has a great effect on the system performance although the scaling possibility is becoming significant. By that way the cost of a liter water production is relatively high and is obtained as 0.5 US$.

  5. Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2006-07-01

    Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and

  6. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.; Mahmoudi, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability

  7. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O' Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T, E-mail: tlaoui@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: karnik@mit.edu, E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering and Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-22

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  8. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O'Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N; Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T

    2011-01-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  9. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, T.; Lee, J.; O'Hern, S. C.; Fellman, B. A.; Baig, M. A.; Hassan, S. F.; Atieh, M. A.; Rahman, F.; Laoui, T.; Karnik, R.; Wang, E. N.

    2011-07-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity.

  10. Enhanced water desalination efficiency in an air-cathode stacked microbial electrodeionization cell (SMEDIC)

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2014-11-01

    A microbial desalination cell was developed that contained a stack of membranes packed with ion exchange resins between the membranes to reduce ohmic resistances and improve performance. This new configuration, called a stacked microbial electro-deionization cell (SMEDIC), was compared to a control reactor (SMDC) lacking the resins. The SMEDIC+S reactors contained both a spacer and 1.4±0.2. mL of ion exchange resin (IER) per membrane channel, while the spacer was omitted in the SMEDIC-S reactors and so a larger volume of resin (2.4±0.2. mL) was used. The overall extent of desalination using the SMEDIC with a moderate (brackish water) salt concentration (13. g/L) was 90-94%, compared to only 60% for the SMDC after 7 fed-batch cycles of the anode. At a higher (seawater) salt concentration of 35. g/L, the extent of desalination reached 61-72% (after 10 cycles) for the SMEDIC, compared to 43% for the SMDC. The improved performance was shown to be due to the reduction in ohmic resistances, which were 130. Ω (SMEDIC-S) and 180. Ω (SMEDIC+S) at the high salt concentration, compared to 210. Ω without resin (SMDC). These results show that IERs can improve performance of stacked membranes for both moderate and high initial salt concentrations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Forward-Osmosis Desalination with Poly(Ionic Liquid) Hydrogels as Smart Draw Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuelin; Liu, Huili; Gao, Yating; Zou, Zhu; Craig, Vincent S J; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming

    2016-06-01

    The combination of high desalination efficiency, negligible draw-solute leakage, nontoxicity, ease of regeneration, and effective separation to produce liquid water makes the smart draw agents developed here highly suited for forward-osmosis desalination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Thermodynamic investigation of waste heat driven desalination unit based on humidification dehumidification (HDH) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Xu, L.N.; Han, D.; Gao, L.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HDH desalination system powered by waste heat is proposed. • Performance of the desalination unit and the relevant heat recovery effect is calculated. • Sensitive analysis of the performance for the HDH desalination system is investigated. • Mathematical model based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics is established. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is an effective pattern to separate freshwater from seawater or brackish water. In this paper, a closed-air open-water (CAOW) desalination unit coupled with plate heat exchangers (PHEs) is applied to recover the waste heat from the gas exhaust. Sensitivity analysis for the HDH desalination unit as well as the PHEs from the key parameters including the top and initial temperature of the seawater, operation pressure, and the terminal temperature difference (TTD) of the PHEs are accomplished, and the corresponding performance of the whole HDH desalination system is calculated and presented. The simulation results show that the balance condition of the dehumidifier is allowed by the basic thermodynamic laws, followed by a peak value of gained-output-ratio (GOR) and a bottom value of total specific entropy generation. It is concluded that excellent results including the system performance, heat recovery effect and investment of the PHEs can be simultaneously obtained with a low top temperature, while the obtained desalination performance and the heat recovery effect from other measures are always conflicting. Different from other parameters of the desalination unit, the terminal temperature difference of the PHEs has little influences on the final value of GOR.

  13. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  14. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  15. CO_2-assisted compression-adsorption hybrid for cooling and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed Muztuza; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Leong, Kai Choong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Amalgamation of vapour compression and adsorption. • Thermodynamic frameworks of compression-adsorption hybrid. • 60% improvement in COP as compared with conventional CO_2 cooling system. • Energy recovery from CO_2 is used for cooling and desalination. • Energy from gas cooler accelerates the desalination process. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel compression-adsorption hybrid that symbiotically combines adsorption and CO_2 compression cooling devices. The seemingly low efficiency of each cycle individually is overcome by an amalgamation with the other. Hence, both heat and water vapour refrigerant mass are recovered for continuous cooling and desalination. Two different configurations are presented. The first configuration deals with a two-stage heat recovery system. At the first stage, heat is recovered from the compressed carbon dioxide to drive the adsorption device. The second stage heat recovery system internally exchanges heat between the low pressure and high pressure refrigerants of the CO_2 cycle. The second configuration is proposed with an additional third-stage heat recovery from the gas cooler to the high pressure evaporator of the adsorption cycle. The water vapour mass is recovered from bed-to-bed adsorption at relatively higher pressure. A detailed thermodynamic framework is presented to simulate the performances in terms of COP (coefficient of performance), SCP (specific cooling power), SDWP (specific daily water production), PR (performance ratio) and OCR (overall conversion ratio). It is found that the overall COP is improved by more than 60% as compared to the conventional CO_2 cycle, and in addition, the system generates 12.7 m"3 of desalinated water per tonne of silica gel per day as extra benefits. Furthermore, both the heat and mass recoveries improve the overall conversion ratio, which is almost double as compared to the conventional CO_2 cycle.

  16. Direct seawater desalination by ion concentration polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Ko, Sung Hee; Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-04-01

    A shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges facing the world today. An energy-efficient approach to converting sea water into fresh water could be of substantial benefit, but current desalination methods require high power consumption and operating costs or large-scale infrastructures, which make them difficult to implement in resource-limited settings or in disaster scenarios. Here, we report a process for converting sea water (salinity ~500 mM or ~30,000 mg l-1) to fresh water (salinity water is divided into desalted and concentrated streams by ion concentration polarization, a phenomenon that occurs when an ion current is passed through ion-selective membranes. During operation, both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane (a nanochannel or nanoporous membrane), which significantly reduces the possibility of membrane fouling and salt accumulation, thus avoiding two problems that plague other membrane filtration methods. To implement this approach, a simple microfluidic device was fabricated and shown to be capable of continuous desalination of sea water (~99% salt rejection at 50% recovery rate) at a power consumption of less than 3.5 Wh l-1, which is comparable to current state-of-the-art systems. Rather than competing with larger desalination plants, the method could be used to make small- or medium-scale systems, with the possibility of battery-powered operation.

  17. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  18. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  19. Microbial desalination cell with sulfonated sodium poly(ether ether ketone) as cation exchange membranes for enhancing power generation and salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruno, Francisco Lopez; Rubio, Juan E; Atanassov, Plamen; Cerrato, José M; Arges, Christopher G; Santoro, Carlo

    2018-06-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system capable of oxidizing organics, generating electricity, while reducing the salinity content of brine streams. As it is designed, anion and cation exchange membranes play an important role on the selective removal of ions from the desalination chamber. In this work, sulfonated sodium (Na + ) poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) cation exchange membranes (CEM) were tested in combination with quaternary ammonium chloride poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (QAPPO) anion exchange membrane (AEM). Non-patterned and patterned (varying topographical features) CEMs were investigated and assessed in this work. The results were contrasted against a commercially available CEM. This work used real seawater from the Pacific Ocean in the desalination chamber. The results displayed a high desalination rate and power generation for all the membranes, with a maximum of 78.6±2.0% in salinity reduction and 235±7mWm -2 in power generation for the MDCs with the SPEEK CEM. Desalination rate and power generation achieved are higher with synthesized SPEEK membranes when compared with an available commercial CEM. An optimized combination of these types of membranes substantially improves the performances of MDC, making the system more suitable for real applications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-29

    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, cogeneration based desalination processes consume almost 25% of the total annual energy and it is increasing at 2.2% annually. The high fresh water demand is attributed to high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, 24%, and the high water languishes, more than 10%. Over the past two decades, GCC countries have spent tens of billion dollars to expand their present and planned desalination capacities. It is foreseeable that with business-as-usual scenario, the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle is proposed by integrating multi cascaded-evaporators (CE) with an adsorption cycle (AD). In this new innovative cycle, AD desorbed vapors are supplied to the CE to exploit the latent condensation energy within the evaporators arranged in both pressures-temperatures cascaded manner to improves the performance ratio (PR) of the cycle. Hybrid cycle shows more than 10 folds water production improvement as compared to conventional AD cycle due to synergetic effect. This concept is demonstrated in a laboratory pilot plant using a 3 cascaded evaporators pilot and simulation of 8 evaporators hybrid cycle.

  2. Characterization of thermophysical properties of phase change materials for non-membrane based indirect solar desalination application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, J.; Mansoor, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal cycling of paraffin waxes phase change materials. • Differential Scanning Calorimetry and thermogravimetric study of the materials. • Characterization of the phase change materials via Temperature History Method. • Investigation of suitability of materials for indirect solar desalination system. • Paraffin waxes are suitable for non-membrane indirect solar desalination system. - Abstract: Phase change material as a thermal energy storage medium has been widely incorporated in various technologies like solar air/water heating, buildings, and desalination for efficient use and management of fluctuating solar energy. Temperature and thermal energy requirements dictate the selection of an appropriate phase change material for its application in various engineering systems. In this work, two phase change materials belonging to organic paraffin wax class have been characterized to obtain their thermophysical properties. The melting/solidification temperatures, latent heat of fusion and heat capacities of the phase change materials have been investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis and Temperature History Method. Thermal cycles up to 300 are performed to investigate melting and solidification reversibility as well as degradation over time. It is shown that the selected paraffin waxes have reversible phase change with no degradation of thermophysical properties over time. It is also shown that melting/solidification temperature and thermal energy storage capabilities make them suitable for their application as a thermal energy storage medium, in high temperature vapour compression, multi-stage flash and multi-effect distillation processes of non-membrane based indirect desalination systems.

  3. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  5. Sustainable desalination using ocean thermocline energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-01-01

    The conventional desalination processes are not only energy intensive but also environment un-friendly. They are operating far from thermodynamic limit, 10–12%, making them un-sustainable for future water supplies. An innovative desalination

  6. Batteryless photovoltaic reverse-osmosis desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M.; Miranda, M.; Gwillim, J.; Rowbottom, A.; Draisey, I.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this project was to design an efficient cost-effective batteryless photovoltaic-powered seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system, to deliver in the order of 3 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water per day. The desalination of seawater to produce fresh drinking water is extremely valuable on islands and in coastal regions wherever natural freshwater is scarce. Existing small-scale desalination equipment, suitable for areas of medium and low population density, often requires a copious and constant supply of energy, either electricity or diesel. If supply of these fuels is expensive or insecure, but the area has a good solar resource, the use of photovoltaic power is an attractive option. Existing demonstrations of photovoltaic-powered desalination generally employ lead-acid batteries, which allow the equipment to operate at a constant flow, but are notoriously problematic in practice. The system developed in this project runs at variable flow, enabling it to make efficient use of the naturally varying solar resource, without need of batteries. In a sense, the freshwater tank is providing the energy storage. In this project, we have reviewed the merits of a wide variety of reverse-osmosis system configurations and component options. We have completed extensive in-house testing and characterisation of major hardware components and used the results to construct detailed software models. Using these, we have designed a system that meets the above project aim, and we have predicted its performance in detail. Our designs show that a system costing 23,055 pounds stirling will produce 1424 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water annually - an average of just over 3.9 m{sup 3}/day. The system has no fuel costs and no batteries. The overall cost of water, including full maintenance, is 2.00 pounds stirling per m{sup 3}. The energy consumption (photovoltaic-electricity) is typically between 3.2 and 3.7 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the solar irradiance and feed water

  7. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  8. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  9. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  10. A Study on Cost Allocation in Nuclear Power Coupled with Desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ManKi; Kim, SeungSu; Moon, KeeHwan; Lim, ChaeYoung

    2004-01-01

    As for a single-purpose desalination plant, there is no particular difficulty in computing the unit cost of the water, which is obtained by dividing the annual total costs by the output of fresh water. When it comes to a dual-purpose plant, cost allocation is needed between the two products. No cost allocation is needed in some cases where two alternatives producing the same water and electricity output are to be compared. In these cases, the consideration of the total cost is then sufficient. This study assumes MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) technology is adopted when nuclear power is coupled with desalination. The total production cost of the two commodities in dual-purpose plant can easily be obtained by using costing methods, if the necessary raw data are available. However, it is not easy to calculate a separate cost for each product, because high-pressure steam plant costs cannot be allocated to one or the other without adopting arbitrary methods. Investigation on power credit method is carried out focusing on the cost allocation of combined benefits due to dual production, electricity and water. The illustrative calculation is taken from Preliminary Economic Feasibility Study of Nuclear Desalination in Madura Island, Indonesia. The study is being performed by BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency), KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute) and under support of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) started in the year 2002 in order to perform a preliminary economic feasibility in providing the Madurese with sufficient power and potable water for the public and to support industrialization and tourism in Madura Region. The SMART reactor coupled with MED is considered to be an option to produce electricity and potable water. This study indicates that the correct recognition of combined benefits attributable to dual production is important in carrying out economics of desalination coupled with nuclear power. (authors)

  11. High performance conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.

    2000-01-01

    Inexpensive but high performance systems have emerged progressively for basic and applied measurements in physical and analytical chemistry on one hand, and for on-line monitoring and leak detection in plants and facilities on the other. Salient features of the developments will be presented with specific examples

  12. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...... concretes, workability, ductility, and confinement problems....

  13. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  14. Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary L.

    2016-10-20

    Given increasing regional water scarcity and that almost half of the world\\'s population lives within 100 km of an ocean, seawater represents a virtually infinite water resource. However, its exploitation is presently limited by the significant specific energy consumption (kWh/m) required by conventional desalination technologies, further exasperated by high unit costs ($/m) and environmental impacts including GHG emissions (g CO-eq/m), organism impingement/entrainment through intakes, and brine disposal through outfalls. This paper explores the state-of-the-art in present seawater desalination practice, emphasizing membrane-based technologies, while identifying future opportunities in step improvements to conventional technologies and development of emerging, potentially disruptive, technologies through advances in material science, process engineering, and system integration. In this paper, seawater reverse osmosis (RO) serves as the baseline conventional technology. The discussion extends beyond desalting processes into membrane-based salinity gradient energy production processes, which can provide an energy offset to desalination process energy requirements. The future membrane landscape in membrane-based desalination and salinity gradient energy is projected to include ultrahigh permeability RO membranes, renewable-energy driven desalination, and emerging processes including closed-circuit RO, membrane distillation, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, and reverse electrodialysis according various niche applications and/or hybrids, operating separately or in conjunction with RO.

  15. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  16. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in a research contract between CNEA and the IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. This paper analyses the benefits and drawbacks of each desalination technology, the distinctive characteristics of the technology that fit better the different uses, and outlines the related antecedents of its application in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations made in the last years for the different technologies are also described. (author)

  17. The cost of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: What would be the cost of fresh water obtained by desalination of sea or brackish water with the help of a nuclear reactor? What methods are being employed for such costing and evaluation? These are basic questions for the increasing number of countries which are considering water desalination for the production of drinking water or for industrial or agricultural purposes. Following the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the IAEA in Vienna, Austria, in April 1965, the Agency is now preparing a report on the desalination methods used or developed in various countries. Another panel met in Vienna in April of the current year, to help the Agency with the final draft of this report which is due to be published this autumn. The panel, 20 experts from 7 countries, was chaired consecutively by Mr. N. Carrillo (Mexico) and Mr. V.N. Meckoni (India). (author)

  18. Seawater desalination with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power helps reduce costs for energy-intensive processes such as seawater desalination. A new generation of innovative small and medium nuclear power plants could co-generate electricity and potable water from seawater, both safely and at competitive prices in today's market. The IAEA provides technical support to Member States facing water shortage problems, on assessing the viability of nuclear power in seawater desalination. The support, usually channelled through national Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, can take several forms, ranging from educational training and technical advice on feasibility studies to design and safety review of demonstration projects. The IAEA offers a software tool (DEEP) that can be used to evaluate the economics of the different desalination and heat source configurations, including nuclear and fossil options

  19. Thermodynamic advantages of nuclear desalination through reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.P.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) integrated with nuclear power station has significant thermodynamic advantages since it can utilize the waste heat available in the condenser cooling circuit and electrical power from the nuclear power plant with provision for using grid power in case of exigencies and shared infrastructure. Coupling of RO plants to the reactor is simple and straightforward and power loss due to RO unit, resulting in the loss of load, does not impact reactor turbine. Product water contamination probability is also very less since it has in-built mechanical barrier. Preheat reverse osmosis desalination has many thermodynamic advantages and studies have indicated improved performance characteristics thereby leading to savings in operational cost. The significant advantages include the operational flexibility of the desalination systems even while power plant is non-operational and non-requirement of safety systems for resource utilization. This paper brings out a comprehensive assessment of reverse osmosis process as a stand-alone nuclear desalination system. (author)

  20. A comparative study of parameters used in design and operation of desalination experimental facility versus the process parameters in a commercial desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1982-01-01

    Desalination Experimental Facility (DEF) based on multistage flash desalination process has been set up by the Desalination Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The design parameters of DEF and materials used for various equipment and parts of DEF are mentioned. DEF was operated for 2300 hours in six operational runs. The range of operational parameters maintained during operation and observations on the performance of the materials of construction are given. Detailed comparison has been made for the orocess parameters in DEF and those in a large size plant. (M.G.B.)

  1. R and D areas for next generation desalination and water purification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Rao, I.S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, desalination and water purification technologies are expected to contribute significantly to ensure a safe, sustainable, affordable and adequate water supply. The cost of producing water from the current generation desalination technologies has declined over time at a rate of only approximately 4% per year. So we need to accelerate our research and development (R and D) activities with a near and long term objective for evolution of current generation desalination technology and to create revolutionary next generation advanced desalination and water purification technologies which will offer a promise of step reduction in cost of producing water. There are five broad technological areas-thermal technologies, membrane technologies, alternate technologies, concentrate management technologies, reuse and recycle technologies that encompass the spectrum of desalination technology. In this paper high priority research areas in all the above technologies areas are discussed to make decision about research direction that will help to mitigate our nation's future water supply challenges. (author)

  2. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  3. Economical analysis of a solar desalination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Tie-Zhu; He, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple stage tower-type of solar desalination unit by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit...... and yearly electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful to do the further investigation on solar desalination systems for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  4. Design and Manufacturing of Desalination System Powered by Solar Energy Using CDI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mohammad Sajjad; Khashehchi, Morteza; Pipelzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging energy efficient, low pressure and low capital intensive desalination process where ions are separated by a pure electrostatic force imposed by a small bias potential as low as 1 V That funded by an external Renewable (Solar) power supply to materials with high specific surface area. The main objective of this configuration is to separate the cation and anions on oppositely charged electrodes. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Various electrode materials have been developed in the past, which have suffered from instability and lack of performance. Preliminary experimental results using carbon black, graphite powder, graphene ∖ graphite ∖ PTFE (Active ∖ Conductive ∖ binder) show that the graphene reduced via urea method is a suitable method to develop CDI electrode materials. Although some progress has been made, production of efficient and stable carbon based electrode materials for large scale desalination has not been fully realized. A new desalination technique using capacitive deionization.

  5. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  6. Modeling of electrokinetic desalination of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the reactive transport of matter through porous media induced by an externally applied electric field is discussed. The Nernst–Planck–Poisson system of equations is used for modeling multi-species electro-diffusion transport phenomena, assuming chemical equilibrium during the process....... The system of equations includes the transport of water and the resulting advective flow of the aqueous species. The model takes into account transient change in porosity and its impact on transport. Test examples were performed and compared to experimental data for electrokinetic desalination treatment...

  7. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... each stone, but electroosmosis in the poultices may have caused suction/pressure over the interface between stone and poultice causing the differences in poultice water content. The transport numbers for Cl− and Na+ differed in the two stones and were highest in the most porous Cotta sandstone in spite...... of similar high pore water concentrations and the same applied electric current. The hypotheses is that a layered structure of the sandstones could be the cause for this, as the electric current may preferentially flow in certain paths through the stone, which are thus desalinated first. After...

  8. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-11

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A number of technological developments in power and desalination sectors improved their efficiencies to save energy and carbon emission but still they are operating at 35% and 10% of their thermodynamic limits. Research in desalination processes contributing to fuel World population for their improved living standard and to reduce specific energy consumption and to protect environment. Recently developed highly efficient nature-inspired membranes (aquaporin & graphene) and trend in thermally driven cycle\\'s hybridization could potentially lower then energy requirement for water purification. This paper presents a state of art review on energy, water and environment interconnection and future energy efficient desalination possibilities to save energy and protect environment.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  10. A parametric study of a humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system using low grade heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Han, D.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The HDH desalination system coupling with the waste heat plate LGHC is proposed. • Performance of the desalination system and the plate LGHC is presented. • Influence from the operation pressure on the system performance is investigated. • Gained investment ratio is proposed to characterize the desalination system consumption. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system is applicable to recover the low grade heat source to heat the seawater before the humidifier. In the paper, plate heat exchangers are integrated to recover the waste heat from the exhaust in the water heated closed air open water (CAOW) HDH desalination system. The performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate type of low grade heat collector (LGHC) is investigated at different operation pressures. Gain investment ratio (GIR) is proposed and defined to depict the overall consumption of the whole system. The simulation results show that the modified heat capacity ratio of the dehumidifier (HCRd) is vital for the performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate LGHC with a top value of gain output ratio (GOR) at the balance point, HCRd = 1, and the maximum GOR, GOR = 2.44, results from the raised pressure of p = 0.15 MPa. Furthermore, taking the cost for the heat transfer surface area of the LGHC and the air and seawater pipes into consideration, it is revealed that the conditions, HCRd > 1, are more economical due to the increase of GIR, which indicates the profit of unit consumption is more significant.

  11. Optimization of the coupling of nuclear reactors and desalination systems. Final report of a coordinated research project 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Coupling of Nuclear Reactors and Desalination Systems with participation of institutes from nine Member States. The CRP was initiated as a step forward for facilitating an early deployment in developing countries, where nuclear desalination is being considered as an option to cope with fresh water deficit as well as energy in the coming decade. The CRP has enabled the IAEA and participating institutes to accumulate relevant information on the latest research and development in the field of nuclear desalination and share it with interested Member States. The CRP has produced optimum coupling configurations of nuclear and desalination systems, evaluated their performance and identified technical features, which may require further assessment for detailed specifications of large-scale nuclear desalination plants. This publication highlights the outcomes of projects under this CRP and draw lessons and suggestions for further investigation for deployment of nuclear desalination

  12. Prospect on desalination by using nuclear energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, G.R.; Rusli, A.; Nurdin, M.; Titiresmi; Prawiranata, H.; Theresia

    1997-01-01

    Due to the population growth and its effect on the environment and hydrological cycle make the need of water in drinking water, hydro power, household water etc., increase. Not only in eastern parts of Indonesia with low wetness level compare with other part, but also in many provinces with high population, the lack of water becomes a serious problem. Based on this, a suitable method of desalination plant that converts sea water into fresh water as a method with a good promising will be described. A probable future method of coupling a small nuclear power with desalination plants in Indonesia also will be explained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Experimental investigation of a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zheng, Hongfei; Ma, Xinglong; Kutlu, Cagri; Su, Yuehong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar desalination system heated directly by curved Fresnel lens concentrator. • Desalination system is based on the humidification-dehumidification process. • Four-stage multi-effect desalination system is proposed. • Condensation latent heat and residual heat in the brine are recycled and reutilized. • The maximum yield and GOR of the unit can reach 3.4 kg/h and 2.1, respectively. - Abstract: This study demonstrates a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator. In this novel system, the solar radiation is sent directly into desalination unit. That is to say, the solar receiver and the evaporator of the system are a whole in which the black fillers in seawater directly absorb the concentrated solar lights to heat the seawater film to produce the evaporation. The configuration and working processes of the proposed design are described in detail. In order to analyze its performance, a small solar desalination prototype unit incorporated with a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator was designed and built in our laboratory. Using three-stage isothermal tandem heating mode, the variation of the fresh water yield rate and the absorber temperature with time were measured experimentally and were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental results show that the maximum yield of the unit is about 3.4 kg/h, the maximum gained output ratio (GOR) is about 2.1, when the average intensity of solar radiation is about 867 W/m"2. This study indicates that the proposed system has the characteristics of compact structure and GOR high. It still can be improved when the design and operation are optimized further.

  14. The floating desalination complex GEYSER-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    A conventional floating desalination complex, GEYSER-1, is presented which is capable of producing 40,000 cubic meters per day (m 3 /d) of fresh water from brackish water or seawater. The complex includes a water intake system, a preliminary water preparation system, a high-pressure pump house and a power installation based on diesel or a gas turbines with service equipment. GEYSER-1 can be transported to the place of operation either by a heavy lift ship or by towing. (author)

  15. Development of a poultice for electrochemical desalination of porous building materials: desalination effect and pH changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, I.

    2013-01-01

    vaults two different techniques are applied: poultices or establishment of climate chambers. Both techniques can result in ion transport away from the valuable surfaces with murals, but satisfying desalination has not been obtained according to conservators from the Danish National Museums mural...... experiment with a traditional poultice significant pH changes and an absence of satisfying high desalination effect was measured. The new idea in the present paper was to introduce a calculated amount of buffer components corresponding to the productions during the electrode processes to a poultice (a solid......) to minimize the adverse effects and to optimize on the effects. The results showed good ability to retain neutral pH values in the substrate which is of major importance when the method should be applied on existing structures. Also the desalination process continued until a very low and harmless salt content...

  16. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  17. Costing methods for nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The question of the methods used for costing desalination plants has been recognized as very important in the economic choice of a plant and its optimization. The fifth meeting of the Panel on the Use of Nuclear Energy in Saline Water Conversion, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency in April 1965, noted this fact and recommended the preparation of a report on suitable methods for costing and evaluating nuclear desalination schemes. The Agency has therefore prepared this document, which was reviewed by an international panel of experts that met in Vienna from 18 to 22 April, 1966. The report contains a review of the underlying principles for costing desalination plants and of the various methods that have been proposed for allocating costs in dual-purpose plants. The effect of the different allocation methods on the water and power costs is shown at the end of the report. No attempt is made to recommend any particular method, but the possible limitations of each are indicated. It is hoped that this report will help those involved in the various phases of desalination projects

  18. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  19. Potential of desalination in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    It has been well recognized in India that the availability of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial requirement is going to be a serious constraint in the coming years. It may adversely effect economic development and human health. Hence the growing need for developing and introducing science and technology based desalination system, which are economically and environmentally sustainable, is very important

  20. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Altman, Susan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuzio, Stephanie P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Water is the backbone of our economy - safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation, and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and adequate, we as a nation face increasing water supply challenges in the form of extended droughts, demand growth due to population increase, more stringent health-based regulation, and competing demands from a variety of users. To meet these challenges in the coming decades, water treatment technologies, including desalination, will contribute substantially to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply for the United States. This overview documents Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL, or Sandia) Water Treatment Program which focused on the development and demonstration of advanced water purification technologies as part of the larger Sandia Water Initiative. Projects under the Water Treatment Program include: (1) the development of desalination research roadmaps (2) our efforts to accelerate the commercialization of new desalination and water treatment technologies (known as the 'Jump-Start Program),' (3) long range (high risk, early stage) desalination research (known as the 'Long Range Research Program'), (4) treatment research projects under the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, (5) the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership Program, (6) water treatment projects funded under the New Mexico Small Business Administration, (7) water treatment projects for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), (8) Sandia- developed contaminant-selective treatment technologies, and finally (9) current Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funded desalination projects.

  1. A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalination-Development to date and future potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kali Peng; Arnot, Tom C.; Mattia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is currently the most important desalination technology and it is experiencing significant growth. The objective of this paper is to review the historical and current development of RO membrane materials which are the key determinants of separation performance and water productivity, and hence to define performance targets for those who are developing new RO membrane materials. The chemistry, synthesis mechanism(s) and desalination performance of various RO membranes are ...

  2. Sustainable desalination using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-01-01

    Global potable water demand is expected to grow, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Production and supply of potable water requires significant amounts of energy, which is currently being derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels. Since energy production from fossil fuels also requires water, current practice of potable water supply powered by fossil fuel derived energy is not a sustainable approach. In this paper, a sustainable phase-change desalination process is presented that is driven solely by solar energy without any reliance on grid power. This process exploits natural gravity and barometric pressure head to maintain near vacuum conditions in an evaporation chamber. Because of the vacuum conditions, evaporation occurs at near ambient temperature, with minimal thermal energy input for phase change. This configuration enables the process to be driven by low-grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Results of theoretical analysis and prototype scale experimental studies conducted to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of operating the process using solar energy are presented. Predictions made by the theoretical model correlated well with measured performance data with r 2 > 0.94. Test results showed that, using direct solar energy alone, the system could produce up to 7.5 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area. With the addition of a photovoltaic panel area of 6 m 2 , the system could produce up to 12 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area, at efficiencies ranging from 65% to 90%. Average specific energy need of this process is 2930 kJ/kg of freshwater, all of which can be derived from solar energy, making it a sustainable and clean process.

  3. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m{sup 3}) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources.

  4. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m 3 ) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources

  5. High performance sapphire windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  6. Multi effect desalination and adsorption desalination (MEDAD): A hybrid desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chun, Wongee

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle that hybridizes a conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an emerging yet low-energy adsorption cycle (AD). The hybridization of these cycles, known as MED + AD or MEDAD in short, extends

  7. Desalination of Kashan City’s Water Using PEBA-Based Nanocomposite Membranes via Pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Soheill Azadikhah Marian; Morteza Asghari; Zahra Amini

    2017-01-01

    In this work, performance of composite membranes was investigated for desalination of Kashan city’s water via pervaporation process. PEBA/PAN/PE, PEBA/PSF/PE and PEBA+NaX/PSF/PE composite membranes that used, was synthesized via a phase inversion route. For all experiments under 45◦C, salt rejection was too high and equals to 99.9% that this quantity dropped by increasing the temperature that cause membrane swelling in high temperatures. Water contact angle and water take-up were measured to ...

  8. Combined desalination and solar-assisted air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a new desalination process utilizing low grade thermal energy is presented. In this process, fresh water is distilled from saline water under near-vacuum pressures created by passive means, enabling low-temperature distillation with lower energy requirements. The energy for low-temperature distillation is provided by a thermal energy storage (TES) system maintained at 55 deg. C utilizing any low grade waste heat source. In this study, heat rejected by the condenser of a modified absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is evaluated as a possible source to drive this desalination process. The energy for the generator of the ARS is provided by a combination of solar collector system and grid power. Results of this study show that the thermal energy rejected by an ARS of cooling capacity of 3.25 kW (0.975 tons of refrigeration) along with an additional energy input of 208 kJ/kg of desalinated water is adequate to produce desalinated water at an average rate of 4.5 kg/h. This energy consumption is competitive with that of the multi-stage flash distillation process of similar capacity (338 kJ/kg). An integrated process model and performance curves of the proposed approach are presented in this paper. Effects of process parameters on the performance of the system are also presented

  9. Short Review on Predicting Fouling in RO Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ruiz-García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane fouling is one of the main challenges that membrane manufactures, the scientific community and industry professionals have to deal with. The consequences of this inevitable phenomenon have a negative effect on the performance of the desalination system. Predicting fouling in RO systems is key to evaluating the long-term operating conditions and costs. Much research has been done on fouling indices, methods, techniques and prediction models to estimate the influence of fouling on the performance of RO systems. This paper offers a short review evaluating the state of industry knowledge in the development of fouling indices and models in membrane systems for desalination in terms of use and applicability. Despite major efforts in this field, there are gaps in terms of effective methods and models for the estimation of fouling in full-scale RO desalination plants. In existing models applied to full-scale RO desalination plants, neither the spacer geometry of membranes, nor the efficiency and frequency of chemical cleanings are considered.

  10. Optimum design of cogeneration system for nuclear seawater desalination - 15272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.H.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    A nuclear desalination process, which uses the energy released by nuclear fission, has less environmental impact and is generally cost-competitive with a fossil-fuel desalination process. A reference cogeneration system focused on in this study is the APR-1400 coupled with a MED (multi-effect distillation) process using the thermal vapor compression (TVC) technology. The thermal condition of the heat source is the most crucial factor that determines the desalination performance, i.e. energy consumption or freshwater production, of the MED-TVC process. The MED-TVC process operating at a higher motive steam pressure clearly shows a higher desalination performance. However, this increased performance does not necessarily translate to an advantage over processes operated at lower motive steam pressures. For instance, a higher motive steam pressure will increase the heat cost resulting from larger electricity generation loss, and thus may make this process unfavorable from an economic point of view. Therefore, there exists an optimum design point in the coupling configuration that makes the nuclear cogeneration system the most economical. This study is mainly aimed at investigating this optimum coupling design point of the reference nuclear cogeneration system using corresponding analysis tools. The following tools are used: MEE developed by the MEDRC for desalination performance analysis of the MED-TVC process, DE-TOP and DEEP developed by the IAEA for modeling of coupling configuration and economic evaluation of the nuclear cogeneration system, respectively. The results indicate that steam extraction from the MS exhaust and condensate return to HP FWHTR 5 is the most economical coupling design

  11. The water desalination complex based on ABV-type reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.K.; Fadeev, Yu.P.; Vorobiev, V.M.; Baranaev, Yu.D.

    1997-01-01

    A floating nuclear desalination complex with two barges, one for ABV type reactor plant, with twin reactor 2 x 6 MW(e), and one for reverse osmosis desalination plant, was described. The principal specifications of the ABV type reactor plant and desalination barge were given. The ABV type reactor has a traditional two-circuit layout using an integral type reactor vessel with all mode natural convection of primary coolant. The desalted water cost was estimated to be around US $0.86 per cubic meter. R and D work has been performed and preparations for commercial production are under way. (author)

  12. Operational strategy of adsorption desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the performances of an adsorption desalination (AD) system in two-bed and four-bed operational modes. The tested results are calculated in terms of key performance parameters namely, (i) specific daily water production (SDWP), (ii) cycle time, and (iii) performance ratio (PR) for various heat source temperatures, mass flow rates, cycle times along with a fixed heat sink temperature. The optimum input parameters such as driving heat source and cycle time of the AD cycle are also evaluated. It is found from the present experimental data that the maximum potable water production per tonne of adsorbent (silica gel) per day is about 10 m3 whilst the corresponding performance ratio is 0.61, and a longer cycle time is required to achieve maximum water production at lower heat source temperatures. This paper also provides a useful guideline for the operational strategy of the AD cycle. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment: Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the water, using high hydraulic pressure as the driving force. However, the use of high hydraulic pressure imposes a high cost on operation of these systems, in addition to the known persistent fouling p...

  14. Status and prospects of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Konishi, T.

    2000-01-01

    While availability of potable water is an important prerequisite for socio-economic development, about 1/3 of the world's population is suffering from inadequate potable water supplies. Seawater desalination with nuclear energy could help to cope with the fresh water shortages and several countries are investigating nuclear desalination. Status and future prospects of nuclear desalination and the role of the IAEA in this area are discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP-3.0). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    DEEP is a Desalination Economic Evaluation Program developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and made freely available for download, under a license agreement (www.iaea.org/nucleardesalination). The program is based on linked Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and can be useful for evaluating desalination strategies by calculating estimates of technical performance and costs for various alternative energy and desalination technology configurations. Desalination technology options modelled, include multi-stage flashing (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED), reverse osmosis (RO) and hybrid options (RO-MSF, RO-MED) while energy source options include nuclear, fossil, renewables and grid electricity (stand-alone RO). Version 3 of DEEP (DEEP 3.0) features important changes from previous versions, including upgrades in thermal and membrane performance and costing models, the coupling configuration matrix and the user interface. Changes in the thermal performance model include a revision of the gain output ratio (GOR) calculation and its generalization to include thermal vapour compression effects. Since energy costs continue to represent an important fraction of seawater desalination costs, the lost shaft work model has been generalized to properly account for both backpressure and extraction systems. For RO systems, changes include improved modelling of system recovery, feed pressure and permeate salinity, taking into account temperature, feed salinity and fouling correction factors. The upgrade to the coupling technology configuration matrix includes a re-categorization of the energy sources to follow turbine design (steam vs. gas) and cogeneration features (dual-purpose vs. heat-only). In addition, cost data has also been updated to reflect current practice and the user interface has been refurbished and made user-friendlier

  16. R high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  17. On brackish water desalination economics and alternative renewable energies in Mena countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Borgi, Anis

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, water management in MENA, no longer exclusive to a sectoral issue pertaining to engineering and technical expertise such as irrigation, water supply and water storage, becomes a shared developmental challenge. In order to face an increasingly growing water crisis, attention on balancing the supply and demand for water given the current constraints, needs analysis of conventional and non conventional water resources from a range of perspectives, including considerations about technological dynamics and alternative renewable energies, which are highly recommended. Thanks to engaged technical progress enabling sensitive desalination cost reduction, water crisis could be of lower impacts. For this region being the world leader in desalination technology investments, we are obliged to rexamine the characteristics of alternative renewable energies. To prevent water shortage from being a constraint to economic development and social stability in MENA, we argue brackish water desalination as one of the most promising and viable options, notably in long term for future generations. This paper contains four sections. brackish water characteristics are clarified in section 1. Then in section 2, we focus on factors affecting both desalination costs and desalination implementation costs. A particular attention is spent in section 3 to electro-dialysis reverse (EDR), subsequent capital and O and M costs approximations. Besides, since there is a pressing need for brackish water desalination, which is energy intensive, alternative renewable energies related to desalination technologies are hightlighted in section 4.

  18. The nuclear energy in the seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno A, J.; Flores E, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In general, the hydric resources of diverse regions of the world are insufficient for to satisfy the necessities of their inhabitants. Among the different technologies that are applied for the desalination of seawater are the distillation processes, the use of membranes and in particular recently in development the use of the nuclear energy (Nuclear Desalination; System to produce drinkable water starting from seawater in a complex integrated in that as much the nuclear reactor as the desalination system are in a common location, the facilities and pertinent services are shared, and the nuclear reactor produces the energy that is used for the desalination process). (Author)

  19. Use of nuclear reactors for seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) status report on desalination, including nuclear desalination, was issued nearly 2 decades ago. The impending water crisis in many parts of the world, and especially in the Middle East, makes it appropriate to provide an updated report as a basis for consideration of future activities. This report provides a state-of-the-art review of desalination and pertinent nuclear reactor technology. Information is included on fresh water needs and costs, environmental risks associated with alternatives for water production, and data regarding the technical and economic characteristics of immediately available desalination systems, as well as compatible nuclear technology. 68 refs, 60 figs, 11 tabs

  20. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-06-28

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear's potential role in desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Motivated by the growing need for fresh water in developing countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has promoted a study of the technical and economic viability of using nuclear energy for producing fresh water by desalination of seawater. The outcome of the study is summarized. The most promising desalination processes for large scale water production are outlined and possible energy sources considered. The main incentives for using nuclear energy rather than fossil fuelled plants include: overall energy supply diversification; conservation of limited fossil fuel resources; promotion of technological development; and in particular, environmental protection through the reduction of emissions causing climate change and acid rain. An economic analysis showed that the levelized costs of electricity generation by nuclear power are in general in the same range as those for fossil fuel. Competitiveness depends on the unit size of the plant and interest rates. (UK)

  3. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  4. Water desalination with a single-layer MoS2 nanopore

    OpenAIRE

    Heiranian, Mohammad; Farimani, Amir Barati; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient desalination of water continues to be a problem facing the society. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of a variety of nanoporous membranes for water purification. Here we show, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, that a nanopore in a single-layer molybdenum disulfide can effectively reject ions and allow transport of water at a high rate. More than 88% of ions are rejected by membranes having pore areas ranging from 20 to 60??2. Water flux is found to ...

  5. Desalination - an alternative freshwater resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Global water constitutes 94 percent salt water that is from the oceans and 6% is in the form of freshwater. Out of this 6% freshwater approximately 27% is trapped in glaciers and 72% is underground. The sea water is important for transportation, fisheries. Oceans regulate climate through air sea interaction. However direct consumption of sea water is too salty to sustain human life. Water with a dissolved solids (salt) content generally below about 1000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) is considered acceptable for human consumption. The application of desalting technologies over the past 50 years have been in many of the arid zone where freshwater is available. Pakistan lies in the Sun Belt. It is considered a wide margin coastal belt (990 km), having an Exclusive Economic Zone of 240,000 km/sup 2/, that strokes trillion cubic meters of sea water that can be made available as freshwater source to meet the shortfall in the supply of domestic water through desalination along the coastal belt of Pakistan. The freshwater obtained from the other desalination processes is slightly expensive, but the cost of desalination can be considerably reduced provided that the available inexpensive or free waste energy is utilized mainly. (author)

  6. Proposal and analysis of a high-efficiency combined desalination and refrigeration system based on the LiBr-H2O absorption cycle-Part 1: System configuration and mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongqing; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous production of fresh water and refrigeration are often required, e.g. in warm-climate water-deficient regions, and this study is a proposal and analysis of an efficient way of producing both of them by consuming mainly low-grade heat. After introducing the configuration choice methodology, a combined refrigeration and water system, ARHP-MEE (absorption refrigeration heat pump and multi-effect evaporation desalter), which is the integration of a LiBr-H 2 O refrigeration unit, a LiBr-H 2 O heat pump, and a low-temperature multi-effect evaporation desalination unit, is proposed, and the mathematical model is presented and validated. The model serves for conducting a performance analysis of the combined system, reported in Part 2 of this two-part paper.

  7. Utility/user requirements for the MHTGR desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Snyder, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD) in developing Utility/User (U/U) Requirements for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Desalination Plant. This is a cogeneration plant that produces fresh water from seawater, and electricity. The U/U requirements for the reference MHTGR plant are used except for those changes necessary to: provide low-grade heat to a seawater desalination process, enable siting in a Southern California coastal area, take advantage of reduced weather extremes where substantial cost reductions are expected, and use seawater cooling instead of a cooling tower. The resulting requirements and the differences from the reference MHTGR requirements are discussed. The nuclear portion of the design is essentially the same as that for the reference MHTGR design. The major differences occur in the turbine-generator and condenser, and for the most part, the design parameters for the reference plant are found to be conservative for the desalination plant. The most important difference in requirements is in the higher seismic levels required for a Southern California site, which requires reassessment and possible modification of the design of some reference plant equipment for use in the desalination plant. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  8. Mathematical model development for a new solar desalination system (SDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering; Fath, H.E. [Alexandria Univ., Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Desalination, as a non-conventional water resource, has become one of the most promising alternative water sources to address the fresh water shortage in the near future. Desalination technologies are constrained in that they are driven almost entirely by the combustion of fuels which are still of finite supply, pollute the air, and contribute to the risk of global climate change. Solar distillation is preferred to other processes of distillation because of the low operating cost, low maintenance, lack of moving parts, and clean energy offered. The development of solar distillation has demonstrated its suitability for saline water desalination when weather conditions are favorable and when demand is not large. Solar energy in the Arab region is available at relatively high intensity during most of the year. This paper presented a general mathematical model for a newly developed solar still that uses a parabolic reflector-tube absorber desalination technology. A computer program was developed to simulate the still operation and to solve the governing heat and mass transfer action which occurred during the operation. The program was used to study the still production in different cases. The paper provided a description of the mathematical model and discussed the governing equations. It was concluded that unit productivity improved by increasing the solar intensity, ambient temperature, efficiency of reflector material, reflector aperture area and evaporation area. In addition, increasing the wind velocity, saline water depth, condenser emissivity and condenser thickness had only a small effect on the productivity. 3 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  9. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  10. Adsorption desalination—Principles, process design, and its hybrids for future sustainable desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ang, Li; Ng, Kim Choon

    2018-01-01

    The energy, water, and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in water-stressed economies. The new generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increases around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available heat-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as an increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MED-AD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-stream at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60°C and 80°C. In this chapter, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MED-AD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concepts, the authors examine the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of the working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  11. Adsorption desalination—Principles, process design, and its hybrids for future sustainable desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2018-05-03

    The energy, water, and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in water-stressed economies. The new generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increases around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available heat-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as an increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MED-AD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-stream at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60°C and 80°C. In this chapter, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MED-AD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concepts, the authors examine the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of the working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  12. High performance thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 mum) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m(2-)h(-1), while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution.

  13. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 μm) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m2-h-1, while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Sarp, S; Bucs, Sz S; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

  16. Nuclear Desalination Newsletter, No. 3, September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The continuing improvement of technologies and decrease of cost, seawater desalination is expected to play an important role in the global economic and social development as well as in the ecological environment, especially for regions having severe water shortages such as China and the Middle East. Seawater desalination using nuclear energy is not only technically feasible but economically an option in varying site conditions and with a variety of nuclear reactor concepts. In any given country, nuclear desalination will become a viable option if the following two prerequisites exist: lack of potable water and the ability to deploy nuclear energy. In most regions, only one of the two is fulfilled. Many countries; e.g. China, the Republic of Korea and, even more so, India and Pakistan have both factors present. These countries already account for almost half the world's population, and thus represent a potential long term market for nuclear desalination. The accumulated experience in nuclear desalination will undoubtedly contribute to what many consider as the world wide central issue of the 21st century: the crucial need for new sources of freshwater for sustainable development. Within its continuing efforts to support Member States through various forums of information exchange, technical cooperation projects, and publications, the IAEA updated and released a new version of Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP 4.0) in 2011 with new features and easier usability for both newcomers and experts. The IAEA also released a new tool named DEsalination Thermodynamic Optimization Program (DE-TOP), which complements DEEP and is used to analyze the thermodynamics of cogeneration systems with emphasis on water desalination. The IAEA toolkit on nuclear desalination, intended for Member States considering nuclear power for seawater desalination, provides access to information on nuclear desalination including DEEP and DE-TOP. This tool was further improved in 2010

  17. Development of regulatory requirements/guides for desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik

    2005-10-01

    The basic design of System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small-to-medium sized integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capacity of 330MWth, has been developed in Korea. In order to demonstrate the safety and performance of the SMART design, 'Development Project of SMART-P (SMART-Pilot Plant)' has been being performed as one of the 'National Mid and Long-term Atomic Energy R and D Programs', which includes design, construction, and start-up operation of the SMART-P with the capacity of 65MWth, a 1/5 scaled-down design of the SMART. At the same time, a study on the development of regulatory requirements/guides for the desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant has been carried out by KINS in order to prepare for the forthcoming SMART-P licensing. The results of this study performed from August of 2002 to October of 2005 can be summarized as follows: (1) The general status of desalination technologies has been survey. (2) The design of the desalination plant coupled with the SMART-P has been investigated. (3) The regulatory requirements/guides relevant to a desalination unit coupled with a nuclear plant have been surveyed. (4) A direction on the development of domestic regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been established. (5) A draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been developed. (6) Expert technical reviews have been performed for the draft regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit. The draft regulatory requirements/guides developed in this study will be finalized and can be applied directly to the licensing of the SMART-P and SMART. Furthermore, it will be also applied to the licensing of the desalination unit coupled with the nuclear plant

  18. Innovative Design of Solar-Powered Desalination (SPD System using Vacuum-Multi Effect Membrane Distillation (V-MEMD Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafidz Achmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the development of an innovative design of solar-powered desalination (SPD system which was expected to solve the water and energy problem simultaneously. We have developed a portable and hybrid solar-powered desalination (SPD system for producing potable water from saline water. It is a self-contained and integrated system which combines solar-thermal collector and solar-photovoltaic for its operation, and thus the system can operate to produce water by only using solar energy. Therefore, the system is highly suitable to be implemented in remote arid and coastal areas without infrastructures or connection to the grid (water and power, but blessed with abundant solar irradiation, like in Saudi Arabia. A Memsys Vacuum Multi-Effect Membrane Distillation (V-MEMD unit was used as the core of the SPD system. A heat pump was also integrated into the SPD system for energy recovery and to improve the performance of the system. The system could be considered as sustainable and “green” desalination technology, which will be very useful for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To study the performance of the system, small-scale tests have been carried out at the Engineering College - King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Based on the experimental results, the system has run successfully by only utilizing solar energy.

  19. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    In arid countries with access to marine water seawater desalination is becoming an important water source in order to deal with the water scarcity and population growth. Seawater reverse osmosis (RO) facilities use open seawater intake, which requires pretreatment processes to remove particles in order to avoid fouling of the RO membrane. In small and medium size desalination facilities, an alternative water source can be saline groundwater in coastal aquifers. Using saline groundwater from boreholes near the shore as feed water may have the advantage of natural filtration and low organic content. It will also reduce operation costs of pretreatment. Another advantage of using groundwater is its availability in highly populated areas, where planning of large RO desalination plants is difficult and expensive due to real-estate prices. Pumping saline groundwater underneath the freshwater-seawater interface (FSI) might shift the interface towards the sea, thus rehabilitating the fresh water reservoirs in the aquifer. In this research, we tested the potential use of saline groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Israel as feed water for desalination using field work and desalination experiments. Specifically, we sampled the groundwater from a pumping well 100 m from the shore of Tel-Aviv and sea water from the desalination plant in Ashqelon, Israel. We used an RO cross flow system in a pilot plant in order to compare between the two water types in terms of permeate flux, permeate flux decline, salt rejection of the membrane and the fouling on the membrane. The feed, brine and fresh desalinated water from the outlet of the desalination system were chemically analyzed and compared. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and salinity were also conducted in situ. Additionally, SDI (silt density index), which is an important index for desalination, and total organic carbon that has a key role in organic fouling and development of biofouling, were measured and

  20. Python high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lanaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    An exciting, easy-to-follow guide illustrating the techniques to boost the performance of Python code, and their applications with plenty of hands-on examples.If you are a programmer who likes the power and simplicity of Python and would like to use this language for performance-critical applications, this book is ideal for you. All that is required is a basic knowledge of the Python programming language. The book will cover basic and advanced topics so will be great for you whether you are a new or a seasoned Python developer.

  1. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: saraswat@stanford.edu; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  2. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, Krishna; Chui, Chi On; Krishnamohan, Tejas; Kim, Donghyun; Nayfeh, Ammar; Pethe, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO x N y ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin (∼2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices

  3. High Performance Computing Multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    A History of the Virtual Synchrony Replication Model,” in Replication: Theory and Practice, Charron-Bost, B., Pedone, F., and Schiper, A. (Eds...Performance Computing IP / IPv4 Internet Protocol (version 4.0) IPMC Internet Protocol MultiCast LAN Local Area Network MCMD Dr. Multicast MPI

  4. NGINX high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    System administrators, developers, and engineers looking for ways to achieve maximum performance from NGINX will find this book beneficial. If you are looking for solutions such as how to handle more users from the same system or load your website pages faster, then this is the book for you.

  5. A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.

    2000-01-01

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The resulting nuclear desalination/cogeneration plant makes use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques. These innovations have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impact. The Russian Federation is developing the KLT-40 reactor for application as a Floating Power Unit (FPU). The reactor is ideally suited for such purposes, having bad many years of successful operation as a marine propulsion reactor aboard floating nuclear powered icebreakers and other nuclear propelled vessels. Under the terms of a cooperation agreement with the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, CANDESAL Enterprises Ltd has evaluated the FPU, containing two KLT-40 reactors, as a source of electrical energy and waste heat for RO desalination. A design concept for a floating nuclear desalination complex consisting of the FPU and a barge mounted RO desalination unit has been analyzed to establish preliminary performance characteristics for the complex. The FPU, operating as a barge mounted electrical generating station, provides electricity to the desalination barge. In addition, the condenser cooling water from the FPU is used as a source of preheated feedwater for the RO system on the desalination barge. The waste heat produced by the electrical generating process is sufficient to provide RO feedwater at a temperature of about 10 deg. C above ambient seawater temperature. Preliminary design studies have

  6. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Impact of Desalination on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Lanzhou Loess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Min

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salt in soil has a significant influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. We performed desalination experiments on Lanzhou loess, a typical sulfate saline soil, to study the effects of salt on the physical and mechanical properties of the loess and compare variations in the soil properties after desalination. The Atterberg limits of the soil increased after desalination as a result of changes in the soil particle composition and grain refinement. The shear and uniaxial compressive strength of the soil increased as a result of decreased calcitic cementation and other changes to the soil structure. Scanning electron microstructure (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) procedures revealed changes to the microstructure and pore-size distribution of the Lanzhou loess after desalination.

  8. Prospects of solar desalination in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif-ur-Rehman, M; Bhatti, M R; Malik, M A

    1973-01-01

    This paper deals with the present state-of-the-art of solar desalination and evaluates the possibility of using solar stills in Pakistan. Along with the world survey of solar desalination units a brief description of the process and solar still is described. The areas of prospective users, i.e., having acute shortage of freshwater, even for drinking, are outlined.

  9. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emam, Rami Salah; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m 3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analyses are performed for SWRO with energy recovery. • Parametric studies are done to study effects of operating conditions on performance. • Different seawater sources with different salinity values are tested. • At base case, plant exergy efficiency is 5.82% and product cost is 2.451 $/m 3

  10. Electrode placement during electro-desalination of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Andersson, Lovisa C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Carved stone sculptures and ornaments can be severely damaged by salt induced decay. Often the irregular surfaces are decomposed, and the artwork is lost. The present paper is an experimental investigation on the possibility for using electro-desalination for treatment of stone with irregular shape....... Electro-desalination experiments were made with different duration to follow the progress. Successful desalination of the whole stone piece was obtained, showing that also parts not being placed directly between the electrodes were desalinated. This is important in case of salt damaged carved stones......, where the most fragile parts thus can be desalinated without physically placing electrodes on them. The Cl removal rate was higher in the areas closest to the electrodes and slowest in the part, which was not placed directly between the electrodes. This is important to incorporate in the monitoring...

  11. Desalination of seawater with nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Volpi, L.

    2003-01-01

    About 40 % of the world population is concerned with water scarcity. This article reviews the different techniques of desalination: distillation (MED and MSF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). The use of nuclear energy rests on several arguments: 1) it is economically efficient compared to fossil energy. 2) nuclear reactors provide heat covering a broad range of temperature, which allows the implementation of all the desalination techniques. 3) the heat normally lost at the heat sink could be used for desalination. And 4) nuclear is respectful of the environment. The feedback experience concerning nuclear desalination is estimated to about 100 reactor-years, it is sufficient to allow the understanding of all the physical and technological processes involved. In Japan, 8 PWR-type reactors are coupled to MED, MSF, and RO desalination techniques, the water produced is used locally mainly for feeding steam generators. (A.C.)

  12. Desalination of seawater with nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Volpi, L.

    2001-01-01

    About 40 % of the world population is concerned with water scarcity. This article reviews the different techniques of desalination: distillation (MED and MSF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). The use of nuclear energy rests on several arguments: 1) it is economically efficient compared to fossil energy; 2) nuclear reactors provide heat covering a broad range of temperature, which allows the implementation of all the desalination techniques; 3) the heat normally lost at the heat sink could be used for desalination; and 4) nuclear is respectful of the environment. The feedback experience concerning nuclear desalination is estimated to about 100 reactor-years, it is sufficient to allow the understanding of all the physical and technological processes involved. In Japan, 8 PWR-type reactors are coupled to MED, MSF, and RO desalination techniques, the water produced is used locally mainly for feeding steam generators. (A.C.)

  13. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  14. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  15. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  16. Electrokinetic desalination of protruded areas of stone avoiding the direct contact with electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Matyscák, O.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    of the sandstone highly contaminated with salts. Therefore, these results confirmed that it was possible to desalinate the sandstone using electrokinetic methods without the need to put in contact the affected areas with the equipment, reducing the possibility of altering it by manipulation.......Soluble salts are considered one of the main deterioration factors of porous building materials such as rocks, bricks or granites. The desalination treatments currently used in order to mitigate this alteration process are usually applied directly on the affected areas, which have often a low...... degree of cohesion precisely due to the deteriorating effect of the salts. The present study aimed to investigate the evaluation of a new approach based on electrokinetic techniques to desalinate rocks in monuments, specifically to desalinate carved reliefs. The procedure avoids the direct contact...

  17. Nuclear desalination for the northwest of Mexico; Desalacion nuclear para el noroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R. F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic. It is evident that before the high cost of the hydrocarbons and its high environmental impact, the nuclear generation alternative of energy becomes extremely attractive, mainly for desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was revised the state of the art of the nuclear desalination on the world and it is simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, from the thermodynamic and economic viewpoint with the purpose of identifying the main peculiarities of this technology. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be couple to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. It is used for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out an economic preliminary evaluation. Was found cost very competitive of 0.038-0.044 US$/kWh for the electric power production and 0.60 to 0.77 US$/m{sup 3} for the drink water produced, without including the water transport cost or the use of carbon certificates. (Author)

  18. Desalination of Seawater using Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Desalination technologies have been well established since the mid 20th century and are widely deployed in many parts of the world having acute water scarcity problems. The energy for these plants is generally supplied in the form of either steam or electricity largely using fossil fuels. The intensive fuels of fossil fuels raises environmental concerns especially in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. The depleting sources and future price uncertainty of the fossil fuels and their better use for other vital industrial applications is also a factor to be considered for sustainability. The desalination of sea water using nuclear energy is a feasible option to meet the growing demand of potable water. Over 150 reactor-years of operating experience of a nuclear desalination have been accumulated worldwide. Several demonstration programs of nuclear desalination are also in progress to confirm its technical and economic viability under country specific conditions, with the technical coordination or support of IAEA. Recent techno-economic feasibility studies carried out by some Member States indicate the competitiveness of nuclear desalination. This paper presents the salient activities on nuclear desalination in the Agency and in the interested Member states. Economic research on further water cost reduction includes investigation on utilization of waste heat from different reactor types for thermal desalination pre-heat reverse osmosis and hybrid desalination systems. The main challenge for the large scale deployment of nuclear seawater desalination is the lack of infrastructure and the resources in the countries affected by water scarcity problems which are however, interested in adoption of nuclear desalination for the sustainable water resources. Socio-economic and environmental aspects and the public perception are also important factors requiring greater information exchange. (author)

  19. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well. PMID:27350984

  20. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhruv; Gupta, Lovleen; Dhingra, Rijul

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well.

  1. Analysis and optimization of a solar thermal power generation and desalination system using a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leovigildo

    Using a novel approach for a Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) panel system, analytical and optimization analyses were performed for electricity generation as well as desalinated water production. The PV-T panel was design with a channel under it where seawater would be housed at a constant pressure of 2.89 psia and ambient temperature of 520°R. The surface of the PV panel was modeled by a high absorption black chrome surface. Irradiation flux on the surface and the heat addition on the saltwater were calculated hourly between 9:00am and 6:00pm. At steady state conditions, the saturation temperature of 600°R was limited at PV tank-channel outlet and the evaporation rate was measured to be 2.53 lbm/hr-ft2. The desorbed air then passed through a turbine, where it generated electrical power at 0.84 Btu/hr, condensing into desalinated water at the outlet. Optimization was performed for max capacity yield based on available temperature distribution of 600°R to 1050°R at PV tank-channel outlet. This gave an energy generation range for the turbine of 0.84 Btu/hr to 3.84 Btu/hr, while the desalinated water production range was 2.53 lbm/hr-ft2 to 10.65 lbm/hr-ft2. System efficiency was found to be between 7.5% to 24.3%. Water production efficiency was found to be 40% to 43%.

  2. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization. Aiming at coping with global shortage of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    With recent global population increase and economic and life level improvement, water demand increases tremendously and in 2025 water scarcity will occur in almost the half of countries and regions in the world. Nuclear desalination is highly expected to cope with this issue. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established special committee on seawater desalination problems to discuss possibilities of nuclear desalination introduction. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization were reviewed and the committee recommended the necessity of establishing medium and long-term plan on international business development of nuclear desalination and also the start of basic research on problems of nuclear utilization such as technical and institutional limits and efficient applicability of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Nuclear power desalinating complex with IRIS reactor plant and Russian distillation desalinating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V. I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V. I.; Fateev, S. A.; Gureeva, L. V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has been prepared as a result of Russian activities on the development of nuclear power desalinating complex (NPDC) with the IRIS reactor plant (RP). The purpose of the activities was to develop the conceptual design of power desalinating complex (PDC) and to evaluate technical and economical indices, commercial attractiveness and economical efficiency of PDC based on an IRIS RP with distillation desalinating plants. The paper presents the main results of studies as applied to dual-purpose PDC based on IRIS RP with different types of desalinating plants, namely: characteristics of nuclear power desalinating complex based on IRIS reactor plant using Russian distillation desalinating technologies; prospective options of interface circuits of the IRIS RP with desalinating plants; evaluations of NPDC with IRIS RP output based on selected desalinating technologies for water and electric power supplied to the grid; cost of water generated by NPDC for selected interface circuits made by the IAEA DEEP code as well as by the Russian TEO-INVEST code; cost evaluation results for desalinated water of PDC operating on fossil fuel and conditions for competitiveness of the nuclear PDC based on IRIS RP compared with analog desalinating complexes operating on fossil fuel.(author)

  4. High performance proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In concert with this theme this paper briefly outlines how Grumman, over the past 4 years, has evolved from a company that designed and fabricated a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) physics and specifications to a company who, as prime contractor, is designing, fabricating, assembling and commissioning the US Army Strategic Defense Commands (USA SDC) Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) accelerator as a turn-key operation. In the case of the RFQ, LANL scientists performed the physics analysis, established the specifications supported Grumman on the mechanical design, conducted the RFQ tuning and tested the RFQ at their laboratory. For the CWDD Program Grumman has the responsibility for the physics and engineering designs, assembly, testing and commissioning albeit with the support of consultants from LANL, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Brookhaven National laboratory. In addition, Culham Laboratory and LANL are team members on CWDD. LANL scientists have reviewed the physics design as well as a USA SDC review board. 9 figs

  5. The technologies used in desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curto, G.; Napoli, E.; Rizzuti, L.

    2009-01-01

    In the research the main desalination processes of sea and brackish water are analyzed and discussed. The processes can be separated into the categories of Thermal and Membrane Processes. The thermal processes can be further divided between those in which heat is supplied to the water, causing its evaporation (single-step evaporation processes, Multi flash processes and multiple effects processes of evaporation), and those, less frequently used, where the heat is instead subtracted, causing a phenomenon of crystallization. The membrane processes, on the other side, are based on the passage of salt or brackish water through synthetic semi-permeable membranes. They can be subdivided between those employing reverse osmosis processes, where the selective solvent passage through the membranes is guaranteed by high pressure differences and those based on electrodialysis. [it

  6. Alternatives of seawater desalination using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Vargas, Samuel; Valle, Edmundo del; Ramirez, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cogeneration is economically assessed using two different size nuclear reactors. ► Mexican northwest region was the case for economical comparisons of cogeneration. ► Medium size nuclear reactors provide more flexibility to meet coupling demands. ► Although there is a higher overnight cost for medium size reactors, they are cost competitive. ► Cogeneration alternative using medium size reactors is less expensive. - Abstract: Nuclear power is a clean energy alternative that is already used to provide water and electricity and it helps to reduce concern of climate change. The new deployments of nuclear power are based on the Generation III reactors which come in sizes from 1100 to 1700 MWe, in addition there is a process in the very close future to provide a new generation of small and medium size reactors, less than 600 MWe. Thus, cogeneration of electricity and potable water from desalination can be based on big or small/medium reactors. This paper performs an economical comparison of nuclear desalination using two PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor type, a big one, AP1000, against a medium reactor, IRIS. It assesses the electricity and potable water needs for the northwest region of Mexico and presents alternatives of supply based on cogeneration, using the three different single potable water processes, reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), and two hybrid methods for different potable water quality based on the amount of dissolved solids in the potable water. Investment results for the specific need are presented for all the alternatives assessed along with advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Nuclear floating power desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.I.; Zverev, K.V.

    1998-01-01

    Russia is a single country in the world which possesses a powerful ice-breaker transport fleet that allows a solution of important social-economic tasks of the country's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic sea route. A total operating record of the marine nuclear reactors up until till now exceeds 150 reactor-years, with their main equipment operating life reacting 120 thousand hours. Design and constructional progresses have been made continuously during forty years of nuclear-powered ships construction in Russia. Well proven technology of all components experienced in the marine nuclear reactors give grounds to recommend marine NSSSs of KLT-40 type as energy sources for the heat and power co-generation plants and the sea water desalination complexes, particularly as a floating installation. Co-generation stations are considered for deployment in the extreme Northern Region of Russia. Nuclear floating desalination complexes can be used for drinkable water production in the coastal regions of Northern Africa, the Near East, India etc. (author)

  8. Small nuclear reactors for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, K.

    1978-01-01

    Small nuclear reactors are considered to have an output of not more than 400MW thermal. Since they can produce steam at much higher conditions than needed by the brine heater of a multi-flash desalination unit, it may be economically advantageous to use small reactors for a dual-purpose installation of appropriate size, producing both electricity and desalted water, rather than for a single-purpose desalination plant only. Different combinations of dual-purpose arrangements are possible depending principally on the ratio of electricity to water output required. The costs of the installation as well as of the products are critically dependent on this ratio. For minimum investment costs, the components of the dual-purpose installation should be of a standardised design based on normal commercial power plant practice. This then imposes some restrictions on the plant arrangement but, on the other hand, it facilitates selection of the components. Depending on the electricity to water ratio to be achieved, the conventional part of the installation - essentially the turbines - will form a combination of back-pressure and condensing machines. Each ratio will probably lead to an optimum combination. In the economic evaluation of this arrangement, a distinction must be made between single-purpose and dual-purpose installations. The relationship between output and unit costs of electricity and water will be different for the two cases, but the relation can be expressed in general terms to provide guidelines for selecting the best dimensions for the plant. (author)

  9. Nanotechnology applications to desalination : a report for the joint water reuse & desalination task force.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Mayer, Tom; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology methods have been an integral part of international research over the past decade. Because many traditional water treatment technologies (e.g. membrane filtration, biofouling, scale inhibition, etc.) depend on nanoscale processes, it is reasonable to expect one outcome of nanotechnology research to be better, nano-engineered water treatment approaches. The most immediate, and possibly greatest, impact of nanotechnology on desalination methods will likely be the development of membranes engineered at the near-molecular level. Aquaporin proteins that channel water across cell membranes with very low energy inputs point to the potential for dramatically improved performance. Aquaporin-laced polymer membranes and aquaporin-mimicking carbon nanotubes and metal oxide membranes developed in the lab support this. A critical limitation to widespread use of nanoengineered desalination membranes will be their scalability to industrial fabrication processes. Subsequent, long-term improvements in nanoengineered membranes may result in self-healing membranes that ideally are (1) more resistant to biofouling, (2) have biocidal properties, and/or (3) selectively target trace contaminants.

  10. Status of solar desalination in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, T.V. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, Krishnagiri 635109, Tamilnadu (India); Aybar, H.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, G. Magosa, KKTC, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Nedunchezhian, N. [Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-12-15

    The work was motivated by the increasing awareness of the need for enhancing water supplies schemes in arid lands featuring an appropriate technology for solar energy use in the desalination field in India. The fresh water crisis is already evident in many parts of India, varying in scale and intensity at different times of the year. India's rapidly rising population and changing lifestyles also increases the need for fresh water. Fresh water is increasingly taking centre stage on the economic and political agenda, as more and more disputes between and within states, districts, regions, and even at the community level arises. The conventional desalination technologies like multi stage flash, multiple effect, vapor compression, iron exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis are expensive for the production of small amount of fresh water, also use of conventional energy sources has a negative impact on the environment. Solar distillation represents a most attractive and simple technique among other distillation processes, and it is especially suited to small-scale units at locations where solar energy is considerable. India, being a tropical country is blessed with plenty of sunshine. The average daily solar radiation varies between 4 and 7 kWh per square meter for different parts of the country. There are on an average 250-300 clear sunny days in a year, thus it receives about 5000 trillion kWh of solar energy in a year. In spite of the limitations of being a dilute source and intermittent in nature, solar energy has the potential for meeting and supplementing various energy requirements. Solar energy systems being modular in nature could be installed in any capacity as per the requirement. This paper consists of an overall review and technical assessments of various passive and active solar distillation developments in India. This review also recommended some research areas in this field leading to high efficiency are highlighted. (author)

  11. Seawater desalination plant using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A small size plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, China. This seawater desalination plant was designed to supply potable water demand to some coastal location or island where both fresh water and energy source are severely lacking. It is also recommended as a demonstration and training facility for seawater desalination using nuclear energy. The design of small size of seawater desalination plant couples two proven technologies: Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR) and Multi-Effect Destination (MED) process. The NHR design possesses intrinsic and passive safety features, which was demonstrated by the experiences of the project NHR-5. The intermediate circuit and steam circuit were designed as the safety barriers between the NHR reactor and MED desalination system. Within 10~200 MWt of the power range of the heating reactor, the desalination plant could provide 8000 to 150,000 m3/d of high quality potable water. The design concept and parameters, safety features and coupling scheme are presented.

  12. Seawater desalination plant using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaorong; Dong Duo; Zhang Dafang; Wang Xiuzhen

    2000-01-01

    A small size plant for seawater desalination using nuclear heating reactor coupled with MED process was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, China. this seawater desalination plant was designed to supply potable water demand to some coastal location or island where both fresh water and energy source are severely lacking. It is also recommended as a demonstration and training facility for seawater desalination using nuclear energy. The design of small size of seawater desalination plant couples two proven technologies: Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR) and Multi-Effect Destination (MED) process. The NHR design possesses intrinsic and passive safety features, which was demonstrated by the experiences of the project NHR-5. the intermediate circuit and steam circuit were designed as the safety barriers between the NHR reactor and MED desalination system. Within 10-200 MWt of the power range of the heating reactor, the desalination plant could provide 8000 to 150,000 m 3 /d of high quality potable water. The design concept and parameters, safety features and coupling scheme are presented

  13. A novel small dynamic solar thermal desalination plant with a fluid piston converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahkamov, Khamid; Orda, Eugene; Belgasim, Basim; Makhkamova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    performance of the plant. The proposed novel system with greater fresh water production capacity has a simple design and is easy to manufacture using low cost materials and therefore can be mass deployed for small scale saline water pumping and desalination across different regions with the relatively high solar radiation and shortage in the drinking water supply

  14. The nuclear desalination project in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the seawater desalination demonstration plant in Morocco are to buildup the technical confidence in the utilization of nuclear heating reactor for seawater desalination; to establish a data base for reliable extrapolation of water production costs for a commercial nuclear plant; and to further strengthen the nuclear infrastructure in Morocco. The water production capacity of the demonstration plant would be about 8000 m 3 /d. The objectives of pre-project study are to establish a reliable basis for a decision on a nuclear desalination plant in Morocco, using a small Chinese heating reactor and to train the Morocco experts in reactor technology and licensing aspects

  15. Sea water desalination by horizontal tubes evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.K.; Mohit, M.

    1986-01-01

    Desalinated water supplies are one of the problems of the nuclear power plants located by the seas. This paper explains saline water desalination by a Horizontal Tube Evaporator (HTE) and compares it with flash evaporation. A thermo compressor research project using HTE method has been designed, constructed, and operated at the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC. The poject's ultimate goal is to obtain empirical formulae based on data gathered during operation of the unit and its subsequent development towards design and construction of desalination plants on an industrial scale

  16. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  17. Carbon electrode for desalination purpose in capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endarko,; Fadilah, Nurul; Anggoro, Diky

    2016-01-01

    Carbon electrodes for desalination purpose have been successfully synthesized using activated carbon powder (BET surface area=700 – 1400 m 2 /g), carbon black and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) binder by cross-linking method with glutaric acid (GA) at 120 °C. The electrochemical properties of the carbon electrodes were analyzed using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) whilst the physical properties were observed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). In order to assess the desalting performance, salt removal experiments were performed by constructing a capacitive deionization unit cell with five pairs of carbon electrodes. For each pair consisted of two parallel carbon electrodes separated by a spacer. Desalination and regeneration processes were also observed in the salt-removal experiments. The salt-removal experiments were carried out in single-pass mode using a solution with 0.1 M NaCl at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. A voltage of 3 V was applied to the cell for 60 minutes for both processes in desalination and regeneration. The result showed that the percentage value of the salt-removal was achieved at 20%.

  18. Carbon electrode for desalination purpose in capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endarko,, E-mail: endarko@physics.its.ac.id; Fadilah, Nurul; Anggoro, Diky [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Kampus ITS, Sukolilo Surabaya 60111, Jawa Timur (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Carbon electrodes for desalination purpose have been successfully synthesized using activated carbon powder (BET surface area=700 – 1400 m{sup 2}/g), carbon black and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) binder by cross-linking method with glutaric acid (GA) at 120 °C. The electrochemical properties of the carbon electrodes were analyzed using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) whilst the physical properties were observed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). In order to assess the desalting performance, salt removal experiments were performed by constructing a capacitive deionization unit cell with five pairs of carbon electrodes. For each pair consisted of two parallel carbon electrodes separated by a spacer. Desalination and regeneration processes were also observed in the salt-removal experiments. The salt-removal experiments were carried out in single-pass mode using a solution with 0.1 M NaCl at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. A voltage of 3 V was applied to the cell for 60 minutes for both processes in desalination and regeneration. The result showed that the percentage value of the salt-removal was achieved at 20%.

  19. Sea water desalination using nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first underlines the water shortage problem today and in the years to come when, around the time horizon 2020, two-thirds of the total world population would be without access to potable water. Desalination of sea-water (and, to a limited extent, that of brackish water) is shown to be an attractive solution. In this context, sea-water desalination by nuclear energy appears to be not only technically feasible and safe but also economically very attractive and a sustainable solution. Thus, compared to conventional fossil energy based sources, desalination costs by nuclear options could be 30 to 60% lower. The nuclear options are therefore expected to satisfy the fundamental water needs and electricity demands of human beings without in any way producing large amounts of greenhouse gases which any desalination strategy, based on the employment of fossil fuels, cannot fail to avoid. (author)

  20. Apparatus and method for improved desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Hideharu, Yanagi; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2009-01-01

    A water desalination system comprising an evaporator for evaporating saline water to produce water vapor; a condenser for condensing the water vapor; wherein the evaporator and the condenser are in heat transfer communication such that heat used

  1. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  2. Nuclear desalination and electricity production for islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is an established and commercially proven technology that is now available and has the potential of further improvement. The technology of a small-sized reactor for desalination and electricity production will be an economically viable option and will also be suitable for islands with geographic, climatic, ecological and hydrological specifics. The operating experiences and achieved safety should benefit the early stage of a national nuclear power programme in developing countries. (author)

  3. Design concepts of nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This has been motivated by a variety of factors, including economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, the growing need for worldwide energy supply diversification, the need to conserve limited supplies of fossil fuels, protecting the environment from greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially advantageous spin-off effects of nuclear technology for industrial development. Various studies, and at least one demonstration project, have been considered by Member States with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using nuclear energy for desalination applications under specific conditions. In order to facilitate information exchange on the subject area, the IAEA has been active for a number of years in compiling related technical publications. In 1999, an inter regional technical co-operation project on Integrated Nuclear Power and desalination System Design was launched to facilitate international collaboration for the joint development by technology holders and potential end users of an integrated nuclear desalination system. This publication presents material on the current status of nuclear desalination activities and preliminary design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, as made available to the IAEA by various Member States. It is aimed at planners, designers and potential end-users in those Member States interested in further assessment of nuclear desalination. Interested readers are also referred to two related and recent IAEA publications, which contain useful information in this area: Introduction of Nuclear Desalination: A Guidebook, Technical Report Series No. 400 (2000) and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Plants Coupled with Seawater Desalination Units, IAEA-TECDOC-1235 (2001)

  4. Scaling Phenomena in Desalination With Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti-Alimah

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonate calcium (CaCO 3 ), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH) 2 ) and sulphate calcium (CaSO 4 ). CaCO 3 and Mg(OH) 2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reaction of calcium ion and sulfate ion present in seawater. The rate of formation scale in seawater depends on temperature, pH, concentration of ions, supersaturated solution, nucleation and diffusion. The scales in MSF installation can occur inside heat exchanger tube, brine heater tubes, water boxes, on the face of tube sheets and demister pads. Scaling reduces effectiveness (production and heat consumption) of the process. To avoid the reductions in performance caused by scale precipitation, desalination units employ scale control. To control this scaling problem, the following methods can be used; acid, additive (scale inhibitors) and mechanical cleaning. Stoichiometric amounts of acid must be added to seawater, because addition excess of acid will increase corrosion problems. Using of scale inhibitors as polyphosphates, phosphonates, polyacrylates and poly maleates have advantage and disadvantage. (author)

  5. Morphology-properties relationship of gas plasma treated hydrophobic meso-porous membranes and their improved performance for desalination by membrane distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumée, Ludovic F.; Alglave, Hortense; Chaffraix, Thomas; Lin, Bao; Magniez, Kevin; Schütz, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Systematic surface modifications by gas plasma treatment of hydrophobic polymers. • Correlation between plasma parameters and materials surface energy and morphology. • Spectral analysis of the formation of functional groups across the membranes surface. • Relationship between wettability, roughness and performance. - Abstract: The impact on performance of the surface energy and roughness of membrane materials used for direct contact membrane distillation are critical but yet poorly investigated parameters. The capacity to alter the wettability of highly hydrophobic materials such as poly(tetra-fluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) by gas plasma treatments is reported in this paper. An equally important contribution from this investigation arises from illustrating how vaporized material from the treated sample participates after a short while in the composition of the plasma and fundamentally changes the result of surface chemistry processes. The water contact angle across the hydrophobic membranes is generally controlled by varying the plasma gas conditions, such as the plasma power, chamber pressure and irradiation duration. Changes to surface porosity and roughness of the bulk material as well as the surface chemistry, through specific and partial de-fluorination of the surface were detected and systematically studied by Fourier transform infra-red analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the rupture of fibrils, formed during membrane processing by thermal-stretching, led to the formation of a denser surface composed of nodules similar to these naturally acting as bridging points across the membrane material between fibrils. This structural change has a profound and impart a permanent effect on the permeation across the modified membranes, which was found to be enhanced by up to 10% for long plasma exposures while the selectivity of the membranes was found to remain unaffected by the treatment at a level higher

  6. Morphology-properties relationship of gas plasma treated hydrophobic meso-porous membranes and their improved performance for desalination by membrane distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumée, Ludovic F., E-mail: ludovic.dumee@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Geelong Victoria–Australia - Institute for Frontier Materials (Australia); Alglave, Hortense; Chaffraix, Thomas; Lin, Bao; Magniez, Kevin [Deakin University, Geelong Victoria–Australia - Institute for Frontier Materials (Australia); Schütz, Jürg [CSIRO, Manufacturing Flagship, 75 Pigdons Road, 3216 Waurn Ponds, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Systematic surface modifications by gas plasma treatment of hydrophobic polymers. • Correlation between plasma parameters and materials surface energy and morphology. • Spectral analysis of the formation of functional groups across the membranes surface. • Relationship between wettability, roughness and performance. - Abstract: The impact on performance of the surface energy and roughness of membrane materials used for direct contact membrane distillation are critical but yet poorly investigated parameters. The capacity to alter the wettability of highly hydrophobic materials such as poly(tetra-fluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) by gas plasma treatments is reported in this paper. An equally important contribution from this investigation arises from illustrating how vaporized material from the treated sample participates after a short while in the composition of the plasma and fundamentally changes the result of surface chemistry processes. The water contact angle across the hydrophobic membranes is generally controlled by varying the plasma gas conditions, such as the plasma power, chamber pressure and irradiation duration. Changes to surface porosity and roughness of the bulk material as well as the surface chemistry, through specific and partial de-fluorination of the surface were detected and systematically studied by Fourier transform infra-red analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the rupture of fibrils, formed during membrane processing by thermal-stretching, led to the formation of a denser surface composed of nodules similar to these naturally acting as bridging points across the membrane material between fibrils. This structural change has a profound and impart a permanent effect on the permeation across the modified membranes, which was found to be enhanced by up to 10% for long plasma exposures while the selectivity of the membranes was found to remain unaffected by the treatment at a level higher

  7. Thermal coupling system analysis of a nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear reactor is used to supply steam for desalination plant, the method of coupling has a significant technical and economic impact. The exact method of coupling depends upon the type of reactor and type of desalination plant. As a part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), BARC has successfully commissioned a 4500 m 3 /day MSF desalination plant coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakkam. Desalination plant coupled to nuclear power plant of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type is a good example of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plant. This paper presents the thermal coupling system analysis of this plant along with technical and safety aspects. (author)

  8. Simulation and experimental study of a solar heat pump desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Tjandra, Tobias Bestari [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-07-01

    With the rising price of oil and gas, the energy cost of desalination process increases significantly. Also, the consumption of fuel to provide thermal and electrical energy in a desalination process will pollute the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to find a new source of energy which is clean and renewable. Solar energy fulfills this challenge to a great extent. An experimental rig was constructed in order to investigate the use of solar energy in desalination. A series of experiments were performed under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. A simulation study was then performed for the system, and comparisons of the predicted and experimental results showed good agreement. The experimental system is capable of producing 1 liter of water per hour. The system has a coefficient of performance that varies from 5 to 9, and a performance ratio of 0.6 to 1.38. (orig.)

  9. Tracing disinfection byproducts in full-scale desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the formation and the behavior of halogenated byproducts (regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as nitrogenous, brominated and iodinated DBPs including the emerging iodo-THMs) along the treatment train of full-scale desalination plants. One thermal multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) plant and two reverse osmosis (RO) plants located on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. DBPs formed during the prechlorination step were efficiently removed along the treatment processes (MSF or RO). Desalination plants fed with good seawater quality and using intermittent chlorine injection did not show high DBP formation and discharge. One RO plant with a lower raw water quality and using continuous chlorination at the intake formed more DBPs. In this plant, some non-regulated DBPs (e.g., dibromoacetonitrile and iodo-THMs) reached the product water in low concentrations (< 1.5 μg/L). Regulated THMs and HAAs were far below their maximum contamination levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Substantial amounts of DBPs are disposed to the sea; low concentrations of DBPs were indeed detected in the water on shore of the desalination plants.

  10. Design of nuclear desalination concentrate plant by using zero discharge desalination concept for Bangka Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlan Dewita, Siti Alimah

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a process to separate salt of seawater by using nuclear energy. Desalination concentrate is a problem in nuclear desalination. Desalination concentrate is sometimes discharged directly into the seawater, therefore it can affects the water quality of beach and rise negative effects on the biota in the vicinity of the output. ZDD (Zero Discharge Desalination) concept can be applied to minimized environment impact. This study is conducted by using PWR type NPP as nuclear heat source and using ZDD concept to process desalination waste. ZDD is a concept for processing of desalination concentrate into salt and chemical products which have economic values. Objectives of this study is to design nuclear desalination concentrate processing plant in Bangka Island. The methodology is literature assessment and calculation with excel programme. The results of this study shows that the main the products are NaCl (pharmaceutical salt) and cakes BaSO4, Mg(OH)2BaCO3 as by products. (author)

  11. A framework for investigating the interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and water desalination processes in Desert Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, M. S.; Alqatari, S.; Ibrahim, H. D.; AlAloula, R. A.; Alrished, M.; AlSaati, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing water demand in Saudi Arabia due to rapid population growth has forced the rapid expansion of seawater desalination plants in order to meet both current and future freshwater needs. Saudi Arabia has a huge potential for solar energy, hence, solar-powered desalination plants provide an opportunity to sustainably address the freshwater demand in the kingdom without relying on fossil fuels energy. However, the desert climate of Saudi Arabia and limited access to the open ocean imposes several challenges to the expansion and sustainability of solar-powered desalination plants. For example, the frequent and intense dust storms that occur in the region can degrade solar panels and significantly reduce their efficiency. Moreover, the high salinity Arabian Gulf is both the source of feedwater and sink of hypersaline discharge (brine) for many plants in the east of the Kingdom, and the brine may alter the salinity, temperature and movement of the water thereby reducing the quality of the feedwater to the desalination plants. Here, we propose a framework to investigate the different interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and seawater desalination in order to identify optimal parameters such as locations of solar panels and seawater intake for sustainable implementation of solar-powered desalination plants. This framework integrates several numerical models including regional climate, hydrodynamics, Photovoltaics (PV) and Photovoltaic-Reverse Osmosis (PV-RO) models that are used to investigate these interactions for a solar-powered desalination plant at AlKhafji on the Northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia.

  12. Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies: A comprehensive review on challenges and potential applications of integrated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous improvements in conventional desalination technologies, its wide use is still limited due primarily to high energy requirements which are currently met with expensive fossil fuels. The use of alternative energy sources is essential to meet the growing demand for water desalination. In the last few decades a lot of effort has being directed in the use of different renewable energy (RE) sources to run desalination processes. However, the expansion of these efforts towards larger scale plants is hampered by several techno-economic challenges. Several medium-scale RE-driven desalination plants have been installed worldwide. Nevertheless, most of these plants are connected to the electrical grid to assure a continuous energy supply for stable operation. Furthermore, RE is mostly used to produce electric power which can be used to run desalination systems. This review paper focuses on an integrated approach in using RE-driven with an emphasis on solar and geothermal desalination technologies. Innovative and sustainable desalination processes which are suitable for integrated RE systems are presented. An assessment of the benefits of these technologies and their limitations are also discussed.

  13. Safety analysis of coupling system of hybrid (MED-RO) nuclear desalination system utilising waste heat from HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, Abhijit; Kishore, G.; Rao, I.S.; Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    To meet the generation IV goals, High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are designed to have relatively higher thermal efficiency and enhanced safety and environmental characteristics. It can provide energy for combined production of hydrogen, electricity and other industrial applications. The waste heat available in the HTGR power cycle can also be utilized for the desalination of seawater for producing potable water. Desalination is an energy intensive process, so use of waste heat from HTGR certainly makes desalination process more affordable to create fresh water resources. So design of the coupling system, as per the safety design requirement of nuclear desalination plant, of desalination plant with HTGR is very crucial. In the first part of this paper, design of the coupling system between hybrid Multi Effect Desalination-Reverse Osmosis (MED-RO) nuclear desalination plant and HTGR to utilize the waste heat in HTGR are discussed. In the next part deterministic safety analysis of the designed coupling system of are presented in detail. It was found that all the coupling system meets the acceptance criteria for all the Postulated Initiating Events (PIE's) limited to DBA. (author)

  14. Use of renewable energy for desalination in urban agriculture in the GCC countries: Possibilities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Al-Jabri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current dependence of the GCC countries on fossil oil and gas is unwise in terms of economic and environmental sustainability. GCC countries must consider the use of renewable energy to cope with price fluctuations of oil and gas in the global market and to lower the emission of green house gases. The demand for food and water in the GCC countriesis increasing due to high growth rate of population. Given the weather conditions and available amounts of natural water resources, the demand on food and water cannot be met unless alternative sources of water are considered. Several studies pointed out that the desalination technology is probably the only option for producing ample amounts of water for food production in arid environments. This work explores the potential of use of desalination technology for producing irrigation water in GCC countries, with special emphasis on experience of the Sultanate of Oman compared with that of Spain. Desalination can always provide a tailored-quality irrigation water at any climatic conditions. The main challenge for considering desalination for agriculture is purely economic; where GCC countries could consider it only if intensive horticulture of high-value cash crops, such as vegetables and flowers in controlled environments, is considered. Disposal of brine water is also a challenge and must be done at an additional cost. Depending on the quality of desalinated water, several studies showed that solar-operated desalination technologies are in a mature stage and economically viable. Therefore, solar energy can make the desalination technology an attractive option to sustain agriculture and food supply in GCC countries.

  15. A new process for desalination and electrodeionization of water by means of electrostatic shielding zones – ionic current sinks. Study of optical sensors of the form Al/a-SiC:H/c-Si(n with high sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dermentzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed electrostatic shielding zones made of electrode graphite powder and used them as a new type of ionic and electronic current sinks. Because of the local elimination of the applied electric field, voltage and current within the current sinks, ions are led inside them and accumulate there. The sinks become ion concentrating compartments whereas the adjacent compartments become ion depleting compartments. The proposed electrodeionization process uses no permselective ion exchange membranes. We implemented it in electrodialysis desalination of a synthetic brackish 0.03 M NaCl solution and obtained potable water with a NaCl concentration <500 mg L-1. Furthermore, we performed electrodialysis of 0.002 M NiSO4 and electrodeionization of 0.001 M NiSO4 solutions with simultaneous electrochemical regeneration of the used ion exchange resin beds. By the continuous mode of electrodeionization of the 0.001 M NiSO4 solution we obtained pure water with a Ni2+ ion concentration of less than 0.5 mg L-1 at a flow rate of 2.3 x10-4 L s-1 diluate stream

  16. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  17. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  18. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  19. Status and prospect of R and D aimed at application of nuclear reactors for seawater desalination in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, K.V.; Baranaev, Y.D.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Polunichev, V.I.; Romenkov, A.A.; Shamanin, V.G.; Podberezny, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the document 'Strategy of Nuclear Power Development in Russia for the First Half of XXI Century', approved by the Government of the RF, seawater desalination is considered as a prospective area of application of the small-sized nuclear power plants (SNPP). Taking into account vast water resources of Russia evenly distributed over the territory of the country, seawater desalination is not a vital domestic demand for this country. Therefore, the R and D activities of the RF MINATOM institutions on nuclear desalination are aimed mainly at the assessment of implementation of the SNPP based nuclear desalination system in the developing countries suffering from the lack of fresh water supply. Within these activities, analysis of engineering and economical problems related to optimisation of the use of different type nuclear reactors as a source of electricity and heat for seawater desalination plants has been performed. The objective of the work is to develop scientific and technological basis for comprehensive design studies required for practical implementation of the projects. An important factor stimulating the R and D on nuclear desalination is rather active involvement of the MINATOM's institutions in the various activities in this field organised and coordinated by the IAEA. Since 1998, SRC RF-IPPE, OKBM, ENTEK, MALAYA ENERGETIKA, JSC, and VNIPI PROMTECHNOLOGIYI etc. have been participants of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Optimization of Coupling of Nuclear Reactor and Desalination System'. This work is being carried out within the framework of special Russian Project: 'Use of Small Size Russian Nuclear Reactors as Power Source for Nuclear Desalination Complexes: Optimization of Coupling Schemes, Design and Economical Characteristics'. The small nuclear reactors KLT-40C, NIKA and RUTA are considered in the study. In 2002, IAEA initiates new CRP 'Economic Research on, and Assessment of, selected Nuclear Desalination Projects and Case Studies

  20. Feasibility study of a dedicate nuclear desalination system: Low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sik; No, Hee Cheon; Jo, Yu Gwan; Wivisono, Andhika Feri; Park, Byung Ha; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Cho, Nam Zin [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we suggest the conceptual design of a water-cooled reactor system for a low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND) that applies the safety-related design concepts of high temperature gas-cooled reactors to a water-cooled reactor for inherent and passive safety features. Through a scoping analysis, we found that the current LIND design satisfied several essential thermal-hydraulic and neutronic design requirements. In a thermal-hydraulic analysis using an analytical method based on the Wooton-Epstein correlation, we checked the possibility of safely removing decay heat through the steel containment even if all the active safety systems failed. In a neutronic analysis using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, we estimated a cycle length of approximately 6 years under 200 MW{sub th} and 4.5% enrichment. The very long cycle length and simple safety features minimize the burdens from the operation, maintenance, and spent-fuel management, with a positive impact on the economic feasibility. Finally, because a nuclear reactor should not be directly coupled to a desalination system to prevent the leakage of radioactive material into the desalinated water, three types of intermediate systems were studied: a steam producing system, a hot water system, and an organic Rankine cycle system.

  1. Feasibility study of a dedicated nuclear desalination system: Low-pressure Inherent heat sink Nuclear Desalination plant (LIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Sik Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest the conceptual design of a water-cooled reactor system for a low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND that applies the safety-related design concepts of high temperature gas-cooled reactors to a water-cooled reactor for inherent and passive safety features. Through a scoping analysis, we found that the current LIND design satisfied several essential thermal–hydraulic and neutronic design requirements. In a thermal–hydraulic analysis using an analytical method based on the Wooton–Epstein correlation, we checked the possibility of safely removing decay heat through the steel containment even if all the active safety systems failed. In a neutronic analysis using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, we estimated a cycle length of approximately 6 years under 200 MWth and 4.5% enrichment. The very long cycle length and simple safety features minimize the burdens from the operation, maintenance, and spent-fuel management, with a positive impact on the economic feasibility. Finally, because a nuclear reactor should not be directly coupled to a desalination system to prevent the leakage of radioactive material into the desalinated water, three types of intermediate systems were studied: a steam producing system, a hot water system, and an organic Rankine cycle system.

  2. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    The energy, water and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in the water-stressed economies. New generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increase around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available thermally-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MEDAD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-steam at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60 and 80. °C. In this paper, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MEDAD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concept, the authors examined the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  3. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  4. Novel cellulose ester substrates for high performance flat-sheet thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Rui Chin

    2015-01-01

    A novel hydrophilic cellulose ester with a high intrinsic water permeability and a water partition coefficient was discovered to construct membrane supports for flat-sheet thin film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes for water reuse and seawater desalination with high performance. The performance of TFC-FO membranes prepared from the hydrophilic cellulose ester containing a high degree of OH and a moderate degree of Pr substitutions clearly surpasses those prepared from cellulose esters and other polymers with moderate hydrophilicity. Post-treatments of TFC-FO membranes using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and glycerol followed by heat treatment further enhance the water flux without compromising the selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime analyses have confirmed that the SDS/glycerol post-treatment increases the free volume size and fractional free volume of the polyamide selective layer. The newly developed post-treated TFC-FO membranes exhibit a remarkably high water flux up to 90 LMH when the selective layer is oriented towards the draw solution (i.e., PRO mode) using 1. M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. For seawater desalination, the membranes display a high water flux up to 35 LMH using a 2. M NaCl draw solution. These water fluxes exceeded the water fluxes achieved by other types of FO membranes reported in literatures. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Heat exchanger design for desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Office of Saline Water (OSW) accomplished a very large amount of significant work related to the design and performance of large heat exchanger bundles and enhanced heat transfer surfaces. This work was undertaken to provide basic technical and economic data for the design of distillation plants for the desalination of seawater, and should be of value to other industrial applications as well. The OSW work covers almost every aspect of heat exchanger design, and ranges academic research to data gathering on commercial desalting plants. Exchanger design configurations include multistage flash plant condensers, vertical tube falling film and upflow evaporators, and horizontal tube spray film evaporators. Unfortunately, the data is scattered through a large number of reports of which many are concerned primarily with factors other than heat transfer, and the quality of reporting and the quality of the data are far from consistent. This report catalogues and organizes the heat exchanger data developed by the OSW. Some analysis as to the validity of the data is made and ranges of performance that can be expected are given. Emphasis is placed on the vertical tube, falling film evaporators. A thorough analysis of the large literature file that was surveyed was not possible. No analysis was made of the quality of original data, but apparent data discrepancies are pointed out where such discrepancies happen to be found

  6. Hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine cycle for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis in a hydrocarbon production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valérie; Rodgers, Peter; Qiu, Linyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seawater reverse osmosis driven by hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine power cycle. • High ambient air and seawater temperatures, and high seawater salinity. • Energy–exergy analysis of power and desalination systems for six organic fluids. • Economic viability of waste heat recovery in subsidized utility pricing context. - Abstract: Despite water scarcity, the use of industrial waste heat for seawater desalination has been limited in the Middle East to date. This study evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of integrating on-site gas turbine power generation and reverse osmosis equipment for the production of both electricity and fresh water in a coastal hydrocarbon production facility. Gas turbine exhaust gas waste heat is recovered using an intermediate heat transfer fluid and fed to an organic Rankine cycle evaporator, to generate mechanical power to drive the reverse osmosis high pressure pump. Six candidate organic working fluids are evaluated, namely toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, n-pentane and R245fa. Thermodynamic and desalination performance are assessed in the harsh climatic and salinity conditions of the Arabian Gulf. The performance metrics considered incorporate electric power and permeate production, thermal and exergy efficiency, specific energy consumption, system size, and permeate quality. Using toluene in the bottoming power cycle, a gain in power generation efficiency of approximately 12% is achieved relative to the existing gas turbine cycle, with an annual average of 2260 m"3/h of fresh water produced. Depending upon the projected evolution of local water prices, the investment becomes profitable after two to four years, with an end-of-life net present value of 220–380 million USD, and internal rate of return of 26–48%.

  7. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat

  8. An experimental investigation on MEDAD hybrid desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Yong-deuk; Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle called "MEDAD" desalination which is a hybrid of the conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an adsorption cycle (AD). The combined cycles allow some of MED stages to operate below ambient

  9. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  10. Trombay symposium on desalination and water reuse: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Trombay Symposium on Desalination and Water Reuse (TSDWR-07) addresses the issues related to desalination and water reuse including integrated water resource management. It aims to bring together the desalination and water purification technologists from government R and D, academia, industry and representatives from NGOs and user groups including policy makers. The papers received cover a wide range of topics from water resource management to different aspects of desalination and water purification. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  12. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  13. Pushing desalination recovery to the maximum limit: Membrane and thermal processes integration

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    The economics of seawater desalination processes has been continuously improving as a result of desalination market expansion. Presently, reverse osmosis (RO) processes are leading in global desalination with 53% share followed by thermally driven technologies 33%, but in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries their shares are 42% and 56% respectively due to severe feed water quality. In RO processes, intake, pretreatment and brine disposal cost 25% of total desalination cost at 30–35% recovery. We proposed a tri-hybrid system to enhance overall recovery up to 81%. The conditioned brine leaving from RO processes supplied to proposed multi-evaporator adsorption cycle driven by low temperature industrial waste heat sources or solar energy. RO membrane simulation has been performed using WinFlow and IMSDesign commercial softwares developed by GE and Nitto. Detailed mathematical model of overall system is developed and simulation has been conducted in FORTRAN. The final brine reject concentration from tri-hybrid cycle can vary from 166,000ppm to 222,000ppm if RO retentate concentration varies from 45,000ppm to 60,000ppm. We also conducted economic analysis and showed that the proposed tri-hybrid cycle can achieve highest recovery, 81%, and lowest energy consumption, 1.76kWhelec/m3, for desalination reported in the literature up till now.

  14. Economic feasibility of a solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-02-01

    Solar still desalination systems offer sustainable tools for fresh water production. However, their widespread application is often hindered by their relatively low production rates compared to other desalination methods. In this study, a simple amendment, in the form of a slowly-rotating hollow cylinder, was introduced within the solar still, significantly increasing the evaporative surface area. This new modified still was analyzed in terms of both operation and economic feasibility. The introduced cylinder resulted in a 200-300% increase in water output relative to a control, which did not include the cylinder. The resulting percent improvement far exceeds that obtained by other modifications. Unit production cost estimates varied between 6 and 60$/m3 depending on discount rates, productivity, service lifetime and initial capital costs. These projections are well within reported cost ranges for renewable-based technologies. In order to evaluate the system\\'s feasibility in real market value, different scenarios that introduce carbon-trading schemes and environmental degradation costs for fuel-based desalination, were performed. Reported costs for fuel-based brackish water and seawater desalination were thus adjusted to include unaccounted-for costs related to environmental damage. This analysis yielded results that further justify the economic feasibility of the new modified solar still, particularly for seawater desalination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Desalination - A solution to water shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries are faced with critical water shortage for the last few decades. The demand for water has outstripped its supply making the availability of safe water sources an issue Also conflicts over water sharing are expected in many regions of the world. Thus, because of this looming crisis water problems are getting increasing attention all over the world. With the advancement of desalination technology many countries had resorted removal of salts from brackish and sea water as an alternative water supply and they are now viewing desalination as a future solution to problems of lack of water. Today, over 100 countries use desalting requirement. A total of 12,451 desalting units (of a unit size of 100 m/sup 3//d or more) with a total capacity of 22,735,000 m /d had been installed or contracted worldwide. Brackish water desalination plants contribute with 9,400,000 m3/d, whereas the capacity of the sea water plants had reached up to 13,300,000 m3/d. This paper will discuss the use of desalination to produce potable water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes and also the available desalination techniques that have been developed over the years and have achieved commercial success. (author)

  16. Study on an advanced adsorption desalination cycle with evaporator–condenser heat recovery circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of a silica gel-water based advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. A mathematical model of the AD cycle was developed and the performance data were compared with the experimental results. The advanced AD cycle is able to produce the specific daily water production (SDWP) of 9.24 m3/tonne of silica gel per day at 70 °C hot water inlet temperature while the corresponding performance ratio (PR) is comparatively high at 0.77. It is found that the cycle can be operational at 50 °C hot water temperature with SDWP 4.3. The SDWP of the advanced cycle is almost twice that of the conventional AD cycle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial desalination cells packed with ion-exchange resin to enhance water desalination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Zuo, Kuichang; Xia, Xue; Wei, Jincheng; Luo, Xi; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2012-08-01

    A novel configuration of microbial desalination cell (MDC) packed with ion-exchange resin (R-MDC) was proposed to enhance water desalination rate. Compared with classic MDC (C-MDC), an obvious increase in desalination rate (DR) was obtained by R-MDC. With relatively low concentration (10-2 g/L NaCl) influents, the DR values of R-MDC were about 1.5-8 times those of C-MDC. Ion-exchange resins packed in the desalination chamber worked as conductor and thus counteracted the increase in ohmic resistance during treatment of low concentration salt water. Ohmic resistances of R-MDC stabilized at 3.0-4.7 Ω. By contrast, the ohmic resistances of C-MDC ranged from 5.5 to 12.7 Ω, which were 55-272% higher than those of R-MDC. Remarkable improvement in desalination rate helped improve charge efficiency for desalination in R-MDC. The results first showed the potential of R-MDC in the desalination of water with low salinity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution to the optimization of the coupling of nuclear reactors to desalination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardour, S.

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with modelling, simulation and optimization of the coupling between nuclear reactors (PWR, modular high temperature reactors) and desalination processes (multiple effect distillation, reverse osmosis). The reactors considered in this study are PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and GTMHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor). The desalination processes retained are MED (Multi Effect Distillation) and SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis). A software tool: EXCELEES of thermodynamic modelling of coupled systems, based on the Engineering Algebraic Equation Solver has been developed. Models of energy conversion systems and of membrane desalination processes and distillation have been developed. Based on the first and second principles of thermodynamics, these models have allowed to determine the optimal running point of the coupled systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been completed by a first economic evaluation. Based on the use of the DEEP software of the IAEA, this evaluation has confirmed the interest to use these types of reactors for desalination. A modelling tool of thermal processes of desalination in dynamic condition has been developed too. This tool has been applied to the study of the dynamics of an existing plant and has given satisfying results. A first safety checking has been at last carried out. The transients able to jeopardize the integrated system have been identified. Several measures aiming at consolidate the safety have been proposed. (O.M.)

  19. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  20. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  1. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  2. Tritium migration in nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tritium transport, as one of important items of radiation safety assessment, should be taken into consideration before construction of a Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP). The influence of tritium internal exposition to the human body is very dangerous because of 3 H associations with water molecules. The problem of tritium in nuclear engineering is connected to its high penetration ability (through fuel element cans and other construction materials of a reactor), with the difficulty of extracting tritium from process liquids and gases. Sources of tritium generation in NDP are: nuclear fuel, boron in control rods, and deuterium in heat carrier. Tritium passes easily through the walls of a reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchangers, steam generators and other technological equipment, through the walls of heat carrier pipelines. The release of tritium and its transport could be assessed, using mathematical models, based on the assumption that steady state equilibrium has been attained between the sources of tritium, produced water and release to the environment. Analysis of the model shows the tritium concentration dependence in potable water on design features of NDP. The calculations obtained and analysis results for NDP with BN-350 reactor give good convergence. According to the available data, tritium concentration in potable water is less than the statutory maximum concentration limit. The design of a NDP requires elaboration of technical solutions, capable of minimising the release of tritium to potable water produced. (author)

  3. Experience with nuclear desalination in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, the seawater desalination facilities were used mainly for potable water in remote islands and industrial water such as boiler feedwater. In order to produce potable water, distillation processes, Electrical Dialysis (ED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) were used in the past. The distillation facilities were used to produce boiler feedwater, however, RO facilities are now used for this purpose, such as the nuclear desalination facilities with capacities of 2600 m 3 /d, 2000 m 3 /d and 1000 m 3 /d, in Kansai Electric Power Co., Ltd., Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. and Kyuhshu Electric Power Co., Inc., respectively. The RO process is becoming a main stream of desalination because the process has a low energy consumption. 6 tabs

  4. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts......Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  5. Methodology for the economic evaluation of cogeneration/desalination options: A user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Methodology for the Economic Evaluation of Cogeneration/Desalination Options is suitable for economic evaluations and screening analyses of various desalination and energy source options. The methodology, based on the spreadsheet, includes simplified models of several types of nuclear/fossil power plants, nuclear/fossil heat sources, and both distillation and membrane desalination plants. Current cost and performance data have already been incorporated so that the spreadsheet can be quickly adapted to analyze a large variety of options with very little new input data required. The spreadsheet output includes the levelized cost of water and power, breakdowns of cost components, energy consumption and net saleable power for each selected option. Specific power plants can be modeled by adjustment of input data including design power, power cycle parameters and costs

  6. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2016-10-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  7. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  8. Economic Considerations of Nuclear Desalination in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man-Ki, Lee; Seung-Su, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) desalination plant in Korea through DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program). SMART is mainly designed for the dual purpose of producing water and electricity with the total capacity of 100 MWe which 10 MWe is used for water production and the remains for the electric generation. SMART desalination plant using MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) process is in the stage of the commercial development and its cost information is also being accumulated. In this circumstances, the economic assessment of nuclear desalination by SMART and the effect of water(or electric) supply price to the regional economy is meaningful to the policy maker. This study is focused on the case study analysis about the economics of SMART desalination plant and the meanings of the case study result. This study is composed of two parts. One is prepared to survey the methodology regarding cost allocation between electricity and water in DEEP and the other is for the economic assessment of SMART. The cost allocation methods that have been proposed or used can be classified into two main groups, one is the cost prorating method and the other is the credit method. The cost of an product item in the dual-purpose plant can be determined differently depending on the costing methods adopted. When it comes to applying credit method adopted in this thesis, the production cost of water depends on what kind of the power cost will be chosen in calculating the power credit. This study also analyses the changes of nuclear desalination economics according to the changes of the important factors such as fossil fuel price. I wish that this study can afford to give an insight to the policy maker about SMART desalination plant. (authors)

  9. Multi effect desalination and adsorption desalination (MEDAD): A hybrid desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle that hybridizes a conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an emerging yet low-energy adsorption cycle (AD). The hybridization of these cycles, known as MED + AD or MEDAD in short, extends the limited temperature range of the MED, typically from 65 °C at top-brine temperature (TBT) to a low-brine temperature (LBT) of 40 °C to a lower LBT of 5 °C, whilst the TBT remains the same. The integration of cycles is achieved by having vapor uptake by the adsorbent in AD cycle, extracting from the vapor emanating from last effect of MED. By increasing the range of temperature difference (DT) of a MEDAD, its design can accommodate additional condensation-evaporation stages that capitalize further the energy transfer potential of expanding steam. Numerical model for the proposed MEDAD cycle is presented and compared with the water production rates of conventional and hybridized MEDs. The improved MEDAD design permits the latter stages of MED to operate below the ambient temperature, scavenging heat from the ambient air. The increase recovery of water from the seawater feed may lead to higher solution concentration within the latter stages, but the lower saturation temperatures of these stages mitigate the scaling and fouling effects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ruled-based control of off-grid desalination powered by renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Serna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rule-based control is presented for desalination plants operating under variable, renewable power availability. This control algorithm is based on two sets of rules: first, a list that prioritizes the reverse osmosis (RO units of the plant is created, based on the current state and the expected water demand; secondly, the available energy is then dispatched to these units following this prioritized list. The selected strategy is tested on a specific case study: a reverse osmosis plant designed for the production of desalinated water powered by wind and wave energy. Simulation results illustrate the correct performance of the plant under this control.

  11. Coupling of AST-500 heating reactors with desalination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourachenkov, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The general issues regarding NHR and desalination facility joint operation for potable water production are briefly considered. AST-500 reactor plant and DOU GTPA-type evaporating desalination facilities, both relying on proven technology and solid experience of construction and operation, are taken as a basis for the design of a large-output nuclear desalination complex. Its main design characteristics are given. Similarity of NHR operation for a heating grid and a desalination facility in respect of reactor plant operating conditions and power regulation principles is pointed out. The issues of nuclear desalination complexes composition are discussed briefly as well. (author)

  12. Coupling of AST-500 heating reactors with desalination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureyeva, L.V.; Egorov, V.V.; Podberezniy, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    The general issues regarding the joint operation of a NHR and a desalination facility for potable water production are briefly considered. The AST-500 reactor plant and the DOUGTPA-type evaporating desalination facilities, both relying on proven technology and solid experience of construction and operation, are taken as a basis for the design of a large-output nuclear desalination complex. Its main design characteristics are given. The similarity of NHR operation for heating grid and desalination facility in respect of reactor plant operating conditions and power regulation principles is pointed out. The issues of nuclear desalination complexes composition are discussed briefly as well. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. The national project on nuclear desalination in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) has successfully developed both thermal and membrane desalination technologies for seawater and brackish water desalination. 425 m 3 /d Multi-Stage-Flash (MSF) desalination plant producing good quality water from seawater suitable for drinking and industrial water requirements operated. Knowhow developed for Low Temperature Vacuum Evaporation (LTVE) desalination plants utilizing waste heat. Reverse Osmosis (RO) technology developed at the centre has been successfully demonstrated. The experience obtained from the above plants has been utilized for designing a large scale hybrid desalination plant based on MSF and RO for augmenting the drinking water supply in water scarcity coastal areas

  14. Coupling of AST-500 heating reactors with desalination facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureyeva, L V; Egorov, V V [OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Podberezniy, V L [Scientific Research Inst. of Machine Building, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The general issues regarding the joint operation of a NHR and a desalination facility for potable water production are briefly considered. The AST-500 reactor plant and the DOUGTPA-type evaporating desalination facilities, both relying on proven technology and solid experience of construction and operation, are taken as a basis for the design of a large-output nuclear desalination complex. Its main design characteristics are given. The similarity of NHR operation for heating grid and desalination facility in respect of reactor plant operating conditions and power regulation principles is pointed out. The issues of nuclear desalination complexes composition are discussed briefly as well. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... the electrochemical treatment. The removal rate was similar for the two anions so the chloride concentration reached the lowest concentration level first. At this point the electric resistance increased, but the removal of nitrate continued unaffected till similar low concentration. The sulfate concentration...... was successful. Based on the obtained results an important step is taken towards development of an electrochemical technique for desalination of tile panels....

  16. Canadian nuclear desalination/cogeneration technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the CANDESAL program has been to develop innovative applications of existing technologies that would offer an energy efficient, cost effective mechanism for the production of potable water and electricity. Large scale seawater desalination will be an important element in the solution of the global water shortage problem. For nuclear desalination to capture a significant share of this growing market, it must be economically competitive, as well as offer other advantages over more traditional fossil-fueled alternatives. The focus of activities in Canada has been on development of the technology in directions that would result in improved water production efficiency, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental burden and reduced costs

  17. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical......-contaminated bricks with respect to the monovalent ions is discussed. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results showed that the proposed numerical model is able to predict electrochemical desalination treatments with remarkable accuracy, and it can be used as a predictive tool...

  18. Water desalination as a possible opportunity for the GT- and H2-MHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogart, S. Locke; Schultz, Ken

    2004-01-01

    There is growing concern that many areas of the world are suffering ongoing and increasing water shortages. Much of this concern is manifested in the United Nation's World Water Assessment Programme, the results of which were published in the spring of 2003. Other researchers have corroborated the findings of this work. However, while the UN has characterized water availability as a 'crisis', this view would seem to be excessive. Nevertheless, many parts of the world, particularly in developing nations inclusive of the middle east, are experiencing severe water stress and some of these have embarked on large-scale seawater desalination projects. The current work explores, in a preliminary way, the application of high temperature helium cooled reactors in either an electricity or a hydrogen production mode for desalination. Three desalination technologies are discussed: reverse osmosis (RO) and thermal processes using either Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) or Multi-effect distillation (MED). For the latter, it is found that the waste heat rejected from a high temperature reactor comes in power levels and temperatures reasonably well suited for desalination. An economic comparison was made using the best available data and scaling to compare the processes. What was found that reverse osmosis and thermal distillation possess comparable costs within the error bars of the analysis but that the former generally resulted in slightly lower costs. Thus the choice between them can be made with other criteria such as feed salinity and product quality. It was also found that desalinated water co-produced with either electricity (RO and MED) or hydrogen (MED) are expected to cost about the same. Since hydrogen and desalinated water can be produced off the grid, this co-production architecture appears attractive for the early deployment of high temperature helium cooled reactors. (authors)

  19. The photovoltaic-powered water desalination plant 'SORO' design, start up, operating experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaeusser, G.; Mohn, J.; Petersen, G.

    Design features, operational parameters, and test results of a year of operation of the SORO prototype photovoltaic (PV) reverse osmosis salt water desalinization plant are described. Chemicals are added to the salt water to control the pH, prevent formation of compounds which could plug the flow system, and kill bacteria and slime which might grow in the solution. The water is pressurized and forced into contact with membranes which separate the fresh water from the brackish or sea water. The flow rate in the project was 180 l/h, with the main electrical energy load being the high pressure pump and the well pump. Batteries are charged before current is switched to power the desalinization system. The plant yielded 1.50 cu of fresh water/day and is concluded to be a viable design for scale-up to larger production figures, besides being economically competitive with solar desalinization installations where the salt content is 2000 ppm.

  20. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  1. Graphene oxide-based efficient and scalable solar desalination under one sun with a confined 2D water path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqiang; Xu, Weichao; Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2016-12-06

    Because it is able to produce desalinated water directly using solar energy with minimum carbon footprint, solar steam generation and desalination is considered one of the most important technologies to address the increasingly pressing global water scarcity. Despite tremendous progress in the past few years, efficient solar steam generation and desalination can only be achieved for rather limited water quantity with the assistance of concentrators and thermal insulation, not feasible for large-scale applications. The fundamental paradox is that the conventional design of direct absorber-bulk water contact ensures efficient energy transfer and water supply but also has intrinsic thermal loss through bulk water. Here, enabled by a confined 2D water path, we report an efficient (80% under one-sun illumination) and effective (four orders salinity decrement) solar desalination device. More strikingly, because of minimized heat loss, high efficiency of solar desalination is independent of the water quantity and can be maintained without thermal insulation of the container. A foldable graphene oxide film, fabricated by a scalable process, serves as efficient solar absorbers (>94%), vapor channels, and thermal insulators. With unique structure designs fabricated by scalable processes and high and stable efficiency achieved under normal solar illumination independent of water quantity without any supporting systems, our device represents a concrete step for solar desalination to emerge as a complementary portable and personalized clean water solution.

  2. Economic competitiveness of seawater desalinated by nuclear and fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2001-01-01

    The levelized discounted production water cost method and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) were used to compare the economics of desalination using nuclear or fossil energy. The results indicate that nuclear desalination is more economic than fossil desalination with reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF). The desalination water cost varies depending on the desalination technology and the water plant size from 0.52-1.98 USD·m -3 with the lowest water price by RO and the highest by MSF. The sensitivity factors for the economic competitiveness increases in order of the discounted rate, desalination plant scale, fossil fuel price, specific power plant investment, seawater temperature and total dissolve solid (TDS). The highest water cost is about 22.6% more than the base case

  3. Water desalination with a single-layer MoS2 nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiranian, Mohammad; Farimani, Amir Barati; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient desalination of water continues to be a problem facing the society. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of a variety of nanoporous membranes for water purification. Here we show, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, that a nanopore in a single-layer molybdenum disulfide can effectively reject ions and allow transport of water at a high rate. More than 88% of ions are rejected by membranes having pore areas ranging from 20 to 60 Å2. Water flux is found to be two to five orders of magnitude greater than that of other known nanoporous membranes. Pore chemistry is shown to play a significant role in modulating the water flux. Pores with only molybdenum atoms on their edges lead to higher fluxes, which are ~70% greater than that of graphene nanopores. These observations are explained by permeation coefficients, energy barriers, water density and velocity distributions in the pores.

  4. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... of equations and accounting for the chemical interactions between the species in the pore solution and the solid matrix. Due to their high abundance in the natural environment, chlorides, nitrates and sulfates are considered the main ions responsible to the salt decay processes in buildings materials...

  5. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  6. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  7. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2012-10-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. The mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, F.; Tabourier, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the mechanical vapour compression process applied to sea water desalination. As an example, the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process : a 1,500 m3/day unit installed in the Nuclear Power Plant of Flamanville in France which supplies a high quality process water to that plant. The authors outline the advantages of this process and present also the serie of mechanical vapour compression unit that SIDEM has developed in a size range in between 25 m3/day and 2,500 m3/day

  9. Possibility of Thermomechanical Compressor Application in Desalination Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagin, E. V.; Shimanov, A. A.; Uglanov, D. A.; Korneev, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with estimation of thermocompressor operating possibility in desalination plant with mechanical vapour compressor. In this plant thermocompressor is used instead of commonly used centrifugal compressor. Preliminary analysis shows that such plant is able to operate, however, power consumption is 3.5-6.5 higher in comparison with traditional MVC plant. In turn, utilization of thermocompressor allows avoiding usual high-frequency drive of centrifugal compressor. Drives with frequency of 50 Hz are enough for thermocompressor when centrifugal compressor requires drives with frequency up to 500 Hz and higher. Approximate thermocompressor dimensions are estimated.

  10. Theoretical simulation of small scale psychometric solar water desalination system in semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatat, Mahmoud; Omer, Siddig; Gillott, Mark; Riffat, Saffa

    2013-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from water scarcity. This is especially true in remote and semi-arid regions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where per capita water supplies decline as populations increase. This paper presents the results of a theoretical simulation of an affordable small scale solar water desalination plant using the psychometric humidification and dehumidification process coupled with an evacuated tube solar collector with an area of about 2 m 2 . A mathematical model was developed to describe the system's operation. Then a computer program using Simulink Matlab software was developed to provide the governing equations for the theoretical calculations of the humidification and dehumidification processes. The experimental and theoretical values for the total daily distillate output were found to be closely correlated. After the experimental calibration of the mathematical model, a model simulating solar radiation under the climatic conditions in the Middle East region proved that the performance of the system could be improved to produce a considerably higher amount of fresh water, namely up to 17.5 kg/m 2 day. This work suggests that utilizing the concept of humidification and dehumidification, a compact water desalination unit coupled with solar collectors would significantly increase the potable water supply in remote area. It could be a unique solution of water shortages in such areas. -- Highlights: • An affordable small scale desalination system is proposed. • A mathematical model of the desalination system is developed and programmed using Matlab Simulink. • The model describes the psychometric process based on humidification and dehumidification. • The model is used in optimal selection of elements and operating conditions for solar desalination system. • The use of solar water desalination contributes significantly to reducing global warming

  11. Water transport and desalination through double-layer graphyne membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Mojdeh; Schofield, Jeremy; Jalili, Seifollah

    2018-05-16

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of water-salt solutions driven through single and double-layer graphyne membranes by a pressure difference created by rigid pistons are carried out to determine the relative performance of the membranes as filters in a reverse osmosis desalination process. It is found that the flow rate of water through a graphyne-4 membrane is twice that of a graphyne-3 membrane for both single and double-layer membranes. Although the addition of a second layer to a single-layer membrane reduces the membrane permeability, the double-layer graphyne membranes are still two or three orders of magnitude more permeable than commercial reverse osmosis membranes. The minimum reduction in flow rate for double-layer membranes occurs at a layer spacing of 0.35 nm with an AA stacking configuration, while at a spacing of 0.6 nm the flow rate is close to zero due to a high free energy barrier for permeation. This is caused by the difference in the environments on either side of the membrane sheets and the formation of a compact two-dimensional layer of water molecules in the interlayer space which slows down water permeation. The distribution of residence times of water molecules in the interlayer region suggests that at the critical layer spacing of 0.6 nm, a cross-over occurs in the mechanism of water flow from the collective movement of hydrogen-bonded water sheets to the permeation of individual water molecules. All membranes are demonstrated to have a high salt rejection fraction and the double-layered graphyne-4 membranes can further increase the salt rejection by trapping ions that have passed through the first membrane from the feed solution in the interlayer space.

  12. High performance MEAs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  13. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2016-01-01

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  14. Desalination and the commons : tragedy or triumph?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Zetland

    2016-01-01

    A policy is more likely to be economically efficient when its costs and benefits fall on the same group, but politicians can allocate costs and benefits to different groups within their jurisdictional commons. This article examines the distribution of costs and benefits from desalination projects

  15. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes

  16. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2016-10-27

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  17. Electrochemical acidification of milk by whey desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Lammers, H.; Verver, A.B.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    We describe a process configuration for the electrochemical acidification of milk using the desalination function and the acid/base production function of a bipolar membrane process. First, the milk is acidified by the acid produced in the bipolar membrane stack. The precipitate is removed by a

  18. Entropy Generation Analysis of Desalination Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law efficiency, the useful exergy output of the system must be properly defined. For desalination systems, this is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of water from a feed stream of a given salinity. In order to evaluate the Second Law efficiency, entropy generation mechanisms present in a wide range of desalination processes are analyzed. In particular, entropy generated in the run down to equilibrium of discharge streams must be considered. Physical models are applied to estimate the magnitude of entropy generation by component and individual processes. These formulations are applied to calculate the total entropy generation in several desalination systems including multiple effect distillation, multistage flash, membrane distillation, mechanical vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and humidification-dehumidification. Within each technology, the relative importance of each source of entropy generation is discussed in order to determine which should be the target of entropy generation minimization. As given here, the correct application of Second Law efficiency shows which systems operate closest to the reversible limit and helps to indicate which systems have the greatest potential for improvement.

  19. Apparatus and method for improved desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2009-12-30

    A water desalination system comprising an evaporator for evaporating saline water to produce water vapor; a condenser for condensing the water vapor; wherein the evaporator and the condenser are in heat transfer communication such that heat used by the evaporator is at least in part derived from the condenser.

  20. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  1. Risk management strategy for initiating nuclear desalination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Full text:The Gulf countries are one of the most water short regions in the world, classified from the arid and semiarid regions. The average precipitation received is 100 mm/year which indicate very limited renewable water resources per capita and per hectare of irrigated land. The water resources in gulf countries not only continued under pressure, but also it drought from other factors such as increasing population and water demand for irrigation and industrial use. Furthermore, Rain is considered the only source of recharging the ground water in the gulf countries and its fall depends upon the storms that occur irregularly in respect of quantity or distribution year-round. While the countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. For solving their limitation to use fresh water and to develop and sustain their economy and development, they need to nuclear desalinations. Risk management strategy helps to reduce issues in initiating nuclear desalination plants. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to risk management strategy in the nuclear desalinations. However, this paper chiefly provides and introduces a new risk management methodology in the Gulf countries This methodology helps to highlight the critical factors and their consequences at nuclear desalinations. This paper is intended to reduce risks in using nuclear desalinations and increase opportunities. Also, the objectives of this paper are how to plan and initiate nuclear desalination plants in Gulf Countries. Consequently, the new methodology helps their sustainable water industry.

  2. Introduction of nuclear desalination. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This has been motivated by wide varieties of reasons, inter alia, from economic competitiveness of nuclear energy to energy supply diversification, from conservation of limited fossil fuel resources to environmental protection, and by nuclear technology in industrial development. IAEA feasibility studies, which have been carried out with participation of interested Member States since 1989, have shown that nuclear desalination of seawater is technically and economically viable in many water shortage regions. In view of its perspectives, several Member States have, or are planning to launch, demonstration programmes on nuclear desalination. This guidebook has been prepared for the benefit of such Member States so that the development could be facilitated as well as their resources could be shared among such interested Member States. This guidebook comprises three major parts: Part I - Overview of nuclear desalination, Part II - Special aspects and considerations relevant to the introduction of nuclear desalination, and Part III - Steps to introduce nuclear desalination. In Part I, an overview of relevant technologies and pertinent experience accumulated in the past is presented. The global situation of the freshwater problem is reviewed and incentives for utilizing nuclear energy to contribute to solving the problems are briefly set forth. State-of-the-art relevant technologies and experience with them are summarized. Part II identifies special aspects to be considered in decision making process concerning nuclear desalination. There are technical, safety and environmental and economical aspects as well as national requirements. In Part III necessary steps to be taken once nuclear desalination has been selected are elaborated. Policy issues are discussed, and project planning is summarized. This point also elaborates on project implementation aspects, which

  3. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  4. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  5. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, O.A.; Phillips, M.R.; Williams, A.T.; Gheith, A.M.; Bantan, R.A.; Rasul, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = − 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ► New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ► Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ► Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ► Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  6. Geochemical processes during managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Y.; Holtzman, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Russak, A.; Katz, Y.; Kurtzman, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study the geochemical processes along the variably-saturated zone during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with reverse-osmosis desalinated seawater (DSW) to an infiltration pond at the Menashe site, located above the Israeli coastal aquifer. The DSW is post-treated by calcite dissolution (remineralization) in order to meet the Israeli desalinated water quality criteria. Suction cups and monitoring wells inside the pond were used to monitor water quality during two MAR events on 2015 and 2016. Results show that cation exchange is dominant, driven by the high Ca2+ concentration in the post-treated DSW. Stable isotope analysis shows that the composition of the shallow groundwater is similar to the recharged DSW, but with enrichment of Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and HCO3-. A calibrated variably-saturated reactive transport model was used to predict the geochemical evolution during 50 years of MAR with two water quality scenarios: post-treated DSW and soft DSW (without post-treatment). The latter scenario was aimed to test soil-aquifer-treatment as an alternative post-treatment technique. In terms of water quality, the results of the two scenarios were found within the range of the desalinated water criteria. Mg2+ enrichment was stable ( 2.5 mg L-1), higher than the zero concentration found in the Israeli DSW. Calcite content reduction was low (<1%) along the variably-saturated profile, after 50 years of MAR. This suggests that using soil-aquifer-treatment as a remineralization technique for DSW is potentially a sustainable practice, which is limited only by the current hydraulic capacity of the Menashe MAR site.

  7. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamei, A.; Zaag, P. van der; Munch, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W p (W p is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W p . Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W p ), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst penalties on usage

  8. Combined power generation and desalination using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Andrews, J. [RMIT Univ., Bundoora, Victoria (Australia). School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Australia is facing a severe fresh water shortage in addition to the decline of forests in western Victoria. Grass lands have been degraded by the salting, which is due to the withdrawing of underground water for farms and hence causing the deposition of salt. At the same time, with the development of the industry and increasing demand, more fresh water and power are needed, with limited resources. Finding a sustainable method to satisfy the demand for fresh water and energy is important. Combined power generation with desalination using solar energy (CPD) is a prospective way to solve the problems of fresh water shortage, the energy crisis and farm land degradation in Northern Victoria. This paper recorded the process of calculating the performance of the nozzle applying a homogenous equilibrium model and tested the prototype of CPD using a stationary nozzle system. Data were theoretically analyzed and presented. Based on the experimental figures, the next stage for the practical CPD was proposed and the preliminary design was finished. The principle concept of the theory was that when the hot salt water heated by the solar pond was passed through the rotary nozzles due the difference of pressures between atmosphere and the vacuumed chamber, it would vaporize and then condense into the fresh water, and the mixture rushing out the nozzles at high velocity would exert an antiforce to the nozzles to make them rotate. In addition, when the nozzles rotate, the pressure would increase, so the velocity would increase further and could produce more power. It was concluded that using CPD to prevent the deterioration of saline water to farm land in Australia is a promising technology. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Study of reliability for the electricity cogeneration and seawater desalination in the Northwest of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez U, G. O.; Ortega C, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic by its characteristics of zero gas emissions of greenhouse effect, competitive costs in the generation, operative experience and safety of the nuclear reactors, resulting attractive mainly for the desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was analyzed from a thermodynamic viewpoint, mentioning the economic aspect, the nuclear desalination according to the world experience; they were simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, was made emphasis in one particularly. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be coupled to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. Specially and topic of this article, it is studied a case of the IRIS reactor of 335 MW e coupled to a MED station of nominal capacity of 140,000 m 3 /day. It is utilized for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out a thermodynamic and economic preliminary evaluation, as well as the THERMOFLEX simulator to reinforce and to compare the thermodynamic part. They

  10. Advanced Control Synthesis for Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Bui Duc Hong; You, Sam-Sang; Choi, Hyeung-Six; Jeong, Seok-Kwon

    2017-11-01

      In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters. The control system is decoupled using a feed forward decoupling method to reduce the interactions between control channels. Both nominal and perturbed reverse osmosis systems have been analyzed using structured singular values for their stabilities and performances. Simulation results show that the system responses meet all the control requirements against various uncertainties. Finally the reduced order controller provides excellent robust performance, with achieving decoupling, disturbance attenuation, and noise rejection. It can help to reduce the membrane cleanings, increase the robustness against uncertainties, and lower the energy consumption for process monitoring.

  11. A Method for Seawater Desalination via Squeezing Ionic Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Fan, Shuanshi

    2016-12-06

    In this study, mechanical force applied to squeeze poly(sodium acrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels that contained seawater in order to obtain fresh water. By incorporating ionic monomer sodium acrylate (SA) into hydrogels, the salt rejection was significantly enhanced from 27.62% to 64.57% (feed concentration 35.00g/L NaCl solution). As SA's concentration continuously increased, salt rejection declined due to the change in hydrogel's matrix structure. Therefore, water recovery raised as the current swelling degree increased. We also measured pore size distribution by applying mercury intrusion porosimetry on each hydrogel sample in the interest of finding out whether the sample SA5/HEMA15 owned multi pore structure, since the result could be good for the desalination performance. After 4 times reused, the hydrogel remained good desalination performance. Although compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and multistage flash distillation (MSF) & multiple effect distillation (MED) the salt rejection of this hydrogel (roughly 64%) seemed low, the hydrogels can be used for forward osmosis and reverse osmosis, as pretreatment of seawater to reduce the energy consumption for the downstream.

  12. High performance light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  13. Further developments of a poultice for electrochemical desalination of porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2015-01-01

    and should be avoided. Previously, an electrochemical method has been adapted and optimized for desalination of brick masonry and a high efficiency was obtained. Unfortunately, an accelerated weathering was seen among others in shape of crumbling of mortar below the cathode poultice and further developments...

  14. Corrosion of gadolinium aluminate-aluminium oxide samples in fully desalinated water at 575 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenbach, K.; Zimmermann, H.U.

    1978-07-01

    Corrosion tests have been carried out for 1 1/2 years on gadolinium aluminate/aluminium oxide samples (burnable poison for ship propulsion reactors) with and without cans at 575 K in fully desalinated water. It was found that this substance is highly corrosion-resistant. (orig./HP) [de

  15. A bubble column evaporator with basic flat-plate condenser for brackish and seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Mario; Ho, Goen; Anda, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and experimental evaluation of a novel bubble column-based humidification-dehumidification system, for small-scale desalination of saline groundwater or seawater in remote regions. A bubble evaporator prototype was built and matched with a simple flat-plate type condenser for concept assessment. Consistent bubble evaporation rates of between 80 and 88 ml per hour were demonstrated. Particular focus was on the performance of the simple condenser prototype, manufactured from rectangular polyvinylchlorid plastic pipe and copper sheet, a material with a high thermal conductivity that quickly allows for conduction of the heat energy. Under laboratory conditions, a long narrow condenser model of 1500 mm length and 100 mm width achieved condensate recovery rates of around 73%, without the need for external cooling. The condenser prototype was assessed under a range of different physical conditions, that is, external water cooling, partial insulation and aspects of air circulation, via implementing an internal honeycomb screen structure. Estimated by extrapolation, an up-scaled bubble desalination system with a 1 m2 condenser may produce around 19 l of distilled water per day. Sodium chloride salt removal was found to be highly effective with condensate salt concentrations between 70 and 135 µS. Based on findings and with the intent to reduce material cost of the system, a shorter condenser length of 750 mm for the non-cooled (passive) condenser and of 500 mm for the water-cooled condenser was considered to be equally efficient as the experimentally evaluated prototype of 1500 mm length.

  16. Investigations of the Effects of Biocide Dosing and Chemical Cleaning on the Organic Carbon Removal in an Integrated Ultrafiltration - Nanofiltration Desalination Pilot Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Khojah, Bayan A.

    2017-01-01

    drawbacks of membrane desalination is membrane fouling. It decreases the performance of the membranes and increases the energy requirement. Two of the most important causes of fouling are microbes and organic matter. Hence, to maintain an optimized

  17. Pushing desalination recovery to the maximum limit: Membrane and thermal processes integration

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    The economics of seawater desalination processes has been continuously improving as a result of desalination market expansion. Presently, reverse osmosis (RO) processes are leading in global desalination with 53% share followed by thermally driven

  18. Mathematical model for solar-hydrogen heated desalination plant using humidification-dehumidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, Jamal S.; Eljrushi, Gibril S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for thermal desalination plant operating with solar energy and hydrogen. This plant is composed of two main systems, the heating system and the distillation system. The distillation system is composed of multi-cells; each cell is using the humidification-dehumidification (H-D) process in the distillation unit and getting the required amount of heat from feed seawater heater. The feed seawater heater is a heat exchanger used to raise the temperature of the preheated seawater coming from the condensation chamber (Dehumidifier) of each cell to about 85 degree centigrade. The heating amount in the heat exchangers is obtained from the thermal storage tank, which gets its energy from solar thermal system and is coupled with a hydrogen-fired backup system to guaranty necessary operating conditions and permit 24 hours solar H-D desalination plant to enhance the performance of this system. The mathematical model studies the performance of the proposed desalination system using thermal solar energy and hydrogen as fuel. Other pertinent variable in the heating and distillation system are also studied. The outcomes of this study are analyzed to enhance the used solar desalination process and make commercial.(Author)

  19. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  20. Development of high performance cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments of superior next-generation light water reactor are requested on the basis of general view points, such as improvement of safety, economics, reduction of radiation waste and effective utilization of plutonium, until 2030 year in which conventional reactor plants should be renovate. Improvements of stainless steel cladding for conventional high burn-up reactor to more than 100 GWd/t, developments of manufacturing technology for reduced moderation-light water reactor (RMWR) of breeding ratio beyond 1.0 and researches of water-materials interaction on super critical pressure-water cooled reactor are carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Stable austenite stainless steel has been selected for fuel element cladding of advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). The austenite stain less has the superiority for anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. A hard spectrum of neutron energy up above 0.1 MeV takes place in core of the reduced moderation-light water reactor, as liquid metal-fast breeding reactor (LMFBR). High performance cladding for the RMWR fuel elements is required to get anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength also. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) of SUS 304 and SUS 316 are carried out for studying stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Irradiation tests in LMFBR are intended to obtain irradiation data for damaged quantity of the cladding materials. (M. Suetake)

  1. Financing of an integrated nuclear desalination system in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzguenda, N.; Albouy, M.; Nisan, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on a case study of financing a project of an integrated nuclear desalination system at la Skhira site in Tunisia. More specifically, it shows the financial characteristics of this project, known as TUNDESAL, the main financing mechanisms that can be used, and the principal actions required to attract the potential investors and lenders. The paper describes the basic requirements for the deployment of nuclear energy in a developing or an emerging country, with no previous experience of nuclear power; the specific financial considerations corresponding to the particular characteristics of nuclear desalination projects: high capital costs, high level of risks and uncertainties related in particular to long construction lead times and social and environmental concerns; the main risks of these projects; the profitability study of the TUNDESAL project: application of the discounted cash flow analysis; the main financing sources for the project; the financing schemes that can be used for project implementation and comparison between these schemes in terms of benefits generated, after covering project costs and repayment of lenders and investors; the main actions to be done for making the project financially attractive in order to gain the confidence of investors and international financial institutions (optimal allocation of project risks and uncertainties, a suitable and flexible energy and water tariffs policy, etc.). The analysis has shown that in particular conditions of Tunisia, the most attractive financial scheme could be the 'project financing + leasing'. (authors)

  2. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  3. Set up for simultaneous water desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.W.; Mookhi, M.B.; Sadiq, M.A.; Hasan, Z.; Zaidi, S.I.; Shah, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of following the conventional fuel oriented power generation methods and dissipating its heat into environment, we evaporate saline water into steam and use its energy to generate power. Using this scheme would make sea water usable in power generation which at the moment is only being used for cooling purposes in the power plants. The steam used for generating electricity is eventually collected, condensed and used for potable purposes. The proposed scheme may be seen as Steam Power Generation with additional feature of desalination. We set up an experimental test bed in order to calculate the electric power available using this scheme. To ensure safety for human consumption, we also perform chemical tests on the desalinated water to see whether it is fit to be used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Our conclusions are based on actual experiments and laboratory tests; procedures outlined here may be used at larger scale for more in-depth analyses. We also highlight future extensions and modifications in this work. (author)

  4. An experimental investigation on MEDAD hybrid desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-04-02

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle called "MEDAD" desalination which is a hybrid of the conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an adsorption cycle (AD). The combined cycles allow some of MED stages to operate below ambient temperature, as low as 5. °C in contrast to the conventional MED. The MEDAD cycle results in a quantum increase of distillate production at the same top-brine condition. Being lower than the ambient temperature for the bottom stages of hybrid cycle, ambient energy can now be scavenged by the MED processes whilst the AD cycle is powered by low temperature waste heat from exhaust or renewable sources. In this paper, we present the experiments of a 3-stage MED and MEDAD plants. These plants have been tested at assorted heat source temperatures from 15. °C to 70. °C and with portable water as a feed. All system states are monitored including the distillate production and power consumption and the measured results are expressed in terms of performance ratio (PR). It is observed that the synergetic matching of MEDAD cycle led to a quantum increase in distillate production, up to 2.5 to 3 folds vis-a-vis to a conventional MED of the same rating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Provision of Desalinated Irrigation Water by the Desalination of Groundwater within a Saline Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated land accounts for 70% of global water usage and 30% of global agricultural production. Forty percent of this water is derived from groundwater. Approximately 20%–30% of the groundwater sources are saline and 20%–50% of global irrigation water is salinized. Salinization reduces crop yields and the number of crop varieties which can be grown on an arable holding. Structured ZVI (zero valent iron, Fe0 pellets desalinate water by storing the removed ions as halite (NaCl within their porosity. This allows an “Aquifer Treatment Zone” to be created within an aquifer, (penetrated by a number of wells (containing ZVI pellets. This zone is used to supply partially desalinated water directly from a saline aquifer. A modeled reconfigured aquifer producing a continuous flow (e.g., 20 m3/day, 7300 m3/a of partially desalinated irrigation water is used to illustrate the impact of porosity, permeability, aquifer heterogeneity, abstraction rate, Aquifer Treatment Zone size, aquifer thickness, optional reinjection, leakage and flow by-pass on the product water salinity. This desalination approach has no operating costs (other than abstraction costs (and ZVI regeneration and may potentially be able to deliver a continuous flow of partially desalinated water (30%–80% NaCl reduction for $0.05–0.5/m3.

  6. Numerical Study on Radiation Effects to Evaporator in Natural Vacuum Solar Desalination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. E. T.; Ronowikarto, A. D.; Setyawan, E. Y.; Ambarita, H.

    2018-01-01

    The need for clean water is increasing day by day due to the increasing factor of living standard of mankind, hence designed natural vacuum solar desalination. The natural vacuum Solar desalination is studied experimentally. A small-scale natural vacuum desalination study consists of evaporator and condenser as the main components designed and manufactured. To transfer heat from the solar collector into the evaporator, the fluid transfer system uses a pump powered by a solar cell. Thus, solar collectors are called hybrid solar collectors. The main purpose of this exposure is to know the characteristics of the radiation effects on incoming energy on the evaporator during the process. This system is tested by exposing the unit to the solar radiation in the 4th floor building in Medan. The experiment was conducted from 8.00 to 16.00 local time. The results show that natural vacuum solar desalination with hybrid solar collectors can be operated perfectly. If the received radiation is high, then the incoming energy received by the evaporator will also be high. From measurements with HOBO microstation, obtained the highest radiation 695.6 W/m2, and the calculation result of incoming energy received evaporator obtained highest result 1807.293 W.

  7. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic and thermal feasibility of multi stage flash desalination plant with brine–feed mixing and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazmy, Majed M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the performance of MSF (multi stage flash) desalination plants is a major challenge for desalination industry. High feed temperature in summer shortens the evaporation range of MSF plants and limits their yield. Installing a cooler at the feed intake expands the evaporation range of MSF plants and increases their yield. Adding a cooler and a mixing chamber increases the capital and operational costs of MSF plants. This paper presents thermal and economic analysis of installing a feed cooler at the plant intake. The profit of selling the additionally produced water must cover the cost of the cooling system. The selling prices for a reasonable breakeven depend on the selected cooling temperature. The cost of installing coolers capable of maintaining feed–brine mixture temperatures of 18–20 °C shows breakeven selling prices of 0.5–0.9 $/m 3 . These prices fall within the current range of potable water selling prices. - Highlights: • Thermo-economic analysis for MSF plant with brine mixing and cooling is presented. • Analysis is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. • The profit gained from producing additional water covers the cooling cost. • The suggested modification is a promising technique for plants in hot climates

  9. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: Is it Better to have a Power (Electricity) Plant With RO or MED/MSF?

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2016-01-01

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed ( PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  10. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: is it Better to have a Power (electricity) Plant with ro or Med/msf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2016-06-01

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed (PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  11. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: Is it Better to have a Power (Electricity) Plant With RO or MED/MSF?

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2016-06-23

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed ( PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  12. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N.; Velikhov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of ∼0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is ∼6000000 m 3 per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity

  13. Fundamental and application aspects of adsorption cooling and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Saha, Bidyut Baran

    2015-10-23

    Adsorption (AD) cycle is recently pioneered for cooling and desalination applications. For water treatment, the cycle can be used to treat highly concentrated feed water, ranging from seawater, ground water and chemically-laden waste water. This paper presents a review of the recent development of AD cycle and its hybridization with known conventional cycles such as the MED and MSF. We begin by looking at the basic sorption theory for different adsorbent-adsorbate pairs, namely (i) silica gel-water, (ii) the zeolite-water, (iii) parent Maxsorb III/ethanol, (iv) KOH-H2 surface treated Maxsorb III/ethanol, and (v) a metal organic framework (MOF) material namely, MIL-101Cr/ethanol. We also present the basic AD cycle for seawater desalination as well as its hybridization with known conventional thermally-driven cycles for efficiency improvement. We demonstrate the water production improvement by 2-3 folds by hybridization in a pilot comprising a 3-stage MED and AD plant and the top-brine temperature 50oC.

  14. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  15. Nuclear desalination in the Arab world. Part I: Relevant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhemar, S.; Karameldin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Middle Eastern and North African countries suffer from a shortage of fresh water resources. Statistical analysis shows that fresh water resources in these countries constitute less than 13% of the average world resources per capita. In the Arab world, the rapid increase in population and an increase in living standards led to a greater demand for fresh water and electricity. Accordingly, the Arab world has assumed (a leading role in the) desalination industry, contributing about 60% of total world production. Desalination processes are highly power intensive. Thus, different types of energies are used to bridge the gap between these processes and the general increased demand in production. Projections for water and electricity demand in the Arab world, up to 2030, are made according to population and its growth rates. The present study (according to these projections) indicates that population in the Arab world will double by the year 2030. At that time, domestic and industrial water demand will be 360 million m 3 d -1 ; meanwhile, electrical power consumption will be 4.5 trillion kWh d -1 . Accordingly, the Advanced Inherent Safe Nuclear Power Plants adapted for water-electricity co-generation could meet the demand, as a clean energy source. (author)

  16. Corrosion and Protection of Metal in the Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Gao, Lili; Cui, Zhendong; Yin, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Seawater desalination develops rapid for it can solve water scarcity efficiently. However, corrosion problem in the seawater desalination system is more serious than that in normal water. So, it is important to pay attention to the corrosion and protection of metal in seawater desalination. The corrosion characteristics and corrosion types of metal in the seawater desalination system are introduced in this paper; In addition, corrosion protect methods and main influencing factors are stated, the latest new technologies about anti-corrosion with quantum energy assisted and magnetic inhibitor are presented.

  17. Second law analysis of reverse osmosis desalination plants: An alternative design using pressure retarded osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H.; Zubair, Syed M.; Lienhard, John H.

    2011-01-01

    A second law analysis of a reverse osmosis desalination plant is carried out using reliable seawater exergy formulation instead of a common model in literature that represents seawater as an ideal mixture of liquid water and solid sodium chloride. The analysis is performed using reverse osmosis desalination plant data and compared with results previously published using the ideal mixture model. It is demonstrated that the previous model has serious shortcomings, particularly with regard to calculation of the seawater flow exergy, the minimum work of separation, and the second law efficiency. The most up-to-date thermodynamic properties of seawater, as needed to conduct an exergy analysis, are given as correlations in this paper. From this new analysis, it is found that the studied reverse osmosis desalination plant has very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. Therefore, an energy recovery system is proposed using the (PRO) pressure retarded osmotic method. The proposed alternative design has a second law efficiency of 20%, and the input power is reduced by 38% relative to original reverse osmosis system. -- Highlights: ► A previously proposed model for the calculation of seawater flow exergy gives incorrect values. ► Reverse osmosis desalination plants have very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. ► A PRO energy recovery device increases the RO plant’s second law efficiency to 20% and reduces the input power.

  18. Optimization of a combined solar chimney for desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayesh, Mohammad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ataei, Abtin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One dimensional code is developed for simulation of a hybrid solar chimney. • The code is validated using experimental data of a simple solar chimney. • Partial coverage of the collector area by the desalination system is more beneficial. • The optimal configuration of the combined system is found using PSO algorithm. - Abstract: Large footprint and very low efficiency are main disadvantages of solar chimneys. To resolve this, solar desalination system has been added under the collector of a solar chimney power plant. Generally the collector ground is completely covered by the desalination pond but here it is shown that more benefit can be achieved by partial occupation of the collector area. This is performed by implementing the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in conjunction with a one dimensional simulation code. The code is first validated using data of a laboratory scale solar chimney. Then, optimization results show that for a collector diameter of 250 m and tower height of 200 m, a solar pond located between radii 85 and 125 m of the collector can maximize the outcome of the combined system. Generally, dimensions of the desalination system depend on local cost of building the system and price of electricity and fresh water produced.

  19. A new process of desalination by air passing through seawater based on humidification-dehumidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Agouz, S.A. [Mechanical power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    Experimental and theoretical work investigates the principal operating parameters of a proposed desalination process working with an air humidification-dehumidification method. The main objective of this work was to determine the humid air behavior through single stage of desalination system. The experimental work studied the influence of the operating conditions such as the water temperature, the saline water level and the airflow rate on the desalination performance. The experimental results show that, the productivity of the system increases with the increase of the water temperature and the decrease of the airflow rate. The productivity of the system is moderately affected by the water temperature and airflow rate while, slightly affected by the water level. The humidifier efficiency and the thermal efficiency of the desalination system are higher for m-dot{sub a}=14kg{sub a}/h at different water temperature and level. Within the studied ranges, the maximum productivity of the system reached to 8.22 kg{sub w}/h at 86 C for water temperature and m-dot{sub a}=14kg{sub a}/h. A good agreement achieved with productivity calculations. Finally, correlation for productivity of the system deduced as function of water temperature, water level and airflow rate. (author)

  20. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Poul Alberg Østergaard; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigatesa Jordanian energy sc...

  1. Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Protection Agency EPS Extra-cellular Polymeric Substances M&E Materials and Energy MF Microfiltration MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NASA...and bays. On a regional scale, therefore, desalination could aid in restoring the balance between fresh water needs and fresh water supplies that has... Microfiltration (MF) membranes—used for turbidity reduction, removal of suspended solids and bacteria • Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes—used for color, odor

  2. Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process.

  3. Review of nuclear electricity generation and desalination plants and evaluation of SMART application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Joo Pyung; Lee, Doo Jeong; Chang, Moon Hee

    1998-03-01

    KAERI are developing a new advanced integral reactor named SMART for dual application purpose of the electric power generation and seawater desalination. This report are describing the general desalting methods with its technology development and the coupling schemes between electricity generation system and desalting system. Though MSF takes the most part of currently operating seawater desalination plants, MED and RO has been preferred in the past decade. MED has a advantage over MSF with the view to investment costs and energy efficiency. The coupling between electricity generation system and desalination system can be realized by using one of back pressure cycle, extraction cycle, and multi-shaft cycle. New design and operating strategy has to be established for various environment and load conditions. To evaluate the candidate desalination systems of SMART and the coupling method of it with other secondary systems, the desalted water and electricity were calculated through the several options. The result shows that back pressure cycle is preferred at the high water/power ratio and extraction cycle at the low value. If energy efficiency are only considered, RO will be best choice. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs., 31 figs

  4. Equipment and materials for coupling interfaces of a nuclear reactor with desalination and heating plants based on floating NHPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Intensive design activity is currently underway in Russia on floating nuclear installations, relying on proven marine NSSSs of KLT-40-type, which are capable of generating electricity, producing potable water and heat for industrial and district heating purposes. In particular, design work of the first floating power unit for a pilot nuclear co-generation station, which is due to be situated at the Pevek port area in the Chukotsky national district (extreme north-east of Russia), is approaching completion, and preparatory work is being carried out for fabrication of its most labour-intensive components. Work is also in progress together with 'CANDESAL Inc. (Canada)' on the conceptual design of a floating power-desalination complex. Most suitable options of floating power-desalination complexes are being sought, addressing requirements of potential customers. Earlier, at the IAEA technical committee meeting (1993) it was shown that a complex, which combines a highly effective condensation turbine and a modem reverse-osmosis desalination facility, could be considered as most preferable from the view point of efficient utilisation of thermal energy generated by nuclear reactors for co-production of potable water and electricity. The prospective technology for sea water desalination by a reverse-osmosis method is being developed in particular by 'CANDESAL Inc.'. It was also pointed out that another sufficiently efficient installation for potable water and electricity co-production is a dual-purpose complex which integrates both condensation and back-pressure turbines and a distillation desalination facility. Similar flow configurations were adopted for the nuclear desalination complex at Aktau (Kazakhstan) which has been in operation since 1972. 'SverdNIIKhimMash' institute (Ekaterinburg) is a Russian leading designer of modem distillation desalination facilities. This paper presents heat and fluid diagrams of floating complexes, brief description of their key

  5. Experimental benchmarks and simulation of GAMMA-T for overcooling and undercooling transients in HTGRs coupled with MED desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sik; Kim, In Hun; NO, Hee Cheon; Jin, Hyung Gon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The GAMMA-T code was well validated through benchmark experiments. ► Based on the KAIST coupling scheme, the GTHTR300 + MED systems were made. ► Safety analysis was performed for overcooling and undercooling accidents. ► In all accidents, maximum peak fuel temperatures were well below than 1600 °C. ► In all accidents, the HTGR + MED system could be operated continuously. -- Abstracts: The nuclear desalination based on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with gas turbomachinery and multi-effect distillation (MED) is attracting attention because the coupling system can utilize the waste heat of the nuclear power system for the MED desalination system. In previous work, KAIST proposed the new HTGR + MED coupling scheme, evaluated desalination performance, and performed cost analysis for the system. In this paper, in order to confirm the safety and the performance of the coupling system, we performed the transient analysis with GAMMA-T (GAs Multidimensional Multicomponent mixture Analysis–Turbomachinery) code for the KAIST HTGR + MED systems. The experimental benchmarks of GAMMA-T code were set up before the transient analysis for several accident scenarios. The GAMMA-T code was well validated against steady state and transient scenarios of the He–Water test loop such as changes in water mass flow rate and water inlet temperatures. Then, for transient analysis, the GTHTR300 was chosen as a reference plant. The GTHTR300 + MED systems were made, based on the KAIST HTGR + MED coupling scheme. Transient analysis was performed for three kinds of accidents scenarios: (1) loss of heat rejection through MED plant, (2) loss of heat rejection through heat sink, and (3) overcooling due to abnormal cold temperature of seawater. In all kinds of accident scenarios, maximum peak fuel temperatures were well below than the fuel failure criterion, 1600 °C and the GTHTR300 + MED system could be operated continuously and safely. Specially, in the

  6. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an active solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Addas, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases with increasing geothermal water flow rate up to 0.15 kg/s. • Geothermal energy increases productivity by 187–465% when used with solar energy. • Daytime experimental productivity (8AM-5PM) up to 104 L/m"2 was achieved. • Daily experimental productivity (24 h) up to 192 L/m"2 was achieved. • Fresh potable water can be produced at 0.003 USD/L using this desalination setup. - Abstract: This paper investigates the technical and economic feasibility of using a hybrid solar-geothermal energy source in a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. The newly developed HDH system is a modified solar still with air blower and condenser used at its inlet and outlet respectively. A geothermal water tank in a temperature range 60–80 °C which imitates a low-grade geothermal energy source was used to supply heat to water inside the humidification chamber. The experiments were conducted in January 2015 under the climatological conditions of Madinah (latitude: 24°33′N, longitude: 39°36′0″E), Saudi Arabia to study the effect of geothermal water temperature and flow rate on the performance and productivity of proposed desalination system. Analytical model was also developed to compare the effect of solar energy and combined solar-geothermal energy on accumulated productivity. Daytime experimental accumulated productivity up to 104 L/m"2 and daily average gained output ratio (GOR) in the range 1.2–1.58 was achieved using the proposed desalination system. Cost of fresh water produced using the presented desalination system is 0.003 USD/L.

  8. Novel Microbial Electrochemical Technologies and Microorganisms for Power Generation and Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2014-12-01

    Global increases in water demand and decreases in both the quantity and quality of fresh water resources have served as the major driving forces to develop sustainable use of water resources. One viable alternative is to explore non-traditional (impaired quality) water sources such as wastewater and seawater. The current paradigm for wastewater treatment is based on technologies that are energy intensive and fail to recover the potential resources (water and energy) in wastewater. Also, conventional desalination technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) are energy intensive. Therefore, there is a need for the development of sustainable wastewater treatment and desalination technologies for practical applications. Processes based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold promise for the treatment of wastewater with recovery of the inherent energy, and MDCs could be used for both desalination of seawater and energy recovery. METs use anaerobic bacteria, referred to as exoelectrogens, that are capable of transferring electrons exogenously to convert soluble organic matter present in the wastewater directly into an electrical current to produce electrical power (MFC and MDC) or biogas (MEC). In my dissertation, I investigated the three types of METs mentioned above to: 1) have a better insight on the effect of 4 oxygen intrusion on the microbial community structure and performance of air-cathode MFCs; 2) improve the desalination efficiency of air-cathode MDCs using ion exchange resins (IXRs); and 3) enrich for extremophilic exoelectrogens from the Red Sea brine pool using MECs. The findings from these studies can shape further research aimed at developing more efficient air-cathode MFCs for practical applications, a more efficient integrated IXRMDC configuration that can be used as a pre-treatment to RO, and exploring extreme environments as a

  9. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  10. High-performance composite chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  11. The techno-economic optimization of a 100MWe CSP-desalination plant in Arandis, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Ernest P.; Hoffmann, Jaap E.

    2017-06-01

    Energy is a key factor responsible for a country's economic growth and prosperity. It is closely related to the main global challenges namely: poverty mitigation, global environmental change and food and water security [1.]. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is steadily gaining more market acceptance as the cost of electricity from CSP power plants progressively declines. The cogeneration of electricity and water is an attractive prospect for future CSP developments as the simultaneous production of power and potable water can have positive economic implications towards increasing the feasibility of CSP plant developments [2.]. The highest concentrations of direct normal irradiation are located relatively close to Western coastal and Middle-Eastern North-African regions. It is for this reason worthwhile investigating the possibility of CSP-desalination (CSP+D) plants as a future sustainable method for providing both electricity and water with significantly reduced carbon emissions and potential cost reductions. This study investigates the techno-economic feasibility of integrating a low-temperature thermal desalination plant to serve as the condenser as opposed to a conventional dry-cooled CSP plant in Arandis, Namibia. It outlines the possible benefits of the integration CSP+D in terms of overall cost of water and electricity. The high capital costs of thermal desalination heat exchangers as well as the pumping of seawater far inland is the most significant barrier in making this approach competitive against more conventional desalination methods such as reverse osmosis. The compromise between the lowest levelized cost of electricity and water depends on the sizing and the top brine temperature of the desalination plant.

  12. High-Performance Composite Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with…

  13. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  14. Wireless desalination using inductively powered porous carbon electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Porada, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) uses electrochemical cell pairs formed of porous carbon electrodes, which are brought in contact with the water that must be desalinated. Upon applying a cell voltage or current between the electrodes, ions are electrosorbed and water is produced

  15. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, K.; Masry, Moawya Ezet; Ng, Kim Choon

    2014-01-01

    in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its

  16. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  17. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  18. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  19. Approach for smart application to desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Moon Hee; Kim Si-Hwan

    1998-01-01

    A 330 MWt integral reactor, SMART, and an integrated nuclear seawater desalination system coupled with SMART are currently under conceptual development at KAERI. The SMART will provide energy to the desalination system either in the form of heat or electricity, or both. The integrated nuclear desalination system aims to produce about 40,000 m 3 /day potable water from seawater for demonstration purposes. The remaining energy produced by SMART will be converted into electrical energy. Several important factors are especially considered in the process of SMART and its application system development. The development emphasizes the adoption of technically proven and advanced technology, measures to secure the safety and reliability of the reactor system, consideration of the desalination process for coupling with SMART, a licensing strategy for SMART and the integrated nuclear desalination system, and international cooperation for promoting nuclear desalination with the SMART development program. The current effort to establish the concept of SMART and its application for desalination is being pursued intensively to secure the safety and reliability of SMART, to prove the implemented concepts/technology considering the coupling with the desalination process, and to formulate an optimum licensing approach. This paper aims to present the technical and strategic approach of SMART and its application system. (author)

  20. Science Communication and Desalination Research: Water Experts' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, R. A.; Williams, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water is a major problem for many people across the world. Desalination is being increasingly used in many countries to provide this important resource. Desalination technology has received varying degrees of support in the communities in which this technology has been adopted. Productive communication suggests we…

  1. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT......The world of finance faces the computational performance challenge of massively expanding data volumes, extreme response time requirements, and compute-intensive complex (risk) analyses. Simultaneously, new international regulatory rules require considerably more transparency and external...... auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...

  2. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  3. Seawater desalination using small and medium light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Water is an essential substance for sustaining human life. As Japan is an island country, surrounded by the sea and having abundant rainfall, there is no scarcity of water in daily life except during abnormally dry summers or after disasters such as earthquakes. Consequently, there is hardly any demand for seawater desalination plants except on remote islands, Okinawa and a part of Kyushu. However, the IAEA has forecast a scarcity of drinking water in developing countries at the beginning of the 21st century. Further, much more irrigation water will be required every year to prevent cultivated areas from being lost by desertification. If developing countries were to produce such water by seawater desalination using current fossil fuel energy technology, it would cause increased air pollution and global warming. This paper explains the concept of seawater desalination plants using small and medium water reactors (hereinafter called 'nuclear desalination'), as well as important matters regarding the export nuclear desalination plants to developing countries. (author)

  4. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  5. Thermodynamical research of using solar energy for desalination of seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsović Marjan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the problem of saline water. Water desalination processes, which require significant energy consumption, are a common solution to produce drinking water. This study evaluated the influence of the following process operational parameters on the energy consumption of seawater RO systems: water salinity, permeate recovery ratio, membrane performance and feed water temperature. Optimal operational conditions for the theoretical minimum energy consumption were determined with experiments by varying water qualities and operational parameters. In order to further reduce energy consumption a RO system was integrated with a PV solar system and a pilot PVRO system was built and tested. The results obtained from this study indicated that even though a Solar PV system incurs a huge initial capital investment, it will yield significant benefits in the long run of the RO operational period.

  6. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  7. Development and characterization of polymeric membranes for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresciani, Danusa; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Santos, Diego K.M.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a development of polymeric membranes for water desalination by reverse osmosis. The polyester was synthesized by the reaction between glycerol, and dicarboxylic acids, and was coded PAF. Cellulose acetate/PAF blends containing 10% and 30% of polyester PAF blends were prepared using compression molding. The materials were characterized by DRX, DSC, TGA and SEM techniques. The results blends showed good thermal resistance and thermal events due to the individual components of the blends. The membranes exhibited a good performance in comparison to the neat cellulose acetate membrane. The addition of PAF in the polyester composition of the polymeric blends caused a significant increase of the salt retention of the studied samples. (author)

  8. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  9. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  10. High performance nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordarski, W.J.; Zegler, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel-pellet composition is disclosed for use in fast breeder reactors. Uranium carbide particles are mixed with a powder of uraniumplutonium carbides having a stable microstructure. The resulting mixture is formed into fuel pellets. The pellets thus produced exhibit a relatively low propensity to swell while maintaining a high density

  11. High Performance JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Zakas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    If you're like most developers, you rely heavily on JavaScript to build interactive and quick-responding web applications. The problem is that all of those lines of JavaScript code can slow down your apps. This book reveals techniques and strategies to help you eliminate performance bottlenecks during development. You'll learn how to improve execution time, downloading, interaction with the DOM, page life cycle, and more. Yahoo! frontend engineer Nicholas C. Zakas and five other JavaScript experts -- Ross Harmes, Julien Lecomte, Steven Levithan, Stoyan Stefanov, and Matt Sweeney -- demonstra

  12. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  13. The application of nuclear energy for seawater desalination. The Candesal nuclear desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.; Sweeney, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing population and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. Desalination of seawater is an energy intensive process which brings with it a demand for additional energy generation capacity. The Candesal nuclear desalination/cogeneration system has been developed to address both requirements, providing improved water production efficiency and lower costs. To meet large scale water production requirements the Candesal system integrates a nuclear energy source, such as the CANDU reactor, with a reverse osmosis (ro) desalination facility, capturing the waste heat from the electrical generation process to improve the efficiency of the ro process. By also using advanced feed water pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques, the net results is a substantial improvement in energy efficiency, economics, and environmental impact. The design is also applicable to a variety of conventional energy sources, and applies over the full range of desalination plant sizes. Since potable water production is based on membrane technology, brackish water and tertiary effluent from waste water treatment can also be used as feed streams to the system. Also considered to be a fundamental component of the Candesal philosophy is a technology transfer program aimed at establishing a complete local capability for the design, fabrication, operation and maintenance of these facilities. Through a well defined and logical technology transfer program, the necessary technologies are integrated into a nation's industrial capability and infrastructure, thus preparing local industry for the long term goal of manufacturing large scale, economical and environmentally benign desalination facilities. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs

  14. Observations on the quality of desalinated water in the Segura river basin. Irrigation and supply; Observaciones sobre la calidad del agua desalada en la Cuenca del Seguro. Riego y abastecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latorre Carrion, M.; Camara Zapata, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Desalination of seawater by reverse osmosis (RO) is an unconventional water resource that could help to maintain irrigation crops in the Segura river basin. Its suitability for irrigation purposes needs to be studied to prevent the soil from being harmed and the quality and yield of the crops from falling. This article describes a simulation of the functioning of a RO desalination plant based on actual seawater data (Mazarron). The results show that desalinated water has an ionic balance giving rise to a high specific absorption rate of Na+ and low electrical conductivity, which means that its quality for agricultural purposes is deficient. The article sets out the requirements for irrigation water and the problems they pose for desalination plants. The suitability of desalinated water for agricultural purposes is ecaminaed, corrective measures proposed and the cost involved quantified. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Prospects of nuclear desalination in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years, Morocco has faced a continuous series of dry seasons, which has put a great stress on its limited water resources. Hence, for some time now Morocco has been considering desalinating seawater to supply fresh water to some areas. In the early 1980's, due to limited energy resources, Morocco was obliged to consider other alternatives to meet its energy demands. A feasibility study for the introduction of a nuclear power plant into the national electrical grid was launched. Even though the study showed that the commercially proven, large size reactors could not be integrated into the grid due to their limited capacity, the national electrical utility continues to pursue its efforts to introduce nuclear energy into the country. Presently, the feasibility study is being updated and a bid invitation specification is being prepared with the help of the IAEA experts. In response to the increasing need for energy and water, Morocco and some North African countries participated in the IAEA regional project on the feasibility study on using nuclear energy for seawater desalination. Subsequently, Morocco carried out a feasibility study for the construction of a demonstration plant for seawater desalination using a 10 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor with China and IAEA. As part of its interest in nuclear energy, Morocco is setting up the nuclear infrastructure that could help in the implementation of the nuclear power programme. The construction of a nuclear research centre which is to be commissioned in a couple of years, and the establishment of the nuclear safety authority and the radiation protection authority are part of the programme. (author)

  16. A nuclear desalination complex with a VK-300 boiling type reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetzov, Y.N.; Mishanina, Y.A.; Romenkov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    RDIPE has developed a detailed design of an enhanced safety nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) with a VK-300 boiling water reactor for combined heat and power generation. The thermal power of the reactor is 750 MW. The maximum electrical power in the condensation mode is 250 MWe. The maximum heat generation capacity of 400 Gcal/h is reached at 150 MWe. This report describes, in brief, the basic technical concepts for the VK-300 NSSS and the power unit, with an emphasis on enhanced safety and good economic performance. With relatively small power, good technical and economic performance of the VK-300 reactor that is a base for the desalination complex is attained through: reduced capital costs of the nuclear plant construction thanks to technical approaches ensuring maximum simplicity of the reactor design and the NSSS layout; a single-circuit power unit configuration (reactor-turbine) excluding expensive equipment with a lot of metal, less pipelines and valves; reduced construction costs of the basic buildings thanks to reduced construction volumes due to rational arrangement concepts; higher reliability of equipment and reduced maintenance and repair costs; longer reactor design service life of up to 60 years; selection of the best reactor and desalination equipment interface pattern. The report considers the potential application of the VK-300 reactor as a source of energy for distillation desalination units. The heat from the reactor is transferred to the desalination unit via an intermediate circuit. Comparison is made between variants of the reactor integration with desalination units of the following types: multi-stage flash (MSF technology); multi-effect distillation horizontal-tube film units of the DOU GTPA type (MED technology). The NDC capacity with the VK-300 reactor, in terms of distillate, will be more than 200,000 m 3 /day, with the simultaneous output of electric power from the turbine generator buses of around 150 MWe. The variants of the

  17. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Ye, Z; Gao, W

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m 2 per hour. Comparing

  18. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  19. Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    DEEP (formerly named ''Co-generation and Desalination Economic Evaluation'' Spreadsheet, CDEE) has been developed originally by General Atomics under contract, and has been used in the IAEA's feasibility studies. For further confidence in the software, it was validated in March 1998. After that, a user friendly version has been issued under the name of DEEP at the end of 1998. DEEP output includes the levelised cost of water and power, a breakdown of cost components, energy consumption and net saleable power for each selected option. Specific power plants can be modelled by adjustment of input data including design power, power cycle parameters and costs

  20. Design of a nuclear desalination facility for Bushehr, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Three options of coupling schemes were evaluated in order to integrate an MSF desalination plant of 200,000 m 3 /day with twin PWR units of 3728 MW(th) each for the Halileh Nuclear Power Station in Iran, which were under construction at the time of the investigation: (a) The exhaust steam from a back pressure turbine is fed to the brine heater; (b) The steam extracted downstream of a reheater of the NPP is fed to the brine heater; and (c) Hot water heated by the steam exiting the high pressure turbine of the NPP is fed to the brine heater. Technical and economic advantages and disadvantages of these three options are summarized. (author)

  1. The Estimation Formation Alkaline In The Proses Desalination MSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah, Siti Nurul

    2000-01-01

    Already to go on estimation phenomena formation alkaline scale of a seawater. In desalination system seawater on MSF to go on scale by a thermal decomposition HCO sub.3- ion and hydrolysis carbonate ion with water on the temperature operation. The varieties alkaline scale in attached on tube surface, while reduced efficiency heat transfer and to raise corrosion attack to structure material is caused all this high cost. Estimation to take please which a sum step by step decomposition ion bicarbonate from then information scale which carbonate and hydroxyl ion. The various scale maximal is alkaline form is a calcium carbonate = 116,5 gram per meter cubic the various sedimentation is alkaline and magnesium hydroxide = 67,57 gram per meter cubic

  2. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  3. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    -resolution internal D/A converters are required. Unit-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are analyzed, and the concept of mismatch-shaping is generalized to include scaled-element D/A converters. Several types of scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are proposed. Simulations show that, when implemented...... in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential......-order difference of the output signal from the loop filter's first integrator stage. This technique avoids the need for accurate matching of analog and digital filters that characterizes the MASH topology, and it preserves the signal-band suppression of quantization errors. Simulations show that quantizers...

  4. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  5. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  6. Thermal Desalination using MEMS and Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Walton, J. C.; Hein, H.

    2002-08-01

    MEMS (multi-effect, multi-stage) flash desalination (distillation) driven by thermal energy derived from a salinity-gradient solar pond is investigated in this study for the purpose of improving the thermodynamic efficiency and economics of this technology. Three major tasks are performed: (1) a MEMS unit is tested under various operating conditions at the El Paso Solar Pond site; (2) the operation and maintenance procedures of the salinity-gradient solar pond coupled with the MEMS operation is studied; and (3) previous test data on a 24-stage, falling-film flash distillation unit (known as the Spinflash) is analyzed and compared with the performance of the MEMS unit. The data and information obtained from this investigation is applicable to a variety of thermal desalination processes using other solar options and/or waste heat.

  7. Water desalination using capacitive deionization with microporous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, S; Weinstein, L; Dash, R; van der Wal, A; Bryjak, M; Gogotsi, Y; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in electrostatic double layers inside the negatively charged cathode and the anions are removed by the positively charged anode. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Here we report the use for CDI of carbide-derived carbon (CDC), a porous material with well-defined and tunable pore sizes in the sub-nanometer range. When comparing electrodes made with CDC with electrodes based on activated carbon, we find a significantly higher salt adsorption capacity in the relevant cell voltage window of 1.2-1.4 V. The measured adsorption capacity for four materials tested negatively correlates with known metrics for pore structure of the carbon powders such as total pore volume and BET-area, but is positively correlated with the volume of pores of sizes <1 nm, suggesting the relevance of these sub-nanometer pores for ion adsorption. The charge efficiency, being the ratio of equilibrium salt adsorption over charge, does not depend much on the type of material, indicating that materials that have been identified for high charge storage capacity can also be highly suitable for CDI. This work shows the potential of materials with well-defined sub-nanometer pore sizes for energy-efficient water desalination. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  9. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  10. Status of nuclear desalination in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Some of the IAEA Member States have active nuclear desalination programmes and, during the last few years, substantial overall progress has been made in this field. As part of the ongoing activities within the IAEA's nuclear power programme, it was thus decided to prepare a status report, which would briefly describe the recent nuclear seawater desalination related developments and relevant IAEA activities. This status report briefly covers salient aspects of the new generation reactors and a few innovative reactors being considered for desalination and other non-electrical applications, the recent advances in the commonly employed desalination processes and their coupling to nuclear reactors. A summary of techno-economic feasibility studies carried out in interested Member States has been presented and the potable water cost reduction strategies from nuclear desalination plants have been discussed. The socio-economic and environmental benefits of nuclear power driven desalination plants have been elaborated. It is expected that the concise information provided in this report would be useful to the decision makers in the Member States and would incite them to consider or to accelerate the deployment of nuclear desalination projects in their respective countries

  11. Low temperature humidification dehumidification desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Enezi, Ghazi; Ettouney, Hisham; Fawzy, Nagla

    2006-01-01

    The humidification dehumidification desalination process is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attractive features, which include operation at low temperature, ability to utilize sustainable energy sources, i.e. solar and geothermal, and requirements of low technology level. This paper evaluates the characteristics of the humidification dehumidification desalination process as a function of operating conditions. A small capacity experimental system is used to evaluate the process characteristics as a function of the flow rate of the water and air streams, the temperature of the water stream and the temperature of the cooling water stream. The experimental system includes a packed humidification column, a double pipe glass condenser, a constant temperature water circulation tank and a chiller for cooling water. The water production is found to depend strongly on the hot water temperature. Also, the water production is found to increase upon the increase of the air flow rate and the decrease of the cooling water temperature. The measured air and water temperatures, air relative humidity and the flow rates are used to calculate the air side mass transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient. Measured data are found to be consistent with previous literature results

  12. Adsorption Characteristics of Water and Silica Gel System for Desalination Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Cevallos, Oscar R.

    2012-07-01

    An adsorbent suitable for adsorption desalination cycles is essentially characterized by a hydrophilic and porous structure with high surface area where water molecules are adsorbed via hydrogen bonding mechanism. Silica gel type A++ possesses the highest surface area and exhibits the highest equilibrium uptake from all the silica gels available in the market, therefore being suitable for water desalination cycles; where adsorbent’s adsorption characteristics and water vapor uptake capacity are key parameters in the compactness of the system; translated as feasibility of water desalination through adsorption technologies. The adsorption characteristics of water vapor onto silica gel type A++ over a temperature range of 30 oC to 60 oC are investigated in this research. This is done using water vapor adsorption analyzer utilizing a constant volume and variable pressure method, namely the Hydrosorb-1000 instrument by Quantachrome. The experimental uptake data is studied using numerous isotherm models, i. e. the Langmuir, Tóth, generalized Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A), Dubinin-Astakhov based on pore size distribution (PSD) and Dubinin-Serpinski (D-Se) isotherm for the whole pressure range, and for a pressure range below 10 kPa, proper for desalination cycles; isotherms type V of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification were exhibited. It is observed that the D-A based on PSD and the D-Se isotherm models describe the best fitting of the experimental uptake data for desalination cycles within a regression error of 2% and 6% respectively. All isotherm models, except the D-A based on PSD, have failed to describe the obtained experimental uptake data; an empirical isotherm model is proposed by observing the behavior of Tóth and D-A isotherm models. The new empirical model describes the water adsorption onto silica gel type A++ within a regression error of 3%. This will aid to describe the advantages of silica gel type A++ for the design of

  13. Geochemical Processes During Managed Aquifer Recharge With Desalinated Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Y.; Holtzman, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Russak, A.; Katz, Y.; Kurtzman, D.

    2018-02-01

    We study geochemical processes along the variably-saturated zone during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with reverse-osmosis desalinated seawater (DSW). The DSW, post-treated at the desalination plant by calcite dissolution (remineralization) to meet the Israeli water quality standards, is recharged into the Israeli Coastal Aquifer through an infiltration pond. Water quality monitoring during two MAR events using suction cups and wells inside the pond indicates that cation exchange is the dominant subsurface reaction, driven by the high Ca2+ concentration in the post-treated DSW. Stable isotope analysis shows that the shallow groundwater composition is similar to the recharged DSW, except for enrichment of Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, and HCO3-. A calibrated variably-saturated reactive transport model is used to predict the geochemical evolution during 50 years of MAR for two water quality scenarios: (i) post-treated DSW (current practice) and (ii) soft DSW (lacking the remineralization post-treatment process). The latter scenario was aimed to test soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) as an alternative post-treatment technique. Both scenarios provide an enrichment of ˜2.5 mg L-1 in Mg2+ due to cation exchange, compared to practically zero Mg2+ currently found in the Israeli DSW. Simulations of the alternative SAT scenario provide Ca2+ and HCO3- remineralization due to calcite dissolution at levels that meet the Israeli standard for DSW. The simulated calcite content reduction in the sediments below the infiltration pond after 50 years of MAR was low (<1%). Our findings suggest that remineralization using SAT for DSW is a potentially sustainable practice at MAR sites overlying calcareous sandy aquifers.

  14. Integrated Wireless Monitoring and Control System in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Haji Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational processes of the Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane desalination plants require continuous monitoring through the constant attendance of operators to ensure proper productivity and minimize downtime and prevent membrane failure. Therefore, the plant must be equipped with a control system that monitors and controls the operational variables. Monitoring and controlling the affecting parameters are critical to the evaluation of the performance of the desalination plant, which will help the operator find and resolve problems immediately. Therefore, this paper was aimed at developing an RO unit by utilizing a wireless sensor network (WSN system. Hence, an RO pilot plant with a feed capacity of 1.2 m3/h was utilized, commissioned, and tested in Kuwait to assess and verify the performance of the integrated WSN in RO membrane desalination system. The investigated system allowed the operators to remotely monitor the operational process of the RO system. The operational data were smoothly recorded and monitored. Furthermore, the technical problems were immediately determined, which reduced the time and effort in rectifying the technical problems relevant to the RO performance. The manpower requirements of such treatment system were dramatically reduced by about 50%. Based on a comparison between manual and wireless monitoring operational processes, the availability of the integrated RO unit with a wireless monitoring was increased by 10%

  15. Design precautions for coupling interfaces between nuclear heating reactor and heating grid or desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wenxiang

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear heating reactor (NHR) has been developed by INET since the early eighties. To achieve its economic viability and safety goal, the NHR is designed with a number of advanced and innovative features, including integrated arrangement, natural circulation, self-pressurized performance, dynamically hydraulic control rod drive and passive safety systems. As a new promising energy system, the NHR can serve for district heating, air conditioning, sea-water desalination and other industrial processes. For all of these applications, it is vital that the design and performance of the coupling interfaces shall insure protection of user ends against radioactive contamination. Therefore, an intermediate circuit is provided in the NHR as a physical barrier, and the operating pressure in the intermediate circuit is higher than that in the primary system. In addition, the radioactivity in the intermediate circuit is monitored continuously, and there are also other protection measures in the design for isolating the intermediate circuit and the heating grid or desalination plant under some emergency conditions. The excellent performance of the above design precautions for the coupling interfaces has been demonstrated by operational practice from the NHR-5, a 5 MW(thermal) experimental NHR, which was put into operation in 1989. This paper presents the main design features of the NHR as well as the special provisions taken in the design for coupling the NHR to the heating grid or desalination plant and some operating experience from the NHR-5. (author)

  16. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group's contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Energy-Water Nexus: Spatially-Resolved Analysis of the Potential for Desalinating Brackish Groundwater by Use of Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B. Kjellsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy. Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in Texas. This research uses Texas as a testbed for spatially-resolved analysis techniques while considering depth to brackish groundwater, water quality, and solar radiation across Texas to determine the locations with the best potential for integrating solar energy with brackish groundwater desalination. The framework presented herein can be useful for policymakers, regional planners, and project developers as they consider where to site desalination facilities coupled with solar photovoltaics. Results suggest that the northwestern region of Texas—with abundant sunshine and groundwater at relatively shallow depths and low salinity in areas with freshwater scarcity—has the highest potential for solar powered desalination. The range in capacity for solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis desalination was found to be 1.56 × 10—6 to 2.93 × 10—5 cubic meters of water per second per square meter of solar panel (m3/s/m2.

  19. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis – low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor – reverse osmosis – advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m3 d−1 of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m3 produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  20. Nuclear desalination of sea water. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    About 250 participants from 24 Member States and seven international organizations took part in the Symposium. A wide variety of topics related to nuclear desalination were reviewed and discussed. These covered the activities of some organizations and institutes, the experience gained in existing nuclear desalination plants and their facilities, national and bilateral programmes, including research, design and development, forecasts for the future and the challenges that lie ahead. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of value to technical, financial and regulatory decision makers associated with nuclear desalination