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Sample records for high performance analog

  1. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  2. Componential Analysis of Analogical-Reasoning Performance of High and Low Achievers.

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor; Allen, Brenda A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed analogical reasoning in high- and low-achieving students at the high school level and determined whether analogical reasoning was related to academic achievement in ninth grade students (N=54). Results indicated that high achievers performed better than low achievers on all types of analogical-reasoning processes. (Author/ABL)

  3. Very High-Performance Advanced Filter Bank Analog-to-Digital Converter (AFB ADC) Project

    Velazquez, Scott

    1999-01-01

    ... of the art by using a parallel array of individual commercial off the shelf converters. The significant performance improvements afforded by the Advanced Filter Bank Analog to Digital Converter (AFB ADC...

  4. Trap Healing for High-Performance Low-Voltage Polymer Transistors and Solution-Based Analog Amplifiers on Foil.

    Pecunia, Vincenzo; Nikolka, Mark; Sou, Antony; Nasrallah, Iyad; Amin, Atefeh Y; McCulloch, Iain; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-06-01

    Solution-processed semiconductors such as conjugated polymers have great potential in large-area electronics. While extremely appealing due to their low-temperature and high-throughput deposition methods, their integration in high-performance circuits has been difficult. An important remaining challenge is the achievement of low-voltage circuit operation. The present study focuses on state-of-the-art polymer thin-film transistors based on poly(indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole) and shows that the general paradigm for low-voltage operation via an enhanced gate-to-channel capacitive coupling is unable to deliver high-performance device behavior. The order-of-magnitude longitudinal-field reduction demanded by low-voltage operation plays a fundamental role, enabling bulk trapping and leading to compromised contact properties. A trap-reduction technique based on small molecule additives, however, is capable of overcoming this effect, allowing low-voltage high-mobility operation. This approach is readily applicable to low-voltage circuit integration, as this work exemplifies by demonstrating high-performance analog differential amplifiers operating at a battery-compatible power supply voltage of 5 V with power dissipation of 11 µW, and attaining a voltage gain above 60 dB at a power supply voltage below 8 V. These findings constitute an important milestone in realizing low-voltage polymer transistors for solution-based analog electronics that meets performance and power-dissipation requirements for a range of battery-powered smart-sensing applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analog circuit design automation for performance

    Ning, Zhen-Qiu; Ning, Zhen-Qiu; Kole, Marq; Kole, M.E.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Wallinga, Hans

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an improved version of the program SEAS (a Simulated Evolution approach for Analog circuit Synthesis), in which an approach for selection of alternatives based on the evaluation of mutation values is developed, and design automafion for high performance comparators is covered.

  6. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  7. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning...

  8. Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Gracia, G.; Lopez, M.A.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Santamarina, C.; Vazquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.)

  9. A high-speed analog neural processor

    Masa, P.; Masa, Peter; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Targeted at high-energy physics research applications, our special-purpose analog neural processor can classify up to 70 dimensional vectors within 50 nanoseconds. The decision-making process of the implemented feedforward neural network enables this type of computation to tolerate weight

  10. Impact of underlap spacer region variation on electrostatic and analog performance of symmetrical high-k SOI FinFET at 20 nm channel length

    Jain, Neeraj; Raj, Balwinder

    2017-12-01

    Continued scaling of CMOS technology to achieve high performance and low power consumption of semiconductor devices in the complex integrated circuits faces the degradation in terms of electrostatic integrity, short channel effects (SCEs), leakage currents, device variability and reliability etc. Nowadays, multigate structure has become the promising candidate to overcome these problems. SOI FinFET is one of the best multigate structures that has gained importance in all electronic design automation (EDA) industries due to its improved short channel effects (SCEs), because of its more effective gate-controlling capabilities. In this paper, our aim is to explore the sensitivity of underlap spacer region variation on the performance of SOI FinFET at 20 nm channel length. Electric field modulation is analyzed with spacer length variation and electrostatic performance is evaluated in terms of performance parameter like electron mobility, electric field, electric potential, sub-threshold slope (SS), ON current (I on), OFF current (I off) and I on/I off ratio. The potential benefits of SOI FinFET at drain-to-source voltage, V DS = 0.05 V and V DS = 0.7 V towards analog and RF design is also evaluated in terms of intrinsic gain (A V), output conductance (g d), trans-conductance (g m), gate capacitance (C gg), and cut-off frequency (f T = g m/2πC gg) with spacer region variations.

  11. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  12. System-level techniques for analog performance enhancement

    Song, Bang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    This book shows readers to avoid common mistakes in circuit design, and presents classic circuit concepts and design approaches from the transistor to the system levels. The discussion is geared to be accessible and optimized for practical designers who want to learn to create circuits without simulations. Topic by topic, the author guides designers to learn the classic analog design skills by understanding the basic electronics principles correctly, and further prepares them to feel confident in designing high-performance, state-of-the art CMOS analog systems. This book combines and presents all in-depth necessary information to perform various design tasks so that readers can grasp essential material, without reading through the entire book. This top-down approach helps readers to build practical design expertise quickly, starting from their understanding of electronics fundamentals. .

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  14. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  15. High-frequency analog integrated circuit design

    1995-01-01

    To learn more about designing analog integrated circuits (ICs) at microwave frequencies using GaAs materials, turn to this text and reference. It addresses GaAs MESFET-based IC processing. Describes the newfound ability to apply silicon analog design techniques to reliable GaAs materials and devices which, until now, was only available through technical papers scattered throughout hundred of articles in dozens of professional journals.

  16. Simultaneous Detection of Three Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Eight of Their Analogs in Lifestyle Products and Screening for Adulterants by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Do, Tiên T K; Theocharis, Grigorios; Reich, Eike

    2015-01-01

    An HPTLC method is proposed to permit effective screening for the presence of three phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is; sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil) and eight of their analogs (hydroxyacetildenafil, homosildenafil, thiohomosildenafil, acetildenafil, acetaminotadalafil, propoxyphenyl hydroxyhomosildenafil, hydroxyhomosildenafil, and hydroxythiohomosildenafil) in finished products, including tablets, capsules, chocolate, instant coffee, syrup, and chewing gum. For all the finished products, the same simple sample preparation may be applied: ultrasound-assisted extraction in 10 mL methanol for 30 min followed by centrifugation. The Rf values of individual HPTLC bands afford preliminary identification of potential PDE5-Is. Scanning densitometry capabilities enable comparison of the unknown UV spectra with those of known standard compounds and allow further structural insight. Mass spectrometric analysis of the material derived from individual zones supplies an additional degree of confidence. Significantly, the proposed screening technique allows focus on the already known PDE5 Is and provides a platform for isolation and chemical categorization of the newly-synthesized analogs. Furthermore, the scope could be expanded to other therapeutic categories (e.g., analgesics, antidiabetics, and anorexiants) that are occasionally coadulterated along with the PDE5-Is. The method was successfully applied to screening of 45 commercial lifestyle products. Of those, 31 products tested positive for at least one illegal component (sildenafil, tadalafil, propoxyphenyl hydroxyhomosildenafil, or dimethylsildenafil).

  17. Abstract analogical reasoning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Mosner, Maya G; Gallagher, Natalie M; Fearon, Edward W; Balhana, Carlos D; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit a deficit in spontaneously recognizing abstract similarities that are crucial for generalizing learning to new situations. This may contribute to deficits in the development of appropriate schemas for navigating novel situations, including social interactions. Analogical reasoning is the central cognitive mechanism that enables typically developing children to understand abstract similarities between different situations. Intriguingly, studies of high-functioning children with ASD point to a relative cognitive strength in basic, nonabstract forms of analogical reasoning. If this analogical reasoning ability extends to abstract analogical reasoning (i.e., between superficially dissimilar situations), it may provide a bridge between a cognitive capability and core ASD deficits in areas such as generalization and categorization. This study tested whether preserved analogical reasoning abilities in ASD can be extended to abstract analogical reasoning, using photographs of real-world items and situations. Abstractness of the analogies was determined via a quantitative measure of semantic distance derived from latent semantic analysis. Children with ASD performed as well as typically developing children at identifying abstract analogical similarities when explicitly instructed to apply analogical reasoning. Individual differences in abstract analogical reasoning ability predicted individual differences in a measure of social function in the ASD group. Preliminary analyses indicated that children with ASD, but not typically developing children, showed an effect of age on abstract analogical reasoning. These results provide new evidence that children with ASD are capable of identifying abstract similarities through analogical reasoning, pointing to abstract analogical reasoning as a potential lever for improving generalization skills and social function in ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  18. Multilayered analog optical differentiating device: performance analysis on structural parameters.

    Wu, Wenhui; Jiang, Wei; Yang, Jiang; Gong, Shaoxiang; Ma, Yungui

    2017-12-15

    Analogy optical devices (AODs) able to do mathematical computations have recently gained strong research interest for their potential applications as accelerating hardware in traditional electronic computers. The performance of these wavefront-processing devices is primarily decided by the accuracy of the angular spectral engineering. In this Letter, we show that the multilayer technique could be a promising method to flexibly design AODs according to the input wavefront conditions. As examples, various Si-SiO 2 -based multilayer films are designed that can precisely perform the second-order differentiation for the input wavefronts of different Fourier spectrum widths. The minimum number and thickness uncertainty of sublayers for the device performance are discussed. A technique by rescaling the Fourier spectrum intensity has been proposed in order to further improve the practical feasibility. These results are thought to be instrumental for the development of AODs.

  19. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  20. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW

  1. Total cost of performing analog-to-digital upgrades

    Albrigo, T.

    1993-01-01

    The financial well-being of nuclear power plants in the United States is dependent on reducing costs. Rapid advances in industrial technology have created a conundrum for utility executives and their engineering staffs. Digital technology is being touted as beneficial in many ways; however, a number of significant issues have been raised regarding the adequacy and financial viability of digital systems in nuclear power plants. Actual or perceived problems with digital system design, development, and installation have caused significant financial losses for nuclear utilities. This paper provides a list of problems that must be considered in performing an analog-to-digital conversion or for doing a large digital upgrade. It is desirable that the full financial risks associated with these types of upgrades are considered. Specific problems encountered at Palo Verde nuclear generating station are reviewed to emphasize some of the problem areas

  2. Performance report for Stanford/SLAC Microstore Analog Memory Unit

    Freytag, D.R.; Walker, J.T.

    1984-09-01

    Tests of a newly developed Analog Memory Unit (AMU) are described. The device contains 256 analog storage cells consisting of pass transistors, a storage capacitor and a differential read out buffer. By addressing the storage cells sequentially, the shape of the signal present at the input can be recorded in time. Fast response and good amplitude resolution were the design goals for the development. Measurements on individual devices will be presented and the status of hybridized subsystems containing eight AMUs discussed

  3. High-speed and high-resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

    van de Plassche, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are important building blocks connecting the analog world of transducers with the digital world of computing, signal processing and data acquisition systems. In chapter two the converter as part of a system is described. Requirements of analog

  4. Impact of device engineering on analog/RF performances of tunnel field effect transistors

    Vijayvargiya, V.; Reniwal, B. S.; Singh, P.; Vishvakarma, S. K.

    2017-06-01

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) and its analog/RF performance is being aggressively studied at device architecture level for low power SoC design. Therefore, in this paper we have investigated the influence of the gate-drain underlap (UL) and different dielectric materials for the spacer and gate oxide on DG-TFET (double gate TFET) and its analog/RF performance for low power applications. Here, it is found that the drive current behavior in DG-TFET with a UL feature while implementing dielectric material for the spacer is different in comparison to that of DG-FET. Further, hetero gate dielectric-based DG-TFET (HGDG-TFET) is more resistive against drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) as compared to DG-TFET with high-k (HK) gate dielectric. Along with that, as compared to DG-FET, this paper also analyses the attributes of UL and dielectric material on analog/RF performance of DG-TFET in terms of transconductance (gm ), transconductance generation factor (TGF), capacitance, intrinsic resistance (Rdcr), cut-off frequency (F T), and maximum oscillation frequency (F max). The LK spacer-based HGDG-TFET with a gate-drain UL has the potential to improve the RF performance of device.

  5. Crew behavior and performance in space analog environments

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives and the current status of the Crew Factors research program conducted at NASA-Ames Research Center are reviewed. The principal objectives of the program are to determine the effects of a broad class of input variables on crew performance and to provide guidance with respect to the design and management of crews assigned to future space missions. A wide range of research environments are utilized, including controlled experimental settings, high fidelity full mission simulator facilities, and fully operational field environments. Key group processes are identified, and preliminary data are presented on the effect of crew size, type, and structure on team performance.

  6. Analog performance of vertical nanowire TFETs as a function of temperature and transport mechanism

    Martino, Marcio Dalla Valle; Neves, Felipe; Ghedini Der Agopian, Paula; Martino, João Antonio; Vandooren, Anne; Rooyackers, Rita; Simoen, Eddy; Thean, Aaron; Claeys, Cor

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this work is to study the analog performance of tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) and its susceptibility to temperature variation and to different dominant transport mechanisms. The experimental input characteristic of nanowire TFETs with different source compositions (100% Si and Si1-xGex) has been presented, leading to the extraction of the Activation Energy for each bias condition. These first results have been connected to the prevailing transport mechanism for each configuration, namely band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) or trap assisted tunneling (TAT). Afterward, this work analyzes the analog behavior, with the intrinsic voltage gain calculated in terms of Early voltage, transistor efficiency, transconductance and output conductance. Comparing the results for devices with different source compositions, it is interesting to note how the analog trends vary depending on the source characteristics and the prevailing transport mechanisms. This behavior results in a different suitability analysis depending on the working temperature. In other words, devices with full-Silicon source and non-abrupt junction profile present the worst intrinsic voltage gain at room temperature, but the best results for high temperatures. This was possible since, among the 4 studied devices, this configuration was the only one with a positive intrinsic voltage gain dependence on the temperature variation.

  7. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  8. Study of high-spin analog resonances near the N=50 neutron shell

    Gales, S.; El Hage, Y.; Schapira, J.P.; Fortier, S.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The 96 Zr( 3 He,d) 97 Nb and the 92 Mo( 3 He,d) 93 Tc reactions, investigated at, respectively 39.0 and 28.5 MeV incident energies, were used to selectively populate high-spin analog resonances in the 97 Nb and 93 Tc nuclei. Angular distributions were measured for the dsub(3/2), gsub(7/2) and hsub(11/2) analog states of the low-lying levels in 97 Zr. A DWBA analysis of the data for these unbound levels (using Gamov functions as form factors) was carried out and spectroscopic strengths extracted. The 96 Zr( 3 He,dp) and 92 Mo( 3 He,dp) reactions were performed, respectively, at 37.5 and 30 MeV incident energies. The angular distributions of the emitted protons were measured in coincidence using method II of Litherland and Ferguson with 0 0 detection of deuteron groups. Spins, population parameters and proton branching ratios to the ground state and excited states of the targets were determined from the analysis of the angular correlation data. The position of the neutron threshold as compared with the excitation energies of the analog states in 97 Nb and 93 Tc is found to be an important parameter in the extraction of the structure informations on core-excited components in the parent levels wave functions. Neutron particle-hole multiplets are observed for the first time in 96 Zr through the decay of the gsub(7 /2) and hsub(11/2) analog resonances. The limitation of the present method due to the neutron threshold or to the energy resolution in the proton channel is discussed and compared with the results of inelastic resonant scattering through isobaric analog resonances

  9. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  10. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    Kovach, L.A. [ed.] [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Murphy, W.M. [ed.] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Understanding High Rate Behavior Through Low Rate Analog

    2014-04-28

    challenges in high rate character- isation of polymers. The most important is that, owing to their low stress wavespeed, the structural response of...box’ tool, to provide supporting date for the rate dependent mechanical character- isation . Experiments were performed on a TA instruments Q800

  12. High Dynamic Range Nonlinear Measurement using Analog Cancellation

    2012-10-01

    shield around sensitive areas. The target may also be sensitive to radiated coupling from the system and will benefit from a shield box or Faraday ... cage , if it is not already enclosed. On the shared measurement path and through the target, cross-channel coupling cannot be prevented, so low-PIM...testing is desired, traditional filtering is recommended, as the primary benefits of the analog canceller are effectively nullified. 2.4 Wideband

  13. Beyond quantum-classical analogies: high time for agreement?

    Marrocco, Michele

    Lately, many quantum-classical analogies have been investigated and published in many acknowledged journals. Such a surge of research on conceptual connections between quantum and classical physics forces us to ask whether the correspondence between the quantum and classical interpretation of the reality is deeper than the correspondence principle stated by Bohr. Here, after a short introduction to quantum-classical analogies from the recent literature, we try to examine the question from the perspective of a possible agreement between quantum and classical laws. A paradigmatic example is given in the striking equivalence between the classical Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering from spherical scatterers and the corresponding quantum-mechanical wave scattering analyzed in terms of partial waves. The key features that make the correspondence possible are examined and finally employed to deal with the fundamental blackbody problem that marks the initial separation between classical and quantum physics. The procedure allows us to recover the blackbody spectrum in classical terms and the proof is rich in consequences. Among them, the strong analogy between the quantum vacuum and its classical counterpart.

  14. Comparison of Response Characteristics of High-Purity Germanium Detectors using Analog Versus Digital Processing

    Luke, S J; Raschke, K

    2004-01-01

    In this article we will discuss some of the results of the response characteristics of High Purity germanium detectors using analog versus digital processing of the signals that are outputted from the detector. The discussion will focus on whether or not there is a significant difference in the response of the detector with digital electronics that it limits the ability of the detection system to get reasonable gamma ray spectrometric results. Particularly, whether or not the performance of the analysis code Pu600 is compromised

  15. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    Waugh, W.J. [Rust Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Sciences Lab.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunter, C.R. [Cascade Earth Sciences, La Grande, OR (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  16. Impact of technology scaling on analog and RF performance of SOI–TFET

    Kumari, P; Mishra, G P; Dash, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents both the analytical and simulation study of analog and RF performance for single gate semiconductor on insulator tunnel field effect transistor in an extensive manner. Here 2D drain current model has been developed using initial and final tunneling length of band-to-band process. The investigation is further extended to the quantitative and comprehensive analysis of analog parameters such as surface potential, electric field, tunneling path, and transfer characteristics of the device. The impact of scaling of gate oxide thickness and silicon body thickness on the electrostatic and RF performance of the device is discussed. The analytical model results are validated with TCAD sentaurus device simulation results. (paper)

  17. Digitizing high frequency signals using serial analog memories

    Coonrod, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    An online computer system has been developed as a replacement for oscilloscopes and cameras on the Tormac project. Up to 32 simultaneous waveforms are recorded at up to 2 MHz in analog shift registers, then digitized sequentially after the event into a small PDP-11 computer. Data and functions of data may be displayed or plotted locally, and then forwarded for storage at a larger, remote computer via a network arrangement. Advantages over scopes have been lower incremental cost (approximately $200/channel), less noise pickup, better resolution (less than 1%), and immediate presentation of data

  18. Analog/RF performance of two tunnel FETs with symmetric structures

    Chen, Shupeng; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Li, Wei; Wang, Qianqiong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the radio frequency and analog performance of two tunnel field-effect transistors with symmetric structures are analyzed. The symmetric U-shape gate tunnel field-effect transistor (SUTFET) and symmetric tunnel field-effect transistor (STFET) are investigated by Silvaco Atlas simulation. The basic electrical properties and the parameters related to frequency and analog characteristics are analyzed. Due to the lower off-state leakage current, the STFET has better power consumption performance. The SUTFET obtains larger operating current (242 μA/μm), transconductance (490 μS/μm), output conductance (494 μS/μm), gain bandwidth product (3.2 GHz) and cut-off frequency (27.7 GHz). The simulation result of these two devices can be used as a guideline for their analog/RF applications.

  19. High-precision analog circuit technology for power supply integrated circuits; Dengen IC yo koseido anarogu kairo gijutsu

    Nakamori, A.; Suzuki, T.; Mizoe, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    With the recent rapid spread of portable electronic appliances, specification requirements such as compact power supply and long operation with batteries have become severer. Power supply ICs (integrated circuits) are required to reduce power consumption in the circuit and perform high-precision control. To meet these requirements, Fuji Electric develops high-precision CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog technology. This paper describes three analog circuit technologies of a voltage reference, an operational amplifier and a comparator as circuit components particularly important for the precision of power supply ICs. (author)

  20. CMOS analog integrated circuits high-speed and power-efficient design

    Ndjountche, Tertulien

    2011-01-01

    High-speed, power-efficient analog integrated circuits can be used as standalone devices or to interface modern digital signal processors and micro-controllers in various applications, including multimedia, communication, instrumentation, and control systems. New architectures and low device geometry of complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) technologies have accelerated the movement toward system on a chip design, which merges analog circuits with digital, and radio-frequency components. CMOS: Analog Integrated Circuits: High-Speed and Power-Efficient Design describes the important tren

  1. Analog/RF performance of four different Tunneling FETs with the recessed channels

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Chen, Shupeng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the performance comparisons of analog and radio frequency (RF) in the four different tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) with the recessed channels are performed. The L-shaped channel TFET (LTFET), U-shaped channel TFET (UTFET), U-shaped channel with L-shaped gate TFET (LGUTFET) and U-shaped channel with dual sources TFET (DUTFET) are investigated by using Silvaco-Atalas simulation tool. The transconductance (gm), output conductance (gds), gate capacitance (Cgg), cut-off frequency (fT) and gain bandwidth product (GBW) are the parameters by analyzed. Among all the considered devices, the DUTFET has the maximum gm and gds due to the improved on-state current by dual sources, and the LTFET has the minimum Cgg because of the minimum gate-to-drain capacitance (Cgd). Since analog/RF characteristics of a device are proportional to gm and inversely proportional to Cgg, the LTFET and DUTFET have better analog/RF performance compared to the UTFET and LGUTFET. The extracted largest fT is 3.02 GHz in the LTFET and the largest GBW is 1.02 GHz in the DUTFET. The simulation results in this paper can be used as a reference to choose the TFET among these four TFETs for analog/RF applications.

  2. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  3. Performance Effects of Display Incogruity in a Digital and Analog Clock Reading Task

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Derks, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    In an era of increasing automation, it is important to design displays and input devices that minimize human error. In this context, information concerning the human response to the detection of incongruous information is important. Such incongruous information can be operationalized as unexpected (perhaps erroneous) information on which a decision by the human or operation by an automated system is based. In the aviation environment, decision making when faced with inadequate, incomplete, or incongruous information may occur in a failure scenario. An additional challenge facing the human operator in automated environments is maintaining alertness or vigilance. The vigilance issue is of particular concern as a factor that may interact with performance when faced with inadequate, incomplete, or incongruous information. From the literature on eye-scan behavior we know that the time spent looking at a particular display or indicator is a function of the type of information one is trying to discern from the display. For example, quick glances are all it takes for confirming that an indicator is in a normal position or range, whereas a continuous look of several seconds may be required for confirmation that a complex control input is having the desired effect. Important to consider is that while an extended look takes place, visual input from other sources may be missed. Much like an extended look, the interpretation of incongruous information may require extra time. The present experiment was designed to explore the performance consequences of a decision making task when incongruous information was presented. For this experiment a display incongruity was created on a subset of trials of a clock reading laboratory task. Display incongruity was made possible through presentation of 'impossible' times (e.g. 1:65 or 11:90). Subjects made 'same' 'different' decisions and keyboard responses to pairings of Analog-Analog (AA), Digital-Digital (DD), and Analog- Digital (AD

  4. The baby and the bath water: improving metaphors and analogies in high school biology texts

    Shors, Luke

    This dissertation is concerned with understanding how metaphors and analogies function in biology education and whether some of the philosophical critiques of the language used in the field of biology -- and in particular its accompanying metaphors and analogies, have a basis in the educational materials used to teach the subject. This inquiry was carried out through examining the pedagogical features and content of metaphors and analogies from three high school biology textbooks. After identifying over two hundred and twenty-five verbal and pictorial metaphors and analogies, these figures of speech were coded based on prior research that establishes effective characteristics for their use. In tandem with this quantitative analysis, a philosophical analysis considers how well the content of these metaphors and analogies aligns with current scientific understanding and what misunderstandings may be engendered through the use of these metaphors and analogies. The major findings of the analysis include: 1) Textbook authors are much more likely to utilize metaphors and analogies as well as signal their presence to students compared with past analyses; 2) A number of metaphors and analogies either contain errors in analogical mapping or use source analogues that are too antiquated to support today's students; 3) The content of many metaphors and analogies is frequently outdated in reference to current scientific understanding; and 4) Many metaphors and analogies tend to reinforce tacit elements of past scientific paradigms - these are termed 'reinforcing metaphors' in the dissertation and include nature as machine, nature as blueprint or information, nature as business and nature as war. The present work submits several implications for students learning biology as well as the manner in which students come to understand the natural world. The work suggests ways to reduce ineffective metaphors and analogies as well as reliance on reinforcing metaphors. It offers new

  5. Review on analog/radio frequency performance of advanced silicon MOSFETs

    Passi, Vikram; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Aggressive gate-length downscaling of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been the main stimulus for the growth of the integrated circuit industry. This downscaling, which has proved beneficial to digital circuits, is primarily the result of the need for improved circuit performance and cost reduction and has resulted in tremendous reduction of the carrier transit time across the channel, thereby resulting in very high cut-off frequencies. It is only in recent decades that complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistor (FET) has been considered as the radio frequency (RF) technology of choice. In this review, the status of the digital, analog and RF figures of merit (FoM) of silicon-based FETs is presented. State-of-the-art devices with very good performance showing low values of drain-induced barrier lowering, sub-threshold swing, high values of gate transconductance, Early voltage, cut-off frequencies, and low minimum noise figure, and good low-frequency noise characteristic values are reported. The dependence of these FoM on the device gate length is also shown, helping the readers to understand the trends and challenges faced by shorter CMOS nodes. Device performance boosters including silicon-on-insulator substrates, multiple-gate architectures, strain engineering, ultra-thin body and buried-oxide and also III-V and 2D materials are discussed, highlighting the transistor characteristics that are influenced by these boosters. A brief comparison of the two main contenders in continuing Moore’s law, ultra-thin body buried-oxide and fin field-effect transistors are also presented. The authors would like to mention that despite extensive research carried out in the semiconductor industry, silicon-based MOSFET will continue to be the driving force in the foreseeable future.

  6. Optimization of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor for ambipolar current suppression and Analog/RF performance enhancement

    Li, Cong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Yiqi; Yan, Zhirui; Guo, Jiaming; Han, Ru

    2018-03-01

    L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor (LTFET) has larger tunnel area than planar TFET, which leads to enhanced on-current ION . However, LTFET suffers from severe ambipolar behavior, which needs to be further optimized for low power and high-frequency applications. In this paper, both hetero-gate-dielectric (HGD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures are introduced into LTFET for suppression of ambipolarity and improvement of analog/RF performance of LTFET. Current-voltage characteristics, the variation of energy band diagrams, distribution of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) generation and distribution of electric field are analyzed for our proposed HGD-LDD-LTFET. In addition, the effect of LDD on the ambipolar behavior of LTFET is investigated, the length and doping concentration of LDD is also optimized for better suppression of ambipolar current. Finally, analog/RF performance of HGD-LDD-LTFET are studied in terms of gate-source capacitance, gate-drain capacitance, cut-off frequency, and gain bandwidth production. TCAD simulation results show that HGD-LDD-LTFET not only drastically suppresses ambipolar current but also improves analog/RF performance compared with conventional LTFET.

  7. Analog computing

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  8. Role of natural analogs in performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories

    Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical models of the flow of water and transport of radionuclides in porous media will be used to assess the ability of deep geologic repositories to safely contain nuclear waste. These models must, in some sense, be validated to ensure that they adequately describe the physical processes occurring within the repository and its geologic setting. Inasmuch as the spatial and temporal scales over which these models must be applied in performance assessment are very large, validation of these models against laboratory and small-scale field experiments may be considered inadequate. Natural analogs may provide validation data that are representative of physico-chemical processes that occur over spatial and temporal scales as large or larger than those relevant to repository design. The authors discuss the manner in which natural analog data may be used to increase confidence in performance assessment models and conclude that, while these data may be suitable for testing the basic laws governing flow and transport, there is insufficient control of boundary and initial conditions and forcing functions to permit quantitative validation of complex, spatially distributed flow and transport models. The authors also express their opinion that, for collecting adequate data from natural analogs, resources will have to be devoted to them that are much larger than are devoted to them at present

  9. Fiber lightguide-coupled high frequency analog data system

    Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Morton, J.R.; Pruett, B.

    1976-06-01

    An experimental system is described for measuring the time history of a high voltage, high frequency electrical pulse from a radiation detector. The system employs several fibers of a 500-m graded index light-guide cable to carry modelocked laser pulses from a safe location to an electro-optical Kerr cell located near the detector. These 200-ps pulses are widened to 500 ps at the cell by fiber dispersion. They are intensity-modulated in the cell by the electrical signal and returned over other cable fibers to an optical detector and recorder located near the laser. System frequency response exceeds 500 MHz over an amplitude dynamic range of 1000:1

  10. Performance analysis of pulse analog control schemes for LLC resonant DC/DC converters suitable in portable applications

    P. Kowstubha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance Analysis of Pulse Analog Control Schemes, predominantly Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM and Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM for LLC resonant DC/DC converter suitable in portable applications is addressed in this paper. The analysis is done for closed loop performance, frequency domain performance, primary and secondary side conduction losses and soft commutation using PSIM 6.0 software and observed that PPM scheme provides better performance at high input voltage with a good selectivity of frequency over a wide range of line and load variations. The performance of LLC resonant DC/DC converter is demonstrated using PPM scheme for a design specifications of 12 V, 5 A output.

  11. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  12. Natural analogs of the long-term performance of engineered covers

    Waugh, W.J.; Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The unprecedented legislative demand that in-situ waste-disposal facilities effectively persist indefinitely requires a performance assessment approach that exceeds standard engineering practices and incorporates possible long-term changes in site hydrology, geology, and ecology. Even in relatively arid regions, over time, buried waste will be vulnerable to transport via rainwater percolation, gas diffusion, erosion, and intrusion by plant roots, burrowing animals, and humans. Standard models and field tests of engineered covers designed to impede these pathways implicitly and erroneously assume that initial conditions of many key determinants will persist indefinitely. Evidence from natural, archaeological, and engineered analogs is needed (1) to identify and understand emergent system attributes that cannot be captured with computer models or short-term experiments, and (2) to develop modeling and field tests that reasonably bound possible future changes in waste-site environments. Analogs of local responses to future global climate change exist as proxy ecological and archaeological records of similar paleoclimates. Future pedogenic influences can be inferred form measurements of key soil properties in natural and archaeological soil profiles analogous to engineered covers. Many cover designs depend on water extraction by plants. Influences of vegetation change can be inferred by measuring water extraction parameters in plant communities representing successional chronosequences. Habitats similar to those created on waste sites provide evidence of the potential for biological intrusion. Recent and ancient man-made structures provide evidence of the future stability of waste-site covers and of features that may discourage human intrusion. 108 refs., 4 figs

  13. Improving Junior High School Students' Mathematical Analogical Ability Using Discovery Learning Method

    Maarif, Samsul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the influence of discovery learning method towards the mathematical analogical ability of junior high school's students. This is a research using factorial design 2x2 with ANOVA-Two ways. The population of this research included the entire students of SMPN 13 Jakarta (State Junior High School 13 of Jakarta)…

  14. High performance homes

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  15. High-QE fast-readout wavefront sensor with analog phase reconstruction

    Baker, Jeffrey T.; Loos, Gary C.; Restaino, Sergio R.; Percheron, Isabelle; Finkner, Lyle G.

    1998-09-01

    The contradiction inherent in high temporal bandwidth adaptive optics wavefront sensing at low-light-levels (LLL) has driven many researchers to consider the use of high bandwidth high quantum efficiency (QE) CCD cameras with the lowest possible readout noise levels. Unfortunately, the performance of these relatively expensive and low production volume devices in the photon counting regime is inevitably limited by readout noise, no matter how arbitrarily close to zero that specification may be reduced. Our alternative approach is to optically couple a new and relatively inexpensive Ultra Blue Gen III image intensifier to an also relatively inexpensive high bandwidth CCD camera with only moderate QE and high rad noise. The result is a high bandwidth broad spectral response image intensifier with a gain of 55,000 at 560 nm. Use of an appropriately selected lenslet array together with coupling optics generates 16 X 16 Shack-Hartmann type subapertures on the image intensifier photocathode, which is imaged onto the fast CCD camera. An integral A/D converter in the camera sends the image data pixel by pixel to a computer data acquisition system for analysis, storage and display. Timing signals are used to decode which pixel is being rad out and the wavefront is calculated in an analog fashion using a least square fit to both x and y tilt data for all wavefront sensor subapertures. Finally, we present system level performance comparisons of these new concept wavefront sensors versus the more standard low noise CCD camera based designs in the low-light-level limit.

  16. High Performance Marine Vessels

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  17. High-speed multiple-channel analog to digital data-acquisition module for microprocessor systems

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Intelligent data acquisition and instrumentation systems established by the incorporation of microprocessor technology require high-speed analog to digital conversion of multiple-channel input signals. Sophisticated data systems or subsystems are enabled by the microprocessor software flexibility to establish adaptive input data procedures. These adaptive procedures are enhanced by versatile interface circuitry which is software controlled

  18. DockoMatic: automated peptide analog creation for high throughput virtual screening.

    Jacob, Reed B; Bullock, Casey W; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is threefold: (1) to describe an update to DockoMatic that allows the user to generate cyclic peptide analog structure files based on protein database (pdb) files, (2) to test the accuracy of the peptide analog structure generation utility, and (3) to evaluate the high throughput capacity of DockoMatic. The DockoMatic graphical user interface interfaces with the software program Treepack to create user defined peptide analogs. To validate this approach, DockoMatic produced cyclic peptide analogs were tested for three-dimensional structure consistency and binding affinity against four experimentally determined peptide structure files available in the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics database. The peptides used to evaluate this new functionality were alpha-conotoxins ImI, PnIA, and their published analogs. Peptide analogs were generated by DockoMatic and tested for their ability to bind to X-ray crystal structure models of the acetylcholine binding protein originating from Aplysia californica. The results, consisting of more than 300 simulations, demonstrate that DockoMatic predicts the binding energy of peptide structures to within 3.5 kcal mol(-1), and the orientation of bound ligand compares to within 1.8 Å root mean square deviation for ligand structures as compared to experimental data. Evaluation of high throughput virtual screening capacity demonstrated that Dockomatic can collect, evaluate, and summarize the output of 10,000 AutoDock jobs in less than 2 hours of computational time, while 100,000 jobs requires approximately 15 hours and 1,000,000 jobs is estimated to take up to a week. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A POPULATION OF X-RAY WEAK QUASARS: PHL 1811 ANALOGS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gibson, Robert R.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Shemmer, Ohad; Just, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 10 type 1 quasars selected to have unusual UV emission-line properties (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines; strong UV Fe emission) similar to those of PHL 1811, a confirmed intrinsically X-ray weak quasar. These quasars were identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at high redshift (z ∼ 2.2); eight are radio quiet while two are radio intermediate. All of the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, without exception, are notably X-ray weak by a mean factor of ∼13. These sources lack broad absorption lines and have blue UV/optical continua, supporting the hypothesis that they are intrinsically X-ray weak like PHL 1811 itself. However, their average X-ray spectrum appears to be harder than those of typical quasars, which may indicate the presence of heavy intrinsic X-ray absorption. Our sample of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs supports a connection between an X-ray weak spectral energy distribution and PHL 1811-like UV emission lines; this connection provides an economical way to identify X-ray weak type 1 quasars. The fraction of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs in the radio-quiet quasar population is estimated to be ∼< 1.2%. We have investigated correlations between relative X-ray brightness and UV emission-line properties (e.g., C IV equivalent width and blueshift) for a sample combining our radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, PHL 1811 itself, and typical type 1 quasars. These correlation analyses suggest that PHL 1811 analogs may have extreme wind-dominated broad emission-line regions. Observationally, the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs appear to be a subset (∼30%) of radio-quiet weak-line quasars (WLQs). The existence of a subset of quasars in which high-ionization 'shielding gas' covers most of the broad emission-line region (BELR), but little more than the BELR, could potentially unify the PHL 1811 analogs and WLQs. The two radio-intermediate PHL 1811 analogs are X-ray bright. X

  20. High performance systems

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  1. Responsive design high performance

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  2. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  3. High-yield production of herbicidal thaxtomins and analogs in a nonpathogenic Streptomyces strain.

    Jiang, Guangde; Zhang, Yucheng; Powell, Magan M; Zhang, Peilan; Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Kallifidas, Dimitrios; Tieu, Albert M; Luesch, Hendrik; Loria, Rosemary; Ding, Yousong

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are virulence factors of most plant pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Due to their potent herbicidal activity, attractive environmental compatibility and inherent biodegradability, thaxtomins are key active ingredients of bioherbicides approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the low yield of thaxtomins in native Streptomyces producers limits their wide agricultural applications. Here, we describe the high-yield production of thaxtomins in a heterologous host. The thaxtomin gene cluster from S. scabiei 87.22 was cloned and expressed in S. albus J1074 after chromosomal integration. The production of thaxtomins and nitro-tryptophan analogs were observed using LC-MS analysis. When culturing the engineered S. albus J1074 in the minimal medium TMDc, the yield of the most abundant and herbicidal analog, thaxtomin A, was 10 times higher than S. scabiei 87.22, and optimization of the medium resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomin analogs at about 222 mg/L. Further engineering of the thaxtomin biosynthetic gene cluster through gene deletion led to the production of multiple biosynthetic intermediates important to the chemical synthesis of new analogs. Additionally, the versatility of the thaxtomin biosynthetic system in S. albus J1074 was capitalized to produce one unnatural fluorinated analog 5-F-thaxtomin A, whose structure was elucidated by a combination of MS and 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Natural and unnatural thaxtomins demonstrated potent herbicidal activity in radish seedling assays. These results indicated that S. albus J1074 has the potential to produce thaxtomins and thereof with high yield, fostering their agricultural applications. IMPORTANCE Thaxtomins are agriculturally valuable herbicidal natural products but the productivity of native producers is limiting. Heterologous expression of thaxtomin gene cluster in S. albus J1074 resulted in the highest yield of thaxtomins ever reported, representing a significant leap

  4. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  5. Clojure high performance programming

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  6. Connect high speed analog-digital converter with EPICS based on LabVIEW

    Wang Wei; Chi Yunlong

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduce a method to connect high speed analog-digital converter (ADC212/100) with EPICS on Windows platform using LabVIEW. We use labVIEW to communicate with the converter, then use interface sub-VIs between LabVIEW and EPICS to access the EPICS IOC by Channel Access (CA). For the easy use graph programming language of LabVIEW, this method could shorten the develop period and reduce manpower cost. (authors)

  7. Optoelectronic link for analog signals from solid state detectors in high energy physics

    Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1983-01-01

    An optoelectric link has been made to transmit analog signals over a long distance between the beam area and the remote-end data acquisition instrumentation in high energy experiments. The optoelectronic link is intended for silicon target applications and it is designed to work on the signals at the output of a low noise amplifier system. Its advantages over a conventional galvanic connection as well as its limitations are discussed. (orig.)

  8. High Performance Concrete

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  9. High performance polymeric foams

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  10. Single halo SDODEL n-MOSFET: an alternative low-cost pseudo-SOI with better analog performance

    Sarkar, Partha; Mallik, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, with the help of extensive TCAD simulations, we investigate the analog performance of source/drain on depletion layer (SDODEL) MOSFETs with a single-halo (SH) implant near the source side of the channel. We use the SH implant in such a structure for the first time. The analog performance parameters in SH SDODEL MOSFETs are compared to those in SH MOSFETs as well as in SH SOI MOSFETs. In addition to reduced junction capacitance for the SH SDODEL structure as compared to that in bulk SH devices, it has been shown that such devices lead to improved performance and lower power dissipation for sub-100 nm CMOS technologies. Our results show that, in SH SDODEL MOSFETs, there is significant improvement in the intrinsic device performance for analog applications (such as device gain, gm/ID, etc) for the sub-100 nm technologies.

  11. Single halo SDODEL n-MOSFET: an alternative low-cost pseudo-SOI with better analog performance

    Sarkar, Partha; Mallik, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, with the help of extensive TCAD simulations, we investigate the analog performance of source/drain on depletion layer (SDODEL) MOSFETs with a single-halo (SH) implant near the source side of the channel. We use the SH implant in such a structure for the first time. The analog performance parameters in SH SDODEL MOSFETs are compared to those in SH MOSFETs as well as in SH SOI MOSFETs. In addition to reduced junction capacitance for the SH SDODEL structure as compared to that in bulk SH devices, it has been shown that such devices lead to improved performance and lower power dissipation for sub-100 nm CMOS technologies. Our results show that, in SH SDODEL MOSFETs, there is significant improvement in the intrinsic device performance for analog applications (such as device gain, g m /I D , etc) for the sub-100 nm technologies

  12. High performance conductometry

    Saha, B.

    2000-01-01

    Inexpensive but high performance systems have emerged progressively for basic and applied measurements in physical and analytical chemistry on one hand, and for on-line monitoring and leak detection in plants and facilities on the other. Salient features of the developments will be presented with specific examples

  13. Danish High Performance Concretes

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...... concretes, workability, ductility, and confinement problems....

  14. High performance homes

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  15. Alternate source term models for Yucca Mountain performance assessment based on natural analog data and secondary mineral solubility

    Murphy, W.M.; Codell, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Performance assessment calculations for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were conducted using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Total-System Performance Assessment (TPA 3.2) code to test conceptual models and parameter values for the source term based on data from the Pena Blanca, Mexico, natural analog site and based on a model for coprecipitation and solubility of secondary schoepite. In previous studies the value for the maximum constant oxidative alteration rate of uraninite at the Nopal I uranium body at Pena Blanca was estimated. Scaling this rate to the mass of uranium for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository yields an oxidative alteration rate of 22 kg/y, which was assumed to be an upper limit on the release rate from the proposed repository. A second model was developed assuming releases of radionuclides are based on the solubility of secondary schoepite as a function of temperature and solution chemistry. Releases of uranium are given by the product of uranium concentrations at equilibrium with schoepite and the flow of water through the waste packages. For both models, radionuclides other than uranium and those in the cladding and gap fraction were modeled to be released at a rate proportional to the uranium release rate, with additional elemental solubility limits applied. Performance assessment results using the Pena Blanca oxidation rate and schoepite solubility models for Yucca Mountain were compared to the TPA 3.2 base case model, in which release was based on laboratory studies of spent fuel dissolution, cladding and gap release, and solubility limits. Doses calculated using the release rate based on natural analog data and the schoepite solubility models were smaller than doses generated using the base case model. These results provide a degree of confidence in safety predictions using the base case model and an indication of how conservatism in the base case model may be reduced in future analyses

  16. Alternate source term models for Yucca Mountain performance assessment based on natural analog data and secondary mineral solubility

    Murphy, W.M.; Codell, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    Performance assessment calculations for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were conducted using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Total-System Performance Assessment (TPA 3.2) code to test conceptual models and parameter values for the source term based on data from the Pena Blanca, Mexico, natural analog site and based on a model for coprecipitation and solubility of secondary schoepite. In previous studies the value for the maximum constant oxidative alteration rate of uraninite at the Nopal I uranium body at Pena Blanca was estimated. Scaling this rate to the mass of uranium for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository yields an oxidative alteration rate of 22 kg/y, which was assumed to be an upper limit on the release rate from the proposed repository. A second model was developed assuming releases of radionuclides are based on the solubility of secondary schoepite as a function of temperature and solution chemistry. Releases of uranium are given by the product of uranium concentrations at equilibrium with schoepite and the flow of water through the waste packages. For both models, radionuclides other than uranium and those in the cladding and gap fraction were modeled to be released at a rate proportional to the uranium release rate, with additional elemental solubility limits applied. Performance assessment results using the Pena Blanca oxidation rate and schoepite solubility models for Yucca Mountain were compared to the TPA 3.2 base case model, in which release was based on laboratory studies of spent fuel dissolution, cladding and gap release, and solubility limits. Doses calculated using the release rate based on natural analog data and the schoepite solubility models were smaller than doses generated using the base case model. These results provide a degree of confidence in safety predictions using the base case model and an indication of how conservatism in the base case model may be reduced in future analyses.

  17. High-Performance Networking

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  18. When none of us perform better than all of us together: the role of analogical decision rules in groups.

    Nicoleta Meslec

    Full Text Available During social interactions, groups develop collective competencies that (ideally should assist groups to outperform average standalone individual members (weak cognitive synergy or the best performing member in the group (strong cognitive synergy. In two experimental studies we manipulate the type of decision rule used in group decision-making (identify the best vs. collaborative, and the way in which the decision rules are induced (direct vs. analogical and we test the effect of these two manipulations on the emergence of strong and weak cognitive synergy. Our most important results indicate that an analogically induced decision rule (imitate-the-successful heuristic in which groups have to identify the best member and build on his/her performance (take-the-best heuristic is the most conducive for strong cognitive synergy. Our studies bring evidence for the role of analogy-making in groups as well as the role of fast-and-frugal heuristics for group decision-making.

  19. High performance data transfer

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Analog Beamforming with Hardware Impairments for mmW Massive MIMO Communication in an Urban Scenario

    Sonia Gimenez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques for communication at millimeter-Wave (mmW frequency bands has become a key enabler to meet the data rate demands of the upcoming fifth generation (5G cellular systems. In particular, analog and hybrid beamforming solutions are receiving increasing attention as less expensive and more power efficient alternatives to fully digital precoding schemes. Despite their proven good performance in simple setups, their suitability for realistic cellular systems with many interfering base stations and users is still unclear. Furthermore, the performance of massive MIMO beamforming and precoding methods are in practice also affected by practical limitations and hardware constraints. In this sense, this paper assesses the performance of digital precoding and analog beamforming in an urban cellular system with an accurate mmW channel model under both ideal and realistic assumptions. The results show that analog beamforming can reach the performance of fully digital maximum ratio transmission under line of sight conditions and with a sufficient number of parallel radio-frequency (RF chains, especially when the practical limitations of outdated channel information and per antenna power constraints are considered. This work also shows the impact of the phase shifter errors and combiner losses introduced by real phase shifter and combiner implementations over analog beamforming, where the former ones have minor impact on the performance, while the latter ones determine the optimum number of RF chains to be used in practice.

  1. Analog earthquakes

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  2. Progress in the optoelectronic analog signal transfer for high energy particle detectors

    Tsang, T.; Radeka, V.

    1992-05-01

    We report the progress in the development of a radiation hard Optoelectronic analog system to transfer particle detector signals with high accuracy. We will present the motivation of this study, the operating principle of the optoelectronic system, the system noise study, the recent R ampersand D efforts on radiation effect, temperature stability, and the realization of an integrated l x l6 optical modulator. The issue of photon source for driving such a large-scale optoelectronic modulators is a major concern. We will address this problem by examining different possible photon sources and comment on other possible alternative for signal transfer

  3. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  4. High performance sapphire windows

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  5. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  6. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  7. R high performance programming

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  8. Star Formation in High Pressure, High Energy Density Environments: Laboratory Experiments of ISM Dust Analogs

    Breugel, W. van; Bajt, S.; Bradley, J.; Bringa, E.; Dai, Z.; Felter, T.; Graham, G.; Kucheyev, S.; Torres, D.; Tielens, A.; Baragiola, R.; Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dust grains control the chemistry and cooling, and thus the gravitational collapse of interstellar clouds. Energetic particles, shocks and ionizing radiation can have a profound influence on the structure, lifetime and chemical reactivity of the dust, and therefore on the star formation efficiency. This would be especially important in forming galaxies, which exhibit powerful starburst (supernovae) and AGN (active galactic nucleus) activity. How dust properties are affected in such environments may be crucial for a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The authors present the results of experiments at LLNL which show that irradiation of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust analog forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) with swift heavy ions (10 MeV Xe) and a large electronic energy deposition amorphizes its crystalline structure, without changing its chemical composition. From the data they predict that silicate grains in the ISM, even in dense and cold giant molecular clouds, can be amorphized by heavy cosmic rays (CR's). This might provide an explanation for the observed absence of crystalline dust in the ISM clouds of the Milky Way galaxy. This processing of dust by CR's would be even more important in forming galaxies and galaxies with active black holes

  9. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  10. Design of a High Linearity Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier in Wideband Frequency Range

    Abdul kareem Mokif Obais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode four quadrant analog multiplier in the wideband frequency rangeis designed using a wideband operational amplifier (OPAMP and squaring circuits. The wideband OPAMP is designed using 10 identical NMOS transistorsand operated with supply voltages of ±12V. Two NMOS transistors and two wideband OPAMP are utilized in the design of the proposed squaring circuit. All the NMOS transistors are based on 0.35µm NMOStechnology. The multiplier has input and output voltage ranges of ±10 V, high range of linearity from -10 V to +10 V, and cutoff frequency of about 5 GHz. The proposed multiplier is designed on PSpice in Orcad 16.6

  11. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling, AI conception rate, and overall

  12. Python high performance programming

    Lanaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    An exciting, easy-to-follow guide illustrating the techniques to boost the performance of Python code, and their applications with plenty of hands-on examples.If you are a programmer who likes the power and simplicity of Python and would like to use this language for performance-critical applications, this book is ideal for you. All that is required is a basic knowledge of the Python programming language. The book will cover basic and advanced topics so will be great for you whether you are a new or a seasoned Python developer.

  13. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: saraswat@stanford.edu; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  14. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Saraswat, Krishna; Chui, Chi On; Krishnamohan, Tejas; Kim, Donghyun; Nayfeh, Ammar; Pethe, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO x N y ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin (∼2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices

  15. High Performance Computing Multicast

    2012-02-01

    A History of the Virtual Synchrony Replication Model,” in Replication: Theory and Practice, Charron-Bost, B., Pedone, F., and Schiper, A. (Eds...Performance Computing IP / IPv4 Internet Protocol (version 4.0) IPMC Internet Protocol MultiCast LAN Local Area Network MCMD Dr. Multicast MPI

  16. NGINX high performance

    Sharma, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    System administrators, developers, and engineers looking for ways to achieve maximum performance from NGINX will find this book beneficial. If you are looking for solutions such as how to handle more users from the same system or load your website pages faster, then this is the book for you.

  17. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  18. Dual material gate doping-less tunnel FET with hetero gate dielectric for enhancement of analog/RF performance

    Anand, Sunny; Sarin, R. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, charge-plasma-based tunnel FET is proposed by employing dual material gate with hetero gate dielectric technique and it is named hetero-dielectric dual material gate doping-less TFET (HD_DMG_DLTFET). It is compared with conventional doping-less TFET (DLTFET) and dual material gate doping-less TFET (DMG_DLTFET) on the basis of analog and RF performance. The HD_DMG_DLTFET provides better ON state current ({I}\\text{ON}=94 μ \\text{A}/μ \\text{m}), {I}\\text{ON}/{I}\\text{OFF}(≈ 1.36× {10}13), \\text{point} (≈ 3\\text{mV}/\\text{dec}) and average subthreshold slope (\\text{AV}-\\text{SS}=40.40 \\text{mV}/\\text{dec}). The proposed device offers low total gate capacitance (C gg) along with higher drive current. However, with a better transconductance (g m) and cut-off frequency (f T), the HD_DMG_DLTFET can be a good candidate for RF circuitry. The early voltage (V EA) and output conductance (g d) are also moderate for the proposed device with comparison to other devices and therefore can be a candidate for analog devices. From all these simulation results and their study, it is observed that HD_DMG_DLTFET has improved analog/RF performance compared to DLTFET and DMG_DLTFET.

  19. Experimental investigation of analog and digital dimming techniques on photometric performance of an indoor Visible Light Communication (VLC) system

    Zafar, Fahad; Kalavally, Vineetha; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Parthiban, R.

    2015-09-01

    For making commercial implementation of light emitting diode (LED) based visible light communication (VLC) systems feasible, it is necessary to incorporate it with dimming schemes which will provide energy savings, moods and increase the aesthetic value of the places using this technology. There are two general methods which are used to dim LEDs commonly categorized as analog and digital dimming. Incorporating fast data transmission with these techniques is a key challenge in VLC. In this paper, digital and analog dimming for a 10 Mb/s non return to zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) based VLC system is experimentally investigated considering both photometric and communicative parameters. A spectrophotometer was used for photometric analysis and a line of sight (LOS) configuration in the presence of ambient light was used for analyzing communication parameters. Based on the experimental results, it was determined that digital dimming scheme is preferable for use in indoor VLC systems requiring high dimming precision and data transmission at lower brightness levels. On the other hand, analog dimming scheme is a cost effective solution for high speed systems where dimming precision is insignificant.

  20. High performance proton accelerators

    Favale, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In concert with this theme this paper briefly outlines how Grumman, over the past 4 years, has evolved from a company that designed and fabricated a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) physics and specifications to a company who, as prime contractor, is designing, fabricating, assembling and commissioning the US Army Strategic Defense Commands (USA SDC) Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) accelerator as a turn-key operation. In the case of the RFQ, LANL scientists performed the physics analysis, established the specifications supported Grumman on the mechanical design, conducted the RFQ tuning and tested the RFQ at their laboratory. For the CWDD Program Grumman has the responsibility for the physics and engineering designs, assembly, testing and commissioning albeit with the support of consultants from LANL, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Brookhaven National laboratory. In addition, Culham Laboratory and LANL are team members on CWDD. LANL scientists have reviewed the physics design as well as a USA SDC review board. 9 figs

  1. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    Walder, J P; Pangaud, P

    2000-01-01

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented.

  2. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    Walder, J.P.; El Mamouni, Houmani; Pangaud, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented

  3. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    Walder, J.P. E-mail: walder@in2p3.fr; El Mamouni, Houmani; Pangaud, Patrick

    2000-03-11

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented.

  4. Endometritis treatment with a PGF2alpha analog does not improve reproductive performance in a large dairy herd in Argentina.

    Mejía, Miguel Eduardo; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel María

    2005-03-15

    In Argentina, most dairy cows with endometritis are treated with prostaglandin (PGF(2alpha) or its analogs) and insemination is withheld until there are no signs of endometritis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate if this method of managing endometritis enhances reproductive performance. Three experiments were conducted over 4 years in a large farm in the west of Buenos Aires province. In Experiment 1, half of the cows diagnosed with endometritis (>1.5-fold difference in diameter of uterine horns, as determined by rectal palpation) received standard endometritis management (treatment with tiaprost, a PGF(2alpha) analog, rectal palpation every 20 days, and withholding of AI until endometritis apparently resolved) and the other half was untreated, with AI at the first estrus after the voluntary waiting period. Untreated cows were inseminated and conceived 20 days earlier than treated cows, and the pregnancy rate by Day 90 postpartum was higher in the untreated group. In Experiment 2, cows with endometritis were divided into four groups according to the severity of symptoms; within each group, cows were allocated to treatment or control, as in Experiment 1. Although first service conception rate decreased as endometritis severity increased, reproductive performance in treated versus control cows was similar to that of Experiment 1 (with no interaction due to degree of endometritis). Re-evaluation of the treated cow (to confirm uterine "normality") may have been responsible for the delay in conception in both experiments. The objective of Experiment 3 was to determine the effects of tiaprost treatment on clinically normal postpartum cows (no evidence of endometritis). Tiaprost treatment reduced the interval from calving to conception in multiparous cows, but it delayed conception and reduced the conception rate in primiparous cows. In conclusion, treatment with tiaprost impaired reproductive performance in primiparous cows (in the absence of

  5. A low-power high-sensitivity analog front-end for PPG sensor.

    Binghui Lin; Atef, Mohamed; Guoxing Wang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a low-power analog front-end (AFE) photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The AFE amplifies the weak photocurrent from the photodiode (PD) and converts it to a strong voltage at the output. In order to decrease the power consumption, the circuits are designed in subthreshold region; so the total biasing current of the AFE is 10 μ A. Since the large input DC photocurrent is a big issue for the PPG sensing circuit, we apply a DC photocurrent rejection technique by adding a DC current-cancellation loop to reject the large DC photocurrent up to 10 μA. In addition, a pseudo resistor is used to reduce the high-pass corner frequency below 0.5 Hz and Gm-C filter is adapted to reject the out-of-band noise higher than 16 Hz. For the whole sensor, the amplifier chain can achieve a total gain of 140 dBμ and an input integrated noise current of 68.87 pA rms up to 16 Hz.

  6. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  7. Suited versus unsuited analog astronaut performance using the Aouda.X space suit simulator: the DELTA experiment of MARS2013.

    Soucek, Alexander; Ostkamp, Lutz; Paternesi, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Space suit simulators are used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) during Mars analog missions. Flight planning and EVA productivity require accurate time estimates of activities to be performed with such simulators, such as experiment execution or traverse walking. We present a benchmarking methodology for the Aouda.X space suit simulator of the Austrian Space Forum. By measuring and comparing the times needed to perform a set of 10 test activities with and without Aouda.X, an average time delay was derived in the form of a multiplicative factor. This statistical value (a second-over-second time ratio) is 1.30 and shows that operations in Aouda.X take on average a third longer than the same operations without the suit. We also show that activities predominantly requiring fine motor skills are associated with larger time delays (between 1.17 and 1.59) than those requiring short-distance locomotion or short-term muscle strain (between 1.10 and 1.16). The results of the DELTA experiment performed during the MARS2013 field mission increase analog mission planning reliability and thus EVA efficiency and productivity when using Aouda.X.

  8. On the comparison of analog and digital SiPM readout in terms of expected timing performance

    Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Lecoq, P.

    2015-01-01

    In time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) and in particular for the EndoTOFPET-US Project (Frisch, 2013 [1]), and other applications for high energy physics, the multi-digital silicon photomultiplier (MD-SiPM) was recently proposed (Mandai and Charbon, 2012 [2]), in which the time of every single photoelectron is being recorded. If such a photodetector is coupled to a scintillator, the largest and most accurate timing information can be extracted from the cascade of the scintillation photons, and the most probable time of positron emission determined. The readout concept of the MD-SiPM is very different from that of the analog SiPM, where the individual photoelectrons are merely summed up and the output signal fed into the readout electronics. We have developed a comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool that describes the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal. In previous studies we have compared MC simulations with coincidence time resolution (CTR) measurements and found good agreement within less than 10% for crystals of different lengths (from 3 mm to 20 mm) coupled to SiPMs from Hamamatsu. In this work we will use the developed MC tool to directly compare the highest possible time resolution for both the analog and digital readout of SiPMs with different scintillator lengths. The presented studies reveal that the analog readout of SiPMs with microcell signal pile-up and leading edge discrimination can lead to nearly the same time resolution as compared to the maximum likelihood time estimation applied to MD-SiPMs. Consequently there is no real preference for either a digital or analog SiPM for the sake of achieving highest time resolution. However, the best CTR in the analog SiPM is observed for a rather small range of optimal threshold values, whereas the MD-SiPM provides stable CTR after roughly 20 registered photoelectron timestamps in

  9. Conjecturing via Analogical Reasoning in Developing Scientific Approach in Junior High School Students

    Supratman; Ryane, S.; Rustina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explore the extent to which the use of analogy reasoning when students conduct conjecture in developing the scientific approach, so that the knowledge of the students can be used to build new knowledge. Analysis was conducted on student learning outcomes in Ciamis district. Based on these results, it was found the teacher not give an opportunity to the students to make conjecture on the students in problem solving as well as the construction of new knowledge. Moreover, teachers do not take advantage of analogical reasoning and scientific approach in constructing new knowledge.

  10. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  11. High-Performance Data Converters

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    -resolution internal D/A converters are required. Unit-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are analyzed, and the concept of mismatch-shaping is generalized to include scaled-element D/A converters. Several types of scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are proposed. Simulations show that, when implemented...... in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential......-order difference of the output signal from the loop filter's first integrator stage. This technique avoids the need for accurate matching of analog and digital filters that characterizes the MASH topology, and it preserves the signal-band suppression of quantization errors. Simulations show that quantizers...

  12. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  13. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs

  14. RavenDB high performance

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  15. High-Performance Operating Systems

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  16. Note: Retrofitting an analog spectrometer for high resolving power in NUV-NIR

    Taylor, Andrew S.; Batishchev, Oleg V.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate how an older spectrometer designed for photographic films can be efficiently retrofitted with a narrow laser-cut slit and a modern μm-pixel-size imaging CMOS camera, yielding sub-pm resolution in the broad near ultraviolet to near infrared (NUV-NIR) spectral range. Resolving power approaching 106 is achieved. Such digital retrofitting of an analog instrument is practical for research and teaching laboratories.

  17. Analisis interferensi T-DAB dan TV Analog pada pita Very High Frequency (VHF

    Kasmad Ariansyah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran teknologi digital telah membawa perubahan di dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan, tak terkecuali di dunia penyiaran. Digitalisasi dibidang penyiaran diyakini dapat memberikan manfaat dalam hal efisiensi spektrum frekuensi radio. Berkaitan dengan penyiaran radio, Menteri  Komunikasi  dan  Informatika telah menetapkan DAB family sebagai standard penyiaran radio digital di Indonesia. Kajian dilakukan untuk mendapatkan jarak minimum yang diperlukan  antara sistem T-DAB dan TV analog sebagai solusi terhadap kemungkinan interferensi. Analisis dilakukan dengan bantuan SEAMCAT. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan bahwa  kanal  A  T-DAB  merupakan  kanal yang paling rentan terhadap interferensi; Untuk mencapai probabilitas interferensi maksimum 5%, separasi geograpis minimum antara cakupan terluar TV analog kanal n dan transmitter terluar pada jaringan SFN T-DAB untuk kanal (n- 1D, nA, nB, nC berturut-turut adalah 220 Km, 290 Km, 145 Km dan  40  Km.  Sedangkan  untuk  kanal  nD  dan  (n+1A  dapat dioperasikan tanpa separasi geograpis dengan TV analog.

  18. The investigation of high school student’s energy concept by using analogies

    Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.

    2017-09-01

    Alternative energy tends to be more widespread in Thailand because the advanced technology, enhance the potential of equipment which becomes more economically rather than setting in laboratory likes in the past. For this reason students should understand profoundly about the characteristic of energy before they learned about alternative energy. To help students get more comprehension about the characteristic of energy, we need to investigate the idea about energy. There are three main reasons for the investigation (1) to know how students use analogy to describe characteristic of energy (2) to find out the most frequent characteristic that student used (3) to classify analogies for energy by using category of misconceptions which helped us to group students if there were any vague content in students’ explanation. Students were given a task to write their analogies after doing the STEM activity (Bungee Jump) in class. The answers were categorized into four terms of scientific contexts: energy can be accounted, can change forms, can be lost and can be transferred.

  19. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece

  20. High-speed photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion using a continuous wave multiwavelength source and phase modulation.

    Bortnik, Bartosz J; Fetterman, Harold R

    2008-10-01

    A more simple photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion system utilizing a cw multiwavelength source and phase modulation instead of a mode-locked laser is presented. The output of the cw multiwavelength source is launched into a dispersive device (such as a single-mode fiber). This fiber creates a pulse train, where the central wavelength of each pulse corresponds to a spectral line of the optical source. The pulses can then be either dispersed again to perform discrete wavelength time stretching or demultiplexed for continuous time analog-to-digital conversion. We experimentally demonstrate the operation of both time stretched and interleaved systems at 38 GHz. The potential of integrating this type of system on a monolithic chip is discussed.

  1. Thermal performance analysis of heat exchanger for closed wet cooling tower using heat and mass transfer analogy

    Yoo, Seong Yeon; Han, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyuck

    2010-01-01

    In closed wet cooling towers, the heat transfer between the air and external tube surfaces can be composed of the sensible heat transfer and the latent heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient can be obtained from the equation for external heat transfer of tube banks. According to experimental data, the mass transfer coefficient was affected by the air velocity and spray water flow rate. This study provides the correlation equation for mass transfer coefficient based on the analogy of the heat and mass transfer and the experimental data. The results from this correlation equation showed fairly good agreement with experimental data. The cooling capacity and thermal efficiency of the closed wet cooling tower were calculated from the correlation equation to analyze the performance of heat exchanger for the tower

  2. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    Deanna Baldock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion: Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  3. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B; Leger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  4. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  5. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  6. Analog synthetic biology.

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  7. Formation of Amino Acid Precursors by Bombardment of Interstellar Ice Analogs with High Energy Heavy Ions

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Mita, Hajime; Yoshida, Satoshi; Shibata, Hiromi; Enomoto, Shingo; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kotaro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Kebukawa, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies. It has been recognized that carbonaceous chondrites contain pristine amino acids [1]. There are several scenarios of the formation of such extraterrestrial amino acids or their precursors. Greenberg proposed a scenario that complex organic compounds were formed in interstellar ices in dense clouds, which were brought into solar system small bodies when the solar system was formed [2]. The ice mantles of interstellar dust particles (ISDs) in dense clouds are composed of H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, CO2, NH3, etc. In order to verify the scenario, a number of laboratory experiments have been conducted where interstellar ice analogs were irradiated with high-energy particles [3,4] or UV [5,6], and formation of complex organic compounds including amino acid precursors were detected in the products. Though ion-molecular reactions in gaseous phase and surface reactions on the ice mantles have been studied intensively, much less works on cosmic rays-induced reaction have been reported. In order to study possible formation of complex molecules in interstellar ices, frozen mixtures of water, methanol and ammonia with various mixing ratios were irradiated with high-energy heavy ions such as carbon ions (290 MeV/u) and neon ions (400 MeV/u) from HIMAC, NIRS, Japan. For comparison, gaseous mixtures of water, ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and/or methane were irradiated with protons (2.5 MeV) from a Tandem accelerator, Tokyo Tech, Japan. Amino acids in the products were determined by cation exchange HPLC after acid hydrolysis. Products, both before and after acid hydrolysis, were also characterized by FT-IR and other techniques. Amino acids were detected in the hydrolyzed products after mixture of CH3OH, NH3 and H2O with various mixing ratios were irradiated with heavy ions, including when their mixing ratio was set close to the reported value of the interstellar ices (10:1:37). In the HIMAC

  8. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  9. Comparison of performance of analog-to-digital converters (ADC) for pulse height analyzers

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji

    1981-01-01

    In the recent ADCs for pulse height analyzers (PHA), Wilkinson type is a leading one, and those with 50 to 200 MHz clock frequency and 8K channel are mostly on the market. The comparison of the performance of ADCs was conducted under the condition of using these multi-channel PHAs as γ-ray spectrometers. The following three ADCs were compared: ADC incorporated in CANBERRA 8100 MCA, and CANBERRA 8060 ADCs used as the ADCs for 1st and 2nd GAMA systems. In this case, the conversion gains of these ADCs were set at 4K because the memory of 8100 MCA was 4K, and the GAMA systems were also mostly operated at 4K. In this paper, report is made on the measurements of dead time, the change of γ peaks immediately after the power was turned on, the temperature dependence of ADCs the long term stability of ADCs, derivative non-linearity, and integration non-linearity. The dead time of the ADC of 8100 CMA was shorter in the range up to 1000 channels. The temperature dependence was -0.017%/deg C in 8100 MCA, and -0.061 and -0.072%/deg C in GAMA. The long term stability was -0.02%/14 hr in 8100 MCA, and -0.027%/14 hr in 8060 of 1st GAMA. The derivative non-linearity was 0.45% in 8100 MCA, 0.67% in 8060 of 1st GAMA, and the integration non-linearity was 0.075% for 8100 MCA, and 0.085 - 0.1% in 8060 ADCs. Also, the change of γ peaks immediately after the power was turned on for 8100 ADC was better than that of 8060 ADC. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. High performance fuel technology development

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  11. Effect of Home Exercise Program Performance in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee or the Spine on the Visual Analog Scale after Discharge from Physical Therapy

    Chen, Hamilton; Onishi, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of the frequency of home exercise program (HEP) performance on pain [10-point visual analog scale (VAS)] in patients with osteoarthritis of the spine or knee after more than 6 months discharge from physical therapy (PT). We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 adult patients with a clinical…

  12. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  13. High performance in software development

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  14. A mixed analog-digital radiation hard technology for high energy physics electronics DMILL (Durci Mixte sur Isolant Logico-Linéaire)

    Beuville, E; Borgeaud, P; Fourches, N T; Rouger, M; Blanc, J P; Bruel, M; Delevoye-Orsier, E; Gautier, J; Du Port de Pontcharra, J; Truche, R; Dupont-Nivet, E; Flament, O; Leray, J L; Martin, J L; Montaron, J; Borel, G; Brice, J M; Chatagnon, P; Terrier, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Delpierre, P A; Habrard, M C; Potheau, R; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    The high radiation level expected in the inner regions of the high luminosity LHC detectors (gamma and neutron) will require radiation hardened electronics. A consortium between the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and Thomson TMS (Thomson Composants Militaires et Spatiaux) has been created to push for the development and the industrialization of a nascent technology which looks particularly adapted to the needs of HEP electronics. This technology, currently under development at the LETI(CEA), uses a SIMOX substrate with an epitaxial silicon film. It includes CMOS, JFETs and vertical bipolar transistors with a potential multi-megarad hardness. The CMOS and bipolar transistors constitute a rad-hard BiCMOS which will be useful to design analog and digital high-speed architectures. JFETs, which have intrinsically high hardness behaviour and low noise performances even at low temperature will enable very rad-hard, low noise front end electronics to be designed. Present results, together with the improvemen...

  15. Neo4j high performance

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  16. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  17. Laser Noise and its Impact on the Performance of Intensity-Modulation with Direct-Detection Analog Photonic Links

    Urick, Vincent J; Devgan, Preetpaul S; McKinney, Jason D; Dexter, James L

    2007-01-01

    The equations for radio-frequency gain, radio-frequency noise figure, compression dynamic range and spurious-free dynamic range are derived for an analog photonic link employing intensity modulation and direct detection...

  18. 1,2-HOIQO--A highly versatile 1,2-HOPO analog

    Seitz, Michael; Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-08-07

    A cyclic, bidentate hydroxamic acid binding unit based on an isoquinoline scaffold has been utilized for the synthesis of a hexadentate tripodal ligand based on the TREN backbone. This prototype for a new class of multidentate chelators forms mononuclear iron(III) complexes and one-dimensional coordination polymers with lanthanide(III) cations. The latter has been determined by single crystal X-ray analysis of the cerium species. The solid state structure in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c (C{sub 36}H{sub 34}CeN{sub 7}O{sub 11}, a = 12.341(2){angstrom}, b = 26.649(4){angstrom}, c = 10.621(2){angstrom}, {alpha} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}, {beta} = 96.753(3){sup o}, V = 3468.6(9) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4) exhibits a trigonal-dodecahedral environment around the cerium cation. The proof of concept for the versatility of the new scaffold has been shown by the modification of the crucial precursor 3-carboxyiso-coumarin through electrophilic aromatic substitutions to yield the corresponding chlorosulfonated and nitrated analogs.

  19. High performance MEAs. Final report

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  20. Analogical Reasoning and Computer Programming.

    Clement, Catherine A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of correlations between analogical reasoning and Logo programming mastery among female high school students related the results of pretests of analogical reasoning to posttests of programming mastery. A significant correlation was found between analogical reasoning and the ability to write subprocedures for use in several different…

  1. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  2. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  3. Charge exchange (p,n) reactions to the isobaric analog states of high Z nuclei: 73< or =Z< or =92

    Hansen, L.F.; Grimes, S.M.; Poppe, C.H.; Wong, C.

    1983-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for the (p,n) reaction to the isobaric analog states of 181 Ta, 197 Au, 209 Bi, 232 Th, and 238 U at an incident energy of 27 MeV. Because of the importance of collective effects in this mass region, coupled-channel calculations have been carried out in the analysis of the data. Optical potentials obtained from the Lane model for the charge exchange reaction have been used in the simultaneous analysis of coupled proton and neutron channels. The sensitivity of the calculations to the different couplings between the levels and to the magnitude of the isovector potentials, V 1 and W 1 , is discussed. The good agreement obtained between the measured and calculated (p,n) angular distributions to the analog state confirms the validity of the Lane formalism for high-Z nuclei (Z> or =50). Elastic neutron differential cross sections inferred from the coupled-channel analysis are compared with measurements available in the literature in the energy range 7--8 MeV. The results of these calculations agree with the measured values as well as the results of calculations made using global neutron optical potential parameters optimized to fit neutron data

  4. High performance light water reactor

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  5. ESD analog circuits and design

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  6. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  7. Development of high performance cladding

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments of superior next-generation light water reactor are requested on the basis of general view points, such as improvement of safety, economics, reduction of radiation waste and effective utilization of plutonium, until 2030 year in which conventional reactor plants should be renovate. Improvements of stainless steel cladding for conventional high burn-up reactor to more than 100 GWd/t, developments of manufacturing technology for reduced moderation-light water reactor (RMWR) of breeding ratio beyond 1.0 and researches of water-materials interaction on super critical pressure-water cooled reactor are carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Stable austenite stainless steel has been selected for fuel element cladding of advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). The austenite stain less has the superiority for anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. A hard spectrum of neutron energy up above 0.1 MeV takes place in core of the reduced moderation-light water reactor, as liquid metal-fast breeding reactor (LMFBR). High performance cladding for the RMWR fuel elements is required to get anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength also. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) of SUS 304 and SUS 316 are carried out for studying stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Irradiation tests in LMFBR are intended to obtain irradiation data for damaged quantity of the cladding materials. (M. Suetake)

  8. Analog-to-digital conversion using custom CMOS analog memory for the EOS time projection chamber

    Lee, K.L.; Arthur, A.A.; Jones, R.W.; Matis, H.S.; Nakamura, M.; Kleinfelder, S.A.; Ritter, H.G.; Wienman, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the multiplexing scheme of custom CMOS analog memory integrated circuits, 16 channels x 256 cells, into analog to digital converters (ADC's) to handle 15,360 signal channels of a time projection, chamber detector system. Primary requirements of this system are high density, low power and large dynamic range. The analog memory device multiplexing scheme was designed to digitize the information stored in the memory cells. The digitization time of the ADC's and the settling times for the memory unit were carefully interleaved to optimize the performance and timing during the multiplexing operation. This kept the total number of ADC's, a costly and power dissipative component, to an acceptable minimum

  9. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  10. Heat and mass transfer analogies for evaporation models at high evaporation rate

    Trontin , P.; Villedieu , P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the framework of anti and deicing applications, heated liquid films can appear above the ice thickness, or directly above the wall. Then, evaporation plays a major role in the Messinger balance and evaporated mass has to be predicted accurately. Unfortunately, it appears that existing models under-estimate evaporation at high temperature. In this study, different evaporation models at high evaporation rates are studied. The different hypothesis on which these models...

  11. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  12. Automated design of analog and high-frequency circuits a computational intelligence approach

    Liu, Bo; Fernández, Francisco V

    2014-01-01

    Computational intelligence techniques are becoming more and more important for automated problem solving nowadays. Due to the growing complexity of industrial applications and the increasingly tight time-to-market requirements, the time available for thorough problem analysis and development of tailored solution methods is decreasing. There is no doubt that this trend will continue in the foreseeable future. Hence, it is not surprising that robust and general automated problem solving methods with satisfactory performance are needed.

  13. N-Oxide analogs of WAY-100635 : new high affinity 5-HT (1A) receptor antagonists

    Oberwinkler - Marchais, Sandrine; Nowicki, B; Pike, VW; Halldin, C; Sandell, J; Chou, YH; Gulyas, B; Brennum, LT; Farde, L; Wikstrom, H V

    2005-01-01

    WAY-100635 [N-(2-(1-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl)ethyl))-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide] 1 and its O-des-methyl derivative DWAY 2 are well-known high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. which when labeled with carbon-II (beta(+): t(1/2) 20.4min) in the carbonyl group are effective

  14. 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Makinwa, Kofi

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, serving as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.    • Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing; • Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; • Presents material in a tutorial-based format.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of somatostatin analogs bearing two macrocyclic chelators for high specific activity labeling with radiometals

    Storch, D.; Schmitt, J.S.; Waldherr, C.; Maecke, H.R.; Waser, B.; Reubi, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometallated analogues of the regulatory peptide somatostatin are of interest in the in vivo localization and targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-overexpressing tumors. An important aspect of their use in vivo is a fast and efficient labeling (complexation) protocol for radiometals along with a high specific activity. We describe in this manuscript synthetic methods for the coupling of two chelators (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid = DOTA) to the bioactive peptide [Tyr 3 ,Thr 8 ]-octreotide (TATE) in order to increase the specific activity (radioactivity in Bq per mole peptide). The full chelator-linker-peptide conjugate was assembled on solid support using standard Fmoc chemistry. Two DOTA-chelators were linked to the peptide using lysine or N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)-glycine (Apg); in addition, pentasarcosine (Sar 5 ) was used as a spacer between the chelators and the peptide to probe its influence on biology and pharmacology. Complexation rates with In 3+ and Y 3+ salts and the corresponding radiometals were high, the bis-DOTA-derivatives showed higher complexation rates and gave higher specific activity than DOTA-TATE. Pharmacological and biological data of the complexed molecules did not show significant differences if compared to the parent peptide [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE except for [( 111/nat In-DOTA) 2 -Apg]-TATE which showed a lower binding affinity and rate of internalization into tumor cells. The biodistribution of [( 111/nat In-DOTA)-Lys( 111/nat In-DOTA)]-TATE in the rat tumor model (AR4-2J) showed a high and specific (as shown by a blocking experiment) tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor-positive tissue but a lower tumor uptake compared to [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE. (orig.)

  16. High-Performance Wireless Telemetry

    Griebeler, Elmer; Nawash, Nuha; Buckley, James

    2011-01-01

    the stationary section. From there, a cable conveys the serial data to the remote rack, where it is reconditioned to logic level specifications, de-serialized, and converted back to analog. In the rotating electronics are code generators to indicate the beginning of files for data synchronization.

  17. A High Throughput Model of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis using Engineered Cartilage Tissue Analogs

    Mohanraj, Bhavana; Meloni, Gregory R.; Mauck, Robert L.; Dodge, George R.

    2014-01-01

    (1) Objective A number of in vitro models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) have been developed to study the effect of mechanical overload on the processes that regulate cartilage degeneration. While such frameworks are critical for the identification therapeutic targets, existing technologies are limited in their throughput capacity. Here, we validate a test platform for high-throughput mechanical injury incorporating engineered cartilage. (2) Method We utilized a high throughput mechanical testing platform to apply injurious compression to engineered cartilage and determined their strain and strain rate dependent responses to injury. Next, we validated this response by applying the same injury conditions to cartilage explants. Finally, we conducted a pilot screen of putative PTOA therapeutic compounds. (3) Results Engineered cartilage response to injury was strain dependent, with a 2-fold increase in GAG loss at 75% compared to 50% strain. Extensive cell death was observed adjacent to fissures, with membrane rupture corroborated by marked increases in LDH release. Testing of established PTOA therapeutics showed that pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVF) was effective at reducing cell death, while the amphiphilic polymer (P188) and the free-radical scavenger (NAC) reduced GAG loss as compared to injury alone. (4) Conclusions The injury response in this engineered cartilage model replicated key features of the response from cartilage explants, validating this system for application of physiologically relevant injurious compression. This study establishes a novel tool for the discovery of mechanisms governing cartilage injury, as well as a screening platform for the identification of new molecules for the treatment of PTOA. PMID:24999113

  18. High-sensitivity Raman spectrometer to study pristine and irradiated interstellar ice analogs.

    Bennett, Chris J; Brotton, Stephen J; Jones, Brant M; Misra, Anupam K; Sharma, Shiv K; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2013-06-18

    We discuss the novel design of a sensitive, normal-Raman spectrometer interfaced to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (5 × 10(-11) Torr) utilized to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation with low temperature ices relevant to the solar system and interstellar medium. The design is based on a pulsed Nd:YAG laser which takes advantage of gating techniques to isolate the scattered Raman signal from the competing fluorescence signal. The setup incorporates innovations to achieve maximum sensitivity without detectable heating of the sample. Thin films of carbon dioxide (CO2) ices of 10 to 396 nm thickness were prepared and characterized using both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and HeNe interference techniques. The ν+ and ν- Fermi resonance bands of CO2 ices were observed by Raman spectroscopy at 1385 and 1278 cm(-1), respectively, and the band areas showed a linear dependence on ice thickness. Preliminary irradiation experiments are conducted on a 450 nm thick sample of CO2 ice using energetic electrons. Both carbon monoxide (CO) and the infrared inactive molecular oxygen (O2) products are readily detected from their characteristic Raman bands at 2145 and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. Detection limits of 4 ± 3 and 6 ± 4 monolayers of CO and O2 were derived, demonstrating the unique power to detect newly formed molecules in irradiated ices in situ. The setup is universally applicable to the detection of low-abundance species, since no Raman signal enhancement is required, demonstrating Raman spectroscopy as a reliable alternative, or complement, to FT-IR spectroscopy in space science applications.

  19. Germanene nanoribbon tunneling field effect transistor (GeNR-TFET) with a 10 nm channel length: analog performance, doping and temperature effects

    Bayani, Amir Hossein; Vali, Mehran; Dideban, Daryoosh; Moezi, Negin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme of the germanene nanoribbon tunneling field effect transistor (GeNR-TFET) is proposed. The characteristics and analog performance of the device were theoretically investigated by exploiting the electrical properties of a germanene nanoribbon and applying the doping concentration in the source and drain regions at 300 K and 4 K temperatures. The device parameters were obtained using a non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method within the tight binding (TB) Hamiltonian. The TB Hamiltonian was extracted from the density functional theory (DFT) through the Wannier function. We find that by increasing the doping concentration the I on current increases which leads to an improvement of the I on /I off ratio to 10 5 . Moreover, decreasing the temperature from 300 K to 4 K causes the I off to become ten times smaller. We find that the device output characteristic displays a negative differential conductance with a good peak-to-valley ratio which is improved by increasing the doping concentration. The analog performance of the device is also investigated in the subthreshold regime of operation by varying the doping concentration. It is observed that by increasing the device doping concentration, the analog figures of merit can be improved. (paper)

  20. Experience in the Development of the CMS Inner Tracker Analog Optohybrid Circuits: Project, Qualification, Volume Production, Quality Assurance and Final Performance

    Ricci, Daniel; Bilei, Gian Mario; Casinini, F; Postolache, Vasile

    2005-01-01

    The Tracker system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment, will employ approximately 40,000 analog fibre-optic data and control links. The optical readout system is responsible for converting and transmitting the electrical signals coming out from the front-end to the outside counting room. Concerning the inner part of the Tracker, about 3,600 Analog Optohybrid circuits are involved in this tasks. These circuits have been designed and successfully produced in Italy under the responsibility of INFN Perugia CMS group completing the volume production phase by February 2005. Environmental features, reliability and performances of these circuits have been extensively tested and qualified. This paper reviews the most relevant steps of the manufacturing and quality assurance process: from prototypes to mass-production for the final CMS use.

  1. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  2. High-performance composite chocolate

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  3. High-Performance Composite Chocolate

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with…

  4. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  5. Children's Development of Analogical Reasoning: Insights from Scene Analogy Problems

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Morrison, Robert G.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored how relational complexity and featural distraction, as varied in scene analogy problems, affect children's analogical reasoning performance. Results with 3- and 4-year-olds, 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and 13- and 14-year-olds indicate that when children can identify the critical structural relations in a scene analogy…

  6. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT......The world of finance faces the computational performance challenge of massively expanding data volumes, extreme response time requirements, and compute-intensive complex (risk) analyses. Simultaneously, new international regulatory rules require considerably more transparency and external...... auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...

  7. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Anon,

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  8. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  9. High performance inertial fusion targets

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  10. High performance inertial fusion targets

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  11. High performance nuclear fuel element

    Mordarski, W.J.; Zegler, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel-pellet composition is disclosed for use in fast breeder reactors. Uranium carbide particles are mixed with a powder of uraniumplutonium carbides having a stable microstructure. The resulting mixture is formed into fuel pellets. The pellets thus produced exhibit a relatively low propensity to swell while maintaining a high density

  12. A Bio-Realistic Analog CMOS Cochlea Filter With High Tunability and Ultra-Steep Roll-Off.

    Wang, Shiwei; Koickal, Thomas Jacob; Hamilton, Alister; Cheung, Rebecca; Smith, Leslie S

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental results of a cochlea filter in analog very large scale integration (VLSI) which highly resembles physiologically measured response of the mammalian cochlea. The filter consists of three specialized sub-filter stages which respectively provide passive response in low frequencies, actively tunable response in mid-band frequencies and ultra-steep roll-off at transition frequencies from pass-band to stop-band. The sub-filters are implemented in balanced ladder topology using floating active inductors. Measured results from the fabricated chip show that wide range of mid-band tuning including gain tuning of over 20 dB, Q factor tuning from 2 to 19 as well as the bio-realistic center frequency shift are achieved by adjusting only one circuit parameter. Besides, the filter has an ultra-steep roll-off reaching over 300 dB/dec. By changing biasing currents, the filter can be configured to operate with center frequencies from 31 Hz to 8 kHz. The filter is 9th order, consumes 59.5 ∼ 90.0 μW power and occupies 0.9 mm2 chip area. A parallel bank of the proposed filter can be used as the front-end in hearing prosthesis devices, speech processors as well as other bio-inspired auditory systems owing to its bio-realistic behavior, low power consumption and small size.

  13. High Performance JavaScript

    Zakas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    If you're like most developers, you rely heavily on JavaScript to build interactive and quick-responding web applications. The problem is that all of those lines of JavaScript code can slow down your apps. This book reveals techniques and strategies to help you eliminate performance bottlenecks during development. You'll learn how to improve execution time, downloading, interaction with the DOM, page life cycle, and more. Yahoo! frontend engineer Nicholas C. Zakas and five other JavaScript experts -- Ross Harmes, Julien Lecomte, Steven Levithan, Stoyan Stefanov, and Matt Sweeney -- demonstra

  14. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  15. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  16. High performance soft magnetic materials

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  17. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  18. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  19. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  20. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    Schardt, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  1. Integration of Biological, Physical/Chemical and Energy Efficient Systems in the CELSS Antarctic Analog: Performance of Prototype Systems and Issues for Life Support

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Lamparter, Richard; Bates, Maynard; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle, and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for waste treatment, water recycle, resource recovery and crop production are being evaluated in a testbed at Ames Research Center. The combined performance of these biological and physical/chemical systems as an integrated function in support of the human habitat will be discussed. Overall system performance will be emphasized. The effectiveness and efficiency of component technologies will be discussed in the context of energy and mass flow within the system and contribution to achieving a mass and energy conservative system. Critical to the discussion are interfaces with habitat functions outside of the closed-loop life support: the ability of the system to satisfy the life support requirements of the habitat and the ability to define input requirements. The significance of analog functions in relation to future Mars habitats will be discussed.

  2. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  3. Strategies and Experiences Using High Performance Fortran

    Shires, Dale

    2001-01-01

    .... High performance Fortran (HPF) is a relative new addition to the Fortran dialect It is an attempt to provide an efficient high-level Fortran parallel programming language for the latest generation of been debatable...

  4. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  5. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  6. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  7. Team Development for High Performance Management.

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines a team development approach to management that creates shared commitments to performance improvement by focusing the attention of managers on individual workers and their task accomplishments. It uses the "high-performance equation" to help managers confront shared beliefs and concerns about performance and develop realistic…

  8. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    Schardt, J.F. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  9. HPTA: High-Performance Text Analytics

    Vandierendonck, Hans; Murphy, Karen; Arif, Mahwish; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main targets of data analytics is unstructured data, which primarily involves textual data. High-performance processing of textual data is non-trivial. We present the HPTA library for high-performance text analytics. The library helps programmers to map textual data to a dense numeric representation, which can be handled more efficiently. HPTA encapsulates three performance optimizations: (i) efficient memory management for textual data, (ii) parallel computation on associative dat...

  10. Ionograms - Analog

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ionograms are recorded tracings of reflected high frequency radio pulses generated by an ionosonde. Unique relationships exist between the sounding frequency and the...

  11. Iterative Chemical Engineering of Vancomycin Leads to Novel Vancomycin Analogs With a High in Vitro Therapeutic Index

    Nigam M. Mishra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits transpeptidation during cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala termini of lipid II. For long, it has been used as a last resort antibiotic. However, since the emergence of the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 1987, vancomycin resistance has become widespread, especially in hospitals. We have synthesized and evaluated 110 vancomycin analogs modified at the C-terminal carboxyl group of the heptapeptide moiety with R2NHR1NH2 substituents. Through iterative optimizations of the substituents, we identified vancomycin analogs that fully restore (or even exceed the original inhibitory activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, vancomycin-intermediate (VISA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA strains. The best analogs have improved growth inhibitory activity and in vitro therapeutic indices against a broad set of VRE and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates. They also exceed the activity of vancomycin against Clostridium difficile ribotypes. Vanc-39 and Vanc-42 have a low probability to provoke antibiotic resistance, and overcome different vancomycin resistance mechanisms (VanA, VanB, and VanC1.

  12. Improvement of Organizational Performance and Instructional Design: An Analogy Based on General Principles of Natural Information Processing Systems

    Darabi, Aubteen; Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    The process of improving organizational performance through designing systemic interventions has remarkable similarities to designing instruction for improving learners' performance. Both processes deal with subjects (learners and organizations correspondingly) with certain capabilities that are exposed to novel information designed for producing…

  13. Analogical Inference and Analogical Access.

    1987-08-04

    water) FLAT-TOP ( coffee ) CLEAR (beaker) U I ’/ I I I i ’ J" ’ CAUSE(BREATER-THANCTEMPERATURE( coff e), TEMPERATURE (ice)2, CFLON(heat, bar, coffee ...distribution unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) UIUCDCS-R-87-1365 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION University of Illinois (If applicable) Cognitive Sciences (Code 1142CS) Department of

  14. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  15. When none of us perform better than all of us together : The role of analogical decision rules in groups

    Meslec, M.N.; Curseu, P.L.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Fodor, O.C.

    2014-01-01

    During social interactions, groups develop collective competencies that (ideally) should assist groups to outperform average standalone individual members (weak cognitive synergy) or the best performing member in the group (strong cognitive synergy). In two experimental studies we manipulate the

  16. Efficient high-performance ultrasound beamforming using oversampling

    Freeman, Steven R.; Quick, Marshall K.; Morin, Marc A.; Anderson, R. C.; Desilets, Charles S.; Linnenbrink, Thomas E.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    1998-05-01

    High-performance and efficient beamforming circuitry is very important in large channel count clinical ultrasound systems. Current state-of-the-art digital systems using multi-bit analog to digital converters (A/Ds) have matured to provide exquisite image quality with moderate levels of integration. A simplified oversampling beamforming architecture has been proposed that may a low integration of delta-sigma A/Ds onto the same chip as digital delay and processing circuitry to form a monolithic ultrasound beamformer. Such a beamformer may enable low-power handheld scanners for high-end systems with very large channel count arrays. This paper presents an oversampling beamformer architecture that generates high-quality images using very simple; digitization, delay, and summing circuits. Additional performance may be obtained with this oversampled system for narrow bandwidth excitations by mixing the RF signal down in frequency to a range where the electronic signal to nose ratio of the delta-sigma A/D is optimized. An oversampled transmit beamformer uses the same delay circuits as receive and eliminates the need for separate transmit function generators.

  17. High-performance ceramics. Fabrication, structure, properties

    Petzow, G.; Tobolski, J.; Telle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' pursued the objective to understand the chaining of cause and effect in the development of high-performance ceramics. This chain of problems begins with the chemical reactions for the production of powders, comprises the characterization, processing, shaping and compacting of powders, structural optimization, heat treatment, production and finishing, and leads to issues of materials testing and of a design appropriate to the material. The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' has resulted in contributions to the understanding of fundamental interrelationships in terms of materials science, which are summarized in the present volume - broken down into eight special aspects. (orig./RHM)

  18. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  19. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  20. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  1. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particularly susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  2. Advances in analog and RF IC design for wireless communication systems

    Manganaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Analog and RF IC Design for Wireless Communication Systems gives technical introductions to the latest and most significant topics in the area of circuit design of analog/RF ICs for wireless communication systems, emphasizing wireless infrastructure rather than handsets. The book ranges from very high performance circuits for complex wireless infrastructure systems to selected highly integrated systems for handsets and mobile devices. Coverage includes power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, modulators, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters

  3. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    ) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade .... applications. These are important requirements if the reagent is to be applicable to on-line pre or post column derivatisation in a possible automation of the analytical.

  4. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  5. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  6. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  7. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  8. High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud

    Ambruš, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...

  9. High-performance computing — an overview

    Marksteiner, Peter

    1996-08-01

    An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.

  10. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  11. Analog-to-digital conversion

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  12. Governance among Malaysian high performing companies

    Asri Marsidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Well performed companies have always been linked with effective governance which is generally reflected through effective board of directors. However many issues concerning the attributes for effective board of directors remained unresolved. Nowadays diversity has been perceived as able to influence the corporate performance due to the likelihood of meeting variety of needs and demands from diverse customers and clients. The study therefore aims to provide a fundamental understanding on governance among high performing companies in Malaysia.

  13. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  14. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  15. Comparing Dutch and British high performing managers

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Selvarajah, C.; Meyer, D.

    2016-01-01

    National cultures have a strong influence on the performance of organizations and should be taken into account when studying the traits of high performing managers. At the same time, many studies that focus upon the attributes of successful managers show that there are attributes that are similar

  16. Learning Plate Tectonics Using a Pre-Analogy Step

    Glesener, G. B.; Sandoval, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that children tend to demonstrate lower performance on analogical reasoning tasks at a causal relations level compared to most adults (Gentner & Toupin, 1986). This tendency is an obstacle that geoscience educators must overcome because of the high frequency of analogies used in geoscience pedagogy. In particular, analog models are used to convey complex systems of non-everyday/non-observable events found in nature, such as plate tectonics. Key factors in successful analogical reasoning that have been suggested by researchers include knowledge of the causal relations in the base analog (Brown & Kane, 1988; Gentner, 1988; Gentner & Toupin, 1986), and development of learning strategies and metaconceptual competence(Brown & Kane, 1988). External factors, such as guiding cues and hints have been useful cognitive supports that help students reason through analogical problems (Gick & Holyoak, 1980). Cognitive supports have been seen by researchers to decrease processing demands on retrieval and working memory (Richland, Zur, & Holyoak, 2007). We observed third and fourth graders learning about plate tectonics beginning with a pre-analogy step-a cognitive support activity a student can do before working with an analogy to understand the target. This activity was designed to aid students in developing their understanding of object attributes and relations within an analog model so that more focus can be placed on mapping the corresponding higher-order relations between the base and target. Students learned targeted concepts of plate tectonics, as measured by pre to post gains on items adapted from the Geosciences Concept Inventory. Analyses of classroom interaction showed that students used the object attributes and higher-order relations highlighted in the pre-analogy activity as resources to reason about plate boundaries and plate movement during earthquakes.

  17. The etomidate analog ET-26 HCl retains superior myocardial performance: Comparisons with etomidate in vivo and in vitro.

    Liu, Xingxing; Song, Haibo; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Cheng; Kang, Yi; Yang, Linghui; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    (R)-2-methoxyethyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a novel etomidate analogue. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether ET-26 HCl could retain the superior myocardial performance of etomidate in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the influence of ET-26 HCl and etomidate on the cardiac function of dogs was confirmed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. In vitro, a Langendorff preparation was used to examine direct myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts, and a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study effects on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. In vivo, after a single bolus administration of ET-26 HCl or etomidate, no significant difference in echocardiography and electrocardiogram parameters was observed. No arrhythmia occurred and no QT interval prolongation happened during the study period. In the in vitro Langendorff preparation, none of the cardiac parameters were abnormal, and the hERG recordings showed that ET-26 HCl and etomidate inhibited the tail current of the hERG in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 742.51 μM and 263.60 μM, respectively. In conclusion, through an in vivo experiment and a whole organ preparation, the current study found that ET-26 HCl can maintain a myocardial performance that is similar to that of etomidate. In addition, the electrophysiology study indicated that ET-26 HCl and etomidate inhibited the hERG at a supra-therapeutic concentration.

  18. A Mixed Analog-Digital Radiation Hard Technology for High Energy Physics Electronics: DMILL~(Durci~Mixte~sur~Isolant~Logico-Lineaire)

    Lugiez, F; Leray, J; Rouger, M; Fourches, N T; Musseau, O; Potheau, R

    2002-01-01

    %RD29 %title\\\\ \\\\Physics experiments under preparation with the future LHC require a fast, low noise, very rad-hard (>10 Mrad and >10$^{14}$ neutron/cm$^{2}$), mixed analog-digital microelectronics VLSI technology.\\\\ \\\\The DMILL microelectronics technology (RD29) was developed between 1990 and 1995 by a Consortium gathering the CEA and the firm Thomson-TCS, with the collaboration of IN2P3. The goal of the DMILL program, which is now completed, was to provide the High Energy Physics community, space industry, nuclear industry, and other applications, with an industrial very rad-hard mixed analog-digital microelectronics technology.\\\\ \\\\DMILL integrates mixed analog-digital very rad-hard (>10 Mrad and >10$^{14}$ neutron/cm$^{2}$) vertical bipolar, 0.8 $\\mu$m CMOS and 1.2 $\\mu$m PJFET transistors. Its SOI substrate and its dielectric trenches strongly reduce SEU sensitivity and completely eliminate any possibility of latch-up. Its four transistors are optimized to obtain low-noise features. DMILL also integrates...

  19. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  20. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools

    Aguirre, Moises G.

    2016-01-01

    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  1. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  2. High-Speed Computation using FPGA for Excellent Performance of Direct Torque Control of Induction Machines

    Tole Sutikno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The major problems in hysteresis-based DTC are high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. In order to minimize the torque ripple, high sampling time and fast digital realization should be applied. The high sampling and fast digital realization time can be achieved by utilizing high-speed processor where the operation of the discrete hysteresis regulator is becoming similar to the operation of analog-based comparator. This can be achieved by utilizing field programmable gate array (FPGA which can perform a sampling at a very high speed, compared to the fact that developing an ASIC chip is expensive and laborious.

  3. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr 3 crystals respectively.

  4. Technologies of high-performance thermography systems

    Breiter, R.; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, K. H.; Kock, R.; Rode, W.

    1997-08-01

    A family of 2 dimensional detection modules based on 256 by 256 and 486 by 640 platinum silicide (PtSi) focal planes, or 128 by 128 and 256 by 256 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal planes for applications in either the 3 - 5 micrometer (MWIR) or 8 - 10 micrometer (LWIR) range was recently developed by AIM. A wide variety of applications is covered by the specific features unique for these two material systems. The PtSi units provide state of the art correctability with long term stable gain and offset coefficients. The MCT units provide extremely fast frame rates like 400 Hz with snapshot integration times as short as 250 microseconds and with a thermal resolution NETD less than 20 mK for e.g. the 128 by 128 LWIR module. The unique design idea general for all of these modules is the exclusively digital interface, using 14 bit analog to digital conversion to provide state of the art correctability, access to highly dynamic scenes without any loss of information and simplified exchangeability of the units. Device specific features like bias voltages etc. are identified during the final test and stored in a memory on the driving electronics. This concept allows an easy exchange of IDCAs of the same type without any need for tuning or e.g. the possibility to upgrade a PtSi based unit to an MCT module by just loading the suitable software. Miniaturized digital signal processor (DSP) based image correction units were developed for testing and operating the units with output data rates of up to 16 Mpixels/s. These boards provide the ability for freely programmable realtime functions like two point correction and various data manipulations in thermography applications.

  5. Intuitive analog circuit design

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  6. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  7. Designing a High Performance Parallel Personal Cluster

    Kapanova, K. G.; Sellier, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, many scientific and engineering areas require high performance computing to perform computationally intensive experiments. For example, many advances in transport phenomena, thermodynamics, material properties, computational chemistry and physics are possible only because of the availability of such large scale computing infrastructures. Yet many challenges are still open. The cost of energy consumption, cooling, competition for resources have been some of the reasons why the scientifi...

  8. vSphere high performance cookbook

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  9. The second-generation z (redshift) and early universe spectrometer. I. First-light observation of a highly lensed local-ulirg analog at high-z

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Riechers, Dominik [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U. [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Verma, Aprajita [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M. [NIST Boulder, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Niemack, Michael [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew, E-mail: carl.ferkinhoff@cornell.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-01-10

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ∼ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10{sup –18} W m{sup –2}. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ∼ 2 × 10{sup 4} G {sub 0}, gas density, n ∼ 1 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} and size between ∼0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  10. The Second-generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. I. First-light Observation of a Highly Lensed Local-ulirg Analog at High-z

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, D. V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ~ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ~ 2 × 104 G 0, gas density, n ~ 1 × 103 cm-3 and size between ~0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  11. The second-generation z (redshift) and early universe spectrometer. I. First-light observation of a highly lensed local-ulirg analog at high-z

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Riechers, Dominik; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ∼ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10 –18 W m –2 . Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ∼ 2 × 10 4 G 0 , gas density, n ∼ 1 × 10 3 cm –3 and size between ∼0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  12. High performance parallel I/O

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  13. Development and Comparative Study of Effects of Training Algorithms on Performance of Artificial Neural Network Based Analog and Digital Automatic Modulation Recognition

    Jide Julius Popoola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two new classifiers that automatically recognise twelve combined analog and digital modulated signals without any a priori knowledge of the modulation schemes and the modulation parameters. The classifiers are developed using pattern recognition approach. Feature keys extracted from the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous phase and the spectrum symmetry of the simulated signals are used as inputs to the artificial neural network employed in developing the classifiers. The two developed classifiers are trained using scaled conjugate gradient (SCG and conjugate gradient (CONJGRAD training algorithms. Sample results of the two classifiers show good success recognition performance with an average overall recognition rate above 99.50% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR value from 0 dB and above with the two training algorithms employed and an average overall recognition rate slightly above 99.00% and 96.40% respectively at - 5 dB SNR value for SCG and CONJGRAD training algorithms. The comparative performance evaluation of the two developed classifiers using the two training algorithms shows that the two training algorithms have different effects on both the response rate and efficiency of the two developed artificial neural networks classifiers. In addition, the result of the performance evaluation carried out on the overall success recognition rates between the two developed classifiers in this study using pattern recognition approach with the two training algorithms and one reported classifier in surveyed literature using decision-theoretic approach shows that the classifiers developed in this study perform favourably with regard to accuracy and performance probability as compared to classifier presented in previous study.

  14. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  15. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  16. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  17. Constructing a LabVIEW-Controlled High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System: An Undergraduate Instrumental Methods Exercise

    Smith, Eugene T.; Hill, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory exercise, students develop a LabVIEW-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography system utilizing a data acquisition device, two pumps, a detector, and fraction collector. The programming experience involves a variety of methods for interface communication, including serial control, analog-to-digital conversion, and…

  18. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  19. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of cefadroxil monohydrate in human plasma. Methods: Schimadzu HPLC with LC solution software was used with Waters Spherisorb, C18 (5 μm, 150mm × 4.5mm) column. The mobile phase ...

  20. An Introduction to High Performance Fortran

    John Merlin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is an informal standard for extensions to Fortran 90 to assist its implementation on parallel architectures, particularly for data-parallel computation. Among other things, it includes directives for specifying data distribution across multiple memories, and concurrent execution features. This article provides a tutorial introduction to the main features of HPF.

  1. High performance computing on vector systems

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  2. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  3. Debugging a high performance computing program

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  4. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  5. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  6. Towards high performance in industrial refrigeration systems

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  7. Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in micro-volumes ... tional medicine as a cure for swelling, sores, loss of appetite and ... Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand .... The effect of ... be suitable for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. The.

  8. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid ... response, tailing factor and resolution of six replicate injections was < 3 %. ... Cefadroxil monohydrate, Human plasma, Pharmacokinetics Bioequivalence ... Drug-free plasma was obtained from the local .... Influence of probenicid on the renal.

  9. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  10. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  11. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  12. A new high performance current transducer

    Tang Lijun; Lu Songlin; Li Deming

    2003-01-01

    A DC-100 kHz current transducer is developed using a new technique on zero-flux detecting principle. It was shown that the new current transducer is of high performance, its magnetic core need not be selected very stringently, and it is easy to manufacture

  13. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  14. Rhetoric and analogies

    Aragonès, Enriqueta; Gilboa, Itzhak; Postlewaite, Andrew; Schmeidler, David; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2013-01-01

    The art of rhetoric may be defined as changing other people's minds (opinions, beliefs) without providing them new information. One tech- nique heavily used by rhetoric employs analogies. Using analogies, one may draw the listener's attention to similarities between cases and to re-organize existing information in a way that highlights certain reg- ularities. In this paper we offer two models of analogies, discuss their theoretical equivalence, and show that finding good analogies is a com- p...

  15. SiGe epitaxial memory for neuromorphic computing with reproducible high performance based on engineered dislocations

    Choi, Shinhyun; Tan, Scott H.; Li, Zefan; Kim, Yunjo; Choi, Chanyeol; Chen, Pai-Yu; Yeon, Hanwool; Yu, Shimeng; Kim, Jeehwan

    2018-01-01

    Although several types of architecture combining memory cells and transistors have been used to demonstrate artificial synaptic arrays, they usually present limited scalability and high power consumption. Transistor-free analog switching devices may overcome these limitations, yet the typical switching process they rely on—formation of filaments in an amorphous medium—is not easily controlled and hence hampers the spatial and temporal reproducibility of the performance. Here, we demonstrate analog resistive switching devices that possess desired characteristics for neuromorphic computing networks with minimal performance variations using a single-crystalline SiGe layer epitaxially grown on Si as a switching medium. Such epitaxial random access memories utilize threading dislocations in SiGe to confine metal filaments in a defined, one-dimensional channel. This confinement results in drastically enhanced switching uniformity and long retention/high endurance with a high analog on/off ratio. Simulations using the MNIST handwritten recognition data set prove that epitaxial random access memories can operate with an online learning accuracy of 95.1%.

  16. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  17. Methodology for the digital calibration of analog circuits and systems with case studies

    Pastre, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Methodology for the Digital Calibration of Analog Circuits and Systems shows how to relax the extreme design constraints in analog circuits, allowing the realization of high-precision systems even with low-performance components. A complete methodology is proposed, and three applications are detailed. To start with, an in-depth analysis of existing compensation techniques for analog circuit imperfections is carried out. The M/2+M sub-binary digital-to-analog converter is thoroughly studied, and the use of this very low-area circuit in conjunction with a successive approximations algorithm for digital compensation is described. A complete methodology based on this compensation circuit and algorithm is then proposed. The detection and correction of analog circuit imperfections is studied, and a simulation tool allowing the transparent simulation of analog circuits with automatic compensation blocks is introduced. The first application shows how the sub-binary M/2+M structure can be employed as a conventional di...

  18. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  19. NINJA: Java for High Performance Numerical Computing

    José E. Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available When Java was first introduced, there was a perception that its many benefits came at a significant performance cost. In the particularly performance-sensitive field of numerical computing, initial measurements indicated a hundred-fold performance disadvantage between Java and more established languages such as Fortran and C. Although much progress has been made, and Java now can be competitive with C/C++ in many important situations, significant performance challenges remain. Existing Java virtual machines are not yet capable of performing the advanced loop transformations and automatic parallelization that are now common in state-of-the-art Fortran compilers. Java also has difficulties in implementing complex arithmetic efficiently. These performance deficiencies can be attacked with a combination of class libraries (packages, in Java that implement truly multidimensional arrays and complex numbers, and new compiler techniques that exploit the properties of these class libraries to enable other, more conventional, optimizations. Two compiler techniques, versioning and semantic expansion, can be leveraged to allow fully automatic optimization and parallelization of Java code. Our measurements with the NINJA prototype Java environment show that Java can be competitive in performance with highly optimized and tuned Fortran code.

  20. Development of high performance cladding materials

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-04-01

    The irradiation test for HANA claddings conducted and a series of evaluation for next-HANA claddings as well as their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests were also carried out at Halden research reactor. The 6th irradiation test have been completed successfully in Halden research reactor. As a result, HANA claddings showed high performance, such as corrosion resistance increased by 40% compared to Zircaloy-4. The high performance of HANA claddings in Halden test has enabled lead test rod program as the first step of the commercialization of HANA claddings. DB has been established for thermal and LOCA-related properties. It was confirmed from the thermal shock test that the integrity of HANA claddings was maintained in more expanded region than the criteria regulated by NRC. The manufacturing process of strips was established in order to apply HANA alloys, which were originally developed for the claddings, to the spacer grids. 250 kinds of model alloys for the next-generation claddings were designed and manufactured over 4 times and used to select the preliminary candidate alloys for the next-generation claddings. The selected candidate alloys showed 50% better corrosion resistance and 20% improved high temperature oxidation resistance compared to the foreign advanced claddings. We established the manufacturing condition controlling the performance of the dual-cooled claddings by changing the reduction rate in the cold working steps

  1. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  2. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...

  3. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  4. Fracture toughness of ultra high performance concrete by flexural performance

    Manolova Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fracture toughness of the innovative structural material - Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC, evaluated by flexural performance. For determination the material behaviour by static loading are used adapted standard test methods for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (ASTM C 1609 and ASTM C 1018. Fracture toughness is estimated by various deformation parameters derived from the load-deflection curve, obtained by testing simple supported beam under third-point loading, using servo-controlled testing system. This method is used to be estimated the contribution of the embedded fiber-reinforcement into improvement of the fractural behaviour of UHPC by changing the crack-resistant capacity, fracture toughness and energy absorption capacity with various mechanisms. The position of the first crack has been formulated based on P-δ (load- deflection response and P-ε (load - longitudinal deformation in the tensile zone response, which are used for calculation of the two toughness indices I5 and I10. The combination of steel fibres with different dimensions leads to a composite, having at the same time increased crack resistance, first crack formation, ductility and post-peak residual strength.

  5. Analog and hybrid computing

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  6. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  7. HIGH PERFORMANCE CERIA BASED OXYGEN MEMBRANE

    2014-01-01

    The invention describes a new class of highly stable mixed conducting materials based on acceptor doped cerium oxide (CeO2-8 ) in which the limiting electronic conductivity is significantly enhanced by co-doping with a second element or co- dopant, such as Nb, W and Zn, so that cerium and the co......-dopant have an ionic size ratio between 0.5 and 1. These materials can thereby improve the performance and extend the range of operating conditions of oxygen permeation membranes (OPM) for different high temperature membrane reactor applications. The invention also relates to the manufacturing of supported...

  8. Playa: High-Performance Programmable Linear Algebra

    Victoria E. Howle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Playa, a high-level user interface layer for composing algorithms for complex multiphysics problems out of objects from other Trilinos packages. Among other features, Playa provides very high-performance overloaded operators implemented through an expression template mechanism. In this paper, we give an overview of the central Playa objects from a user's perspective, show application to a sequence of increasingly complex solver algorithms, provide timing results for Playa's overloaded operators and other functions, and briefly survey some of the implementation issues involved.

  9. Optimizing the design of very high power, high performance converters

    Edwards, R.J.; Tiagha, E.A.; Ganetis, G.; Nawrocky, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes how various technologies are used to achieve the desired performance in a high current magnet power converter system. It is hoped that the discussions of the design approaches taken will be applicable to other power supply systems where stringent requirements in stability, accuracy and reliability must be met

  10. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    on top of a support membrane. Control membranes, either without aquaporins or with the inactive AqpZ R189A mutant aquaporin served as controls. The separation performance of the membranes was evaluated by cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) tests. In RO the ABM achieved a water......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... permeability of ~ 4 L/(m2 h bar) with a NaCl rejection > 97% at an applied hydraulic pressure of 5 bar. The water permeability was ~40% higher compared to a commercial brackish water RO membrane (BW30) and an order of magnitude higher compared to a seawater RO membrane (SW30HR). In FO, the ABMs had > 90...

  11. Evaluation of high-performance computing software

    Browne, S.; Dongarra, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rowan, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.

  12. High performance cloud auditing and applications

    Choi, Baek-Young; Song, Sejun

    2014-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on cloud security and high performance computing for cloud auditing. The book discusses emerging challenges and techniques developed for high performance semantic cloud auditing, and presents the state of the art in cloud auditing, computing and security techniques with focus on technical aspects and feasibility of auditing issues in federated cloud computing environments.   In summer 2011, the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) CyberBAT Cloud Security and Auditing Team initiated the exploration of the cloud security challenges and future cloud auditing research directions that are covered in this book. This work was supported by the United States government funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the AFOSR Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Visiting Faculty Research Program (VFRP), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). All chapters were partially suppor...

  13. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    Lettsome, Annette K.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface

  14. High performance parallel computers for science

    Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Biel, J.; Cook, A.; Deppe, J.; Edel, M.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Hance, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program (ACP) has been developing cost effective, yet practical, parallel computers for high energy physics since 1984. The ACP's latest developments are proceeding in two directions. A Second Generation ACP Multiprocessor System for experiments will include $3500 RISC processors each with performance over 15 VAX MIPS. To support such high performance, the new system allows parallel I/O, parallel interprocess communication, and parallel host processes. The ACP Multi-Array Processor, has been developed for theoretical physics. Each $4000 node is a FORTRAN or C programmable pipelined 20 Mflops (peak), 10 MByte single board computer. These are plugged into a 16 port crossbar switch crate which handles both inter and intra crate communication. The crates are connected in a hypercube. Site oriented applications like lattice gauge theory are supported by system software called CANOPY, which makes the hardware virtually transparent to users. A 256 node, 5 GFlop, system is under construction

  15. High-performance dual-speed CCD camera system for scientific imaging

    Simpson, Raymond W.

    1996-03-01

    Traditionally, scientific camera systems were partitioned with a `camera head' containing the CCD and its support circuitry and a camera controller, which provided analog to digital conversion, timing, control, computer interfacing, and power. A new, unitized high performance scientific CCD camera with dual speed readout at 1 X 106 or 5 X 106 pixels per second, 12 bit digital gray scale, high performance thermoelectric cooling, and built in composite video output is described. This camera provides all digital, analog, and cooling functions in a single compact unit. The new system incorporates the A/C converter, timing, control and computer interfacing in the camera, with the power supply remaining a separate remote unit. A 100 Mbyte/second serial link transfers data over copper or fiber media to a variety of host computers, including Sun, SGI, SCSI, PCI, EISA, and Apple Macintosh. Having all the digital and analog functions in the camera made it possible to modify this system for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for use on a remote controlled submersible vehicle. The oceanographic version achieves 16 bit dynamic range at 1.5 X 105 pixels/second, can be operated at depths of 3 kilometers, and transfers data to the surface via a real time fiber optic link.

  16. An emergent approach to analogical inference

    Thibodeau, Paul H.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Glick, Jeremy J.; Sternberg, Daniel A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of researchers have proposed that analogy is a core component of human cognition. According to the dominant theoretical viewpoint, analogical reasoning requires a specific suite of cognitive machinery, including explicitly coded symbolic representations and a mapping or binding mechanism that operates over these representations. Here we offer an alternative approach: we find that analogical inference can emerge naturally and spontaneously from a relatively simple, error-driven learning mechanism without the need to posit any additional analogy-specific machinery. The results also parallel findings from the developmental literature on analogy, demonstrating a shift from an initial reliance on surface feature similarity to the use of relational similarity later in training. Variants of the model allow us to consider and rule out alternative accounts of its performance. We conclude by discussing how these findings can potentially refine our understanding of the processes that are required to perform analogical inference.

  17. Toward a theory of high performance.

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance.

  18. High-performance phase-field modeling

    Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Dalcin, L.; Collier, N.; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  19. AHPCRC - Army High Performance Computing Research Center

    2010-01-01

    computing. Of particular interest is the ability of a distrib- uted jamming network (DJN) to jam signals in all or part of a sensor or communications net...and reasoning, assistive technologies. FRIEDRICH (FRITZ) PRINZ Finmeccanica Professor of Engineering, Robert Bosch Chair, Department of Engineering...High Performance Computing Research Center www.ahpcrc.org BARBARA BRYAN AHPCRC Research and Outreach Manager, HPTi (650) 604-3732 bbryan@hpti.com Ms

  20. Performance concerns for high duty fuel cycle

    Esposito, V.J.; Gutierrez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of the nuclear industry is to achieve economic performance such that nuclear power plants are competitive in a de-regulated market. The manner in which nuclear fuel is designed and operated lies at the heart of economic viability. In this sense reliability, operating flexibility and low costs are the three major requirements of the NPP today. The translation of these three requirements to the design is part of our work. The challenge today is to produce a fuel design which will operate with long operating cycles, high discharge burnup, power up-rating and while still maintaining all design and safety margins. European Fuel Group (EFG) understands that to achieve the required performance high duty/energy fuel designs are needed. The concerns for high duty design includes, among other items, core design methods, advanced Safety Analysis methodologies, performance models, advanced material and operational strategies. The operational aspects require the trade-off and evaluation of various parameters including coolant chemistry control, material corrosion, boiling duty, boron level impacts, etc. In this environment MAEF is the design that EFG is now offering based on ZIRLO alloy and a robust skeleton. This new design is able to achieve 70 GWd/tU and Lead Test Programs are being executed to demonstrate this capability. A number of performance issues which have been a concern with current designs have been resolved such as cladding corrosion and incomplete RCCA insertion (IRI). As the core duty becomes more aggressive other new issues need to be addressed such as Axial Offset Anomaly. These new issues are being addressed by combination of the new design in concert with advanced methodologies to meet the demanding needs of NPP. The ability and strategy to meet high duty core requirements, flexibility of operation and maintain acceptable balance of all technical issues is the discussion in this paper. (authors)

  1. DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications

    2017-05-10

    Mathematics and Statistics (AMS) at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) to conduct research and research-related education in areas of...Computing in Biomathematics Applications Report Title The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied Mathematics and...DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied

  2. High Performance Computing Operations Review Report

    Cupps, Kimberly C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-19

    The High Performance Computing Operations Review (HPCOR) meeting—requested by the ASC and ASCR program headquarters at DOE—was held November 5 and 6, 2013, at the Marriott Hotel in San Francisco, CA. The purpose of the review was to discuss the processes and practices for HPC integration and its related software and facilities. Experiences and lessons learned from the most recent systems deployed were covered in order to benefit the deployment of new systems.

  3. Planning for high performance project teams

    Reed, W.; Keeney, J.; Westney, R.

    1997-01-01

    Both industry-wide research and corporate benchmarking studies confirm the significant savings in cost and time that result from early planning of a project. Amoco's Team Planning Workshop combines long-term strategic project planning and short-term tactical planning with team building to provide the basis for high performing project teams, better project planning, and effective implementation of the Amoco Common Process for managing projects

  4. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  5. Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

    Remigio, Krisette B.; Yangco, Rosanelia T.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for…

  6. High performance separation of lanthanides and actinides

    Sivaraman, N.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The major advantage of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is its ability to provide rapid and high performance separations. It is evident from Van Deemter curve for particle size versus resolution that packing materials with particle sizes less than 2 μm provide better resolution for high speed separations and resolving complex mixtures compared to 5 μm based supports. In the recent past, chromatographic support material using monolith has been studied extensively at our laboratory. Monolith column consists of single piece of porous, rigid material containing mesopores and micropores, which provide fast analyte mass transfer. Monolith support provides significantly higher separation efficiency than particle-packed columns. A clear advantage of monolith is that it could be operated at higher flow rates but with lower back pressure. Higher operating flow rate results in higher column permeability, which drastically reduces analysis time and provides high separation efficiency. The above developed fast separation methods were applied to assay the lanthanides and actinides from the dissolver solutions of nuclear reactor fuels

  7. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  8. Design of analog-type high-speed SerDes using digital components for optical chip-to-chip link

    Sangirov, Jamshid; Nguyen, Nga T. H.; Ngo, Trong-Hieu; Im, Dong-min; Ukaegbu, Augustine I.; Lee, Tae-Woo; Cho, Mu Hee; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2010-02-01

    An analog-type high-speed serializer/deserializer (SerDes) has been designed for optical links especially between CPU and memory. The circuit uses a system clock and its phases to multiplex data to the serial link which avoids the need for a PLL-based high frequency clock generation used in serializing parallel data as in conventional SerDes design. The multiplexed link combined with the de-serializing clock is used as a reference signal for de-serialization. The SerDes is being designed in a 0.13 μm Si-CMOS technology. The fabricated serializer has a core chip size of 360 x750 μm2. Power dissipation for the SerDes is 71.4 mW operating up to 6.5 Gbps.

  9. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro; Carminati, Federico

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit

  10. Detecting analogies unconsciously

    Thomas Peter Reber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analogies may arise from the conscious detection of similarities between a present and a past situation. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we tested whether young volunteers would detect analogies unconsciously between a current supraliminal (visible and a past subliminal (invisible situation. The subliminal encoding of the past situation precludes awareness of analogy detection in the current situation. First, participants encoded subliminal pairs of unrelated words in either one or nine encoding trials. Later, they judged the semantic fit of supraliminally presented new words that either retained a previously encoded semantic relation (‘analog’ or not (‘broken analog’. Words in analogs versus broken analogs were judged closer semantically, which reflects unconscious analogy detection. Hippocampal activity associated with subliminal encoding correlated with the behavioral measure of unconscious analogy detection. Analogs versus broken analogs were processed with reduced prefrontal but enhanced medial temporal activity. We conclude that analogous episodes can be detected even unconsciously drawing on the episodic memory network.

  11. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  12. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  13. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  14. High-performance computing in seismology

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  15. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of < 100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipment: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost

  16. A high performance architecture for accelerator controls

    Allen, M.; Hunt, S.M.; Lue, H.; Saltmarsh, C.G.; Parker, C.R.C.B.

    1991-03-01

    The demands placed on the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) control system due to large distances, high bandwidth and fast response time required for operation will require a fresh approach to the data communications architecture of the accelerator. The prototype design effort aims at providing deterministic communication across the accelerator complex with a response time of <100 ms and total bandwidth of 2 Gbits/sec. It will offer a consistent interface for a large number of equipment types, from vacuum pumps to beam position monitors, providing appropriate communications performance for each equipment type. It will consist of highly parallel links to all equipments: those with computing resources, non-intelligent direct control interfaces, and data concentrators. This system will give each piece of equipment a dedicated link of fixed bandwidth to the control system. Application programs will have access to all accelerator devices which will be memory mapped into a global virtual addressing scheme. Links to devices in the same geographical area will be multiplexed using commercial Time Division Multiplexing equipment. Low-level access will use reflective memory techniques, eliminating processing overhead and complexity of traditional data communication protocols. The use of commercial standards and equipment will enable a high performance system to be built at low cost. 1 fig

  17. High performance computing in linear control

    Datta, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in both theory and applications of all important areas of control. The theory is rich and very sophisticated. Some beautiful applications of control theory are presently being made in aerospace, biomedical engineering, industrial engineering, robotics, economics, power systems, etc. Unfortunately, the same assessment of progress does not hold in general for computations in control theory. Control Theory is lagging behind other areas of science and engineering in this respect. Nowadays there is a revolution going on in the world of high performance scientific computing. Many powerful computers with vector and parallel processing have been built and have been available in recent years. These supercomputers offer very high speed in computations. Highly efficient software, based on powerful algorithms, has been developed to use on these advanced computers, and has also contributed to increased performance. While workers in many areas of science and engineering have taken great advantage of these hardware and software developments, control scientists and engineers, unfortunately, have not been able to take much advantage of these developments

  18. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  19. Improving UV Resistance of High Performance Fibers

    Hassanin, Ahmed

    High performance fibers are characterized by their superior properties compared to the traditional textile fibers. High strength fibers have high modules, high strength to weight ratio, high chemical resistance, and usually high temperature resistance. It is used in application where superior properties are needed such as bulletproof vests, ropes and cables, cut resistant products, load tendons for giant scientific balloons, fishing rods, tennis racket strings, parachute cords, adhesives and sealants, protective apparel and tire cords. Unfortunately, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes serious degradation to the most of high performance fibers. UV lights, either natural or artificial, cause organic compounds to decompose and degrade, because the energy of the photons of UV light is high enough to break chemical bonds causing chain scission. This work is aiming at achieving maximum protection of high performance fibers using sheathing approaches. The sheaths proposed are of lightweight to maintain the advantage of the high performance fiber that is the high strength to weight ratio. This study involves developing three different types of sheathing. The product of interest that need be protected from UV is braid from PBO. First approach is extruding a sheath from Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) loaded with different rutile TiO2 % nanoparticles around the braid from the PBO. The results of this approach showed that LDPE sheath loaded with 10% TiO2 by weight achieved the highest protection compare to 0% and 5% TiO2. The protection here is judged by strength loss of PBO. This trend noticed in different weathering environments, where the sheathed samples were exposed to UV-VIS radiations in different weatheromter equipments as well as exposure to high altitude environment using NASA BRDL balloon. The second approach is focusing in developing a protective porous membrane from polyurethane loaded with rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. Membrane from polyurethane loaded with 4

  20. Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor high performance programming

    Jeffers, James

    2013-01-01

    Authors Jim Jeffers and James Reinders spent two years helping educate customers about the prototype and pre-production hardware before Intel introduced the first Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. They have distilled their own experiences coupled with insights from many expert customers, Intel Field Engineers, Application Engineers and Technical Consulting Engineers, to create this authoritative first book on the essentials of programming for this new architecture and these new products. This book is useful even before you ever touch a system with an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. To ensure that your applications run at maximum efficiency, the authors emphasize key techniques for programming any modern parallel computing system whether based on Intel Xeon processors, Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors, or other high performance microprocessors. Applying these techniques will generally increase your program performance on any system, and better prepare you for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors and the Intel MIC architecture. It off...

  1. Development of high-performance blended cements

    Wu, Zichao

    2000-10-01

    This thesis presents the development of high-performance blended cements from industrial by-products. To overcome the low-early strength of blended cements, several chemicals were studied as the activators for cement hydration. Sodium sulfate was discovered as the best activator. The blending proportions were optimized by Taguchi experimental design. The optimized blended cements containing up to 80% fly ash performed better than Type I cement in strength development and durability. Maintaining a constant cement content, concrete produced from the optimized blended cements had equal or higher strength and higher durability than that produced from Type I cement alone. The key for the activation mechanism was the reaction between added SO4 2- and Ca2+ dissolved from cement hydration products.

  2. Transistor analogs of emergent iono-neuronal dynamics.

    Rachmuth, Guy; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2008-06-01

    Neuromorphic analog metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) transistor circuits promise compact, low-power, and high-speed emulations of iono-neuronal dynamics orders-of-magnitude faster than digital simulation. However, their inherently limited input voltage dynamic range vs power consumption and silicon die area tradeoffs makes them highly sensitive to transistor mismatch due to fabrication inaccuracy, device noise, and other nonidealities. This limitation precludes robust analog very-large-scale-integration (aVLSI) circuits implementation of emergent iono-neuronal dynamics computations beyond simple spiking with limited ion channel dynamics. Here we present versatile neuromorphic analog building-block circuits that afford near-maximum voltage dynamic range operating within the low-power MOS transistor weak-inversion regime which is ideal for aVLSI implementation or implantable biomimetic device applications. The fabricated microchip allowed robust realization of dynamic iono-neuronal computations such as coincidence detection of presynaptic spikes or pre- and postsynaptic activities. As a critical performance benchmark, the high-speed and highly interactive iono-neuronal simulation capability on-chip enabled our prompt discovery of a minimal model of chaotic pacemaker bursting, an emergent iono-neuronal behavior of fundamental biological significance which has hitherto defied experimental testing or computational exploration via conventional digital or analog simulations. These compact and power-efficient transistor analogs of emergent iono-neuronal dynamics open new avenues for next-generation neuromorphic, neuroprosthetic, and brain-machine interface applications.

  3. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  4. An integrated high performance fastbus slave interface

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1992-01-01

    A high performance Fastbus slave interface ASIC is presented. The Fastbus slave integrated circuit (FASIC) is a programmable device, enabling its direct use in many different applications. The FASIC acts as an interface between Fastbus and a 'standard' processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a microprocessor. A set of address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/s to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO buffer in the FASIC. (orig.)

  5. Analog techniques in CEBAF's RF control system

    Hovater, C.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high-speed analog technology have progressed into the areas of traditional RF technology. Diode related devices are being replaced by analog IC's in the CEBAF RF control system. Complex phase modulators and attenuators have been successfully tested at 70 MHz. They have three advantages over existing technology: lower cost, less temperature sensitivity, and more linearity. RF signal conditioning components and how to implement the new analog IC's will be covered in this paper. 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Analog techniques in CEBAF'S RF control system

    Hovater, C.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high-speed analog technology have progressed into the areas of traditional rf technology. Diode-related devices are being replaced by analog IC's in the CEBAF rf control system. Complex phase modulators and attenuators have been successfully tested at 70 MHz. They have three advantages over existing technology: lower cost, less temperature sensitivity, and more linearity. Rf signal conditioning components and how to implement the new analog IC's will be covered in this paper. 4 refs., 5 figs

  7. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  8. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  9. High-Performance Vertical Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Donahue, Mary J; Williamson, Adam; Strakosas, Xenofon; Friedlein, Jacob T; McLeod, Robert R; Gleskova, Helena; Malliaras, George G

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising transducers for biointerfacing due to their high transconductance, biocompatibility, and availability in a variety of form factors. Most OECTs reported to date, however, utilize rather large channels, limiting the transistor performance and resulting in a low transistor density. This is typically a consequence of limitations associated with traditional fabrication methods and with 2D substrates. Here, the fabrication and characterization of OECTs with vertically stacked contacts, which overcome these limitations, is reported. The resulting vertical transistors exhibit a reduced footprint, increased intrinsic transconductance of up to 57 mS, and a geometry-normalized transconductance of 814 S m -1 . The fabrication process is straightforward and compatible with sensitive organic materials, and allows exceptional control over the transistor channel length. This novel 3D fabrication method is particularly suited for applications where high density is needed, such as in implantable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Relations as transformations: implications for analogical reasoning.

    Leech, Robert; Mareschal, Denis; Cooper, Richard P

    2007-07-01

    We present two experiments assessing whether the size of a transformation instantiating a relation between two states of the world (e.g., shrinks) is a performance factor affecting analogical reasoning. The first experiment finds evidence of transformation size as a significant factor in adolescent analogical problem solving while the second experiment finds a similar effect on adult analogical reasoning using a markedly different analogical completion paradigm. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the more general framework that cognitive representations of relations are best understood as mental transformations.

  11. High Performance Data Distribution for Scientific Community

    Tirado, Juan M.; Higuero, Daniel; Carretero, Jesus

    2010-05-01

    Institutions such as NASA, ESA or JAXA find solutions to distribute data from their missions to the scientific community, and their long term archives. This is a complex problem, as it includes a vast amount of data, several geographically distributed archives, heterogeneous architectures with heterogeneous networks, and users spread around the world. We propose a novel architecture (HIDDRA) that solves this problem aiming to reduce user intervention in data acquisition and processing. HIDDRA is a modular system that provides a highly efficient parallel multiprotocol download engine, using a publish/subscribe policy which helps the final user to obtain data of interest transparently. Our system can deal simultaneously with multiple protocols (HTTP,HTTPS, FTP, GridFTP among others) to obtain the maximum bandwidth, reducing the workload in data server and increasing flexibility. It can also provide high reliability and fault tolerance, as several sources of data can be used to perform one file download. HIDDRA architecture can be arranged into a data distribution network deployed on several sites that can cooperate to provide former features. HIDDRA has been addressed by the 2009 e-IRG Report on Data Management as a promising initiative for data interoperability. Our first prototype has been evaluated in collaboration with the ESAC centre in Villafranca del Castillo (Spain) that shows a high scalability and performance, opening a wide spectrum of opportunities. Some preliminary results have been published in the Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science [1]. [1] D. Higuero, J.M. Tirado, J. Carretero, F. Félix, and A. de La Fuente. HIDDRA: a highly independent data distribution and retrieval architecture for space observation missions. Astrophysics and Space Science, 321(3):169-175, 2009

  12. Analog circuit design

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  13. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms; TOPICAL

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-01-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations-primarily safety driven-that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities

  14. Use of an analog site near Raymond, California, to develop equipment and methods for characterizing a potential high-level, nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Umari, A.M.J.; Geldon, A.; Patterson, G.; Gemmell, J.; Earle, J.; Darnell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, currently is being investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Planned hydraulic-stress and tracer tests in fractured, tuffaceous rocks below the water table at Yucca Mountain will require work at depths in excess of 1,300 feet. To facilitate prototype testing of equipment and methods to be used in aquifer tests at Yucca Mountain, an analog site was selected in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Raymond, California. Two of nine 250- to 300-feet deep wells drilled into fractured, granitic rocks at the Raymond site have been instrumented with packers, pressure transducers, and other equipment that will be used at Yucca Mountain. Aquifer tests conducted at the Raymond site to date have demonstrated a need to modify some of the equipment and methods conceived for use at Yucca Mountain

  15. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    2001-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  16. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    Quinn, Heather M.; Manuzatto, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  17. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    1999-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  18. High-performance vertical organic transistors.

    Kleemann, Hans; Günther, Alrun A; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn

    2013-11-11

    Vertical organic thin-film transistors (VOTFTs) are promising devices to overcome the transconductance and cut-off frequency restrictions of horizontal organic thin-film transistors. The basic physical mechanisms of VOTFT operation, however, are not well understood and VOTFTs often require complex patterning techniques using self-assembly processes which impedes a future large-area production. In this contribution, high-performance vertical organic transistors comprising pentacene for p-type operation and C60 for n-type operation are presented. The static current-voltage behavior as well as the fundamental scaling laws of such transistors are studied, disclosing a remarkable transistor operation with a behavior limited by injection of charge carriers. The transistors are manufactured by photolithography, in contrast to other VOTFT concepts using self-assembled source electrodes. Fluorinated photoresist and solvent compounds allow for photolithographical patterning directly and strongly onto the organic materials, simplifying the fabrication protocol and making VOTFTs a prospective candidate for future high-performance applications of organic transistors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  20. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  1. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    Bekas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost which quickly becomes intractable with the current explosion of data sizes. In this work we reduce this complexity to quadratic with the synergy of two algorithms that gracefully complement each other and lead to a radically different approach. First, we turned to stochastic estimation of the diagonal. This allowed us to cast the problem as a linear system with a relatively small number of multiple right hand sides. Second, for this linear system we developed a novel, mixed precision, iterative refinement scheme, which uses iterative solvers instead of matrix factorizations. We demonstrate that the new framework not only achieves the much needed quadratic cost but in addition offers excellent opportunities for scaling at massively parallel environments. We based our implementation on BLAS 3 kernels that ensure very high processor performance. We achieved a peak performance of 730 TFlops on 72 BG/P racks, with a sustained performance 73% of theoretical peak. We stress that the techniques presented in this work are quite general and applicable to several other important applications. Copyright © 2009 ACM.

  2. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  4. Ultra high performance concrete dematerialization study

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world and its use is expected to grow. It is well recognized that the production of portland cement results in the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas (GHG). The main challenge facing the industry is to produce concrete in an environmentally sustainable manner. Reclaimed industrial by-proudcts such as fly ash, silica fume and slag can reduce the amount of portland cement needed to make concrete, thereby reducing the amount of GHGs released to the atmosphere. The use of these supplementary cementing materials (SCM) can also enhance the long-term strength and durability of concrete. The intention of the EcoSmart{sup TM} Concrete Project is to develop sustainable concrete through innovation in supply, design and construction. In particular, the project focuses on finding a way to minimize the GHG signature of concrete by maximizing the replacement of portland cement in the concrete mix with SCM while improving the cost, performance and constructability. This paper describes the use of Ductal{sup R} Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) for ramps in a condominium. It examined the relationship between the selection of UHPC and the overall environmental performance, cost, constructability maintenance and operational efficiency as it relates to the EcoSmart Program. The advantages and challenges of using UHPC were outlined. In addition to its very high strength, UHPC has been shown to have very good potential for GHG emission reduction due to the reduced material requirements, reduced transport costs and increased SCM content. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. JT-60U high performance regimes

    Ishida, S.

    1999-01-01

    High performance regimes of JT-60U plasmas are presented with an emphasis upon the results from the use of a semi-closed pumped divertor with W-shaped geometry. Plasma performance in transient and quasi steady states has been significantly improved in reversed shear and high- βp regimes. The reversed shear regime elevated an equivalent Q DT eq transiently up to 1.25 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)=8.6x10 20 m-3·s·keV) in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime. Long sustainment of enhanced confinement with internal transport barriers (ITBs) with a fully non-inductive current drive in a reversed shear discharge was successfully demonstrated with LH wave injection. Performance sustainment has been extended in the high- bp regime with a high triangularity achieving a long sustainment of plasma conditions equivalent to Q DT eq ∼0.16 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)∼1.4x10 20 m -3 ·s·keV) for ∼4.5 s with a large non-inductive current drive fraction of 60-70% of the plasma current. Thermal and particle transport analyses show significant reduction of thermal and particle diffusivities around ITB resulting in a strong Er shear in the ITB region. The W-shaped divertor is effective for He ash exhaust demonstrating steady exhaust capability of τ He */τ E ∼3-10 in support of ITER. Suppression of neutral back flow and chemical sputtering effect have been observed while MARFE onset density is rather decreased. Negative-ion based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) experiments have created a clear H-mode transition. Enhanced ionization cross- section due to multi-step ionization processes was confirmed as theoretically predicted. A current density profile driven by N-NBI is measured in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. N-NBI induced TAE modes characterized as persistent and bursting oscillations have been observed from a low hot beta of h >∼0.1-0.2% without a significant loss of fast ions. (author)

  6. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning in Science Domains

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study in a classroom setting investigates first graders' (age 7-8 years, N = 25) ability to perform analogical reasoning and create their own analogies for two irreversible natural phenomena: mixing and heat transfer. We found that the children who contributed actively to a full-class discussion were consistently successful at…

  7. High-performance phase-field modeling

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  8. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    McGuigan, Michael; Smith, Gordon; Spiletic, John; Fine, Valeri; Nevski, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactive control, including the ability to slice, search and mark areas of the detector. We incorporate the ability to make a high quality still image of a view of the detector and the ability to generate animations and a fly through of the detector and output these to MPEG or VRML models. We develop data compression hardware and software so that remote interactive visualization will be possible among dispersed collaborators. We obtain real time visual display for events accumulated during simulations

  9. Development of high performance ODS alloys

    Shao, Lin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garner, Frank [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2018-01-29

    This project aims to capitalize on insights developed from recent high-dose self-ion irradiation experiments in order to develop and test the next generation of optimized ODS alloys needed to meet the nuclear community's need for high strength, radiation-tolerant cladding and core components, especially with enhanced resistance to void swelling. Two of these insights are that ferrite grains swell earlier than tempered martensite grains, and oxide dispersions currently produced only in ferrite grains require a high level of uniformity and stability to be successful. An additional insight is that ODS particle stability is dependent on as-yet unidentified compositional combinations of dispersoid and alloy matrix, such as dispersoids are stable in MA957 to doses greater than 200 dpa but dissolve in MA956 at doses less than 200 dpa. These findings focus attention on candidate next-generation alloys which address these concerns. Collaboration with two Japanese groups provides this project with two sets of first-round candidate alloys that have already undergone extensive development and testing for unirradiated properties, but have not yet been evaluated for their irradiation performance. The first set of candidate alloys are dual phase (ferrite + martensite) ODS alloys with oxide particles uniformly distributed in both ferrite and martensite phases. The second set of candidate alloys are ODS alloys containing non-standard dispersoid compositions with controllable oxide particle sizes, phases and interfaces.

  10. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  11. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '15 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2015. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  12. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '17 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael; HLRS 2017

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2017. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance.The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  13. Thermal interface pastes nanostructured for high performance

    Lin, Chuangang

    Thermal interface materials in the form of pastes are needed to improve thermal contacts, such as that between a microprocessor and a heat sink of a computer. High-performance and low-cost thermal pastes have been developed in this dissertation by using polyol esters as the vehicle and various nanoscale solid components. The proportion of a solid component needs to be optimized, as an excessive amount degrades the performance, due to the increase in the bond line thickness. The optimum solid volume fraction tends to be lower when the mating surfaces are smoother, and higher when the thermal conductivity is higher. Both a low bond line thickness and a high thermal conductivity help the performance. When the surfaces are smooth, a low bond line thickness can be even more important than a high thermal conductivity, as shown by the outstanding performance of the nanoclay paste of low thermal conductivity in the smooth case (0.009 mum), with the bond line thickness less than 1 mum, as enabled by low storage modulus G', low loss modulus G" and high tan delta. However, for rough surfaces, the thermal conductivity is important. The rheology affects the bond line thickness, but it does not correlate well with the performance. This study found that the structure of carbon black is an important parameter that governs the effectiveness of a carbon black for use in a thermal paste. By using a carbon black with a lower structure (i.e., a lower DBP value), a thermal paste that is more effective than the previously reported carbon black paste was obtained. Graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) was found to be comparable in effectiveness to carbon black (CB) pastes for rough surfaces, but it is less effective for smooth surfaces. At the same filler volume fraction, GNP gives higher thermal conductivity than carbon black paste. At the same pressure, GNP gives higher bond line thickness than CB (Tokai or Cabot). The effectiveness of GNP is limited, due to the high bond line thickness. A

  14. High performance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses

    Branko Nikolin

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In testing the pre-sale procedure the marketing of drugs and their control in the last ten years, high performance liquid chromatographyreplaced numerous spectroscopic methods and gas chromatography in the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first period of HPLC application it was thought that it would become a complementary method of gas chromatography, however, today it has nearly completely replaced gas chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis. The application of the liquid mobile phase with the possibility of transformation of mobilized polarity during chromatography and all other modifications of mobile phase depending upon the characteristics of substance which are being tested, is a great advantage in the process of separation in comparison to other methods. The greater choice of stationary phase is the next factor which enables realization of good separation. The separation line is connected to specific and sensitive detector systems, spectrafluorimeter, diode detector, electrochemical detector as other hyphernated systems HPLC-MS and HPLC-NMR, are the basic elements on which is based such wide and effective application of the HPLC method. The purpose high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC analysis of any drugs is to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the progress of the therapy of a disease.1 Measuring presented on the Fig. 1. is chromatogram obtained for the plasma of depressed patients 12 h before oral administration of dexamethasone. It may also be used to further our understanding of the normal and disease process in the human body trough biomedical and therapeutically research during investigation before of the drugs registration. The analyses of drugs and metabolites in biological fluids, particularly plasma, serum or urine is one of the most demanding but one of the most common uses of high performance of liquid chromatography. Blood, plasma or

  15. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  16. High Performance Redox Flow Batteries: An Analysis of the Upper Performance Limits of Flow Batteries Using Non-aqueous Solvents

    Sun, C.-N.; Mench, M.M.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) are a promising technology for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage. In this work, we use a recently achieved high-performance flow battery performance curve as a basis to assess the maximum achievable performance of a RFB employing non-aqueous solutions as active materials. First we show high performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), specifically a limiting situation in which the cell losses are ohmic in nature and derive from electrolyte conductance. Based on that case, we analyze the analogous limiting behavior of non-aqueous (NA) systems using a series of calculations assuming similar ohmic losses, scaled by the relative electrolyte resistances, with a higher voltage redox couple assumed for the NA battery. The results indicate that the NA battery performance is limited by the low electrolyte conductivity to a fraction of the performance of the VRFB. Given the narrow window in which the NARFB offers advantages, even for the most generous limiting assumptions related to performance while ignoring the numerous other disadvantageous aspects of these systems, we conclude that this technology is unlikely under present circumstances to provide practical large-scale energy storage solutions.

  17. Combining high productivity with high performance on commodity hardware

    Skovhede, Kenneth

    -like compiler for translating CIL bytecode on the CELL-BE. I then introduce a bytecode converter that transforms simple loops in Java bytecode to GPGPU capable code. I then introduce the numeric library for the Common Intermediate Language, NumCIL. I can then utilizing the vector programming model from Num......CIL and map this to the Bohrium framework. The result is a complete system that gives the user a choice of high-level languages with no explicit parallelism, yet seamlessly performs efficient execution on a number of hardware setups....

  18. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  19. The need for high performance breeder reactors

    Vaughan, R.D.; Chermanne, J.

    1977-01-01

    It can be easily demonstrated, on the basis of realistic estimates of continued high oil costs, that an increasing portion of the growth in energy demand must be supplied by nuclear power and that this one might account for 20% of all the energy production by the end of the century. Such assumptions lead very quickly to the conclusion that the discovery, extraction and processing of the uranium will not be able to follow the demand; the bottleneck will essentially be related to the rate at which the ore can be discovered and extracted, and not to the existing quantities nor their grade. Figures as high as 150.000 T/annum and more would be quickly reached, and it is necessary to wonder already now if enough capital can be attracted to meet these requirements. There is only one solution to this problem: improve the conversion ratio of the nuclear system and quickly reach the breeding; this would lead to the reduction of the natural uranium consumption by a factor of about 50. However, this condition is not sufficient; the commercial breeder must have a breeding gain as high as possible because the Pu out-of-pile time and the Pu losses in the cycle could lead to an unacceptable doubling time for the system, if the breeding gain is too low. That is the reason why it is vital to develop high performance breeder reactors. The present paper indicates how the Gas-cooled Breeder Reactor [GBR] can meet the problems mentioned above, on the basis of recent and realistic studies. It briefly describes the present status of GBR development, from the predecessors in the gas cooled reactor line, particularly the AGR. It shows how the GBR fuel takes mostly profit from the LMFBR fuel irradiation experience. It compares the GBR performance on a consistent basis with that of the LMFBR. The GBR capital and fuel cycle costs are compared with those of thermal and fast reactors respectively. The conclusion is, based on a cost-benefit study, that the GBR must be quickly developed in order

  20. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  1. How to create high-performing teams.

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  3. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M.; Chea, Y. B.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-06-01

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  4. High Performance with Prescriptive Optimization and Debugging

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo

    parallelization and automatic vectorization is attractive as it transparently optimizes programs. The thesis contributes an improved dependence analysis for explicitly parallel programs. These improvements lead to more loops being vectorized, on average we achieve a speedup of 1.46 over the existing dependence...... analysis and vectorizer in GCC. Automatic optimizations often fail for theoretical and practical reasons. When they fail we argue that a hybrid approach can be effective. Using compiler feedback, we propose to use the programmer’s intuition and insight to achieve high performance. Compiler feedback...... enlightens the programmer why a given optimization was not applied, and suggest how to change the source code to make it more amenable to optimizations. We show how this can yield significant speedups and achieve 2.4 faster execution on a real industrial use case. To aid in parallel debugging we propose...

  5. Challenges in Using Analogies

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  6. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  7. Optimizing High Performance Self Compacting Concrete

    Raymond A Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objectives are to learn the effect of glass powder, silica fume, Polycarboxylate Ether, and gravel to optimizing composition of each factor in making High Performance SCC. Taguchi method is proposed in this paper as best solution to minimize specimen variable which is more than 80 variations. Taguchi data analysis method is applied to provide composition, optimizing, and the effect of contributing materials for nine variable of specimens. Concrete’s workability was analyzed using Slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test. Compressive and porosity test were performed for the hardened state. With a dimension of 100×200 mm the cylindrical specimens were cast for compressive test with the age of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Porosity test was conducted at 28 days. It is revealed that silica fume contributes greatly to slump flow and porosity. Coarse aggregate shows the greatest contributing factor to L-box and compressive test. However, all factors show unclear result to V-funnel test.

  8. Image magnification based on similarity analogy

    Chen Zuoping; Ye Zhenglin; Wang Shuxun; Peng Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the high time complexity of the decoding phase in the traditional image enlargement methods based on fractal coding, a novel image magnification algorithm is proposed in this paper, which has the advantage of iteration-free decoding, by using the similarity analogy between an image and its zoom-out and zoom-in. A new pixel selection technique is also presented to further improve the performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, by combining some existing fractal zooming techniques, an efficient image magnification algorithm is obtained, which can provides the image quality as good as the state of the art while greatly decrease the time complexity of the decoding phase.

  9. A digital calibration technique for an ultra high-speed wide-bandwidth folding and interpolating analog-to-digital converter in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS technology

    Yu Jinshan; Zhang Ruitao; Zhang Zhengping; Wang Yonglu; Zhu Can; Zhang Lei; Yu Zhou; Han Yong, E-mail: yujinshan@yeah.net [National Laboratory of Analog IC' s, Chongqing 400060 (China)

    2011-01-15

    A digital calibration technique for an ultra high-speed folding and interpolating analog-to-digital converter in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS technology is presented. The similar digital calibration techniques are taken for high 3-bit flash converter and low 5-bit folding and interpolating converter, which are based on well-designed calibration reference, calibration DAC and comparators. The spice simulation and the measured results show the ADC produces 5.9 ENOB with calibration disabled and 7.2 ENOB with calibration enabled for high-frequency wide-bandwidth analog input. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Optical analogy. Synthesis report

    1965-01-01

    The authors report the study of conditions under which light attenuation (reflection, diffusion, absorption) and the attenuation of some radiations (notably thermal neutrons) can be described with analogical calculations. The analogy between light physical properties and neutron properties is not searched for, but the analogy between their attenuation characteristics. After having discussed this possible analogy, they propose a mathematical formulation of neutron and optical phenomena which could theoretically justify the optical analogy. The second part reports a more practical study of optics problems such as the study of simple optics materials and illumination measurements, or more precisely the study of angular distributions of optical reflections, a determination of such angular distributions, and an experimental determination of the albedo

  11. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  12. NCI's Transdisciplinary High Performance Scientific Data Platform

    Evans, Ben; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Druken, Kelsey; Evans, Bradley; Fraser, Ryan; Ip, Alex; Kemp, Carina; King, Edward; Minchin, Stuart; Larraondo, Pablo; Pugh, Tim; Richards, Clare; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages Earth Systems data collections sourced from several domains and organisations onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node to further Australia's national priority research and innovation agenda. The NCI HPD Node has rapidly established its value, currently managing over 10 PBytes of datasets from collections that span a wide range of disciplines including climate, weather, environment, geoscience, geophysics, water resources and social sciences. Importantly, in order to facilitate broad user uptake, maximise reuse and enable transdisciplinary access through software and standardised interfaces, the datasets, associated information systems and processes have been incorporated into the design and operation of a unified platform that NCI has called, the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The key goal of the NERDIP is to regularise data access so that it is easily discoverable, interoperable for different domains and enabled for high performance methods. It adopts and implements international standards and data conventions, and promotes scientific integrity within a high performance computing and data analysis environment. NCI has established a rich and flexible computing environment to access to this data, through the NCI supercomputer; a private cloud that supports both domain focused virtual laboratories and in-common interactive analysis interfaces; as well as remotely through scalable data services. Data collections of this importance must be managed with careful consideration of both their current use and the needs of the end-communities, as well as its future potential use, such as transitioning to more advanced software and improved methods. It is therefore critical that the data platform is both well-managed and trusted for stable production use (including transparency and reproducibility), agile enough to incorporate new technological advances and

  13. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    implied nearly frozen flow in the nozzle and yielded performance ranges of 800-1100 sec for hydrogen and 400-600 sec for ammonia. Inferred thrust-to-power ratios were in the range of 30-10 lbf/MWe for hydrogen and 60-20 lbf/MWe for ammonia. Successful completion of this test series represents a fundamental milestone in the progression of high power arcjet technology, and it is hoped that the results may serve as a reliable touchstone for the future development of MW-class regeneratively-cooled flex-propellant plasma rockets.

  14. Computer aided drug discovery of highly ligand efficient, low molecular weight imidazopyridine analogs as FLT3 inhibitors.

    Frett, Brendan; McConnell, Nick; Smith, Catherine C; Wang, Yuanxiang; Shah, Neil P; Li, Hong-yu

    2015-04-13

    The FLT3 kinase represents an attractive target to effectively treat AML. Unfortunately, no FLT3 targeted therapeutic is currently approved. In line with our continued interests in treating kinase related disease for anti-FLT3 mutant activity, we utilized pioneering synthetic methodology in combination with computer aided drug discovery and identified low molecular weight, highly ligand efficient, FLT3 kinase inhibitors. Compounds were analyzed for biochemical inhibition, their ability to selectively inhibit cell proliferation, for FLT3 mutant activity, and preliminary aqueous solubility. Validated hits were discovered that can serve as starting platforms for lead candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  16. The Role of Performance Management in the High Performance Organisation

    de Waal, André A.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an

  17. A natural analogy of high-level radioactive waste disposal. A case study of the groundwater from a uranium deposit

    Li Xinchun; Zhang Zhanshi; Ouyang Hegen

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide migration is one of the key effects of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The groundwater is considered the primary means of radionuclide migration. Uranium and rare earth element(REE) in groundwater from a uranium deposit were used as a chemical analogue to study the migration of radionuclides. The results show that REE and its chemical analogue might migrate under the uranium deposit condition, but uranium and its analogue do not migrate obviously. According to the results, we might infer that after the groundwater penetrates into the HLW repository, REE and its analogue might migrate with the groundwater; but there is no obvious migration of uranium and its chemical analogue,which might increase our confidence to built a safe HLW repository. (authors)

  18. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  19. Low-voltage current-mode CMOS building blocks for field programmable analog arrays and application

    Madian, A.H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The role of analog integrated circuits in modem electronic systems remains important, even though digital circuits dominate the market for VLSI solutions. Analog systems have always played an essential role in interfacing digital electronics to the real world in applications such as analog signal processing and signal conditioning .Industrial process and motion control and biomedical measurements . In addition, analog solutions are becoming increasingly competitive with digital circuits for dense, low-power, high-speed applications in low-precision signal-processing. Because of the wide variety of analog functions required in electronic systems and the complexity of the signals (frequency, time, signal levels, parasitic), analog system design is very specialized and supported by a diverse set of CAD tools that are more difficult to integrate than those required for digital design. The drive towards shorter design cycles for analog integrated circuits has demanded the development of high performance analog circuits that are re configurable and suitable for CAD methodologies. the researcher here try to contribute in this filed

  20. High Performance Ultra Low-Power ADCs and DACs, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase-I research is to design a multi-GHz high bandwidth Delta Sigma Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converter using a deep sub-micron...

  1. Meat analog: a review.

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  2. Analog implementation of an integral resonant control scheme

    Pereira, E; Moheimani, S O R; Aphale, S S

    2008-01-01

    Integral resonant control (IRC) has been introduced as a high performance controller design methodology for flexible structures with collocated actuator–sensor pairs. IRC has a simple structure and is capable of achieving significant damping, over several modes, while guaranteeing closed-loop stability of the system in the presence of unmodeled out-of-bandwidth dynamics. IRC can be an ideal controller for various industrial damping applications, if packaged in a simple easy-to-implement electronic module. This work proposes an analog implementation of the IRC scheme using a single Op-Amp circuit. The objective is to show that with simple analog realization of the modified IRC scheme, it is possible to damp a large number of vibration modes. A brief discussion about the modeling, circuit considerations, implementation and experimental results is presented in order to validate the usefulness and practicality of the proposed analog IRC implementation. (technical note)

  3. An integrated high performance Fastbus slave interface

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1993-01-01

    A high performance CMOS Fastbus slave interface ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) supporting all addressing and data transfer modes defined in the IEEE 960 - 1986 standard is presented. The FAstbus Slave Integrated Circuit (FASIC) is an interface between the asynchronous Fastbus and a clock synchronous processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a 32 bit microprocessor. The FASIC is a programmable device enabling its direct use in many different applications. A set of programmable address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/sec to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO in the FASIC to buffer data between the two buses during block transfers. Message passing from Fastbus to a microprocessor on the slave module is supported. A compact (70 mm x 170 mm) Fastbus slave piggy back sub-card interface including level conversion between ECL and TTL signal levels has been implemented using surface mount components and the 208 pin FASIC chip

  4. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  5. Initial rheological description of high performance concretes

    Alessandra Lorenzetti de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is defined as a composite material and, in rheological terms, it can be understood as a concentrated suspension of solid particles (aggregates in a viscous liquid (cement paste. On a macroscopic scale, concrete flows as a liquid. It is known that the rheological behavior of the concrete is close to that of a Bingham fluid and two rheological parameters regarding its description are needed: yield stress and plastic viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the initial rheological description of high performance concretes using the modified slump test. According to the results, an increase of yield stress was observed over time, while a slight variation in plastic viscosity was noticed. The incorporation of silica fume showed changes in the rheological properties of fresh concrete. The behavior of these materials also varied with the mixing procedure employed in their production. The addition of superplasticizer meant that there was a large reduction in the mixture's yield stress, while plastic viscosity remained practically constant.

  6. High thermoelectric performance of graphite nanofibers.

    Tran, Van-Truong; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Dollfus, Philippe; Volz, Sebastian

    2018-02-22

    Graphite nanofibers (GNFs) have been demonstrated to be a promising material for hydrogen storage and heat management in electronic devices. Here, by means of first-principles and transport simulations, we show that GNFs can also be an excellent material for thermoelectric applications thanks to the interlayer weak van der Waals interaction that induces low thermal conductance and a step-like shape in the electronic transmission with mini-gaps, which are necessary ingredients to achieve high thermoelectric performance. This study unveils that the platelet form of GNFs in which graphite layers are perpendicular to the fiber axis can exhibit outstanding thermoelectric properties with a figure of merit ZT reaching 3.55 in a 0.5 nm diameter fiber and 1.1 in a 1.1 nm diameter one. Interestingly, by introducing 14 C isotope doping, ZT can even be enhanced up to more than 5, and more than 8 if we include the effect of finite phonon mean free path, which demonstrates the amazing thermoelectric potential of GNFs.

  7. Durability of high performance concrete in seawater

    Amjad Hussain Memon; Salihuddin Radin Sumadi; Rabitah Handan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the effects of blended cements on the durability of high performance concrete (HPC) in seawater. In this research the effect of seawater was investigated. The specimens were initially subjected to water curing for seven days inside the laboratory at room temperature, followed by seawater curing exposed to tidal zone until testing. In this study three levels of cement replacement (0%, 30% and 70%) were used. The combined use of chemical and mineral admixtures has resulted in a new generation of concrete called HPC. The HPC has been identified as one of the most important advanced materials necessary in the effort to build a nation's infrastructure. HPC opens new opportunities in the utilization of the industrial by-products (mineral admixtures) in the construction industry. As a matter of fact permeability is considered as one of the fundamental properties governing the durability of concrete in the marine environment. Results of this investigation indicated that the oxygen permeability values for the blended cement concretes at the age of one year are reduced by a factor of about 2 as compared to OPC control mix concrete. Therefore both blended cement concretes are expected to withstand in the seawater exposed to tidal zone without serious deterioration. (Author)

  8. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  9. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  10. FPGA based high-performance multi-channel analyzer with local histogram memory

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.

    2004-01-01

    Modern nuclear spectroscopy systems demand for a Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) with higher resolution, faster speed and other advanced features. The MCA described here is targeted for such demanding applications. The MCA has an in-built local histogram memory and a memory management unit integrated in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip. In addition to the integrated low power digital circuitry, the system utilizes state of the art advanced analog circuits like low power, high speed and high precision comparators, op-amps, ADC and DAC. The operating resolution is selectable from 256 channels to 16384 channels for pulse height analysis. It supports high count rate applications (typically 100 KHz) without significant dead time penalty. It can have an USB bus interface with simple changes. In general, the MCA gives a high performance, compact and low power alternative for portable and battery operated systems as well as for high end laboratory instruments. (author)

  11. Lithofacies, paleoenvironment and high-resolution stratigraphy of the D5 and D6 members of the Middle Jurassic carbonates Dhruma Formation, outcrop analog, central Saudi Arabia

    Yousif, Ibrahim M.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammad H.; Bashri, Mazin A.; Abdulghani, Waleed M.

    2018-03-01

    This study characterizes the lithofacies, paleoenvironment and stratigraphic architecture of the D5 and D6 members of carbonates Dhruma Formation outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study integrates detailed lithofacies analysis based on vertical and lateral profiles, in addition to thin-sections petrography to reveal the high-resolution architecture framework. Nine lithofacies types (LFTs) were defined namely: (1) skeletal peletal spiculitic wackestone (15%), (2) peloidal echinoderm packstone (19%), (3) fissile shale (36%), (4) peloidal spiculitic echinoderm pack-grainstone (5%), (5) cross-bedded peloidal skeletal oolitic grainstone (7%), (6) oolitic grainstone (2%), (7) intraformational rudstone (cycles and cycle sets with 5th to 6th orders magnitude, and thickness ranges from a few centimeters up to 6 m with an average of 1.5 m. Those are stacked to form four high-frequency sequences with thickness range from 1 m up to 14 m. The latter were grouped into a single depositional sequence of 3rd order magnitude. The architectural analysis also shows that the potential reservoir units were intensively affected by muddy-textured rocks which act as reservoir seals. These variations in the stratigraphic sequences in Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation and its equivalents could be attributed to the eustatic sea-level changes, climate, tectonics, and local paleoenvironments. This study attempts to provide detailed insight into reservoir heterogeneity and architecture. The analog may help to understand and predict lithofacies heterogeneity, architecture, and quality in the subsurface equivalent reservoirs.

  12. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  13. Creative Analogy Use in a Heterogeneous Design Team

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    the design dialogue derived from team members with highly disparate educational backgrounds. Our analyses revealed that analogies that matched (versus mismatched) educational backgrounds were generated and revisited more frequently, presumably because they were more accessible. Matching analogies were also...

  14. High-performance commercial building systems

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  15. Analog circuits cookbook

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  16. FGF growth factor analogs

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  17. Improving the high performance concrete (HPC behaviour in high temperatures

    Cattelan Antocheves De Lima, R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance concrete (HPC is an interesting material that has been long attracting the interest from the scientific and technical community, due to the clear advantages obtained in terms of mechanical strength and durability. Given these better characteristics, HFC, in its various forms, has been gradually replacing normal strength concrete, especially in structures exposed to severe environments. However, the veiy dense microstructure and low permeability typical of HPC can result in explosive spalling under certain thermal and mechanical conditions, such as when concrete is subject to rapid temperature rises, during a f¡re. This behaviour is caused by the build-up of internal water pressure, in the pore structure, during heating, and by stresses originating from thermal deformation gradients. Although there are still a limited number of experimental programs in this area, some researchers have reported that the addition of polypropylene fibers to HPC is a suitable way to avoid explosive spalling under f re conditions. This change in behavior is derived from the fact that polypropylene fibers melt in high temperatures and leave a pathway for heated gas to escape the concrete matrix, therefore allowing the outward migration of water vapor and resulting in the reduction of interned pore pressure. The present research investigates the behavior of high performance concrete on high temperatures, especially when polypropylene fibers are added to the mix.

    El hormigón de alta resistencia (HAR es un material de gran interés para la comunidad científica y técnica, debido a las claras ventajas obtenidas en término de resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. A causa de estas características, el HAR, en sus diversas formas, en algunas aplicaciones está reemplazando gradualmente al hormigón de resistencia normal, especialmente en estructuras expuestas a ambientes severos. Sin embargo, la microestructura muy densa y la baja permeabilidad t

  18. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  19. Expert Analogy Use in a Naturalistic Setting

    Donald R Kretz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker’s goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance.

  20. Spectrally high performing quantum cascade lasers

    Toor, Fatima

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are versatile semiconductor light sources that can be engineered to emit light of almost any wavelength in the mid- to far-infrared (IR) and terahertz region from 3 to 300 mum [1-5]. Furthermore QC laser technology in the mid-IR range has great potential for applications in environmental, medical and industrial trace gas sensing [6-10] since several chemical vapors have strong rovibrational frequencies in this range and are uniquely identifiable by their absorption spectra through optical probing of absorption and transmission. Therefore, having a wide range of mid-IR wavelengths in a single QC laser source would greatly increase the specificity of QC laser-based spectroscopic systems, and also make them more compact and field deployable. This thesis presents work on several different approaches to multi-wavelength QC laser sources that take advantage of band-structure engineering and the uni-polar nature of QC lasers. Also, since for chemical sensing, lasers with narrow linewidth are needed, work is presented on a single mode distributed feedback (DFB) QC laser. First, a compact four-wavelength QC laser source, which is based on a 2-by-2 module design, with two waveguides having QC laser stacks for two different emission wavelengths each, one with 7.0 mum/11.2 mum, and the other with 8.7 mum/12.0 mum is presented. This is the first design of a four-wavelength QC laser source with widely different emission wavelengths that uses minimal optics and electronics. Second, since there are still several unknown factors that affect QC laser performance, results on a first ever study conducted to determine the effects of waveguide side-wall roughness on QC laser performance using the two-wavelength waveguides is presented. The results are consistent with Rayleigh scattering effects in the waveguides, with roughness effecting shorter wavelengths more than longer wavelengths. Third, a versatile time-multiplexed multi-wavelength QC laser system that

  1. Bayesian analogy with relational transformations.

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy problems. We introduce Bayesian analogy with relational transformations (BART) and apply the model to the task of learning first-order comparative relations (e.g., larger, smaller, fiercer, meeker) from a set of animal pairs. Inputs are coded by vectors of continuous-valued features, based either on human magnitude ratings, normed feature ratings (De Deyne et al., 2008), or outputs of the topics model (Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, 2007). Bootstrapping from empirical priors, the model is able to induce first-order relations represented as probabilistic weight distributions, even when given positive examples only. These learned representations allow classification of novel instantiations of the relations and yield a symbolic distance effect of the sort obtained with both humans and other primates. BART then transforms its learned weight distributions by importance-guided mapping, thereby placing distinct dimensions into correspondence. These transformed representations allow BART to reliably solve 4-term analogies (e.g., larger:smaller::fiercer:meeker), a type of reasoning that is arguably specific to humans. Our results provide a proof-of-concept that structured analogies can be solved with representations induced from unstructured feature vectors by mechanisms that operate in a largely bottom-up fashion. We discuss potential implications for algorithmic and neural models of relational thinking, as well as for the evolution of abstract thought. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Nova performance at ultra high fluence levels

    Hunt, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nova is a ten beam high power Nd:glass laser used for interial confinement fusion research. It was operated in the high power high energy regime following the completion of construction in December 1984. During this period several interesting nonlinear optical phenomena were observed. These phenomena are discussed in the text. 11 refs., 5 figs

  3. Optical analog transmission device

    Ikawa, Shinji.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device such as electro-optical conversion elements, optoelectric-electric elements and optical transmission channel, not undergoing deleterious effects on the efficiency of conversion and transmission due to temperature, and aging change. That is, a sine wave superposing means superposes, on a detector signal to be transmitted, a sine-wave signal having a predetermined amplitude and at a frequency lower than that of the detector signal. An optoelectric conversion means converts the electric signal as the signal of the sine-wave signal superposing means into an optical signal and outputs the same to an optical transmitting channel. The optoelectric conversion means converts the transmitted signal to an electric signal. A discriminating means discriminates the electric signal into a detector signal and a sine-wave signal. A calculating means calculates an optical transmitting efficiency of the transmitting channel based on the amplitude of the discriminated sine-wave signal. A processing means compensates an amplitude value of the detector signals discriminated by the discriminating means based on the optical transmission efficiency. As a result, an optical analog transmission device can be attained, which conducts optical transmission at a high accuracy without undergoing the defective effects of the optical transmission efficiency. (I.S.)

  4. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  5. Using Visual Analogies To Teach Introductory Statistical Concepts

    Jessica S. Ancker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introductory statistical concepts are some of the most challenging to convey in quantitative literacy courses. Analogies supplemented by visual illustrations can be highly effective teaching tools. This literature review shows that to exploit the power of analogies, teachers must select analogies familiar to the audience, explicitly link the analog with the target concept, and avert misconceptions by explaining where the analogy fails. We provide guidance for instructors and a series of visual analogies for use in teaching medical and health statistics.

  6. When Reasoning Modifies Memory: Schematic Assimilation Triggered by Analogical Mapping

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Wu, Aaron; Rowshanshad, Ebi; Knowlton, Barbara J.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Analogical mapping highlights shared relations that link 2 situations, potentially at the expense of information that does not fit the dominant pattern of correspondences. To investigate whether analogical mapping can alter subsequent recognition memory for features of a source analog, we performed 2 experiments with 4-term proportional analogies…

  7. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)cathode was found to depend on the infiltrate firing temperature and is suggested to originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  8. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

  9. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '02 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    Jäger, Willi

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in modeling and simulation on supercomputers. Leading German research groups present their results achieved on high-end systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2002. Reports cover all fields of supercomputing simulation ranging from computational fluid dynamics to computer science. Special emphasis is given to industrially relevant applications. Moreover, by presenting results for both vector sytems and micro-processor based systems the book allows to compare performance levels and usability of a variety of supercomputer architectures. It therefore becomes an indispensable guidebook to assess the impact of the Japanese Earth Simulator project on supercomputing in the years to come.

  10. PEMETAAN ANALOGI PADA KONSEP ABSTRAK FISIKA

    Nyoto Suseno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of any where founded majority students have common difficulties in abstract physics concept. The result of observation, lecturers have problem  in teaching implementation of abstract concepts on physics learning. The objective of this research is to find out the ways how to overcome this problem. The research place of  physics education programs and senior high school. The data are colected by quetionere, observation and interview. The lecturer behavior to making out this case is use of analogy to make concrete a abstract concept. This action is true, because the analogies are dynamic tools that facilitate understanding, rather than representations of the correct and static explanations. Using analogies not only promoted profound understanding of abstract concept, but also helped students overcome their misconceptions. However used analogy in teaching not yet planed with seriousness, analogy used spontanously with the result that less optimal. By planing and selecting right analogy, the role of analogy can be achieved the optimal result. Therefore, it is important to maping analogies of abstract consepts on physics learning.

  11. From adaptive to high-performance structures

    Teuffel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple design aspects influence the building performance such as architectural criteria, various environmental impacts and user behaviour. Specific examples are sun, wind, temperatures, function, occupancy, socio-cultural aspects and other contextual aspects and needs. Even though these aspects

  12. High-performance-vehicle technology. [fighter aircraft propulsion

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion needs of high performance military aircraft are discussed. Inlet performance, nozzle performance and cooling, and afterburner performance are covered. It is concluded that nonaxisymmetric nozzles provide cleaner external lines and enhanced maneuverability, but the internal flows are more complex. Swirl afterburners show promise for enhanced performance in the high altitude, low Mach number region.

  13. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.

  14. A high performance thermoacoustic Stirling-engine

    Tijani, M.E.H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-10

    In thermoacoustic systems heat is converted into acoustic energy and vice versa. These systems use inert gases as working medium and have no moving parts which makes the thermoacoustic technology a serious alternative to produce mechanical or electrical power, cooling power, and heating in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. A thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine is designed and built which achieves a record performance of 49% of the Carnot efficiency. The design and performance of the engine is presented. The engine has no moving parts and is made up of few simple components.

  15. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    calls for great efforts in dealing with competitive pressure and demands mental strength with regard to endurance, self-motivation and willpower. But while it is somewhat straightforward to specify the physical and physiological skills needed for top performance in a specific sport, it becomes less...... clear with regard to the psychological skills that are needed. Therefore, the main questions to be addressed in this chapter are: (1) which psychological skills are needed to reach top performance? And (2) (how) can these skills be developed in young talents?...

  16. High Performance Expectations: Concept and causes

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2017-01-01

    literature research, HPE is defined as the degree to which leaders succeed in expressing ambitious expectations to their employees’ achievement of given performance criteria, and it is analyzed how leadership behavior affects employee-perceived HPE. This study applies a large-scale leadership field...... experiment with 3,730 employees nested in 471 organizations and finds that transformational leadership training as well as transactional and combined training of the leaders significantly increased employees’ HPE relative to a control group. Furthermore, transformational leadership and the use of pecuniary...... rewards seem to be important mechanisms. This implies that public leaders can actually affect HPE through their leadership and thus potentially organizational performance as well....

  17. A High Performance Pocket-Size System for Evaluations in Acoustic Signal Processing

    Steeger Gerhard H

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Custom-made hardware is attractive for sophisticated signal processing in wearable electroacoustic devices, but has a high initial cost overhead. Thus, signal processing algorithms should be tested thoroughly in real application environments by potential end users prior to the hardware implementation. In addition, the algorithms should be easily alterable during this test phase. A wearable system which meets these requirements has been developed and built. The system is based on the high performance signal processor Motorola DSP56309. This device also includes high quality stereo analog-to-digital-(ADC- and digital-to-analog-(DAC-converters with 20 bit word length each. The available dynamic range exceeds 88 dB. The input and output gains can be adjusted by digitally controlled potentiometers. The housing of the unit is small enough to carry it in a pocket (dimensions 150 × 80 × 25 mm. Software tools have been developed to ease the development of new algorithms. A set of configurable Assembler code modules implements all hardware dependent software routines and gives easy access to the peripherals and interfaces. A comfortable fitting interface allows easy control of the signal processing unit from a PC, even by assistant personnel. The device has proven to be a helpful means for development and field evaluations of advanced new hearing aid algorithms, within interdisciplinary research projects. Now it is offered to the scientific community.

  18. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    2015-02-09

    journal article will be sufficient in most cases. This document may be as long or as short as needed to give a fair account of the work performed...Klink, J. J. & Moser, J. EPR Study of Vanadium (4+) in the Anatase and Rutile Phases of TiO2. Phys. Rev. B 34, 3060-3068 (1986). 40 Abragam, A

  19. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    Concluding that Africa's poor organisational performances are attributable to some inadequacies in the cultural foundations of countries and organisations, this paper argues for internal branding as the way forward for African organisations. Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and ...

  20. Mastering JavaScript high performance

    Adams, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer with some experience in development and want to increase the performance of JavaScript projects by building faster web apps, then this book is for you. You should know the basic concepts of JavaScript.

  1. Gamma and Xray spectroscopy at high performance

    Borchert, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author determines that for many interesting problems in gamma and Xray spectroscopy it is necessary to use crystal diffractometers. The basic features of such instruments are discussed and the special performance of crystal spectrometers is demonstrated by means of typical examples of various applications

  2. High Performance Fortran for Aerospace Applications

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    2000-01-01

    .... HPF is a set of Fortran extensions designed to provide users with a high-level interface for programming data parallel scientific applications while delegating to the compiler/runtime system the task...

  3. High-Performance Computing Paradigm and Infrastructure

    Yang, Laurence T

    2006-01-01

    With hyperthreading in Intel processors, hypertransport links in next generation AMD processors, multi-core silicon in today's high-end microprocessors from IBM and emerging grid computing, parallel and distributed computers have moved into the mainstream

  4. High performance management bij franchise-supermarkten

    Sloot, Laurens; van Nierop, Erjen; de Waal, Andre

    In dit artikel wordt een onderzoek gepresenteerd naar de mate waarin franchise-supermarkten voldoen aan de vijf factoren van high performanceorganisaties (HPO): hoge kwaliteit managers, hoge kwaliteit medewerkers, openheid en actiegerichtheid, continue verbetering en vernieuwing, en

  5. High performance fuel technology development : Development of high performance cladding materials

    Park, Jeongyong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The superior in-pile performance of the HANA claddings have been verified by the successful irradiation test and in the Halden research reactor up to the high burn-up of 67GWD/MTU. The in-pile corrosion and creep resistances of HANA claddings were improved by 40% and 50%, respectively, over Zircaloy-4. HANA claddings have been also irradiated in the commercial reactor up to 2 reactor cycles, showing the corrosion resistance 40% better than that of ZIRLO in the same fuel assembly. Long-term out-of-pile performance tests for the candidates of the next generation cladding materials have produced the highly reliable test results. The final candidate alloys were selected and they showed the corrosion resistance 50% better than the foreign advanced claddings, which is beyond the original target. The LOCA-related properties were also improved by 20% over the foreign advanced claddings. In order to establish the optimal manufacturing process for the inner and outer claddings of the dual-cooled fuel, 18 different kinds of specimens were fabricated with various cold working and annealing conditions. Based on the performance tests and various out-of-pile test results obtained from the specimens, the optimal manufacturing process was established for the inner and outer cladding tubes of the dual-cooled fuel

  6. CMOS analog circuit design

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  7. On the impact of approximate computation in an analog DeSTIN architecture.

    Young, Steven; Lu, Junjie; Holleman, Jeremy; Arel, Itamar

    2014-05-01

    Deep machine learning (DML) holds the potential to revolutionize machine learning by automating rich feature extraction, which has become the primary bottleneck of human engineering in pattern recognition systems. However, the heavy computational burden renders DML systems implemented on conventional digital processors impractical for large-scale problems. The highly parallel computations required to implement large-scale deep learning systems are well suited to custom hardware. Analog computation has demonstrated power efficiency advantages of multiple orders of magnitude relative to digital systems while performing nonideal computations. In this paper, we investigate typical error sources introduced by analog computational elements and their impact on system-level performance in DeSTIN--a compositional deep learning architecture. These inaccuracies are evaluated on a pattern classification benchmark, clearly demonstrating the robustness of the underlying algorithm to the errors introduced by analog computational elements. A clear understanding of the impacts of nonideal computations is necessary to fully exploit the efficiency of analog circuits.

  8. Menhir: An Environment for High Performance Matlab

    Stéphane Chauveau

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present Menhir a compiler for generating sequential or parallel code from the Matlab language. The compiler has been designed in the context of using Matlab as a specification language. One of the major features of Menhir is its retargetability to generate parallel and sequential C or Fortran code. We present the compilation process and the target system description for Menhir. Preliminary performances are given and compared with MCC, the MathWorks Matlab compiler.

  9. Inclusion control in high-performance steels

    Holappa, L.E.K.; Helle, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress of clean steel production, fundamentals of oxide and sulphide inclusions as well as inclusion morphology in normal and calcium treated steels are described. Effects of cleanliness and inclusion control on steel properties are discussed. In many damaging constructional and engineering applications the nonmetallic inclusions have a quite decisive role in steel performance. An example of combination of good mechanical properties and superior machinability by applying inclusion control is presented. (author)

  10. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Tan Chee Leong; Mohseni Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as...

  11. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  12. Digital and analog communication systems

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  13. 4-BROMOMETHYL-7-METHOXYCOUMARIN AND ANALOGS AS DERIVATIZATION AGENTS FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY DETERMINATIONS - A REVIEW

    WOLF, JH; KORF, J

    1992-01-01

    A major part of modern analytical problem solving deals with the trace level determination of organic compounds and contaminants in biomedical, food and environmental samples. In the analysis of these samples chromatographic techniques play a predominant role. Unfortunately, however, even the

  14. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method ...

    Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous ... Purpose: To develop and validate a new low-cost high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for ..... Several papers have reported the use of ...

  15. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  16. Analogs for transuranic elements

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  17. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '99 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    Jäger, Willi

    2000-01-01

    The book contains reports about the most significant projects from science and engineering of the Federal High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). They were carefully selected in a peer-review process and are showcases of an innovative combination of state-of-the-art modeling, novel algorithms and the use of leading-edge parallel computer technology. The projects of HLRS are using supercomputer systems operated jointly by university and industry and therefore a special emphasis has been put on the industrial relevance of results and methods.

  18. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '98 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    Jäger, Willi

    1999-01-01

    The book contains reports about the most significant projects from science and industry that are using the supercomputers of the Federal High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). These projects are from different scientific disciplines, with a focus on engineering, physics and chemistry. They were carefully selected in a peer-review process and are showcases for an innovative combination of state-of-the-art physical modeling, novel algorithms and the use of leading-edge parallel computer technology. As HLRS is in close cooperation with industrial companies, special emphasis has been put on the industrial relevance of results and methods.

  19. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the highly potent mast cell-degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-NH-C sub 12 H sub 25

    Bienert, M.; Oehlke, J.; Niedrich, H. (Academy of Sciences of GDR, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Drug Research); Mittag, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Tritium labeling of the mast cell degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys(3,4-{sup 3}H-Pro)-NH-C{sub 12}H{sub 25} by catalytic saturation of the dehydroproline (Dhp{sup 1}) double bond is described. Catalytic tritiation in water afforded the radioactive analog with a specific activity of 1.07 TBq/mmol. Tenfold enhancement of the catalyst-to-substrate ratio resulted in a reduced specific activity of 0.74 TBq/mmol. (author).

  20. Development of High Performance Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Simpson, Joycelyn O.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Welch, Sharon S.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a series of polyimides are investigated which exhibit a strong piezoelectric response and polarization stability at temperatures in excess of 100 C. This work was motivated by the need to develop piezoelectric sensors suitable for use in high temperature aerospace applications.

  1. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  2. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  3. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  4. High performance image processing of SPRINT

    DeGroot, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This talk will describe computed tomography (CT) reconstruction using filtered back-projection on SPRINT parallel computers. CT is a computationally intensive task, typically requiring several minutes to reconstruct a 512x512 image. SPRINT and other parallel computers can be applied to CT reconstruction to reduce computation time from minutes to seconds. SPRINT is a family of massively parallel computers developed at LLNL. SPRINT-2.5 is a 128-node multiprocessor whose performance can exceed twice that of a Cray-Y/MP. SPRINT-3 will be 10 times faster. Described will be the parallel algorithms for filtered back-projection and their execution on SPRINT parallel computers.

  5. High-performance commercial building facades

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  6. High Performance Building Mockup in FLEXLAB

    McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Genentech has ambitious energy and indoor environmental quality performance goals for Building 35 (B35) being constructed by Webcor at the South San Francisco campus. Genentech and Webcor contracted with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test building systems including lighting, lighting controls, shade fabric, and automated shading controls in LBNL’s new FLEXLAB facility. The goal of the testing is to ensure that the systems installed in the new office building will function in a way that reduces energy consumption and provides a comfortable work environment for employees.

  7. High performance computations using dynamical nucleation theory

    Windus, T L; Crosby, L D; Kathmann, S M

    2008-01-01

    Chemists continue to explore the use of very large computations to perform simulations that describe the molecular level physics of critical challenges in science. In this paper, we describe the Dynamical Nucleation Theory Monte Carlo (DNTMC) model - a model for determining molecular scale nucleation rate constants - and its parallel capabilities. The potential for bottlenecks and the challenges to running on future petascale or larger resources are delineated. A 'master-slave' solution is proposed to scale to the petascale and will be developed in the NWChem software. In addition, mathematical and data analysis challenges are described

  8. Formation and High-order Carboxylic Acids (RCOOH) in Interstellar Analogous Ices of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane(CH4)

    Zhu, Cheng; Turner, Andrew M.; Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory study simulated the abiotic formation of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) in interstellar analogous ices of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at 10 K upon exposure to energetic electrons. The chemical processing of the ices and the subsequent warm-up phase were monitored online and in situ, exploiting Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Characteristic absorptions of functional groups of carboxylic acids (RCOOH) were observed in the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice. Two proposed reaction mechanisms replicated the kinetic profiles of the carboxylic acids along with the decay profile of the precursors during the irradiation via hydrocarbon formation, followed by carboxylation and/or through acetic acid along with mass growth processes of the alkyl chain. Mass spectra recorded during the warm-up phase demonstrated that these acids are distributed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) up to decanoic acid (C9H19COOH). High-dose irradiation studies (91 ± 14 eV) converted low-molecular-weight acids such as acetic acid (CH3COOH) and propionic acid (C2H5COOH) to higher-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, compared to low-dose irradiation studies (18 ± 3 eV). The traces of the {{{H}}}2{{C}}= {{C}}({OH}{)}2+ (m/z = 60) fragment—a link to linear carboxylic acids—implied that higher-order acids (C n H2n+1COOH, n ≥ 5) are likely branched, which correlates with the recent analysis of the structures of the monocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite.

  9. Salton Sea geothermal field as a natural analog for the near-field in a salt high-level nuclear waste repository

    Elders, W.A.; Moody, J.B.; Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), on the delta of the Colorado River in southern California, is being studied as a natural analog for the near-field environment of proposed nuclear waste repositories in salt. A combination of mineralogical and geochemical methods is being employed to develop a three-dimenisonal picture of temperature, salinity, lithology, mineralogy, and chemistry of reactions between the reservoir rocks and the hot brines. Our aim is to obtain quantitative data on mineral stabilities and on mobilities of the naturally occurring radionuclides of concern in Commercial High-Level Waste (CHLW). These data will be used to validate the EQ3/6 geochemical code under development to model the salt near-field repository behavior. Maximum temperatures encountered in wells in the SSGF equal or exceed peak temperatures expected in a salt repository. Brines produced from these wells have major element chemistry similar to brines from candidate salt sites. Relative to the rocks, these brines are enriched in Na, Mn, Sr, Ra, and Po, depleted in Ba, Si, Mg, Ti, and Al, and strongly depleted in U and Th. However, the unaltered rocks contain only about 2 to 3 ppm of U and 4 to 12 ppm of Th, largely in detrital epidotes and zircons. Samples of hydrothermally altered rocks from a wide range of temperature and salinity show rather similar uniform low concentrations of these elements, even when authigenic illite, chlorite, ipidote and feldspar are present. These observations suggest that U and Th are relatively immobile in these hot brines. However, Ra, Po, Cs, and Sr are relatively mobile. Work is continuing to document naturally occurring radionuclide partitioning between SSGF minears and brine over a range of temperature, salinity, and lithology. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Pressurized planar electrochromatography, high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography--comparison of performance.

    Płocharz, Paweł; Klimek-Turek, Anna; Dzido, Tadeusz H

    2010-07-16

    Kinetic performance, measured by plate height, of High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Pressurized Planar Electrochromatography (PPEC) was compared for the systems with adsorbent of the HPTLC RP18W plate from Merck as the stationary phase and the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and buffer solution. The HPLC column was packed with the adsorbent, which was scrapped from the chromatographic plate mentioned. An additional HPLC column was also packed with adsorbent of 5 microm particle diameter, C18 type silica based (LiChrosorb RP-18 from Merck). The dependence of plate height of both HPLC and PPEC separating systems on flow velocity of the mobile phase and on migration distance of the mobile phase in TLC system was presented applying test solute (prednisolone succinate). The highest performance, amongst systems investigated, was obtained for the PPEC system. The separation efficiency of the systems investigated in the paper was additionally confirmed by the separation of test component mixture composed of six hormones. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Can Knowledge of the Characteristics of "High Performers" Be Generalised?

    McKenna, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Two managers described as high performing constructed complexity maps of their organization/world. The maps suggested that high performance is socially constructed and negotiated in specific contexts and management competencies associated with it are context specific. Development of high performers thus requires personalized coaching more than…

  12. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  13. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-01-01

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  14. High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.

    Hilderbrand, Richard L

    2011-11-01

    The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so.

  15. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  16. HIGH PERFORMANCE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSING ON COMPUTER CLUSTERS

    V. N. Adrov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Most cpu consuming tasks in photogrammetric processing can be done in parallel. The algorithms take independent bits as input and produce independent bits as output. The independence of bits comes from the nature of such algorithms since images, stereopairs or small image blocks parts can be processed independently. Many photogrammetric algorithms are fully automatic and do not require human interference. Photogrammetric workstations can perform tie points measurements, DTM calculations, orthophoto construction, mosaicing and many other service operations in parallel using distributed calculations. Distributed calculations save time reducing several days calculations to several hours calculations. Modern trends in computer technology show the increase of cpu cores in workstations, speed increase in local networks, and as a result dropping the price of the supercomputers or computer clusters that can contain hundreds or even thousands of computing nodes. Common distributed processing in DPW is usually targeted for interactive work with a limited number of cpu cores and is not optimized for centralized administration. The bottleneck of common distributed computing in photogrammetry can be in the limited lan throughput and storage performance, since the processing of huge amounts of large raster images is needed.

  17. Australia's new high performance research reactor

    Miller, R.; Abbate, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    A contract for the design and construction of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000 between ANSTO and INVAP from Argentina. Since then the detailed design has been completed, a construction authorization has been obtained, and construction has commenced. The reactor design embodies modern safety thinking together with innovative solutions to ensure a highly safe and reliable plant. Also significant effort has been placed on providing the facility with diverse and ample facilities to maximize its use for irradiating material for radioisotope production as well as providing high neutron fluxes for neutron beam research. The project management organization and planing is commensurate with the complexity of the project and the number of players involved. (author)

  18. High Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    NWs were contacted in a NW-FET setup. Electrical measurements at room temperature display typical tunnel diode behavior, with a Peak-to-Valley Current Ratio (PVCR) as high as 8.2 and a peak current density as high as 329 A/cm2. Low temperature measurements show improved PVCR of up to 27.6....... is the tunnel (Esaki) diode, which provides a low-resistance connection between junctions. We demonstrate an InP-GaAs NW axial heterostructure with tunnel diode behavior. InP and GaAs can be readily n- and p-doped, respectively, and the heterointerface is expected to have an advantageous type II band alignment...

  19. Future Vehicle Technologies : high performance transportation innovations

    Pratt, T. [Future Vehicle Technologies Inc., Maple Ridge, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Battery management systems (BMS) were discussed in this presentation, with particular reference to the basic BMS design considerations; safety; undisclosed information about BMS; the essence of BMS; and Future Vehicle Technologies' BMS solution. Basic BMS design considerations that were presented included the balancing methodology; prismatic/cylindrical cells; cell protection; accuracy; PCB design, size and components; communications protocol; cost of manufacture; and expandability. In terms of safety, the presentation addressed lithium fires; high voltage; high voltage ground detection; crash/rollover shutdown; complete pack shutdown capability; and heat shields, casings, and impact protection. BMS bus bar engineering considerations were discussed along with good chip design. It was concluded that FVTs advantage is a unique skillset in automotive technology and the development of speed and cost effectiveness. tabs., figs.

  20. Radiation cured coatings for high performance products

    Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)

  1. High thermoelectric performance of graphite nanofibers

    Tran, Van-Truong; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Dollfus, Philippe; Volz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNFs) have been demonstrated to be a promising material for hydrogen storage and heat management in electronic devices. Here, by means of first-principles and transport simulations, we show that GNFs can also be an excellent material for thermoelectric applications thanks to the interlayer weak van der Waals interaction that induces low thermal conductance and a step-like shape in the electronic transmission with mini-gaps, which are necessary ingredients to achieve high ...

  2. New monomers for high performance polymers

    Gratz, Roy F.

    1993-01-01

    This laboratory has been concerned with the development of new polymeric materials with high thermo-oxidative stability for use in the aerospace and electronics industries. Currently, there is special emphasis on developing matrix resins and composites for the high speed civil transport (HSCT) program. This application requires polymers that have service lifetimes of 60,000 hr at 350 F (177 C) and that are readily processible into void-free composites, preferably by melt-flow or powder techniques that avoid the use of high boiling solvents. Recent work has focused on copolymers which have thermally stable imide groups separated by flexible arylene ether linkages, some with trifluoromethyl groups attached to the aromatic rings. The presence of trifluoromethyl groups in monomers and polymers often improves their solubility and processibility. The goal of this research was to synthesize several new monomers containing pendant trifluoromethyl groups and to incorporate these monomers into new imide/arylene ether copolymers. Initially, work was begun on the synthesis of three target compounds. The first two, 3,5-dihydroxybenzo trifluoride and 3-amino 5-hydroxybenzo trifluoride, are intermediates in the synthesis of more complex monomers. The third, 3,5-bis (3-amino-phenoxy) benzotrifluoride, is an interesting diamine that could be incorporated into a polyimide directly.

  3. High performance repairing of reinforced concrete structures

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.; Holschemacher, K.; Mueller, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steel fibered high strength concrete is effective for repairing concrete elements. ► Changing fibers’ content, required ductility of the repaired element is achieved. ► Experiments prove previously developed design concepts for two layer beams. -- Abstract: Steel fibered high strength concrete (SFHSC) is an effective material that can be used for repairing concrete elements. Design of normal strength concrete (NSC) elements that should be repaired using SFHSC can be based on general concepts for design of two-layer beams, consisting of SFHSC in the compressed zone and NSC without fibers in the tensile zone. It was previously reported that such elements are effective when their section carries rather large bending moments. Steel fibers, added to high strength concrete, increase its ultimate deformations due to the additional energy dissipation potential contributed by fibers. When changing the fibers’ content, a required ductility level of the repaired element can be achieved. Providing proper ductility is important for design of structures to dynamic loadings. The current study discusses experimental results that form a basis for finding optimal fiber content, yielding the highest Poisson coefficient and ductility of the repaired elements’ sections. Some technological issues as well as distribution of fibers in the cross section of two-layer bending elements are investigated. The experimental results, obtained in the frame of this study, form a basis for general technological provisions, related to repairing of NSC beams and slabs, using SFHSC.

  4. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance.

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md

    2016-01-01

    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, temperature, and noise sources that affect delay resolution through timing jitter are discussed. The design specifications of these delay elements are also discussed and compared for the common delay line circuits. As a result, the main findings of this paper are highlighting and discussing the followings: the most efficient high-resolution delay line techniques, the trade-off challenge found between CMOS delay lines designed using either analog or digitally-controlled delay elements, the trade-off challenge between delay resolution and delay range and the proposed solutions for this challenge, and how CMOS technology scaling can affect the performance of CMOS delay lines. Moreover, the current trends and efforts used in order to generate output delayed signal with low jitter in the sub-picosecond range are presented.

  5. Information processing among high-performance managers

    S.C. Garcia-Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information processing of 43 business managers with a professional superior performance. The theoretical framework considers three models: the Theory of Managerial Roles of Henry Mintzberg, the Theory of Information Processing, and Process Model Response to Rorschach by John Exner. The participants have been evaluated by Rorschach method. The results show that these managers are able to collect data, evaluate them and establish rankings properly. At same time, they are capable of being objective and accurate in the problems assessment. This information processing style permits an interpretation of the world around on basis of a very personal and characteristic processing way or cognitive style.

  6. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  7. High performance concrete with blended cement

    Biswas, P.P.; Saraswati, S.; Basu, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Principal objectives of the proposed project are two folds. Firstly, to develop the HPC mix suitable to NPP structures with blended cement, and secondly to study its durability necessary for desired long-term performance. Three grades of concrete to b considered in the proposed projects are M35, M50 and M60 with two types of blended cements, i.e. Portland slag cement (PSC) and Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Three types of mineral admixtures - silica fume, fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag will be used. Concrete mixes with OPc and without any mineral admixture will be considered as reference case. Durability study of these mixes will be carried out

  8. High performance VLSI telemetry data systems

    Chesney, J.; Speciale, N.; Horner, W.; Sabia, S.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's deployment of major space complexes such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) will demand increased functionality and performance from ground based telemetry acquisition systems well above current system capabilities. Adaptation of space telemetry data transport and processing standards such as those specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards and those required for commercial ground distribution of telemetry data, will drive these functional and performance requirements. In addition, budget limitations will force the requirement for higher modularity, flexibility, and interchangeability at lower cost in new ground telemetry data system elements. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the design and development of generic ground telemetry data system elements, over the last five years, has resulted in significant solutions to these problems. This solution, referred to as the functional components approach includes both hardware and software components ready for end user application. The hardware functional components consist of modern data flow architectures utilizing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) developed specifically to support NASA's telemetry data systems needs and designed to meet a range of data rate requirements up to 300 Mbps. Real-time operating system software components support both embedded local software intelligence, and overall system control, status, processing, and interface requirements. These components, hardware and software, form the superstructure upon which project specific elements are added to complete a telemetry ground data system installation. This paper describes the functional components approach, some specific component examples, and a project example of the evolution from VLSI component, to basic board level functional component, to integrated telemetry data system.

  9. High Performance Fuel Technology Development(I)

    Song, Kun Woo; Kim, Keon Sik; Bang, Jeong Yong; Park, Je Keon; Chen, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2010-04-01

    The dual-cooled annular fuel has been investigated for the purpose of achieving the power uprate of 20% and decreasing pellet temperature by 30%. The 12x12 rod array and basic design was developed, which is mechanically compatible with the OPR-1000. The reactor core analysis has been performed using this design, and the results have shown that the criteria of nuclear, thermohydraulic and safety design are satisfied and pellet temperature can be lowered by 40% even in 120% power. The basic design of fuel component was developed and the cladding thickness was designed through analysis and experiments. The solutions have been proposed and analyzed to the technical issues such as 'inner channel blockage' and 'imbalance between inner and outer coolant'. The annular pellet was fabricated with good control of shape and size, and especially, a new sintering technique has been developed to control the deviation of inner diameter within ±5μm. The irradiation test of annular pellets has been conducted up to 10 MWD/kgU to find out the densification and swelling behaviors. The 11 types of materials candidates have developed for the PCI-endurance pellet, and the material containing the Mn-Al additive showed its creep performance of much better than UO2 material. The HANA cladding has been irradiated up to 61 MWD/kgU, and the results have shown that its oxidation resistance is better by 40% than that of Zircaloy. The 30 types of candidate materials for next generation have been developed through alloy design and property tests

  10. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    Chen, Zhihong; Wong, H.S. Phillip; Mitra, Subhasish; Bol, Aggeth; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performanc...

  11. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  12. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  13. Reasoning through Instructional Analogies

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to account for students' assessments of the plausibility and applicability of analogical explanations, and individual differences in these assessments, by analyzing properties of students' underlying knowledge systems. We developed a model of explanation and change in explanation focusing on knowledge elements that provide a…

  14. The Paradox of Analogy

    David Botting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I will show that there is a type of analogical reasoning that instantiates a pattern of reasoning in confirmation theory that is considered at best paradoxical and at worst fatal to the entire syntactical approach to confirmation and explanation. However, I hope to elaborate conditions under which this is a sound (although not necessarily strong method of reasoning.

  15. Analogy, explanation, and proof

    Hummel, John E.; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence. PMID:25414655

  16. How Analogy Drives Physics

    Hofstadter, Doug

    2004-01-01

    Many new ideas in theoretical physics come from analogies to older ideas in physics. For instance, the abstract notion of 'isospin' (or isotopic spin) originated in the prior concept of 'spin' (quantized angular momentum); likewise, the concept of 'phonon' (quantum of sound, or quantized collective excitation of a crystal) was based on the prior concept of 'photon' (quantum of light, or quantized element of the electromagnetic field). But these two examples, far from being exceptions, in fact represent the bread and butter of inventive thinking in physics. In a nutshell, intraphysics analogy-making -- borrowing by analogy with something already known in another area of physics -- is central to the progress of physics. The aim of this talk is to reveal the pervasiveness -- indeed, the indispensability -- of this kind of semi-irrational, wholly intuitive type of thinking (as opposed to more deductive mathematical inference) in the mental activity known as 'doing physics'. Speculations as to why wild analogical leaps are so crucial to the act of discovery in physics (as opposed to other disciplines) will be offered.

  17. Quantum Analog Computing

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  18. Environmentally friendly, high-performance generation

    Kalmari, A.

    2003-01-01

    The project developer, owner, and operator of the new 45 MWth BFB-based cogeneration plant in Iisalmi is Termia Oy, part of the Atro Group (formerly Savon Voima Oy). Fired on peat and wood waste and handed over to the customer in November 2002, the plant's electrical output is sold to the parent company and heat locally to customers in Iisalmi. When the construction decision was made, one of the main objectives was to utilise as high a level of indigenous fuels (peat and biomass) as possible, at a high level of efficiency. An environmental impact analysis was carried out, taking into account the impact of various fuels and emissions in terms of combustion and logistics. One main benefit of the type of plant ultimately selected was that the bulk of the fuel can be supplied from the surrounding area. This is very important in terms of fuel supply security and local employment. The government provided a EUR 2.7 million grant for the project, equivalent to 13% of the total EUR 21 million investment budget. Before the plant was built, Termia used approximately 95 GWh of indigenous fuels annually. Today, this figure is 220 GWh. The main fuel used is milled peat. Up to 30% green chips from logging residues can be used. Recycled waste fuel can cover up to 3% of the total fuel requirement

  19. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  20. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  1. High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination

    Müller, J.; Dirkx, D.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Petit, G.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10^{-18}. This notable achievement along with the direct sensitivity of clocks to the strength of the gravitational field make them practically important for various geodetic applications that are addressed in the present paper. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. We discuss the current definitions of basic geodetic concepts and come to the conclusion that the advances in clocks and other metrological technologies will soon require the re-definition of time scales or, at least, clarification to ensure their continuity and consistent use in practice. The relative frequency shift between two clocks is directly related to the difference in the values of the gravity potential at the points of clock's localization. According to general relativity the relative accuracy of clocks in 10^{-18} is equivalent to measuring the gravitational red shift effect between two clocks with the height difference amounting to 1 cm. This makes the clocks an indispensable tool in high-precision geodesy in addition to laser ranging and space geodetic techniques. We show how clock measurements can provide geopotential numbers for the realization of gravity-field-related height systems and can resolve discrepancies in classically-determined height systems as well as between national height systems. Another application of clocks is the direct use of observed potential differences for the improved recovery of regional gravity field solutions. Finally, clock measurements for space-borne gravimetry are analyzed along with

  2. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    . In order to examine paraffin/additive combustion in a motor environment, I conducted experiments on well characterized aluminum based additives. In particular, I investigate the influence of aluminum, unpassivated aluminum, milled aluminum/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and aluminum hydride on the performance of paraffin fuels for hybrid rocket propulsion. I use an optically accessible combustor to examine the performance of the fuel mixtures in terms of characteristic velocity efficiency and regression rate. Each combustor test consumes a 12.7 cm long, 1.9 cm diameter fuel strand under 160 kg/m 2s of oxygen at up to 1.4 MPa. The experimental results indicate that the addition of 5 wt.% 30 mum or 80 nm aluminum to paraffin increases the regression rate by approximately 15% compared to neat paraffin grains. At higher aluminum concentrations and nano-scale particles sizes, the increased melt layer viscosity causes slower regression. Alane and Al/PTFE at 12.5 wt.% increase the regression of paraffin by 21% and 32% respectively. Finally, an aging study indicates that paraffin can protect air and moisture sensitive particles from oxidation. The opposed burner and aluminum/paraffin hybrid rocket experiments show that additives can alter bulk fuel properties, such as viscosity, that regulate entrainment. The general effect of melt layer properties on the entrainment and regression rate of paraffin is not well understood. Improved understanding of how solid additives affect the properties and regression of paraffin is essential to maximize performance. In this document I investigate the effect of melt layer properties on paraffin regression using inert additives. Tests are performed in the optical cylindrical combustor at ˜1 MPa under a gaseous oxygen mass flux of ˜160 kg/m2s. The experiments indicate that the regression rate is proportional to mu0.08rho 0.38kappa0.82. In addition, I explore how to predict fuel viscosity, thermal conductivity, and density prior to testing

  3. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Tan, Chee Leong; Mohseni, Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III-V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.

  4. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Tan Chee Leong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.

  5. Video performance for high security applications

    Connell, Jack C.; Norman, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of physical protection systems has increased to address modern threats to national security and emerging commercial technologies. A key element of modern physical protection systems is the data presented to the human operator used for rapid determination of the cause of an alarm, whether false (e.g., caused by an animal, debris, etc.) or real (e.g., a human adversary). Alarm assessment, the human validation of a sensor alarm, primarily relies on imaging technologies and video systems. Developing measures of effectiveness (MOE) that drive the design or evaluation of a video system or technology becomes a challenge, given the subjectivity of the application (e.g., alarm assessment). Sandia National Laboratories has conducted empirical analysis using field test data and mathematical models such as binomial distribution and Johnson target transfer functions to develop MOEs for video system technologies. Depending on the technology, the task of the security operator and the distance to the target, the Probability of Assessment (PAs) can be determined as a function of a variety of conditions or assumptions. PAs used as an MOE allows the systems engineer to conduct trade studies, make informed design decisions, or evaluate new higher-risk technologies. This paper outlines general video system design trade-offs, discusses ways video can be used to increase system performance and lists MOEs for video systems used in subjective applications such as alarm assessment.

  6. High performance magnet power supply optimization

    Jackson, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    The power supply system for the joint LBL--SLAC proposed accelerator PEP provides the opportunity to take a fresh look at the current techniques employed for controlling large amounts of dc power and the possibility of using a new one. A basic requirement of +- 100 ppM regulation is placed on the guide field of the bending magnets and quadrupoles placed around the 2200 meter circumference of the accelerator. The optimization questions to be answered by this paper are threefold: Can a firing circuit be designed to reduce the combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage unbalance to less than 100 ppM in the magnet field. Given the ambiguity of the previous statement, is the addition of a transistor bank to a nominal SCR controlled system the way to go or should one opt for an SCR chopper system running at 1 KHz where multiple supplies are fed from one large dc bus and the cost--performance evaluation of the three possible systems

  7. High Dynamic Performance Nonlinear Source Emulator

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As research and development of renewable and clean energy based systems is advancing rapidly, the nonlinear source emulator (NSE) is becoming very essential for testing of maximum power point trackers or downstream converters. Renewable and clean energy sources play important roles in both...... terrestrial and nonterrestrial applications. However, most existing NSEs have only been concerned with simulating energy sources in terrestrial applications, which may not be fast enough for testing of nonterrestrial applications. In this paper, a high-bandwidth NSE is developed that is able to simulate...... change in the input source but also to a load step between nominal and open circuit. Moreover, all of these operation modes have a very fast settling time of only 10 μs, which is hundreds of times faster than that of existing works. This attribute allows for higher speed and a more efficient maximum...

  8. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Miller, Barton [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  9. Performance characteristics of high resolution semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry system

    Ko Ko Naing

    1994-05-01

    A high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector has been used in Nuclear Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yangon University for over fourteen years. Now it is still being used and it is coupled to new peripheral devices, such as spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer fit-in S-100 multichannel analyser. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the important parameters: energy resolution, detecting efficiency and relative efficiency of the system. In the present work, these parameters were obtained by using mixed calibrated source. The results were compared to the data given by the manufacturer. Moreover, the parameters of another γ-ray detecting system NaI(T1) were also determined. In conclusion the results obtained from the above two measurements were compared and discussed

  10. Performance characteristics of high resolution semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry system

    Naing, Ko Ko

    1994-05-01

    A high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector has been used in Nuclear Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yangon University for over fourteen years. Now it is still being used and it is coupled to new peripheral devices, such as spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer fit-in S-100 multichannel analyser. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the important parameters: energy resolution, detecting efficiency and relative efficiency of the system. In the present work, these parameters were obtained by using mixed calibrated source. The results were compared to the data given by the manufacturer. Moreover, the parameters of another {gamma}-ray detecting system NaI(T1) were also determined. In conclusion the results obtained from the above two measurements were compared and discussed

  11. High performance multiple stream data transfer

    Rademakers, F.; Saiz, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE detector at LHC (CERN), will record raw data at a rate of 1.2 Gigabytes per second. Trying to analyse all this data at CERN will not be feasible. As originally proposed by the MONARC project, data collected at CERN will be transferred to remote centres to use their computing infrastructure. The remote centres will reconstruct and analyse the events, and make available the results. Therefore high-rate data transfer between computing centres (Tiers) will become of paramount importance. The authors will present several tests that have been made between CERN and remote centres in Padova (Italy), Torino (Italy), Catania (Italy), Lyon (France), Ohio (United States), Warsaw (Poland) and Calcutta (India). These tests consisted, in a first stage, of sending raw data from CERN to the remote centres and back, using a ftp method that allows connections of several streams at the same time. Thanks to these multiple streams, it is possible to increase the rate at which the data is transferred. While several 'multiple stream ftp solutions' already exist, the authors' method is based on a parallel socket implementation which allows, besides files, also objects (or any large message) to be send in parallel. A prototype will be presented able to manage different transfers. This is the first step of a system to be implemented that will be able to take care of the connections with the remote centres to exchange data and monitor the status of the transfer

  12. High performance parallel backprojection on FPGA

    Pfanner, Florian; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics (IMP)

    2011-07-01

    Reconstruction of tomographic images, i.e., images from a Computed Tomography scanner, is a very time consuming issue. The most calculation power is needed for the backprojection step. A closer inspection shows that the algorithm for backprojection is easy to parallelize. FPGAs are able to execute many operations in the same time, so a highly parallel algorithm is a requirement for a powerful acceleration. For data flow rate maximization, we realized the backprojection in a pipelined structure with data throughput of one clock cycle. Due the hardware limitations of the FPGA, it is not possible to reconstruct the image as a whole. So it is necessary to split up the image and reconstruct these parts separately. Despite that, a reconstruction of 512 projections into a 5122 image is calculated within 13 ms on a Virtex 5 FPGA. To save hardware resources we use fixed point arithmetic with an accuracy of 23 bit for calculation. A comparison of the result image and an image, calculated with floating point arithmetic on CPU, shows that there are no differences between these images. (orig.)

  13. High energy permanent magnets - Solutions to high performance devices

    Ma, B.M.; Willman, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Neodymium iron boron magnets are a special class of magnets providing the highest level of performance with the least amount of material. Crucible Research Center produced the highest energy product magnet of 45 MGOe - a world record. Commercialization of this development has already taken place. Crucible Magnetics Division, located in Elizabethtown, Kentucky, is currently manufacturing and marketing six different grades of NdFeB magnets. Permanent magnets find application in motors, speakers, electron beam focusing devices for military and Star Wars. The new NdFeB magnets are of considerable interest for a wide range of applications

  14. DOE research in utilization of high-performance computers

    Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.

    1980-12-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models whose execution is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex; consequently, it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure

  15. High-Performance Management Practices and Employee Outcomes in Denmark

    Cristini, Annalisa; Eriksson, Tor; Pozzoli, Dario

    High-performance work practices are frequently considered to have positive effects on corporate performance, but what do they do for employees? After showing that organizational innovation is indeed positively associated with firm performance, we investigate whether high-involvement work practices...

  16. VME Switch for CERN's PS Analog Video System

    Acebes, I; Heinze, W; Lewis, J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    Analog video signal switching is used in CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex to route the video signals coming from Beam Diagnostics systems to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR). Traditionally, this has been done with custom electromechanical relay-based cards controlled serially via CAMAC crates. In order to improve the robustness and maintainability of the system, while keeping it analog to preserve the low latency, a VME card based on Analog Devices' AD8116 analog matrix chip has been developed. Video signals go into the front panel and exit the switch through the P2 connector of the VME backplane. The module is a 16 input, 32 output matrix. Larger matrices can be built using more modules and bussing their outputs together, thanks to the high impedance feature of the AD8116. Another VME module takes the selected signals from the P2 connector and performs automatic gain to send them at nominal output level through its front panel. This paper discusses both designs and presents experimental test results.

  17. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  18. Academic performance in high school as factor associated to academic performance in college

    Mileidy Salcedo Barragán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to find the relationship between academic performance in High School and College, focusing on Natural Sciences and Mathematics. It is a descriptive correlational study, and the variables were academic performance in High School, performance indicators and educational history. The correlations between variables were established with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results suggest that there is a positive relationship between academic performance in High School and Educational History, and a very weak relationship between performance in Science and Mathematics in High School and performance in College.

  19. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  20. Mixed Linear/Square-Root Encoded Single Slope Ramp Provides a Fast, Low Noise Analog to Digital Converter with Very High Linearity for Focal Plane Arrays

    Wrigley, Christopher James (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor); Newton, Kenneth W. (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) converts pixel voltages from a CMOS image into a digital output. A voltage ramp generator generates a voltage ramp that has a linear first portion and a non-linear second portion. A digital output generator generates a digital output based on the voltage ramp, the pixel voltages, and comparator output from an array of comparators that compare the voltage ramp to the pixel voltages. A return lookup table linearizes the digital output values.

  1. Performance of a high efficiency high power UHF klystron

    Konrad, G.T.

    1977-03-01

    A 500 kW c-w klystron was designed for the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The tube operates at 353.2 MHz, 62 kV, a microperveance of 0.75, and a gain of approximately 50 dB. Stable operation is required for a VSWR as high as 2 : 1 at any phase angle. The design efficiency is 70%. To obtain this value of efficiency, a second harmonic cavity is used in order to produce a very tightly bunched beam in the output gap. At the present time it is planned to install 12 such klystrons in PEP. A tube with a reduced size collector was operated at 4% duty at 500 kW. An efficiency of 63% was observed. The same tube was operated up to 200 kW c-w for PEP accelerator cavity tests. A full-scale c-w tube reached 500 kW at 65 kV with an efficiency of 55%. In addition to power and phase measurements into a matched load, some data at various load mismatches are presented

  2. Children's analogical reasoning about natural phenomena.

    Pauen, S; Wilkening, F

    1997-10-01

    This report investigates children's analogical reasoning in a physics task, using an analogy generated by the children rather than by the experimenter. A total of 127 elementary school children took part in three related studies. Children learned to predict the behavior of a balance scale. Later, they were asked to solve a force interaction problem. Two versions of the balance scale training were devised: version A suggested an incorrect solution to the target problem (negative analogy), and version B suggested a correct solution to the target problem (positive analogy). In Study 1, 9- to 10-year-olds showed spontaneous transfer in both training conditions. In Study 2, 7-year-olds did not show any transfer in the positive analogy condition. Study 3 revealed that the lack of transfer in younger children was not due to a failure either to notice the analogy or to perform the mapping. Instead, 7-year-olds transferred only selected aspects of the correct solution. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  3. Working memory predicts children's analogical reasoning.

    Simms, Nina K; Frausel, Rebecca R; Richland, Lindsey E

    2018-02-01

    Analogical reasoning is the cognitive skill of drawing relationships between representations, often between prior knowledge and new representations, that allows for bootstrapping cognitive and language development. Analogical reasoning proficiency develops substantially during childhood, although the mechanisms underlying this development have been debated, with developing cognitive resources as one proposed mechanism. We explored the role of executive function (EF) in supporting children's analogical reasoning development, with the goal of determining whether predicted aspects of EF were related to analogical development at the level of individual differences. We assessed 5- to 11-year-old children's working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility using measures from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition battery. Individual differences in children's working memory best predicted performance on an analogical mapping task, even when controlling for age, suggesting a fundamental interrelationship between analogical reasoning and working memory development. These findings underscore the need to consider cognitive capacities in comprehensive theories of children's reasoning development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analogical reasoning in schizophrenic delusions.

    Simpson, Jane; Done, D John

    2004-09-01

    Reasoning ability has often been argued to be impaired in people with schizophrenic delusions, although evidence for this is far from convincing. This experiment examined the analogical reasoning abilities of several groups of patients, including non-deluded and deluded schizophrenics, to test the hypothesis that performance by the deluded schizophrenic group would be impaired. Eleven deluded schizophrenics, 10 depressed subjects, seven non-deluded schizophrenics and 16 matched non-psychiatric controls, who were matched on a number of key variables, were asked to solve an analogical reasoning task. Performance by the deluded schizophrenic group was certainly impaired when compared with the depressed and non-psychiatric control groups though less convincingly so when compared with the non-deluded schizophrenic group. The impairment shown by the deluded schizophrenic group seemed to occur at the initial stage of the reasoning task. The particular type of impairment shown by the deluded subjects was assessed in relation to other cognitive problems already researched and the implications of these problems on reasoning tasks and theories of delusions was discussed.

  5. Component Processes in Analogical Reasoning

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes alternative theoretical positions regarding (a) the component information processes used in analogical reasoning and (b) strategies for combining these processes. Also presents results from three experiments on analogical reasoning. (Author/RK)

  6. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '08 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The discussions and plans on all scienti?c, advisory, and political levels to realize an even larger “European Supercomputer” in Germany, where the hardware costs alone will be hundreds of millions Euro – much more than in the past – are getting closer to realization. As part of the strategy, the three national supercomputing centres HLRS (Stuttgart), NIC/JSC (Julic ¨ h) and LRZ (Munich) have formed the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing (GCS) as a new virtual organization enabled by an agreement between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the state ministries for research of Baden-Wurttem ¨ berg, Bayern, and Nordrhein-Westfalen. Already today, the GCS provides the most powerful high-performance computing - frastructure in Europe. Through GCS, HLRS participates in the European project PRACE (Partnership for Advances Computing in Europe) and - tends its reach to all European member countries. These activities aligns well with the activities of HLRS in the European HPC infrastructur...

  7. Inclusive vision for high performance computing at the CSIR

    Gazendam, A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available and computationally intensive applications. A number of different technologies and standards were identified as core to the open and distributed high-performance infrastructure envisaged...

  8. High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC

    Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design. (paper)

  9. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  10. High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat pipes are widely used for passive, two-phase electronics cooling. As advanced high power, high performance electronics in space based and terrestrial...

  11. A high performance DAC/DDS daughter module for the RHIC LLRF platform

    Hayes, T.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.S.; Yuan, S.

    2011-01-01

    The RHIC LLRF upgrade is a flexible, modular system. Output signals are generated by a custom designed XMC card with 4 high speed digital to analog (DAC) converters interfaced to a high performance field programmable gate array (FPGA). This paper discusses the hardware details of the XMC DAC board as well as the implementation of a low noise rf synthesizer with digital IQ modulation. This synthesizer also provides injection phase cogging and frequency hop rebucketing capabilities. A new modular RHIC LLRF system was recently designed and commissioned based on custom designed XMC cards. As part of that effort a high speed, four channel DAC board was designed. The board uses Maxim MAX5891 16 bit DACs with a maximum update rate of 600 Msps. Since this module is intended to be used for many different systems throughout the Collider Accelerator complex, it was designed to be as generic as possible. One major application of this DAC card is to implement digital synthesizers to provide drive signals to the various cavities at RHIC. Since RHIC is a storage ring with stores that typically last many hours, extremely low RF noise is a critical requirement. Synchrotron frequencies at RHIC range from a few hertz to several hundred hertz depending on the species and point in the acceleration cycle so close in phase noise is a major concern. The RHIC LLRF system uses the Update Link, a deterministic, high speed data link that broadcasts the revolution frequency and the synchronous phase angle. The digital synthesizers use this data to generate a properly phased analog drive signal. The synthesizers must also provide smooth phase shifts for cogging and support frequency shift rebucketing. One additional feature implemented in the FPGA is a digital waveform generator (WFG) that generates I and Q data pairs based on a user selected amplitude and phase profile as a function of time.

  12. High performance leadership in unusually challenging educational circumstances

    Andy Hargreaves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on findings from the results of a study of leadership in high performing organizations in three sectors. Organizations were sampled and included on the basis of high performance in relation to no performance, past performance, performance among similar peers and performance in the face of limited resources or challenging circumstances. The paper concentrates on leadership in four schools that met the sample criteria.  It draws connections to explanations of the high performance ofEstoniaon the OECD PISA tests of educational achievement. The article argues that leadership in these four schools that performed above expectations comprised more than a set of competencies. Instead, leadership took the form of a narrative or quest that pursued an inspiring dream with relentless determination; took improvement pathways that were more innovative than comparable peers; built collaboration and community including with competing schools; and connected short-term success to long-term sustainability.

  13. Analogical scaffolding: Making meaning in physics through representation and analogy

    Podolefsky, Noah Solomon

    This work reviews the literature on analogy, introduces a new model of analogy, and presents a series of experiments that test and confirm the utility of this model to describe and predict student learning in physics with analogy. Pilot studies demonstrate that representations (e.g., diagrams) can play a key role in students' use of analogy. A new model of analogy, Analogical Scaffolding, is developed to explain these initial empirical results. This model will be described in detail, and then applied to describe and predict the outcomes of further experiments. Two large-scale (N>100) studies will demonstrate that: (1) students taught with analogies, according to the Analogical Scaffolding model, outperform students taught without analogies on pre-post assessments focused on electromagnetic waves; (2) the representational forms used to teach with analogy can play a significant role in student learning, with students in one treatment group outperforming students in other treatment groups by factors of two or three. It will be demonstrated that Analogical Scaffolding can be used to predict these results, as well as finer-grained results such as the types of distracters students choose in different treatment groups, and to describe and analyze student reasoning in interviews. Abstraction in physics is reconsidered using Analogical Scaffolding. An operational definition of abstraction is developed within the Analogical Scaffolding framework and employed to explain (a) why physicists consider some ideas more abstract than others in physics, and (b) how students conceptions of these ideas can be modeled. This new approach to abstraction suggests novel approaches to curriculum design in physics using Analogical Scaffolding.

  14. High-performance indium gallium phosphide/gallium arsenide heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Ahmari, David Abbas

    Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have demonstrated the high-frequency characteristics as well as the high linearity, gain, and power efficiency necessary to make them attractive for a variety of applications. Specific applications for which HBTs are well suited include amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters, current sources, and optoelectronic integrated circuits. Currently, most commercially available HBT-based integrated circuits employ the AlGaAs/GaAs material system in applications such as a 4-GHz gain block used in wireless phones. As modern systems require higher-performance and lower-cost devices, HBTs utilizing the newer, InGaP/GaAs and InP/InGaAs material systems will begin to dominate the HBT market. To enable the widespread use of InGaP/GaAs HBTs, much research on the fabrication, performance, and characterization of these devices is required. This dissertation will discuss the design and implementation of high-performance InGaP/GaAs HBTs as well as study HBT device physics and characterization.

  15. Verbal Analogical Reasoning in Children with Language-Learning Disabilities.

    Masterson, Julie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…

  16. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  17. Sex Differences in Mathematics Performance among Senior High ...

    This study explored sex differences in mathematics performance of students in the final year of high school and changes in these differences over a 3-year period in Ghana. A convenience sample of 182 students, 109 boys and 72 girls in three high schools in Ghana was used. Mathematics performance was assessed using ...

  18. Control switching in high performance and fault tolerant control

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    The problem of reliability in high performance control and in fault tolerant control is considered in this paper. A feedback controller architecture for high performance and fault tolerance is considered. The architecture is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. By usi...

  19. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout (II)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report is an update of the report “Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout (I)” [1] and describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked “WMG 7145 FP”, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S and designed for use in grouted...

  20. Development of new high-performance stainless steels

    Park, Yong Soo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focused on high-performance stainless steels and their development status. Effect of nitrogen addition on super-stainless steel was discussed. Research activities at Yonsei University, on austenitic and martensitic high-performance stainless, steels, and the next-generation duplex stainless steels were introduced