WorldWideScience

Sample records for high organochlorine levels

  1. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking......The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  2. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L; Heitmann, Berit L; Jensen, Tina K; Vinggaard, Anne M; Madsbad, Sten; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Nielsen, Flemming; Andersen, Helle R

    2015-10-01

    Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal POP exposures and increased BMI, waist circumference and change in BMI from 5 to 7 years of age, though only among girls with overweight mothers. In the same birth cohort, we investigated whether prenatal POP exposure was associated with serum concentrations of insulin and leptin among 5-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in maternal pregnancy serum and breast milk. Children were followed-up at the age of 5 years where a non-fasting blood sample was drawn; 520 children (273 boys and 247 girls) had adequate serum amounts available for biomarker analyses by Luminex® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age 5 while taking into account confounders. Girls with highest prenatal POP exposure were more likely to have high non-fasting insulin levels (PCBs 4th quartile: OR=3.71; 95% CI: 1.36, 10.01. DDE 4th quartile: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.90. HCB 4th quartile: OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.69) compared to girls in the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed with leptin, or among boys. A mediating effect of insulin or leptin on later obesity was not observed. These findings suggest, that for girls, prenatal

  3. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.

    2015-01-01

    ® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age......BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal......-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. METHODS: The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p...

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  5. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    the kidney. The level of endrin ketone was higher than endrin aldehyde in all the tissues analyzed. The mean concentration of endrin ketone was 0.347 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of α-endosulfan was 0.140μg /kg wet weight. Endosulfan sulfate was detected at 0.033 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of gamma-chlordane was 0.020 μg /kg kidney. Methoxychlor was detected at 0.183μg /kg, wet weight in the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticides residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRL), as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Dávila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    In Mexico, organochlorine pesticides were used in public health and agriculture programs, causing chronic exposure to the population. Human breast milk samples were collected from 171 mothers who were residents from Guerrero, Mexico. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Median concentrations (mg/kg on fat basis) for the following pesticides were: HCB, 0.009; β-HCH, 0.004; pp'DDE, 0.760; op'DDT, 0.016; pp'DDT, 0.045; and Σ-DDT, 0.833. These values are lower than in other States in Mexico, and in some countries where the use of these pesticides was banned more than 30 years ago. Differences were found in HCB, pp'DDE and pp'DDT concentrations in groups divided according to age (p pesticide levels in human milk is expected in a few years.

  8. Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornero, Victoria; Borrell, Assumpcio; Aguilar, Alex; Forcada, Jaume; Lockyer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause-effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans. - Organochlorine contaminants and retinoids in common dolphins

  9. Persistent organochlorines in high-Antarctic fish; Persistente chlororganische Verbindungen in hochantarktischen Fischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, S.

    1997-11-01

    24 chlorinated hydrocarbons from different classes (PCB, HCH, DDT, Chlordane, Hexachlorobenzene and Octachlorostyrene) were analyzed in four species of high-Antarctic fish (Aethotaxis mitopteryx, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Trematomus lepidorhinus, and Chinodraco myersi). The concentrations were in the order of 1 {mu}g/kg wet weight or 10 {mu}g/kg lipid weight, respectively. Highest concentrations were measured for HCB in all species. The species showed different distribution patterns for the organochlorines studied. Compared with concentrations in fish from other regions the organochlorine levels measured in Antarctic fish are rather low. It is unlikely that the burden of organochlorines will cause any toxic effects in high-Antarctic fish yet. Nevertheless, with regard to the sensitive Antarctic ecosystem, even small concentrations carry a high risk of harm for Antarctic life. Environmental pollution in Antarctica should be observed with a monitoring program using standardized methods. For this purpose, the fish species studied are very useful as bioindicators for organochlorine contamination. (orig.) [Deutsch] 24 persistente Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe verschiedener Schadstoffgruppen (PCB, HCH, DDT, Chlordan, Hexachlorbenzol und Octachlorstyrol) wurden in vier hochantarktischen Fischarten (Aethotaxis mitopteryx, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Trematomus lepidorhinus und Chionodraco myersi). Die Konzentrationen der nachgewiesenen Schadstoffe im Ganzfisch liegen jeweils in der Groessenordnung von 1 {mu}g/kg Feuchtgewicht bzw. 10 {mu}g/kg Lipidgewicht mit erheblichen Schwankungen je nach Schadstoff und Art. Die Spezies zeigen artspezifische Schadstoffverteilungsmuster. Die Konzentrationen sind gegenueber denen in Fischen aus Gebieten mit staerkerem zivilisatorischem Einfluss eher niedrig. Die Fremstoffbelastungen der hochantarktischen Fische fuehren wahrscheinlich noch nicht zu messbaren toxischen Effekten bei den Fischen. Dennoch geht von den Schadstoffen in Hinblick auf das

  10. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide levels in umbilical cord blood of newborn in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2010-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich compartments of organisms. During pregnancy, the compounds pass through the placental barrier appear in cord blood. The aim of this study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides in 70 umbilical cord blood samples taken during deliveries in Veracruz in 2009. For organochlorine pesticides, only the presence β-HCH (4%, 3.9 μg/L median concentration on wet weight), pp'DDE (100%, 0.7 μg/L) and pp'DDT (4%, 1.4 μg/L) were detected. The total pool of samples divided according to sex of new born babies, showed no statistical differences among median concentrations. The number of deliveries considered as a determinant contamination factor affirmed there were no statistical differences among median concentrations; however pp'DDE levels increased from the one to two childbirth groups. Age of pregnant women as a discriminate factor manifests in a significant increase in contamination levels among first, second and third tertile. In general, umbilical cord blood samples in Veracruz contained organochlorine pesticides, especially pp'DDE, confirming the presence of these compounds in the environment and their transfer from the mother to the developing fetus.

  12. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  13. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Brazilian human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T. [INCQS/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Braga, A.M.C.B.; Rosa, J.M. [CESTEH/ENSP/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Kypke, K.; Malisch, R. [State Inst. for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Breastfeeding has been intensively encouraged, especially in developing countries, due to its beneficial properties, i.e., increase infant immune factors and resistance to chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or allergies. In addition, human exposure to environmental pollution has led the scientific community to study the pathways of these contaminants and the possible risks they pose to human health. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCs), in special, has been the subject of great interest during recent years given their potential toxicity, resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation through the food chain. The major source of OC has been agriculture and public health campaigns to vector control. General population exposure occur mainly through the diet and human milk can be an indicator of exposure since OCs are lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate in adipose tissue and breastfeeding is the main pathway of elimination through the fatty fraction of milk. In this study pooled samples of mothers living in the capitals of two different states of Brazil were evaluated in order to assess the trends of human exposure to persistent pollutants.

  14. Fish consumption and plasma levels of organochlorines in a female population in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sandanger, Torkjel; Thune, Inger; Burkow, Ivan C; Lun, Eiliv

    2002-02-01

    Increased cancer incidence and mortality have been found among humans exposed to high levels of organochlorines (OCs), either accidentally or as industrial workers. In order to assess levels of OCs in Norwegian women north of the Arctic Circle and validate self-reported fish consumption as a surrogate measure of organochlorine body burden, concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners [IUPAC Nos. CB-105, CB-118, CB-138 (+ CB-163), CB-153, CB-180, CB-183, CB-187], beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), 2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and cis- and trains-chlordane (c-CD and t-CD) were examined in plasma samples of middle-aged women attending for health screening. Altogether, 47 of those invited (81%) completed a questionnaire and donated a suitable blood sample. The ability of questionnaire data to predict plasma levels of OCs was tested in linear and logistic regression analyses. Measured plasma concentrations were in the range reported for the general female population of other Western countries and the relative amounts of PCBs were similar to the circumpolar pattern. Intake of seagulls' eggs was a predictor of PCB congeners CB-138 (+CB-163) (p<0.05) and CB-153 (p<0.01). No other food category was positively associated with any compound. In contrast, duration of residence in the study municipality, body mass index (BMI) and lifetime lactation (months) were the best univariate predictors. There was an increase in beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and most of the PCBs (p<0.05 for all) with increasing length of time a subject had lived in the municipality. BMI was a positive predictor for beta-HCH (OR=3.10, 95% CI 1.50-6.43, per 5 kgm(-2)), chlordane (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.05, per 5 kgm(-2)) and CB-105 and CB-153 (p<0.05 for both). Lactation was negatively associated with all OCs (p<0.05), except chlordane and two of the PCB congeners. Time living in the municipality and lactation explained 34%, of the variance in concentration of total

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in blood serum of inhabitants from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB; α-, β-, γ-HCH; pp'DDE; op'DDT; and pp'DDT in blood serum of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 150 blood serum samples that constituted that which remained after clinical analyses, using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as milligrams per kilogram on fat basis and micrograms per liter on wet weight. Only the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in 100% of samples at mean 15.8 mg/kg and 8.4 μg/L; p,p'-DDT was presented in 41.3.% of monitored samples at mean 3.1 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L; β-HCH was found in 48.6% of the samples at mean 4.9 mg/kg and 2.7 μg/L; op'DDT was determined to be in only 3.3% of monitored samples at mean 2.7 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L. The pooled samples divided according to sex showed significant differences of β-HCH and pp'DDE concentrations in females. The samples grouped according to age presented the third tertile as more contaminated in both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with serum organochlorine pesticide levels in Veracruz inhabitants.

  16. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.

  17. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in human adipose tissue, data from Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Rodríguez Díaz, S S; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Infanzón, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT in 150 adipose tissue of inhabitants of Tabasco, Mexico. The following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.034 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.7% at mean 0.116 mg/kg; o,p'-DDT in 78.7% at mean 0.022 mg/kg and β-HCH in 58.0% at mean 0.049 mg/kg. The pooled sample was divided according to sex of donors (75 female and 75 male). Significantly higher levels of all organochlorine pesticides in females were found. The sample was divided into three age's ranges (15-28, 29-45 and 46-84 years). The mean and median levels of β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and Σ-DDT increase significantly (p pesticide residues in Tabasco inhabitants is still observed, indicating sources of exposure to the pesticides.

  18. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are compounds that can be detected in human populations as a result of occupational or residential exposure. Despite their occurrence in considerably low levels in humans, their biological effects are hazardous since they interact with a plethora of enzymes, proteins, receptors and transcription factors. In this review we summarize the cell and molecular effects of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides with respect to their toxicity, with particular emphasis on glucose and lipid metabolism, their interaction with some members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, including the steroid and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors that changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. More importantly, evidence regarding the metabolic degradation of pesticides and their accumulation in tissues is presented. Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms after long-term low-dose organophosphate exposure resulting in neurodevelopmental outcomes and neurodegeneration are also addressed. We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level

  19. Determination of levels of organochlorine pesticides in plastic resin pellets on selected beaches in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoatey, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in beached plastic resin pellets were determined with the objective of assessing the status of OCP pollution in the marine ecosystem in selected beaches in Ghana. Samples of plastic resin pellets were collected at seven beaches in Accra (namely Art centre, Sakumono, Osu castle, Labadi, Korle-Gonno, Independence Square and Tema Mighty beaches) and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, total chlorine and extractable chlorine. The plastic pellets were subjected to Soxhlet extraction and the extracts analyzed using Gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detected compounds were alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, hexachlorobenzene, o, p' -DDE, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, heptachlor, trans-heptachlor epoxy, trans-chlordane, trans-nanochlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, endosulphan sulphate and methoxychlor. Analysis of the virgin pellets recorded no organochlorine pesticides present. However, plastics pellets collected from all seven beaches were found to contain OCPs with the highest recorded on the Art Centre beach with a total concentration of 106.26 ng/g. Plastic pellets collected on the Labadi beach recorded the lowest OCPs with a concentration of 20.2 ng/g. Total chlorine and extractable organochlorine (EOCI) were also determined in the plastic resin pellets by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The concentrations of total chlorine analyzed by INAA were between 2.82 and 50.25 mg/kg whereas the EOCR concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 30.90 mg/kg. EOCR accounted for 48.05% of the total chlorine in plastic pellets, suggesting that chlorine in the beached pellet relatively existed as organic and are extractable. The relative proportion of known or identified organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDT s, chlordane compounds, endosulphans, HCB and methoxychlor) to the total extractable organochlorine(EOCI) was averagely 7.4% which suggested

  20. Organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of pregnant women in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Valencia-Quintana, R; Caba, M; Hernández-Chalate, F; García-Aguilar, E; Villalba, R

    2010-06-01

    DDT and Lindane (gamma-HCH) which were used until 1999 in Mexico, have provided great benefits in the combat of vectors that spread infection-borne diseases and in agriculture for crop protection. The persistence in the environment and their accumulative properties results in bioconcentration in lipid rich tissues of the human body that reflect the extent of environmental pollution. Human adipose tissue samples were taken during 2009 from abdominal cavities of 69 pregnant women by cesarean surgery and from 34 samples of control donors by autopsy in Veracruz State. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD. The results of mean levels (mg/kg on fat basis) were higher in controls compared to pregnant women beta-HCH 0.064 vs 0.027; pp'DDE 1.187 vs. 0.745; op'DDT 0.016 vs. 0.011; pp'DDT 0.117 vs. 0.099 and Sigma-DDT 1.337 vs. 0.854. The pregnant women group was divided according to age: up to 20, 20-30, and more than 30 years, and presented an increase for the more persistent pesticides with age in terms of mean concentrations and a more pronounced higher correlation in medians levels. Pairing Body Mass Index to organochlorine pesticide mean levels revealed no correlation between these factors in pregnant women.

  1. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A.; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E.; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K.; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides ...

  2. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  3. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  4. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  5. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  6. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A.; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia

  7. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in blood plasma from residents of malaria-endemic communities in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-10-10

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,p'-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (60 years) had the highest p,p'-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,p'-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,p'-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product.

  8. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  9. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Ruiz-Suárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60. We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde. Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively. The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl and mid-altitude (520 masl locations had the highest levels of p,pʹ-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddarth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Tyagi, Vipin; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-05-26

    Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n = 100), patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (n = 100), and patients with chronic kidney disease of known etiology (CKDk) (n = 100). Blood OCP levels of all three study groups were analyzed by gas chromatography. Increased level of OCPs, namely α-HCH, aldrin, and β-endosulfan, were observed in CKDu patients as compared to healthy control and CKD patients of known etiology. The levels of these pesticides significantly correlated negatively with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and positively with urinary albumin of CKD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed association of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDE, and β-endosulfan with CKDu on adjustment of age, sex, BMI, and total lipid content. Increased blood level of certain organochlorine pesticides is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology.

  11. Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Manh Hoai; Nguyen Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen Hung Minh; Pham Hung Viet; Berg, Michael; Alder, Alfredo C.; Giger, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence, temporal trend, sources and toxicity of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were investigated in sediment samples from the sewer system of Hanoi City, including the rivers Nhue, To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu and the Yen So Lake. In general, the concentrations of the pollutants followed the order DDTs > PCBs > HCHs (β-HCH) > HCB. However, the pollution pattern was different for the DDTs and PCBs when the sampling locations were individually evaluated. The concentrations of the DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, and HCB ranged from 4.4 to 1100, 1.3 to 384, <0.2 to 36 and <0.2 to 22 ng/g d.w., respectively. These levels are higher than at any other location in Vietnam. Compared to measurements from 1997, the DDTs, PCBs, β-HCH and HCB levels show an increasing trend with DDT/DDE ratios, indicating very recent inputs into the environment although these persistent compounds are banned in Vietnam since 1995. - Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were studied in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi.

  12. A new threat to public health: organochlorines and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R H

    1992-01-01

    Ambient levels of persistent toxic chemicals, chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, have reached levels high enough to affect the health of children. The organochlorines (PCBs, DDT and the dioxin family) accumulate in human adipose tissue. Pregnant women pass the contamination to their fetuses. The developing nervous system is the most vulnerable. Neurobehavioral deficits, including short-term memory loss, are detected in children born to mothers at the high end of the distribution curve of organochlorines. Humans are not alone in their susceptibility to these subtle effects. Wildlife exposed to the same spectrum of organochlorines as humans suffer a variety of behavioral changes. Rats and Rhesus monkeys fed diets containing the organochlorines under laboratory conditions exhibit behavioral changes that persist into adulthood. For humans, food provides 80 percent of organochlorine contamination. Meat, fish, dairy and commercial fruit are the main sources. A vegetarian diet including unsprayed fruit minimizes contamination. The ultimate solution to this public health problem is elimination of the organochlorines from the environment.

  13. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  14. Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.P.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Yates, J.

    2001-01-01

    an effect on their reproductive physiology.The objective of this study was to determine if sturgeon from an impounded section of the Columbia River (where reproductive success has been low) had higher levels of bioaccumulative pollutants than sturgeon from the estuary (where reproductive success has been high) and if these compounds were associated with decreased plasma steroid levels. Specifically, we measured chlorinated pesticides and PCBs in the gonads and plasma steroids in white sturgeon from the Columbia River fishery.

  15. Time trend tendency (1988-2014 years) of organochlorine pesticide levels in the adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Del Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela, María

    2018-03-10

    The population that lives in areas where organochlorine pesticides were spread in the past is still exposed to them through contaminated food, particulate matter, and vapors. Due to their lipophilic properties and resistance to metabolic reactions, they accumulate in tissues and fluids rich in lipids. The aim of the study was to monitor the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in forensic adipose tissue samples of adult inhabitants of Veracruz City, Mexico, and compare their time trend levels from 1988 to 2014. During the study, hexachlorobenzene (HCB); lindane; β-hexachorocyclohexane; p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp'DDE); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDT); and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) were determined. Our survey was divided into two periods: first, from the years 1988 to 1999, during which DDT was allowed to fight malaria and dengue vectors and the second from the years 2001 to 2014, after the DDT ban. A total of 1435 samples were analyzed. There were substantial differences in the forecasted time trend values of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT in human adipose tissue samples in the two different periods. During the first period, p,p'-DDE decrease time trend was 1.198 mg/kg on lipid base per year; for the second one, decrease was 0.128 mg/kg on lipid base per year. p,p'-DDT decreased 0.507 mg/kg on lipid base during the first period and 0.039 mg/kg on lipid base for the second. The different concentrations may be explained by the cessation of fresh exposure after the first period and a more equilibrated decontamination tendency during the second period. This model was useful to show the decrease in the concentration of pesticides in human adipose tissue samples.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnhoorn, IEJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine...

  17. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  18. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pingping; Wu Yongning; Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing; Liu Yinping; Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: →Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent.→ Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT.→ Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk.→ The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  20. Concentrations and determinants of organochlorine levels among pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Ballester, Ferran, E-mail: ballester_fer@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Nursing School, University of Valencia, Jaume Roig, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Vizcaino, Esther, E-mail: esther.vizcaino@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario, E-mail: murcia_mar@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose, E-mail: Maria-Jose.Lopez@lshtm.ac.uk [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, WC1H 9SH, London (United Kingdom); Rebagliato, Marisa, E-mail: rebagli@umh.es [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Vioque, Jesus, E-mail: vioque@umh.es [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University, Crta. Nacional 332, 03550 Sant Joan, Alicante (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Alfredo, E-mail: marco_alf@gva.es [Hospital Universitari La Fe, Av. Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O., E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain). The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates. The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b

  1. Concentrations and determinants of organochlorine levels among pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Vizcaino, Esther; Murcia, Mario; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus; Marco, Alfredo; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2010-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain). The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates. The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, and 4,4'-DDE

  2. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  3. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oginawati, K; Pratama, M A

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin. (paper)

  4. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  5. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinateddibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema,common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetibabay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution GasChromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B,and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g wwand PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of thesecontaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of thesespecies did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematicmonitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  6. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema, common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B, and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of these contaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of these species did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematic monitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  7. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study (ENNS), 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Fréry, Nadine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Deschamps, Valérie; Göen, Thomas; Garnier, Robert; Guldner, Laurence

    2014-02-15

    Although most organochlorine (OC) pesticides were banned in France in the 1970s and 1980s, they remain a source of public concern. Because of their high persistence in the environment, they are still detected in foodstuffs, leading to continued human exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of serum organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the French adult population and to identify the main risk factors for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The selected OC pesticides (HCB, DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCB and γ-HCH) were measured in serum samples collected in 2006-2007 from 386 persons (aged 18-74 years) randomly selected among the participants in the clinical and biological component of the French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé [ENNS]), a cross-sectional survey carried out in the general population. Collected data included biological samples, socio-demographic characteristics, and data about environmental and occupational exposure factors. Of the six OC pesticides investigated, the highest concentrations were observed for HCB, β-HCH and DDE. Median serum concentrations were as follows: 22.8 ng/g lipid for HCB, 0.74 and 27.0 ng/g lipid, respectively, for α- and ß-HCH, and 3.8 and 104.6 ng/g lipid, respectively, for DDT and DDE. Lindane (γ-HCH) was detected in approximately 10% of the sample. OC pesticide levels in serum in French adults were higher (except for DDT and DDE) than those observed in American, Canadian and German populations and generally lower than or in the same range as those observed in other European countries. The low serum DDT/DDE ratio in the present study (3.7%) would suggest that the concentrations observed for these two OC pesticides were mainly the result of past exposure. The most important predictors of serum DDE, HCB and β-HCH concentrations among the French adult population included individual factors (age, gender

  8. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L.E.; Castro-Chan, R.A.; Rivero-Perez, N.E.; Trejo-Acevedo, A.; Guillen-Navarro, G.K.; Geissen, V.; Bello-Mendoza, R.

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes)

  9. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  10. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde B Lauritzen

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs and organochlorines (OCs are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs.Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA births study was collected in 1986-1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models.Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study.Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this study are relevant to

  11. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lailson-Brito, J.; Dorneles, P.R.; Azevedo-Silva, C.E.; Azevedo, A.F.; Vidal, L.G.; Zanelatto, R.C.; Lozinski, C.P.C.; Azeredo, A.; Fragoso, A.B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for ΣDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for ΣPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  12. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  13. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  14. Dietary and reproductive determinants of plasma organochlorine levels in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcinelli, P.N.; Pereira, A.C.S.; Esquita, S.A.; Oliveira-Silva, J.J.; Meyer, Armando; Menezes, M.A.C.; Alves, R.; Mattos, R.C.O.C.; Moreira, J.C.; Wolff, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Organo chlorine (OC) plasma levels and their dietary and reproductive determinants were investigated in 64 pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Prenatal exposure of newborns was evaluated in a subset of these womens in which umbilical cord blood was analyzed. To assess the influence of dietary factors on OC levels, a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire as completed by participants. Non dietary determinants were investigated through a general questionnaire that addressed reproductive history, lifestyle, and social-demographic characteristics. Both women and their newborns had detectable but low levels of OCs. The most frequently detected compound was p,p'-DDE, the main metabolite of p,p'-DDT. This compound was found in 97% of the women who participated in the study and in 67% of the umbilical cord blood samples, with levels ranging from 0.161 to 8.03 ppb and from 0.320 to 1.06 ppb, respectively. Among the OCs detected, only p,p'-DDE showed any correlation with dietary and non dietary factors. There was a positive correlation between maternal p,p'-DDE and the consumption of fish Pearson r=0.38,P=0.002) and chicken (Pearson r=0.26, P=0.042). The correlation between pork consumption and p,p'-DDE exhibited an inverse relationship (Pearson r=-0.25,P=0.052). Parity was the only non dietary factor hat showed a significant correlation (Pearson r=-0.36,P=0.004). The main determinants of p,p'-DDE levels in this group of women were fish consumption and parity, together explaining 28% of the variance (P<001), in a multivariate model

  15. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, V.L.B.; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Dauwe, T.; Eens, M.; Schepens, P.

    2006-01-01

    Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000 μg/g lipid weight). PBDEs could be determined in most samples at lower concentrations than PCBs (up to 64 μg/g lipid in sparrowhawk liver). Sparrowhawks had the highest levels of hexachlorobenzene, DDTs and PBDEs. In contrast, kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) had relatively low levels of most measured organochlorines. BDE 47 was the most abundant congener in heron (Ardea cinerea) and grebe (Podiceps cristatus), while BDE 47, 99 and 153 were equally important in the terrestrial species. BDE 183 and BDE 209 were only measured in the terrestrial birds. These results indicate that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than aquatic species. - Aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds show different accumulation profiles of PBDEs

  17. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  18. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. ΣPCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. - Organochlorine pollutants in fish tissues tend to magnify up the food chain

  20. Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: Levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 wereanalysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers andh...

  1. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, I.; Grimalt, J.O.; Ventura, M.; Catalan, J.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K ow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  2. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, J.O. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)]. E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es; Ventura, M. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Catalan, J. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Rosseland, B.O. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), P.O.B. 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Institute for Biology and Nature Conservation, The Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) (Norway)

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow} > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    acting directly as estrogens, their involvement in embryonic and early post-embryonic toxicity, interferences with antibody formation, effects on behavior, and interactions with stress such as nutritional deficiencies or food deprivation. Delayed mortality long after dosage ceased has shown the serious effects of storage of organochlorines in fat. DDT has been suggested as the indirect cause of a reduction of egg-shell thickness that occurred in the midforties in association with failing reproduction and population decline of certain predatory birds. The impact of these new components of the environment has appeared as death, reproductive impairment, disruption of species balance, and behavioral alteration, but the overall effects on the environment have not been determined. Research should be aimed at interpretation of the significance of pesticide residues to survival and reproduction, to assessment of levels of pesticides in critical environments, and to the kinetics of pesticides in individuals and the ecosystem.

  4. A study of building structural features associated with high indoor air concentrations of organochlorine termiticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, D L; Gun, R T; Tkaczuk, M N; Hann, C; Crea, J

    1993-09-01

    As part of a two-year study of post-treatment residential exposure to the termiticide, aldrin, the building structural features of ten houses with crawl-space-type floors were assessed by an independent inspector. Building attributes recorded on a checklist included the age of the dwelling, room characteristics, floor details and the nature of subfloor ventilation. At the end of each inspection, the inspector, who was blinded to data on airborne aldrin concentrations, provided a rating of expected indoor air contamination. Several of the building attributes, including the age of the house, the area of exterior subfloor vents, as well as the inspector's rating, were significantly correlated with airborne aldrin values. No single building variable, however, was highly correlated with every measure of aldrin concentration over a 12-month period. The observed data are consistent with poor subfloor ventilation and a 'leaky' floor being important contributors to indoor air pollution. It is recommended that pest control companies advise householders about any obvious floor and ventilation deficiencies before soil treatment work is undertaken. Pesticide exposure (by analogy with geological radon exposure) may be reduced by sealing gaps in floors and/or by improving subfloor ventilation.

  5. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  6. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  7. Seasonal variations and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds in a high-altitude city: Evidence from four-year observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Jiujiang; Wang, Hailong; Yuan, Xiaohua; He, Yuanqing; Qian, Yun; Yao, Tandong

    2018-02-01

    Lijiang is a high-altitude city located on the eastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, with complex seasonal atmospheric circulations (i.e. westerly wind, Indian Monsoon, and East Asia Monsoon). Very few previous studies have focused on seasonal variations and sources of organic pollutants in Lijiang. In this study, a four-year air campaign from June 2009 to July 2013 was conducted to investigate the temporal trends and the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds [including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)]. The atmospheric PAH concentrations in winter are 2-3 times of those in summer, probably because of the combined result of enhanced local emission and long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) during winter. Traffic pollution was the primary local source of PAHs, while biomass burning is the dominant LRAT source. Different from PAHs, OCPs and PCBs mainly underwent LRAT to reach Lijiang. The peak concentrations of most of OCPs occurred in pre-monsoon season and winter, which are carried by air masses from Myanmar and India through westerly winds. As compared with other sites of the Tibetan Plateau, without the direct barrier of the Himalaya, Lijiang is easily contaminated by the incursion of polluted air masses.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  9. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications. © 2013.

  11. Novel Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2 degrades various organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and achieves enhancing removal and complete degradation of DDT in highly contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jie; Xu, Yang; Ai, Guo-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-15

    Long term residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are of great concerning because they seriously threaten food security and human health. This article focuses on isolation of OCP-degrading strains and their performance in bioremediation of contaminated soil under ex situ conditions. A bacterium, Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2, capable of degrading various OCPs and utilizing them as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, was isolated from OCP-contaminated soil. In culture experiments, PYR2 degraded 80-98% of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) isomers (50 mg L(-1)) in 30 days. A pilot-scale ex situ bioremediation study of highly OCP-contaminated soil augmented with PYR2 was performed. During the 45-day experimental period, DDT concentration was reduced by 80.3% in PYR2-augmented soils (35.37 mg kg(-1) to 6.97 mg kg(-1)) but by only 57.6% in control soils. Seven DDT degradation intermediates (metabolites) were detected and identified in PYR2-augmented soils: five by GC/MS: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDMU), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDMS), and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP); and two by LC/MS: 4-chlorobenzoic acid (PCBA) and 4-chlorophenylacetic acid (PCPA). Levels of metabolites were fairly stable in control soils but varied greatly with time in PYR2-augmented soils. Levels of DDD, DDMU, and DDE in PYR2-augmented soils increased from day 0 to day 30 and then decreased by day 45. A DDT biodegradation pathway is proposed based on our identification of DDT metabolites in PYR2-augmented systems. PYR2 will be useful in future studies of OCP biodegradation and in bioremediation of OCP-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  13. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Davis, Mark D; Eaton, David L; Weiss, Noel S; Barr, Dana B; Doody, David R; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men ages 20 to 34 years. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, suboptimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess antiandrogenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p'-DDE, and whether the p,p'-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18- to 44-year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n = 246) were diagnosed during 1999 to 2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n = 630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p'-DDE was modified by androgen receptor CAG ( or =23 repeats) or GGN ( or =17 repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

  15. Evaluation of the Level of Organochlorinated Pesticides Contamination in Environment of the Red River and its Balat Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Manh Am; Dang Duc Nhan; Vo Van Thuan; Nguyen Duc Cu; Luu Van Dieu; Nguyen Chu Hoi

    1995-01-01

    The pollution level of OC pesticides such as Lindane, DDT and its metabolites contaminants in water, sediments and Biota collected along the Red River and from the Balat estuary have, for the first time in the North of Vietnam, been determined by GC technique using capillary columns and electron capture detection (ECD). The concentration of DDT and DDE was found to be up to 38.4 ppb and 27.3 ppb, respectively, in sediments from the Red River and its Balat estuary. Lindane residue in Red River's and Balat estuary's sediments was found at level of 1.3-4.2 and 14.6-52.6 ppb, respectively. In water Lindane contaminant was detected in the sample collected from the estuarine area only, while DDE was found in both River and estuarine water. Residue of Lindane in mussel flesh was found to be always higher (up to 145 ppb) than that of any DDT's metabolites, e.g. the highest value of DDE contaminant is 66 ppb. The finding shows that Lindane contamination in marine environmental samples from the Balat estuary is higher as compared with those from the Mediterranean Sea but DDT's ones are at the same level. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 1 map

  16. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s......, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this....

  17. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  18. Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for highly sensitive solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuqin; Xie, Lijun; Zheng, Juan; Jiang, Ruifeng; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2015-06-09

    Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. • A novel SPME fiber was fabricated with silicone sealant film and TiO{sub 2} powder. • The fiber exhibited excellent extraction performance to OCPs. • The fiber was used for analysis of OCPs in real water samples. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized with the hydrothermal method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then a superior solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by sequentially coating the stainless steel fiber with silicone sealant film and mesoporous TiO{sub 2} powder. The developed fiber possessed a homogeneous surface and a long life-span up to 100 times at direct immersing (DI) extraction mode. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiencies of the self-made 17 μm TiO{sub 2} fiber for six organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were higher than those of the two commercial fibers (65 μm PDMS/DVB and 85 μm PA fibers) which were much thicker than the former. As for analytical performance, low detection limits (0.08–0.60 ng L{sup −1}) and wide linearity (5–5000 ng L{sup −1}) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The repeatabilities (n = 5) for single fiber were between 2.8 and 12.3%, while the reproducibilities (n = 3) of fiber-to-fiber were in the range of 3.7–15.7%. The proposed fiber was successfully applied to the sensitive analysis of OCPs in real water samples and four of the six analytes were detected from the rainwater and the lake water samples.

  19. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  20. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, Henry; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  1. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  3. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  4. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drooge, Barend van; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for ΣPCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors

  5. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Cabrera, Felix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dominguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the 'Canary Islands Nutrition Survey' (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  6. The determination of organochlorine pesticides based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ligang; Ding Lan; Jin Haiyan; Song Daqian; Zhang Huarong; Li Jiantao; Zhang Kun; Wang Yutang; Zhang Hanqi

    2007-01-01

    A rapid technique based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography (DMAE-SPE-HPLC) has been developed. A TM 010 microwave resonance cavity built in the laboratory was applied to concentrate the microwave energy. The sample placed in the zone of microwave irradiation was extracted with 95% acetonitrile (ACN) aqueous solution which was driven by a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min -1 . The extraction can be completed in a recirculating system in 10 min. When a number of extraction cycles were completed, the extract (1 mL) was diluted on-line with water. Then the extract was loaded into an SPE column where the analytes were retained while the unretained matrix components were washed away. Subsequently, the analytes were automatically transferred from the SPE column to the analytical column and determined by UV detector at 238 nm. The technique was used for determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in grains, including wheat, rice, corn and bean. The limits of detection of OCPs are in the range of 19-37 ng g -1 . The recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked grain samples are in the range of 86-105%, whereas the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values are <8.7% ranging from 1.2 to 8.7%. Our method was demonstrated to be fast, accurate, and precise. In addition, only small quantities of solvent and sample were required

  7. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  8. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  9. Esclerose sistêmica e níveis séricos elevados de organoclorado: uma associação possível? Systemic sclerosis and elevated organochlorine blood levels: a possible association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odirlei André Monticielo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A patogênese da esclerose sistêmica (ES é complexa e pouco conhecida. Há a participação de ativação imune, dano vascular e excessiva produção de matriz extracelular com deposição de colágeno estruturalmente normal. Fatores genéticos e ambientais contribuem para a expressão da doença nos pacientes. Dentre os fatores ambientais, diversos agentes químicos já foram associados à doença. Descrevemos o caso de uma adolescente de 16 anos, com história prévia de hepatite criptogênica e câncer de lábio, que desenvolveu quadro atípico e rapidamente progressivo de esclerose sistêmica. Inicialmente o quadro era compatível com esclerodermia em placas, porém rapidamente evoluiu para uma forma sistêmica com grave acometimento cardiopulmonar e óbito. Durante a investigação de possíveis fatores etiológicos que pudessem estar relacionados, foram encontrados níveis séricos extremamente elevados de oxiclordano, um agrotóxico organoclorado. Uma possível correlação entre a intoxicação por esse agente químico e o surgimento de ES foi aventada.The pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SS is complex and not completely understood. Autoimmune mechanisms, vascular damage, and excessive extracelular matrix with collagen deposition play a significant role. Genetic and environmental factors also are decisive to the disease expression. Among environmental factors many chemical agents have been associated with the development of SS. A 16-year-old white woman, with previous history of cryptogenic hepatitis and cancer of the lips, developed an atypical and rapidly progressive form of SS. Initial sclerodermatous plaques progressed to a systemic form with severe cardiopulmonary involvement and death. Diagnostic workup revealed extremely high blood levels of oxychlordane. A possible association of organochlorine intoxication and SS is proposed.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian; Sun Quanhui; Song Jie; Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Hale, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. ΣTEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with ΣPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  12. Preparation of reference material for organochlorine pesticides in a herbal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yiu Chung; Wong, Siu Kay; Kam, Tat Ting

    2008-12-01

    The development of reference material for four organochlorine pesticides, namely hexachlorobenzene and three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), in a ginseng root sample is presented. Raw materials (Panax ginseng) were purchased from a local market and confirmed to contain certain levels of incurred organochlorine pesticide residues by a validated gas chromatography-mass selective detection method. A total of more than 300 bottles each containing 25 g of samples were prepared after the materials had been freeze-dried, milled and thoroughly mixed. The homogeneity and stability of samples from randomly selected bottles were verified and the reference values were characterized using a highly precise isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GCMS) method that was recently developed by our laboratory. The purity of standard organochlorine chemicals was determined against certified reference materials to establish the accuracy of the ID-GCMS analysis. The concentrations (+/- expanded uncertainty) of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in the reference material were 0.198 +/- 0.015, 0.450 +/- 0.022, 0.213 +/- 0.011 and 0.370 +/- 0.032 mg kg(-1), respectively. A portion (70 bottles) of the samples was also used in a proficiency testing (PT) scheme for assessing the testing capabilities of field laboratories. The consensus mean values of the PT obtained from the 70 participants were on the same order but deviated by -2.7 to -14.1% from those of the assigned reference values. Because of the wide spread of participants' data (relative standard deviation ranging from 44 to 56%), the PT results were not included in the calculation of the assigned values of the reference materials. The materials served as suitable reference materials to ascertain the quality control and validation processes for the

  13. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  14. Organochlorine Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels and compositions of organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil samples collected from a former formulation plant in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania, were determined. Extraction was performed by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was ...

  15. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  16. Organochlorines in common dolphins caught in shark nets during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of organochlorines were determined in blubber and liver samples from common dolphins inhabiting the coastal waters of the south-east coast of southern Africa. Liver levels of PCBs and DDTs are far lower and do not appear directly associated with those in blubber. In males, blubber residue ...

  17. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) in coastal environments of Southeast Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Botello, A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Rueda-Quintana, L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses to determine the presence and concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) were carried out in sediments and estuarine organisms (Crassostrea virginica) from five coastal lagoons of the Southeast Gulf of Mexico. The results of this study show high levels of POP's in sediments with high concentration of Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin and ppDDT, either in sediments or biological tissues. According to national regulations, the use and dispersion of these chemical have been severely restricted or totally prohibited in developed countries, however their presence in coastal areas indicate an extensive use and recent application of them. (author)

  18. Characteristic trend of persistent organochlorine contamination in wildlife from a tropical agricultural watershed, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Kannan, K; Subramanian, A N; Kumaran, P; Tatsukawa, R

    1992-07-01

    The residue levels of persistent organochlorines, such as HCH (BHC: 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane] compounds, PCBs (polychlorobiphenyls) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene), were measured in wildlife. The wildlife were sampled from terrestrial and aquatic habitats in and around the agricultural watershed of Parangipettai, South India. On the basis of overall concentrations sigma HCH ranked first followed by sigma DDT, sigma PCB and HCB, reflecting the increasing usage of HCH in recent years in India. The residue levels of organochlorines in birds varied according to their feeding habits and showed the following pattern: inland piscivores and scavengers greater than coastal piscivores greater than insectivores greater than omnivores greater than granivores. High levels of HCH and DDT residues were recorded in Pond heron and Cattle egret which feed in the agricultural fields. Comparison of HCH concentrations in fish and birds in the study area to other locations was made to further understand the dynamics of contaminant accumulation in tropical wildlife. Regarding birds, a wide variation in residue levels could be seen among various countries, with tropical regions registering high levels. In contrast, the variation is not prominent in the case of fish. The residue levels in fish measured in the present study were generally comparable to values reported from other locations. This suggests that the bioavailability of contaminants to the aquatic fauna is less due to the smaller flux and shorter residence time of these chemicals in the tropics.

  19. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  20. Relationships between reproductive performance and organochlorine contaminants in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helberg, Morten; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Kristiansen, Kai Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2005-01-01

    The great black-backed gull Larus marinus is a top predator in subarctic and temperate marine ecosystems, and the aim of this study was to investigate if organochlorines (OCs) were related to reproductive performance in this species at the subarctic parts of the Norwegian Coast. We measured blood levels of various OCs in 53 breeding birds. The OC levels were relatively low compared to levels found in nearby arctic areas. In females, however, there was a significant positive relationship between blood concentrations of OCs, especially hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and egg laying date, and a positive relationship between the probability of nest predation and blood concentration of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), oxychlordane, and DDE. In females with high levels of OCs, especially persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there was also a decline in egg volume as egg laying progressed; i.e. the second and third laid egg were relatively smaller, compared to females with low OC levels. No relationships between reproductive parameters and OC levels were found in males. - Elevated blood concentrations of organochlorine contaminants correlate with poor reproductive performance in female great black-backed gulls

  1. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  2. The Preliminary Study of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Sediments of Bivalvia Fishing Ground at Eastern Part of Coastal Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Subagyo; Setyati, Wilis Ari; Sri Susilo, Endang; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Triaji Mahendrajaya, Robertus

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the occurrence level of organochlorine contamination in marine sediments of Semarang coastal areas as a fishing ground of Bivalvia. Five compounds (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT) of contaminant have been determined in the sediments surface of Semarang coastal waters. The samples were then analyzed by using gas chromatography and followed by using the method of Standard Method Examination. The result showed that the average concentration of organochlorine pesticides Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT were 25.5, bellow detected, 7.1, 37.2, 28.6 μ g/L, respectively. The high concentration of pesticide showed on Endrin (65,84 ppb), pp-DDT (29,53 μ g/L), and heptachlor (25,45 μ g/L). The low concentrations were detected on aldrin (bellow detected) and endosulfan (0,92 μ g/L). The concentration of organochlorine pesticides in these areas might contribute on four rivers which deposited the sediment in these coastal waters

  3. Níveis de resíduos de praguicidas organoclorados em produtos cárneos sob inspeção federal Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat products inspected by the federal government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pessoa de Paula Carvalho

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de evidenciar a freqüência e os níveis de resíduos de praguiddas organoclorados, foram analisadas 445 unidades amostrais de matéria prima (gordura bovina provenientes de carcaças de bovinos de frigoríficos e 132 unidades amostrais de carne bovina já processada (enlatados, tais como "corned beef" e "roast beef". Apresentaram-se com resíduos de praguicidas acima dos limites de tolerância estipulados, 77 unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 5 de produto processado. Resíduos de praguiddas, sem contudo ultrapassar os limites de tolerância, foram identificados em, praticamente, todas as amostras, sendo que 27% das unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 10,6% de produto processado apresentaram resíduos de praguicidas em violação aos limites estabelecidos na legislação. Heptacloro, BHC e Dieldrin foram os praguiddas mais freqüentes e Lindane e DDT os menos evidenciados.To bring attention to the frequency and the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat, 445 samples of raw material (bovine fat from bovine carcasses collected from meat packing plants and 132 samples of preserved meat (canned, such as corned or roast beef were analyzed. Seventy-seven samples of bovine fat and 8 of preserved meat were discovered to have pesticide residue above the maximum acceptable limits. Pesticide residue was found in practically all the samples without, however, exceeding the acceptable limits. Twenty-seven percent of the bovine fat samples and 10.6% of the preserved meat contained residue above the legal tolerance levels. Heptachlor, BHC, and Dieldrin were the most frequent; Lindane and DDT, the least.

  4. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  6. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in conifer needles in the southeast Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruiqiang; Yao Tandong; Xu Baiqing; Jiang Guibin; Zheng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine conifer needles in mountain-valley areas from the southeastern Tibet were collected with altitude span from 1520 to 4340 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Concentrations of OCPs in samples ranged from 0.69 to 4.3 ng/g, from 0.39 to 4.9 ng/g and from 1.9 to 20.5 ng/g (dry weight) for HCB, total HCHs and DDTs, respectively. The levels of DDTs found here were noticeably higher than those from other high mountainous regions. Composition of HCH isomers and DDTs was analyzed, and it was found that the high ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT might be caused by the application of dicofol in adjacent regions. A number of environmental factors controlling the distribution of OCPs in regional scale were also discussed in this paper. - Conifer needles in southeastern Tibet indicate several organochlorine pesticides are transported from the Indian continent by the southern Asian monsoon

  7. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dibenzodioxin, and furan concentrations in common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) in Akwesasne, Mohawk Territory, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Bishop, C A; Lickers, H; Jock, K

    2001-04-01

    Subsamples of eight clutches of common snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) were collected from four sites from the territory of the Mohawk Nation, Akwesasne, on the shore of the St. Lawrence River. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins, and furans. The sites were 2 to 13 km downstream from PCB-contaminated landfill sites. Maximum concentrations of total PCBs in snapping turtle clutches were extremely high, and ranged from 2 378.2 ng/g to 737 683 ng/g (wet weight) and are among the highest recorded in any tissue of a free-ranging animal. Similarly, in a pooled sample of eggs from all four sites, the summed concentrations of non-ortho PCBs (n = 6 congeners) was also very high at 54.54 ng/g and the summed dioxin and furan concentrations (n = 11 congeners) was 85.8 ng/g. Sum organochlorine pesticide levels varied from 28 to 2,264 ng/g among the four sites. The levels of PCBs found in turtle eggs exceed concentrations associated with developmental problems and reduced hatching success in snapping turtles and other species and also exceed the Canadian tissue residue guidelines for toxic equivalency concentrations. The extremely high levels of organochlorine contaminants demonstrate the high degree of contamination in the environment in the Akwesasne area.

  9. Phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides by aquatic macrophytes and algae in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ghazala; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Iqbal, Shakir; Yasar, Abdullah; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Mahfooz, Yusra; Baqar, Mujtaba

    2017-10-03

    Extensive use of Pesticides in agriculture and its surface runoff in river water is a major environmental concern. The present study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes, Pistia strateotes and algae (Chaetomorpha sutoria, Sirogonium sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. Water and plant samples were extracted by liquid phase and solid phase extraction respectively and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven treatments (T1-T11) with and without plants were used for phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. During the experiment, P. strateotes, E. crassipes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) showed the highest removal efficiency with 62 (71% root, 29% shoot), 60 (67% root, 33% shoot), and 58% respectively for organochlorine and 76 (76% root, 24% shoot), 68 (69% root, 31% shoot), and 70% respectively for pyrethroids for the respective aquatic plants. Dissipation rate constant of treatments with plants (T2, T3, T5, T6, T8, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of treatments without plants (T10 and T11, control) for both organochlorine and pyrethroid. The bioconcentration factor of pyrethroid treatments (T3, T6, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of organochlorine treatments (T2, T5 and T8). The removal efficiency of E. crassipes, P. strateotes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for pyrethroids was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to that of organochlorine.

  10. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  11. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  12. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF THE KILIYA DELTA OF THE DANUBE (2003–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Sytnik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCP in organs and tissues of benthivorous and predatory fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube (Eastern mouth and their comparison with previous years. Methodology. The analysis of the samples of aquatic organisms for the content of residual organochlorine pesticides was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLH based on a unified methodology. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on the gas chromatograph "Color 5" with electron capture detector at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Findings. The effect of stable organochlorine pesticides on aquatic organisms is characterized by marked persistence in the environment and by high ability for migration and accumulation on different levels of food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The continuous presence of OCP in all investigated organs and tissues of selected species with the presence of a certain amount of fat and consequently, the fixation of residual organochlorine pesticides. Among benthivorous fishes, the content of OCP in organs and tissues (total is as follows: vimba → roach → wild carp → bream → gibel carp. Among the predators: asp → perch → European catfish → pikeperch. Originality. Recently, a significant number of scientists all around the world returns to the problem of the accumulation and distribution (redistribution of OCP in the components of aquatic ecosystems. This is associated with certain threats to the environment and human health, that could lead to negative consequences as a result of the consumption of fish as the highest trophic level in fresh waters of Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained data indicate that the major commercial fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube river contains residual quantities of pesticides. This indicates to the need for continuous hygienic and toxicological monitoring of fish caught

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a one-off global survey of bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    During the Danish Galathea 3 expedition, bivalve samples were collected at the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Chile, US Virgin Islands, Boston, Newfoundland and Shetland Islands and analysed for organochlorines and PAHs. Concentration...... in terms of PCB and PAH levels, while other Greenland samples came closest to representing PAH background levels. Several locations had undetectable organochlorine levels, including Hobart and Chile, which had the lowest Sigma PAH concentrations (group the stations...

  14. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  15. Tracking residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green, herbal, and black tea leaves and infusions of commercially available tea products marketed in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Zalesak, Michal; Pohoryło, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The content of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in green, herbal, and black tea leaves as well as in their infusions prepared from tea products marketed in the main supermarkets in Poland. It was found that the detected mean levels of organochlorine residues in tea leaves ranged from tea occurred in the highest concentrations. Among dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites the highest level of p,p'DDT (1.96 ng g -1 dw) was in green tea samples. The transfer of OCPs from tea leaves to brew was investigated. The present study revealed that during the infusion process, a significant percentage of the residues, particularly pesticides with high water solubility, were transferred to the infusions. The obtained results show that the percentage transfer of each pesticides from tea to the tea infusions ranged from 6.74% (heptachlor) to 86.6% (endrin). The detected residues were below current MRLs for these pesticides.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry; Bidleman, Terry F; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador

    2006-04-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide contamination of ground water in the city of Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gangesh; Kumar, Anoop; Bhanti, Mayank; Joseph, P E; Taneja, Ajay

    2006-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants used widely throughout the world. Due to the extensive use in agriculture, organic environmental contaminants such as HCH, DDT along with other organochlorine pesticides are distributed globally by transport through air and water. The main aim of present study is to determine contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides in the ground water of Hyderabad City. Water samples were collected from 28 domestic well supplies of the city. For this study, random sampling technique was applied, all the samples were collected in high purity glass bottles and refrigerated at 4 degrees C until analysis. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is used for the extraction of organochlorine pesticide residues in water sample. The collected water samples were pre-filtered through a 0.45 microg glass fiber filter (Wattman GF/F) to remove particulate matter and were acidified with hydrochloric acid (6N) to pH 2.5. Methanol modifier (BDH, for pesticide residue analysis, 10 mL) was added to water sample for better extraction. SPE using pre-packed reversed phase octadecyl (C-18 bonded silica) contained in cartridges was used for sample preparation. Prior to the extraction, the C-18 bonded phase, which contains 500 mg of bonded phase, was washed with 20 mL methanol. The sample was mixed well and allowed to percolate through the cartridges with flow rate of 10-15 mL/min under vacuum. After sample extraction, suction continued for 15 min to dry the packing material and pesticides trapped in the C-18 bonded phases were eluted by passing 10 mL hexane and fraction was evaporated in a gentle steam of Nitrogen. In all samples pesticide residues were analyzed by GC (Chemito-8510) with Ni63 ECD detector. Helium was used as carrier gas and nitrogen was used as make up gas. The injection technique was split/split less. All the samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with four pesticides i.e. DDT, beta-Endosulfan, alpha

  18. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    determined in water and sediment samples of freshwater systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa that ... The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water and sediments ...... Test Methods For Evaluating Solid Waste (3rd edn.) ...

  19. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, B.; Crespo, Jorge; Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Olea-Serrano, M.F.; Olea, N.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue and blood of 200 women living in Southern Spain. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, methoxychlor, endosulfans, and DDT and its metabolites were identified. Detectable concentrations of p,p'-DDE were found in 100% of adipose tissue and serum samples. Among the remaining DDTs, p,p'-DDT was the most common, being detected in 39% of adipose tissue and 76.5% of serum samples, followed by endosulfans I and II, which also were found in both adipose tissue and serum samples but at lower concentrations. Endosulfans were followed in frequency by lindane, aldrin, and dieldrin. Endrin and methoxychlor were present at a much lower frequency compared to those of the other organochlorines. Serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE o,p'-DDD, and endosulfan -I, -sulfate, -lactone, and -diol were significantly correlated with their adipose tissue concentrations. No significant relationships were found between the serum and adipose tissue concentrations of the remaining nine compounds determined, raising doubts about the equivalent use of fat/serum samples for the exposure assessment of some pesticides in epidemiological studies. The results suggested that women of reproductive age in Southern Spain have been and are currently exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Because many of these chemicals can mobilize during pregnancy and lactation, further research is warranted to interpret the health consequences for the children of such exposure

  20. Concentrações sangüíneas de metais pesados e praguicidas organoclorados em crianças de 1 a 10 anos Heavy metal and organochlorine pesticide blood levels in children aged between 1 and 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Santos Filho

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo em 6 bairros do Município de Cubatão, SP, Brasil, situados às margens dos principais rios do município, com uma amostragem de 251 crianças de 1 a 10 anos de idade. Foram verificadas as concentrações sangüíneas de praguicidas organoclorados em 242 crianças, sendo que 73 crianças (30% apresentaram concentrações de p-p'DDE (média = 0,85 ± 2,13 µg/l., e em 47 crianças (19% foi encontrado HCH total (média = 0,28 ± 0,79 µg/l.. Verificou-se também a concentração sangüínea de chumbo e mercúrio, sendo que se obteve a plumbemia média de 17,8 ± 5,8 µg/dl. e concentração média de mercúrio de 9,1 ± 6,4 µg/l. Crianças consumidoras de organismos aquáticos de origem exclusiva dos rios de Cubatão apresentaram teores médios de mercúrio (média = 14,7 ±7,1 µg/l. significativamente maiores (p A study of a sample of 251 children aged between 1 and 10 was carried out in 6 districts of Cubatão county, S. Paulo State, Brazil. This study showed the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the blood serum of 242 children, p-p' DDE was detected in 73 of the samples (30% and HCH in 47 them (19%. The mean value of p-p' DDE was 0.85 ± 2.13 µg/l. and that of HCH was 0.28 ± 0.79 µg/l. Lead and mercury were also detected in the blood serum. The mean value for lead was 17.8 ± 5.8 µg/l. and for mercury was 9.1 ± 0.79 µg/l. The levels found in consumers of aquatic organisms taken from the rivers of Cubatão showed a mean mercury level (mean = 14.7 ± 7.1 µg/l. higher than (p < 0.04 that of those who did not consume any aquatic organisms at all (mean = 10.0 ± 6.5 µg/l..

  1. Organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of the mountain Andean Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghini, Francesca; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Barra, Ricardo; Garcia, Carlos J. Torres; Focardi, Silvano

    2005-01-01

    Semi-volatile organochlorine compounds (OC) were analyzed in remote Andean soils and lake sediments. The sampling sites covered a wide latitudinal gradient from 18 deg. S to 46 deg. S along Chile and an altitudinal gradient (10-4500 m). The concentrations were in the order of background levels, involving absence of major pollution sources in the high mountain areas. Significant correlations were found between log-transformed concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in soils and total organic content (TOC). In addition, TOC-normalized concentrations of the most volatile OC showed a significant linear dependence with air temperature. This good agreement points to temperature as a significant factor for the retention of long range transported OC in remote ecosystems such as the Andean mountains, although other variables should not be totally excluded. The highest concentrations of OCs were achieved in the sites located at highest altitude and lowest temperature of the dataset. - Distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds in the Andean Mountain lakes is influenced by temperature

  2. Levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fishes from the Pearl River estuary and Daya Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingli; Qiu Yaowen; Zhang Gan; Zheng, Gene J.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Fifty fish samples were collected from the Pearl River estuary (PRE) and Daya Bay, South China and were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Except the high concentrations of DDT observed in fishes, the concentrations of HCHs, chlordanes and PBDEs were low when compared to other regions. BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener and the BDE-209 concentrations were relatively low, despite its high concentration in surface sediments. The absence of significant increase of DDT, HCH, chlordane and PBDE concentrations towards higher δ 15 N values, as well as the lack of a significant correlation (p 15 N, may indicate a weak biomagnification of these chemicals in the food webs. Good agreement was observed between their concentrations and lipid contents of the organisms. Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms in the studied subtropical waters. - Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms of subtropical waters

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  5. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. M. Mahugija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health.

  6. Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistara Randhawa

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Organochlorine contamination has significant associations with health outcomes in California sea lions, raising concerns for humans and other animals eating tainted seafood. While environmental exposure to these organochlorines appears to be decreasing over time based on levels in sea lion tissues, their persistence in the environment and food web for all predators, including humans, and the associated serious health risks, warrant monitoring, possibly through sentinel species like marine mammals.

  7. Natural Organochlorines as Precursors of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters in Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Saparin, Norliza; Teh, Huey Fang; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Md Zain, Mohd Zairey Bin; Neoh, Bee Keat; Md Noor, Ahmadilfitri; Tan, Chin Ping; Lai, Oi Ming; Appleton, David Ross

    2018-01-31

    During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chlorine source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut, and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. Analysis of thermal decomposition and changes during refining suggested that these naturally present organochlorine compounds in palm oils and perhaps in other vegetable oils are precursors of 3-MCPD esters. Enrichment and dose-response showed a linear relationship to 3-MCPD ester formation and indicated that the sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are the most active precursors of 3-MCPD esters.

  8. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  9. High level white noise generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Blalock, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application

  10. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  11. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  12. Grau de exposição a praguicidas organoclorados em moradores de aterro a céu aberto Levels of exposure to organochlorine pesticides in open-air dump dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Santos Filho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o grau de exposição interna aos praguicidas organoclorados (POP dos moradores de um atêrro a céu aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de aferição simultânea e controlado, cujo fator de estudo foi residir em área contaminada por POP e o efeito foi a concentração sanguínea dessas substâncias. A população de estudo foi de 238 pessoas residentes em um aterro a céu aberto (Pilões, no município de Cubatão, SP; e a população de controle ficou dimensionada em 258 pessoas, também residentes no mesmo município (Cota 200. Foram analisados os praguicidas HCB, p-p'DDT, p-p'DDE, p-p'DDD, o-p'DDT, a HCH; b HCH; g HCH; Aldrin; Dieldrin; Endrin; Heptaclor; Heptaclor-epoxi e Mirex. RESULTADOS: Os teores médios sangüíneos de HCB em Pilões foram de 4,66 µg/L, 155 vezes maior que a média na Cota 200 (0,03 µg/L. Em Pilões, os teores médios de DDT total foram de 3,71 µg/L, duas vezes maior do que na Cota 200 (1,85 µg/L e o HCH total apresentou concentrações sangüíneas seis vezes maiores em Pilões, 0,84 µg/L, contra 0,13 µg/L. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se associação positiva entre residir em Pilões e apresentar teores sangüíneos de POP, com risco muitas vezes maior quando comparado a localidades sem a presença desses contaminantes.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the degree of internal exposure to organochlorine pesticides (persistent organic pollutants, POP among inhabitants of an open-air dump. METHODS: This was an observational study with simultaneous measurement and control, in which the criterion for subjects was that they dwelled in an area contaminated by POP and the effect of such contamination was the concentration of such substances into the blood. The study population consisted of 238 people living on an open-air dump in Pilões, in the municipality of Cubatão, SP, Brazil, and the control population was formed by 258 people, also resident in that municipality, in the Cota 200 district. The following

  13. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  14. Marine mammal health: Organochlorines in blubber, blood and milk of Tursiops truncatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.L.; Ridgway, S.H. [NCCOSC, San Diego, CA (United States). RDTE Division

    1995-12-31

    Marine mammals are potentially vulnerable organisms for the effects of hazardous man-made chemicals. Organochlorines (OCs) are suspected of causing reproductive failure and immunosuppression which may result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease. High levels of OCs have been found in victims of mass die offs of cetaceans world-wide. To determine baseline values of these organochlorine contaminants found in healthy reproductive dolphins, the authors collected samples of blood, blubber and milk from a population of Tursiops truncatus maintained by the US Navy. These animals are ideal for study because of the availability of relevant biological data which is often lacking in data from wild animals. The Navy dolphins are trained for medical behaviors like blood and milk collection. These behaviors allow them to collect data under controlled conditions preempting errors that occur when collecting similar data on dead and/or wild animals. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) the authors have quantified 10 to 25 PCBs using congener-specific analysis and 19 chlorinated pesticides from microsamples of blubber, blood and milk collected from these animals. The authors also analyzed the fish in the diets of the dolphins. Serial sample collection of milk has allowed us to track the transfer of OCs over the course of lactation. They were also able to correlate OC levels found in blubber, blood and milk. This database should reveal baseline levels relating environmental toxins and marine mammal health to provide a potentially sensitive indicator of pollution and disease in the natural ocean environment and furnish an unparalleled historical pathway toward understanding the effects and consequences of these persistent contaminants and their impact on the marine ecosystem.

  15. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues were measured in the water, sediment, plankton, benthic invertebrates and fish in various sections of the Lagos Lagoon in 2014 to investigate their bioaccumulation and distribution in the food web. The analysis was done using gas chromatography with an electron capture ...

  16. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Assessment and review of organochlorine pesticide pollution in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichuev, Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich; Zhilova, Liudmila Victorovna; Makambaeva, Gulsanam Bakhtiyarovna; Payzildaev, Timur Rashidinovich; Pronk, Wouter; Bouwknegt, Matthijs; Weber, Roland

    2017-09-06

    The current study describes the preliminary assessment and securing activities of the largest and most hazardous POPs-contaminated sites in Kyrgyzstan. In 2010, cattle died and population were found with high pesticide levels in blood, human milk, and placenta. In the first phase of the study, a historic assessment of the pesticide dumping at the landfill/dump sites have been conducted. In the second phase, soil analysis for organochlorine pesticides in the areas of the pesticide disposal sites, the former pesticides storehouses, agro-air strips, and the cotton-growing fields were conducted. By this assessment, a first overview of the types and sources of pollution and of the scale of the problem is compiled including information gaps. From major pesticides used, DDT, DDE, and HCH were measured in the highest concentrations. With the limited analytical capacity present, a reasonable risk assessment could be performed. This paper also reports on practical risk reduction measures that have been carried out recently at the two major pesticide disposal sites with support of a Dutch environmental engineering company, an international NGO (Green Cross Switzerland) and local authorities from the Suzak region within an UN project. Local population living near the sites of the former pesticide storehouses and agro-airstrips are advised not to cultivate vegetables and melons or to raise cattle on these areas. Instead, it is recommended to grow technical crops or plant trees. Further recommendations on monitoring and assessment is given including the suggestion to consider the findings in the National Implementation Plan of Kyrgyzstan.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  19. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  20. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waliszewski Stefan M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  2. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Abu-Elamayem, M.M.; El-Sebae, A.B.; Sharaf, I.P.

    1981-01-01

    Lake Mariut, a brackish water lake adjoining the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt, has suffered much from intensive pollution in recent years due to the successive increase of human population and industry around it (Saad, 1980). The occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the water of Lake Mariut during a period of one year were studied. This study represents an essential part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The major organochlorine pesticides detected in the water of Lake Mariut were Lindane, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT. The mean concentrations of these pesticides were 2.091, 4.493, 0.009 and 0.134 ppb, respectively. The mean concentration of the calculated total DDT (Σ DDT) was 5.1 PPb

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993).

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bringas, Laura M.; Ponce-Velez, Guadalupe; Botello, Alfonso V.; Calva B, Laura G.; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaias Hazamamberth; Diaz Gonzalez, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher than 10 years. Sediments were studied in November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July 2002, from the lacustric zone of Metzitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine possible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. The p,p'-DDD and δ-HCH were detected in the tilapias tissue. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the international limits for freshwater benthic fauna, although lindane, γ-HCH, was near the limit. The fish was above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993). (author)

  5. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  6. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pcontamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  7. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  8. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  9. Characterization of population exposure to organochlorines: A cluster analysis application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Guimarães (Raphael Mendonça); S. Asmus (Sven); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to show the results from a cluster analysis application in the characterization of population exposure to organochlorines through variables related to time and exposure dose. Characteristics of 354 subjects in a population exposed to organochlorine pesticides residues

  10. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  11. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-02-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded.

  12. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded

  13. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic have shown high concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, and organochlorines in the blood and fatty tissue of the Inuit. This is attributed in particular to their high consumption of the meat and blubber of marine mammals. In the present...... systems but the high concentrations of pollutants have so far not been shown to influence health in Greenland....

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern Baltic, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J

    1986-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC, HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (Clupea harengus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for herring muscle tissue related to wet weight (microgram/kg) were: 14 HCB, 18 alpha-BHC, 23 beta-BHC, 14 gamma-BHC, delta-BHC remained undetected, 56 sigma BHC, 115 p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT remained undetected, 84 p,p'-DDD, 51 p,p'-DDT, 250 sigma DDT and 530 PCB. The levels of organochlorine pesticides determined in wet muscles or extractable lipids of herring are nearly 2-3 times as high as those noted in fish sampled in the same area in two years before, while for PCBs the wet weight levels were comparable, and when based on a lipid weight are somewhat higher. The results are compared with levels found in herring collected in different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1965-1983, and reported previously by other authors.

  15. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity Mexico.

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels.

  17. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  18. The Inuit diet. Fatty acids and antioxidants, their role in ischemic heart disease, and exposure to organochlorines and heavy metals. An international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Hansen, J C

    1996-01-01

    have analysed specimens in relation to ischemic heart disease as a benefit related to diet, as well as the level of heavy metals and organochlorine in organs as a risk related to diet. High amounts of mono-unsaturated and Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid were found in adipose tissue. Liver analyses...... of selenium have confirmed the expected high intake among Greenlanders. Reduced atherosclerotic lesions were found in the coronary arteries. Blood pressure levels calculated from renovascholopathia of hypertension indicate prevailing levels similar to those in industrialized countries. Some factors...... in Greenland may be protecting the coronary arteries, thereby of setting the expected effect of hypertension. The level of methyl mercury in organs is generally high. PCB concentrations found in organs of Greenlanders are higher than among other populations. Health and risk effects of the traditional foods...

  19. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  20. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries.

  1. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  2. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  3. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  4. Organochlorine contaminants in seven species of Arctic seabirds from northern Baffin Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Norstrom, Ross J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Karnovsky, Nina J.; Duffe, Jason; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined in liver and fat of seven species of seabirds (Alle alle, Uria lomvia, Cepphus grylle, Rissa tridactyla, Pagophila eburnea, Larus hyperboreus, and Fulmaris glacialis) collected in May/June 1998 from the Northwater Polynya in northern Baffin Bay. OC concentrations ranged over an order of magnitude between seabird species and OC groups, with PCBs having the highest concentrations followed by DDT, chlordane, HCH and ClBz. Positive relationships between δ 15 N (estimator of trophic level) and OC concentrations (lipid basis) were found for all OC groups, showing that trophic position and biomagnification significantly influence OC concentrations in Arctic seabirds. Concentrations of a number of OCs in particular species (e.g., HCH in P. eburnean) were lower than expected based on δ 15 N and was attributed to biotransformation. P. eburnea and F. glacialis, which scavenge, and R. tridactyla, which migrate from the south, were consistently above the δ 15 N-OC regression providing evidence that these variables can elevate OC concentrations. Stable isotope measurements in muscle may not be suitable for identifying past scavenging events by seabirds. OC relative proportions were related to trophic position and phylogeny, showing that OC biotransformation varies between seabird groups. Trophic level, migration, scavenging and biotransformation all play important roles in the OCs found in Arctic seabirds. - Concentrations of organochlorides in high Arctic seabirds are influenced by trophic level, migration, scavenging and biotransformation

  5. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk and placenta are higher in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, H.; Main, K.M.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    , oxychlordane (OXC), cis-heptachloroepoxide (c-HE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were the other main organochlorines detected. Danish samples had significantly higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, HCB, dieldrin, c-HE and OXC than did the Finnish samples. Levels...

  6. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  7. Investigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in samples of 40 nursing mothers residing in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides are a group of persistant compounds which have been used for a long time. Due to their stability, some of them such as DDT, BHC and their derivatives are still used in the areas with malaria epidemic condition, hence the chance of food contamination always exists. The present survey demonstrated that human milk is one of the best indicator substances in monitoring the environment and human body contamination by organochlorine compounds. We studied the level of residues in the milk of nursing mothers who could be exposed to these compounds through food chain in their contaminated environment. In this investigation, we collected 40 samples from the nursing mothers of two hospitals located in the north and south of Tehran. Detection was carried out by Gas chromatography (GC with 3% OV17 column and Ni63 ECD (Electron Capture Detector. Reference substances were obtained from WHO. Results are discussed in the text.

  8. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  9. CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oana Docea

    Full Text Available The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases. Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Cytochrome P450, Genetic polymorphisms, Pathogenesis, Environmental pollutants

  10. Geochemical distribution of trace metals and organochlorine contaminants of a lake ontario shoreline marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glooschenko, W A; Capocianco, J; Coburn, J; Glooschenko, V

    1981-02-01

    Rattray Marsh, an 8 ha marsh on the Lake Ontario shoreline at Mississauga, Ontario, is an important local habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds during spring and fall migration. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and potential trace metal and organochlorine pollutants in the marsh as evidenced by the sedimentary concentrations of these compounds. Generally, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury were higher in concentration in local soils than in Lake Ontario sediments. Metals and organic carbon levels did not correlate, and the metals appeared to be associated with silts and clays. Organochlorine contaminants include p,p1-DDE, p,p1-DDD, p,p1-DDT, alpha-chlordane, PCB, mirex, and HCB.

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  12. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  13. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  14. Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.K.J.; Anand, M.; Mehrotra, P.K.; Sarangi, R.; Mathur, N.

    2005-01-01

    Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Organochlorines are considered to be a possible cause for hormone-dependent cancers. A hospital-based case-control study, the first from India, was conducted among 50 women undergoing surgery for breast disease to examine the association between organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk. Blood, tumor, and surrounding adipose tissue of the breast were collected from the subjects with benign (control) and malignant breast (study) lesions and analyzed to determine organochlorine insecticides using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The α, β, γ, and δ isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p'-DDT, p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were frequently detected in three specimens. Total HCH and total DDT levels were higher in the blood of the study group (25 cases) than in those of the controls (25 cases) with only γ-HCH being significantly different (P0.05). However, both total HCH and total DDT were higher in the tumor tissues of the controls than in those of the study group; γ-HCH was significantly different (P0.05). The level of total HCH (α-HCH was significantly different, P0.05) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the study group, whereas total DDT was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the control group. The distribution of known confounders of breast cancer including age, body mass index, age at menarche and menopause, duration of breast feeding, and family history related to breast disease did not differ significantly between benign and malignant groups. This pilot study with limited statistical power does not support a positive association between exposure to organochlorines and risk of breast cancer but paves the way for a larger Indian study with greater statistical power encompassing different regions of the country to enable

  15. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alzaga, B.; Lacasaña, M.; Hernández, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polych...... are no longer used. Their presence in children serum can be explained by their high lipophilicity and environmental persistence, leading to contamination of fatty food. In this line, fish consumption seemed to be the most relevant determinant of OC levels found in our study....... and polychlorinated biphenyls -PCBs-) in children living in agricultural communities from Almería (South-Eastern Spain), and to identify the main predictors of exposure related to socio-economic characteristics, diet and lifestyle. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 children aged 6-11 years...... selected from public schools of the study area. OCs compounds were determined in serum samples by GC/ECD. Anthropometric measures were obtained during sample collection. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, parental occupation, residential history, lifestyle and frequency of food consumption...

  16. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  17. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  18. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  19. Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Ravindran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

  20. High spin levels in 151Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszinski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-02-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of 151 Ho. High spin levels in 151 Ho have been populated in the 141 Pr + 16 O and 144 Sm + 12 C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and particles determined up to 49/2 - . Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units

  1. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  2. Pollutants in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). I. Organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald, K; Frank, R J; Dougan, J L; Frank, R; Braun, H E

    1984-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, 248 harp seals were sampled from 5 locations in the Northwest Atlantic and Arctic for organochlorine (OC) residue analysis in tissue. Blood, kidney, brain, muscle and blubber samples were analysed for PCB, DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide. Levels were generally greatest in blubber tissue. Overall, mean levels of DDT and PCB were greater than those of other OC. A barrier prevented OC compounds from accumulating in the brain to the level one might expect in lipid tissues. Positive correlations were found between 1: DDT and PCB, 2: DDT and dieldrin, and 3: PCB and deildrin. Male harp seals bioaccumulated DDT, PCB, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin with age. As a group, adult males sampled in the Gulf of St. Lawrence carried the highest concentrations of all OC, except that chlordane did not appear to bioaccumulate and levels of hexachlorobenzene were minimal. Females generally ceased exhibiting significant bioaccumulation once breeding age was reached, due to transplacental and transmammary residue transfer of OC from mother to pup. There were some significant differences in OC levels between locations with DDT: Gulf greater than Front; PCB: Gulf greater than Front; dieldrin: Gulf greater than Front; heptachlor epoxide: Front greater than Gulf. No significant differences were found, however, when northern locations (Grise Fiord, Northwest Greenland, Pangnirtung) were compared to southern (Gulf, Front) on a group basis.

  3. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  4. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  5. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  6. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  7. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  8. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  9. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  10. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  11. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  12. Organochlorine compounds: Progress and results to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.P.; Marchand, M.; Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.; Duursma, E.K.; Vas, D.; Parsi, P.

    1976-01-01

    Following preparation of reference materials 1 through 4 (1. Oyster homogenate (MA-M-1), 2. Sea Plant homogenate (SP-M-1), 3. Sediment (SD-M-1), 4. XAD-2 resin (AB-M-1)), homogeneity tests were conducted at the Monaco Laboratory by analyzing sample sizes that would yield sufficient amounts of organochlorine compounds for quantitation. In the case of the oyster sample, 10 samples weighing 10 grams each showed acceptable homogeneity for all compounds determined, i.e. a standard deviation of ≈ ± 20% from the mean value obtained. The highest standard deviation was observed for pp'DDE (23%) while the lowest standard deviation was recorded for pp'DDT (2.8%)

  13. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  14. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  15. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  16. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  17. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  18. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  19. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S; Engel, Lawrence S; White, Alexandra J; Eng, Sybil M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence, and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides [p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE, and chlordane] assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n = 633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR = 1.42; 95% CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals. © 2015 UICC.

  20. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  2. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region.

  4. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  5. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  6. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  7. Assessment of herbicides and organochlorine pesticides contamination in agricultural soils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Hong; Wang, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2008-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for the simultaneous analysis of 3 herbicides and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils has been developed, using ultrasonic solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recoveries ranged from 81% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D) lower than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.03 to 1.06 microg x kg(-1) dry weight for different pesticides studied. The proposed method has been applied to investigate the 11 pesticide residues in agricultural soils collected from Liaoning Province, northeast of China. 3 OCPs and 3 herbicides were identified. Acetochlor, atrazine, butachtor were measured in the relatively high level with values ranging from 0.53 to 203.18 microg x kg(-1), 0.14 to 21.20 microg x kg(-1), pesticides in this study was compared with the date of other countries reported and the corresponding limiting values used in Netherland, USA, Canada, Vietnam and Thailand. Among the herbicide residues, there was a significant relativity between soil utilizing types and their residue concentration. It seems that the monitoring action for soil contamination caused by commonly-used herbicides should be enhanced according to soil utilizing types, especially acetochlor in maize field.

  8. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, Celeste Matos; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-01-01

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants (α-, β-, and γ-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 μg/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 μg/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 μg/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For Σ-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in Σ-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America

  9. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  10. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  11. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  12. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  13. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  14. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  15. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  16. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  17. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  18. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  19. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  20. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  1. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  2. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) of market size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers.

  4. Phytoremediation of organochlorine pesticides: Concept, method, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanvi; Singh, Dileep K

    2017-09-02

    Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants. Processes known to be involved in phytoremediation of OCPs include phytoaccumulation, rhizoremediation, and phytotransformation. Vegetation has been accounted to considerably amplify OCP elimination from soil, in contrast to non-planted soil, attributable to both, uptake within plant tissues and high microbial degradation of OCP within the root zone. Developing transgenic plants is a promising approach to enhance phytoremediation capabilities. Recent advances in the application of phytoremediation technique for OCPs, including uptake by plants and plant-microbe association in the rhizosphere for the enhanced degradation and mineralization of these pollutants, is presented in this review. Additionally, some attempts to improve this technique using transgenesis and role of certain enzymes are also discussed.

  5. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  6. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  7. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  8. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Gardner, Susan C; Urbán R, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports unique data on concentrations of several classes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in blubber biopsies from healthy living fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico, one of the most isolated and unstudied population in the world. OC levels in this population were generally lower than levels reported in fin whales from other regions. The rank order of OCs were SigmaDDTs (range from 300 to 2400 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaPCBs (range from 40 to 290 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaHCHs (range from or = SigmaCHLORs (from pesticide measured was the DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were the most abundant PCBs congeners found in the fin whales samples. Males had significant higher concentrations of SigmaOC, SigmaDDTs and SigmaPCBs than females (P < 0.05), although the p,p'-DDE/SigmaDDTs ratios were similar between the sexes. Although the OC concentrations found in this population were generally below the levels that would be expected to cause deleterious health effects, the maximum values observed (2700 ng g(-1) lw) in some animals were higher than those associated with reproductive effects in whales. Given the small population size and highly isolated characteristics of Gulf of California fin whales, health effects in individuals could readily translate into population-level effects. Future research on this topic will be necessary to better understand the role that these compounds may have on the health of this population.

  10. Determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in pet cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Arslan, Handan Hilal; Esin, Cagatay; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g -1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g -1 lw to 6.79 ng g -1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g -1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. β-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.

  11. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Most of the concentrations were above the maximum residue limits ... (accuracy), precision tests and detection limits. ... times higher than the noise level. ..... Exposure to highly hazardous pesticides: A major public health concern, WHO ...

  12. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in a northeastern state of India, Manipur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi; Shihua Qi; Paromita Chakraborty; Gan Zhang; Ishwar Chandra Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed over a year during January to December, 2009 at three locations, i.e., Imphal (urban site), Thoubal (rural site) and Waithou (alpine site) of Manipur, to assess the seasonal local atrnospheric emission of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs).The average concentration of HCHs monitored at mountain site during hot season (Mar, Apr, and May) and rainy seasons (Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) were 403 and 349 pg/m3, respectively.DDTs had a high concentration with 384 pg/m3 at rural site and 379 pg/m3 at urban site during hot seasons.Endosulfans and chlordane were found high in concentration during hot seasons (260 pg/m3) and low during retreating monsoon seasons (44 pg/m3) at rural site.Most of the OCPs concentrations were high during cultivation period.The OCP concentrations of rainy season were highly correlated (p < 0.01) with OCPs of hot seasons.Further, positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also obtained between cold seasons and retreating monsoon.Principal component analysis showed a significant correlation among the four seasons and distribution pattern of OCPs in air.Back trajectory analysis by using HYPSLIT model showed a long range air transport of OCPs to the present study area.Present OCP levels at Manipur is an outcome of both local emission and also movement of air mass by long range atmospheric transport.

  13. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  14. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    2001-01-01

    statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals....... Concentrations of PCB adjusted for the consumption of marine food increased until approximately 40 yr of age, which is equivalent to the birth cohorts of the early 1950s. The age pattern indicates that bioaccumulation of PCB started in the 1950s, which is a likely date for the introduction of the compounds...

  15. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  17. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  18. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  19. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  20. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites.

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  2. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  3. Organochlorine pollutants in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups and their impact on plasma thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sørmo, Eugen Gravningen

    2005-01-01

    Studies on laboratory animals suggest that developing and newborn mammals are more vulnerable than the adults with respect to the harmful effects of organochlorine (OC) pollutants such polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and OC pesticides (Brouwer et al. 1995; 1998a; Colborn 2004). These effects include neurobiological and neurochemical effects, reproductive effects, reduced brain and circulatory thyroid hormone levels, impaired immune functions and vitamin A homeostasis (Brouwer et al. 1995; Co...

  4. Nova performance at ultra high fluence levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nova is a ten beam high power Nd:glass laser used for interial confinement fusion research. It was operated in the high power high energy regime following the completion of construction in December 1984. During this period several interesting nonlinear optical phenomena were observed. These phenomena are discussed in the text. 11 refs., 5 figs

  5. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Naser Haji Samoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

  6. An overview of exposure to, and effects of, petroleum oil and organochlorine pollution in Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, BjoernMunro

    1996-01-01

    Most incidences involving oil pollution of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) seem to have occurred at the breeding sites. Because of the high concentration of animals at this time, even small oil spills will pollute many animals. As a result of chronic low-level pollution from coastal ship traffic and discharges from offshore petroleum activity in the North Sea, 50% of the grey seal pups at the largest breeding colony in Norway are polluted each year by oil. This oil pollution, as well as other cases of spills at breeding colonies, shows that oil produced little visible disturbance to the seals' behaviour and there is little mortality. The effects and mortality may, however, be more serious following a spill of crude oil, where animals may be affected by inhalation of toxic volatile compounds. High body burdens of PCBs and DDTs seem to have caused skull-bone lesions and occlusions of the uteri in grey seals in the Baltic Sea. Exposure to these persistent compounds has also been suspected to be the cause of reduction in the population of Baltic grey seals. There are indications that thyroid hormone and vitamin A status of grey seal pups are affected by the low exposure concentrations experienced at the Norwegian coast (1/20 of the concentration detected in grey seal pups from the Baltic Sea). This gives serious cause for concern about the effects that chronic low-level exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants may have on individuals and on populations of grey seals

  7. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  9. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  10. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  11. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Mafumi; Abe, Takao; Nakatsu, Susumu; Kawauchi, Sakio; Sano, Akihiko; Horii, Akira; Kano, Yasumasa; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats

  12. Partition distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in surface water, pore water and surface sediment samples collected from the uMngeni River, which is one of the largest rivers in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the analytes from water and pore water samples and ...

  13. Organochlorine residues in tissues of marine fauna along the coast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings highlight evidence of pollution of marine fauna at the Kenyan coastal sites. It is necessary to have thorough waste management programs as a strategy to minimize marine pollution. KEY WORDS: Environmental samples; Marine samples; Kenya-Mombasa coastline; Marine fauna, Organochlorine, Pesticides.

  14. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista

    Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and

  15. Preliminary Study Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticide (Heptachlor) and Heavy Metal (Arsenic) in Shallow Groundwater Aquifer of Semarang Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochaddi, Baskoro; Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Atmodjo, Warsito; Satriadi, Alfi

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the level of pesticide and heavy metal contamination in shallow aquifer of Semarang coastal areas. Results indicated that Heptachlor and Arsenic were detected in the water samples in the range 0.023-0.055 μg L-1 and 0,03-1,63 μg L-1, respectively. Compared to the standard limits of the organochlorine contents in the water sample by World Health Organization (WHO) limits and Indonesian Drinking and Domestic Water Quality Standard for Ground Water (IWQS), groundwater of Semarang Coastal Areas was contaminated with pesticide and heavy metal. This study has proven the presence of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination of some shallow aquifer supplies in the coastal areas of Semarang.

  16. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    in all three bed-sediment samples, ranged from 1.1 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in C.J. Strike Reservoir to 11 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Data from this study, compared with data collected in the upper Snake River Basin from 1992 to 1994, indicates that, in general, organochlorine concentrations in fish tissue and bed sediment increased from the headwaters of the Snake River in Wyoming downstream to Brownlee Reservoir. The largest trace-element concentrations in fish tissue were in liver samples from carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and suckers from the Boise River near Twin Springs. Concentrations of most trace elements were larger in livers than in the sport- fish fillets. However, mercury concentrations were generally larger in the sportfish fillets; they ranged from 0.08 microgram per gram wet weight in yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 0.32 microgram per gram wet weight in channel catfish from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. None of the trace-element concentrations in fillets exceeded median international standards or U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels. Large trace-element concentrations in the upper Snake River Basin were reported in liver samples from suckers from headwater streams, probably a result of historical mining and weathering of metal-rich rocks. Concentrations of most trace elements in the bed-sediment samples were largest in Brownlee Reservoir at Mountain Man Lodge. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc in bed sediment from the Mountain Man Lodge site exceeded either the threshold effect level or probable effect level established by the Canadian Government for the protection of benthic life. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel concentrations in bed sediment from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and chromium, copper, and nickel in bed sediment from C.J. Strike Reservoir also exceeded the threshold effect level.

  17. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  18. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  19. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.T. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lee, T.K.M. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 353, Yan-an Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310031 (China); Wong, H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, J.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Giesy, J.P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lo, K.K.W. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Lam, P.K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2005-07-15

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China.

  20. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.T.; Lee, T.K.M.; Chen, K.; Wong, H.L.; Zheng, J.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Lo, K.K.W.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  1. Period analysis at high noise level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of some types of the periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data. The equivalence of the Jurkevich and the Warner and Robinson methods is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner and Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form and noise level. The results are illustrated by numerical examples. (orig.)

  2. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg -1 dw) and HCHs (393ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg -1 ) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Organochlorines in the Vaccares Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.f [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vollaire, Y.; Persic, A.; Buet, A. [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Oliveira-Ribeiro, C. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, CEP: 81.531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Coulet, E. [Nature Reserve of Camargue, La Capeliere, F13200 Arles (France); Banas, D.; Ramade, F. [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccares Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas. - The Vaccares Lagoon trophic web biomagnifies organochlorine pollutants.

  4. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  5. High-lying 0+ and 3- levels in 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.S.; Feldman, W.; Suffert, M.; Kurath, D.

    1982-01-01

    The γ decays of the levels at 17.77 and 18.36 MeV in 12 C are studied by proton capture and the assignments of (0 + ,1) and (3 - ,1), respectively, are confirmed. The very great strength of the decay of the (0 + ,1) level to the lower (1 + ,0) level at 12.71 MeV is consistent with a spin- and isospin-flip deuteronlike transition. The strong decay of the (3 - ,1) level to the lower (3 - 0,) level at 9.64 MeV is fairly typical of an analog to antianalog transition. The γ-decay widths of these levels are compared with shell-model calculations

  6. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  7. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Energy levels of highly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the data reviewed here were derived from spectra photographed in the wavelength range from 600 A down to about 20 A (approx. 20 to 600 eV). Measurements with uncertainties less than 0.001 A relative to appropriate standard wavelengths can be made with high-resolution diffraction-grating spectroscopy over most of the vacuum-ultraviolet region. Although this uncertainty corresponds to relative errors of 1 part per million (ppM) at 1000 A and 20 ppM at 50 A, measurements with uncertainties smaller than 0.001 A would generally require more effort at the shorter wavelengths, mainly because of the sparsity of accurate standards. Even where sufficiently numerous and accurate standards are available, the accuracy of measurements of the spectra of very high temperature plasmas is limited by Doppler broadening and, in some cases, other plasma effects. Several sources of error combine to give total estimated errors ranging from 10 to 1000 ppM for the experimental wavelengths of interest here. It will be seen, however, that with the possible exception of a few fine-structure splittings the experimental errors are small compared to the errors of the relevant theoretical calculations

  9. Biochar in Co-Contaminated Soil Manipulates Arsenic Solubility and Microbiological Community Structure, and Promotes Organochlorine Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Samuel J.; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Biggs, Patrick J.; Ganley, Austen R. D.; O’Sullivan, Justin M.; McManus, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of biochar on the water-soluble arsenic (As) concentration and the extent of organochlorine degradation in a co-contaminated historic sheep-dip soil during a 180-d glasshouse incubation experiment. Soil microbial activity, bacterial community and structure diversity were also investigated. Biochar made from willow feedstock (Salix sp) was pyrolysed at 350 or 550°C and added to soil at rates of 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 (representing 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1). The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH (lindane), underwent 10-fold and 4-fold reductions in concentration as a function of biochar treatment. Biochar also resulted in a significant reduction in soil DDT levels (P biochar treatments after 60 days of treatment compared to the control. 16S amplicon sequencing revealed that biochar-amended soil contained more members of the Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Dyadobacter and Pseudomonadaceae which are known bioremediators of hydrocarbons. We hypothesise that a recorded short-term reduction in the soluble As concentration due to biochar amendment allowed native soil microbial communities to overcome As-related stress. We propose that increased microbiological activity (dehydrogenase activity) due to biochar amendment was responsible for enhanced degradation of organochlorines in the soil. Biochar therefore partially overcame the co-contaminant effect of As, allowing for enhanced natural attenuation of organochlorines in soil. PMID:25923541

  10. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  12. Organochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): Role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coat, Sophie, E-mail: coatsophie@gmail.com [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Monti, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.monti@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Legendre, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.legendre@umontreal.ca [Departement de Sciences Biologique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bouchon, Claude, E-mail: claude.bouchon@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Massat, Felix, E-mail: fmassat@ladrome.fr [LDA26, laboratoire Departemental d' Analyses de la Drome, 27 avenue Lautagne, 26000 Valence (France); Lepoint, Gilles, E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be [MARE Centre, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, Bat. B6, 4000 Sart Tilman, Belgique (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to {beta}-HCH. - Highlights: > We measured OC pesticides and stable isotope ratios in a tropical stream. > Results showed a strong and ubiquitous contamination of the entire food web. > Diadromous juveniles strongly accumulated pollutants when they re-enter the river. > The most persistent pollutant (chlordecone) was related to species diet and habitat. > {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. - This paper determines the bioaccumulation and transfer processes of organochlorine pesticides within the stream food web in Guadeloupe (Caribbean).

  13. Specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Japanese common squid as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, D.; Inoue, S.; Ikeda, K.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-01-01

    Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring organochlorines pollution in waters around Japan. - Organochlorines (OCs) representing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs (DDT and its metabolites), CHLs (chlordane compounds), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in the liver of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) collected from the waters around Japan (Japan Sea and western North Pacific Ocean). Among OCs concentrations, PCBs (upto 5600 ng/g lipid wt.) were the highest, and those of other OCs were in the order of DDT> CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Studies on growth trend and seasonal variation of OCs in this species suggest a rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected, regardless of body-length and time of collection. These results indicate that Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring OCs pollution in waters around Japan. With regard to the geographical distribution of OCs in this species collected from waters around Japan, OCs concentrations in specimens from Japan Sea were higher than those from the Pacific Ocean. This result might reflect some existing of local pollution sources of OCs around Japan Sea, and slower water exchange between Japan Sea and open ocean

  14. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  15. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The article is a summary of issues raised during US Congress deliberations on nuclear waste policy legislation. It is suggested that, if history is not to repeat itself, and the current stalemate on nuclear waste is not to continue, a comprehensive policy is needed that addresses the near-term problems of interim storage as part of an explicit and credible program for dealing with the longer term problem of developing a final isolation system. Such a policy must: 1) adequately address the concerns and win the support of all the major interested parties, and 2) adopt a conservative technical and institutional approach - one that places high priority on avoiding the problems that have repeatedly beset the program in the past. It is concluded that a broadly supported comprehensive policy would contain three major elements, each designed to address one of the key questions concerning Federal credibility: commitment in law to the goals of a comprehensive policy; credible institutional mechanisms for meeting goals; and credible measures for addressing the specific concerns of the states and the various publics. Such a policy is described in detail. (Auth.)

  16. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  17. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p 2 = 0.39; p Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

  18. Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides Bioaccumulation by Eichhornia crassipes in Irrigation Canals in an Urban Agricultural System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Borrayo, B M; Cram Heydrich, Silke; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Hernández Quiroz, Manuel; De León Hill, Claudia Ponce

    2015-01-01

    A natural wetland in Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the main suppliers of crops and flowers, and in consequence its canals hold a high concentration of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. There is also an extensive population of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is considered a plague; but literature suggests water hyacinth may be used as a phytoremediator. This study demonstrates bioaccumulation difference for the OC in vivo suggesting their bioaccumulation is ruled by their log K(ow), while all the OP showed bioaccumulation regardless of their log K(ow). The higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of the accumulated OC pesticides cannot be explained by their log K(ow), suggesting that the OC pesticides may also be transported passively into the plant. Translocation ratios showed that water hyacinth is an accumulating plant with phytoremediation potential for all organophosphorus pesticides studied and some organochlorine pesticides. An equation for free water surface wetlands with floating macrophytes, commonly used for the construction of water-cleaning wetlands, showed removal of the pesticides by the wetland with room for improvement with appropriate management.

  19. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waliszewski, S.M. (Univ. of Veracruz, (Mexico)); Szymczynski, G.A. (Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    1991-06-01

    Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  1. Organochlorine insecticide poisoning in Golden Langurs Trachypithecus geei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Pathak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine insecticide poisoning was recorded in three Golden Langurs (Trachypithecus geei in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS in Kokrajhar district of Assam during the month of December, 2008. The poisoning was due to prolonged ingestion of rubber plant leaves sprayed with the insecticide in a rubber plantation adjacent to the sanctuary. Though no specific gross lesions were observed, histopathologically, centilobular hepatic necrosis, mild renal degeneration, necrotic enteritis, pulmonary congestion and neuronal degeneration were recorded in all three animals.

  2. Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2011-12-01

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides.

  3. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1)

  5. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  6. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in fish, water and sediments in the middle Volta Basin: a case study of Kpando Torkor lake, Volta Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbeddy, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    The levels of contamination with selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water, sediment, and two commonly harvested fish species namely Tilapia zilli and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Kpando Torkor Lake were determined. This was to give the general picture of the extent of contamination of these matrices with OCPs and also assess the suitability of the water and fish catch for human consumption. Organochlorine pesticides residues in water samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction whilst Soxhlet was used in the case of fish and sediment samples. All extracts were cleaned-up using packed columns and then analyzed using Gas chromatography equipped with 63 Ni electron-capture detector (ECD). Fifteen organochlorine pesticide residues namely β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, γ-Chlordane, α-Endosulfan, β-Endosulfan, Endosulfan sulphate and Methoxychlor were investigated in this study. Thirteen of them excluding γ-HCH and Endrin were detected in sediment and fish samples at concentrations ranging from below the level of quantification (LOQ) to 37.75ng/g wet weight, and occurrence frequencies ranging from 14 to 100%. Twelve of them excluding p,p'-DDT, -HCH and Endrin were however, measured in water samples with concentrations ranging from below LOQ to 0.669μg/L and occurrence frequencies ranging from 14 to 29%. γ-HCH and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected residues in all samples analyzed with an average percentage frequency of 85.8, followed by Endosulfan sulphate (83.0%) and β-HCH (80.0%) among others. In consonance with their properties, organochlorine pesticide residues measured in fish samples were higher than those of sediment samples. Even though, the fat content of catfish muscle (10.24%) was higher than tilapia muscle (2.80%), the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia tissues were however, higher than that of catfish. For instance, the levels of β-HCH in

  9. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  10. Is Bone Mineral Composition Disrupted by Organochlorines in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Dietz, R.; Born, E. W.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs.......04) and SigmaCHL (p polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  11. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We rep...

  12. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating

  13. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  14. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  15. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  16. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  17. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Soto, E U; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Valenzuela-Quintanar, A I; Félix-Fuentes, A; Grajeda-Cota, P; Balderas-Cortes, J J; Osorio-Rosas, C L; Acuña-García, G; Aguilar-Apodaca, M G

    2011-11-01

    Although, the Yaqui and Mayo valleys are the most important agricultural areas in Sonora, there is only limited data of the pesticides residue in soils in these valleys. This study measured the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 234 soil samples (residential and agricultural) from 24 communities. The global results (mean, range) indicated that benzene hexachloride (19.2, ND-938.5 μg g(-1)), endrin (6.6, ND-377.3 μg g(-1)) and DDTs (36.45, ND-679.7 μg g(-1)) were the dominant contaminants. Soil is one of the most important routes of exposure to OCPs in the population of southern Sonora and this study can be used to establish background levels of OCPs.

  18. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  19. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  20. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  1. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  2. Developing a Screening Model to Establish Human Risk from Glacial Meltwater Release of Legacy Organochlorine Pollutants at the Silvretta Glacier in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (OCPs) banned globally by the Stockholm Convention in 2004 are reemerging from melting glaciers in numerous alpine ecosystems. Despite the known OCP influx from glaciers, a study of human risk from uptake of pesticides in glacial meltwater has never been attempted. Our study qualifies human uptake routes and quantifies risk utilizing published meltwater data from the Silvretta Glacier in the Swiss Alps in combination with methodology established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Relatively high concentrations of OCPs in Silvretta glacier meltwater reflect proximity to use near high density populations and provide the best estimate of a 95th percentile human risk scenario. This screening level model assesses direct PCB risk to humans through consumption of fish tissue and meltwater. Our model shows a risk for both cancer and non-cancer disease impacts to children with lifetime exposure to glacial meltwater and an average local fish consumption. For adults with an abbreviated 30 year exposure timeframe, the risk for non-cancer effects is negligible and cancer effects are only barely above screening level. Populations that consume higher quantities of local fish are at greater risk, with additional challenges borne by children. Further direct study into the individual level risk to Swiss residents from glacial meltwater pollution is deemed necessary by our screening study.

  3. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation - 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable - DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the

  4. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel’nikova, T V; Polyakova, L P; Oudalova, A A

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation – 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable – DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during

  5. Organochlorine pollutants in Peregrine falcon eggs; Organochlorverbindungen in Eiern von Wanderfalken und anderen wild lebenden Vogelarten in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Gegenwaertige Belastungssituation und zeitlicher Trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenck, K.T. von der [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baum, F.; Malisch, R. [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt Freiburg (Germany); Hartwig, H.; Zimmermann, R.D. [Fachhochschule Bingen (Germany); Schilling, F. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wanderfalkenschutz (AGW), Nuertingen (Germany); Straub, H.P. [Landratsamt Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Goal and Scope. Organochlorine pollutants such as some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and highly persistent compounds in the environment. As synthetic, man-made products they are not encountered in natural ecosystems. Due to their high lipid solubility these compounds can accumulate in animals and humans, where they may exert chronically toxic and carcinogenic effects or disrupt endocrine functions and/or interfere with reproduction. Sound environmental stewardship demands continuous monitoring of such substances, assessment of their ecotoxicological risk, and reduction of excessive risk by setting appropriate standards. Methods. The analysis of birds' eggs is one method for the detection of organochlorine pollutants in ecosystems. In the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg eggs of some bird species, especially Peregrine falcons, have been collected and analysed for selected persistent organic pollutants [total DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene), HCEP (heptachloroepoxide), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), PCBs] since the 1970s. Long-term continuous investigations yield data concerning temporal changes and regional differences in the pollution of the bio-indicators. Results and Conclusion. Dioxin-like PCBs and total DDT were the most prominent pollutants. The Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) was the most polluted bird species within the project. During the 1970s and 1980s all of the mentioned substances showed an encouraging decrease, undoubtedly because their use was banned in Germany. Analyses for PCDD/F in a small number of Peregrine falcon eggs from the period of 2000 to 2003 revealed the high level of pollution of these samples with dioxin toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQ) from PCB and PCDD/F, which in all eggs reached the no observed effect level (NOEL) determined in osprey chicks and surpassed this threshold fivefold in the most polluted ones. Because of their great variability the

  6. Concentration of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Molluscs from Tighra Reservoir, Gwalior, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites were determined in whole body homogenate of L. acuminata, I. exustus, V. dissimilis, V. bengalensis, from Tighra Reservoir during summer and post monsoon season using GC-MS technique. The different types of pesticides viz., HCB, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p-DDT, choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, parathion were found in resident molluscs studied. Concentration of these pesticides varied independently during the summer and the post monsoon season at monitored sites. The study concluded that presence of pesticides in Tighra Reservoir is a major concern on public and ecosystem health and use of biopesticides in the adjacent area of Reservoir is highly recommended.

  7. Brief communication: Organochlorine pesticides in an archived firn core from Law Dome, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bigot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were, for the first time, quantified in archived firn cores from East Antarctica representative of 1945–1957 and 1958–1967 (current era, C.E.. The core sections were melted under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, and the meltwater was analysed. Methods allowed quantification of hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlor, trans-chlordane, dieldrin and endrin. While the core presented evidence of nominal contamination by modern-use chemicals, indicating handling and/or storage contamination, legacy OCP concentrations and deposition rates reported are orders of magnitude lower than those from Arctic regions, lending support for their validity. The study further provides a description of equipment used and suggests methods to overcome logistical challenges associated with trace organic contaminant detection in polar regions.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Guangzhou and Hong Kong: Regional sources and long-range atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Lingli; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Lee, Celine S. L.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period of December 2003-December 2004 at four sampling sites in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of 8 OCP species, including trans-chlordane ( t-CHL), cis-chlordane ( c-CHL), p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDT, α-endosulfan, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), were studied. OCPs were found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons. t-CHL, c-CHL, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan had significantly ( pGuangzhou could be attributed to the present usage of lindane and dicofol in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The very high concentrations of p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan were observed at all sampling sites. The results of 7 days air back trajectory analysis indicated that the unusual high p, p'-DDT levels in summer in both cities could be related to the seasonal usage of DDT containing antifouling paints for fishing ships in the upwind seaports of the region. The high concentrations of α-endosulfan in winter in the study area suggested an atmospheric transport by the winter monsoon from the East China, where endosulfan is being used as insecticide in cotton fields. The consistency of the seasonal variation of concentrations and isomeric ratios of DDTs and α-endosulfan with the alternation of winter monsoon and summer monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in the long-range atmospheric transport of OCPs.

  10. Method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in a complex sediment matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Concepción, Victor; Cram, Silke; Gibson, Richard; Ponce de León, Claudia; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The Xochimilco area in the southeastern part of Mexico City has a variety of socioeconomic activities, such as periurban agriculture, which is of great importance in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Pesticides are used extensively, some being legal, mostly chlorpyrifos and malathion, and some illegal, mostly DDT. Sediments are a common sink for pesticides in aquatic systems near agricultural areas, and Xochimilco sediments have a complex composition with high contents of organic matter and clay that are ideal adsorption sites for organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. Therefore, it is important to have a quick, affordable, and reliable method to determine these pesticides. Conventional methods for the determination of OC and OP pesticides are long, laborious, and costly owing to the high volume of solvents and adsorbents. The present study developed and validated a method for determining 18 OC and five OP pesticides in sediments with high organic and clay contents. In contrast with other methods described in the literature, this method allows isolation of the 23 pesticides with a 12 min microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and one-step cleanup of pesticides. The method developed is a simpler, time-saving procedure that uses only 3.5 g of dry sediment. The use of MAE eliminates excessive handling and the possible loss of analytes. It was shown that the use of LC-Si cartridges with hexane-ethyl acetate (75+25, v/v) in the cleanup procedure recovered all pesticides with rates between 70 and 120%. The validation parameters demonstrated good performance of the method, with intermediate precision ranging from 7.3 to 17.0%, HorRat indexes all below 0.5, and tests of accuracy with the 23 pesticides at three concentration levels demonstrating recoveries ranging from 74 to 114% and RSDs from 3.3 to 12.7%.

  11. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  12. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  13. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  14. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  15. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, K.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Michaud, Robert; Beland, Pierre; Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Measuring contaminants only in stranded whales may result in overestimation of organochlorines. - For the first time, organochlorine (OC) contaminants were measured in blubber biopsies from free-ranging St. Lawrence River Estuary beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), to compare contaminant levels to those previously measured in dead stranded belugas. PCBs, DDTs, toxaphene and chlordane-related compounds were the major OC contaminants detected in 44 belugas biopsied in 1994-1998. ΣPCB (the sum of 104 congeners) ranged from 2080 to 128,000 ng/g lipid in males (n=34; minimum estimated ages 8-22 years), and from 148 to 44,100 ng/g lipid in females (n=10; minimum estimated ages 7-22 years). The concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides in the blubber of these whales overlapped those observed in stranded belugas from an earlier study, and demonstrated comparable age and sex-related trends. However, lower proportions of mirex, HCB, DDTs, and many of the highly chlorinated PCBs occurred in the biopsy samples compared to results for blubber from stranded carcasses. Most major OC compounds were present at lower concentrations in the biopsies, but this does not appear to be solely related to age differences between the two groups, or to emaciation in the stranded whales. Nor does it appear to be associated with the use of superficial biopsies, and the possible stratification of lipids and OCs in the blubber layer. Nevertheless, given these possible confounding factors, and the uncertainty in age estimates for the biopsied whales, the results point to the need for careful interpretation of biopsy results when comparing with data taken from the full depth of the blubber mantle in stranded whales. Taken together, results from both biopsied whales and previously studied stranded belugas indicate that PCB and OC pesticide contamination of St. Lawrence beluga whales may occur across a broader range of levels than previously thought, at least for males which formed the largest

  16. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects

  17. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  19. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  20. Artificial Heads for High-Level Impulse Sound Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, K

    1999-01-01

    If the Insertion Loss (IL) of hearing protectors has to be determined with very high impulse or continuous noise levels, the acoustic insulation of the Artificial Test Fixture has to exceed at least the Insertion Loss (IL...

  1. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  2. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  3. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  4. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  5. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  6. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  7. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  8. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and risk for skeletal fractures and impaired bone mineral density in humans. Results from the ''COMPARE'' project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Wallin, E.; Joensson, B.A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) have, in animal studies, impaired normal bone metabolism and resulted in increased bone fragility. Especially considering the dramatical increase in osteoporotic fractures in western societies during the last decades, it is a pertinent question whether a high dietary intake of POP might pose a risk for deteriorated bone quality in humans. This problem has been assessed as a part of the collaborative project ''COMPARE'', funded by European Commission RD Life Science Program. As a study base we have used cohorts of Swedish fishermen's families. We have earlier shown that fishermen living at the east coast of Sweden, have a high consumption of contaminated fatty fish from the Baltic Sea and consequently relatively high exposure levels for various POPs, also compared with fishermen from the Swedish west coast. Such a discrepancy was also found for fishermen's wives. The aim of the project was to assess in epidemiological studies whether a high dietary intake of POP through fatty fish from the Baltic may result in an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures or decreased bone mineral density (BMD). We give here an overview of the results.

  9. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  10. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  11. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Roque [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: serrano@qfa.uji.es; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2008-01-25

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. {delta}{sup 15}N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. {delta}{sup 13}C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens.

  12. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Roque; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. δ 15 N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. δ 13 C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens

  13. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochar in co-contaminated soil manipulates arsenic solubility and microbiological community structure, and promotes organochlorine degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Gregory

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of biochar on the water-soluble arsenic (As concentration and the extent of organochlorine degradation in a co-contaminated historic sheep-dip soil during a 180-d glasshouse incubation experiment. Soil microbial activity, bacterial community and structure diversity were also investigated. Biochar made from willow feedstock (Salix sp was pyrolysed at 350 or 550°C and added to soil at rates of 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 (representing 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1. The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH (lindane, underwent 10-fold and 4-fold reductions in concentration as a function of biochar treatment. Biochar also resulted in a significant reduction in soil DDT levels (P < 0.01, and increased the DDE:DDT ratio. Soil microbial activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01 under all biochar treatments after 60 days of treatment compared to the control. 16S amplicon sequencing revealed that biochar-amended soil contained more members of the Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Dyadobacter and Pseudomonadaceae which are known bioremediators of hydrocarbons. We hypothesise that a recorded short-term reduction in the soluble As concentration due to biochar amendment allowed native soil microbial communities to overcome As-related stress. We propose that increased microbiological activity (dehydrogenase activity due to biochar amendment was responsible for enhanced degradation of organochlorines in the soil. Biochar therefore partially overcame the co-contaminant effect of As, allowing for enhanced natural attenuation of organochlorines in soil.

  15. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... A cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd with high level ... mechanisms to repair UV-induced damages via repairing ... for treatment or prevention of solar radiation. ..... working as both UV-B absorbing compounds and.

  16. Determination of persistent cyclic organochlorine residues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... The MMLLE extraction employed isooctane as the organic liquid that was ... in the southern parts of South Africa were found to be contaminated with cis ... fibre liquid phase micro-extraction, high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry ...

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Fernández-Bringas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The organochlorine pesticides (OP are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July (2002 from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982 (sediments and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986 (organisms methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were g-HCH, d-HCH, p,p’-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p’-DDD y d-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (g-HCH was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1381-1390. Epub 2008 September 30.El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en la cuenca lacustre de Metztitlán, Hgo. Se realizaron tres colectas de sedimentos recientes en noviembre (2001, abril y julio (2002 y dos colectas para organismos en abril y julio (2002. Los análisis se hicieron siguiendo la metodología para sedimentos propuesta por UNEP/IAEA (1982 y para tejido de organismos por UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986. Se identificaron y cuantificaron tres familias químicas de plaguicidas organoclorados, para determinar el posible riesgo toxicológico de los sedimentos y de organismos en capturas comerciales. Los principales compuestos clorados en sedimentos fueron el g-HCH, d

  18. High level of CA 125 due to large endometrioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phupong, Vorapong; Chen, Orawan; Ultchaswadi, Pornthip

    2004-09-01

    CA 125 is a tumor-associated antigen. Its high levels are usually associated with ovarian malignancies, whereas smaller increases in the levels were associated with benign gynecologic conditions. The authors report a high level of CA 125 in a case of large ovarian endometrioma. A 45-year-old nulliparous Thai woman, presented with an increase of her abdominal girth for 7 months. Transabdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated a large ovarian cyst and multiple small leiomyoma uteri, and serum CA 125 level was 1,006 U/ml. The preoperative diagnosis was ovarian cancer with leiomyoma uteri. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. There were a large right ovarian endometrioma, small left ovarian endometrioma and multiple small leiomyoma. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioma and leiomyoma. The serum CA 125 level declined to non-detectable at the 4th week. She was well at discharge and throughout her 4th week follow-up period Although a very high level of CA 125 is associated with a malignant process, it can also be found in benign conditions such as a large endometrioma. The case emphasizes the association of high levels of CA 125 with benign gynecologic conditions.

  19. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Tutu, A.

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  20. Treatment of High-Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.A.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Osipenko, A.G.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    JSC “SSC RIAR” has been performing research and development activities in support of closed fuel cycle of fast reactor since the middle of 1960s. Fuel cycle involves fabrication and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) using pyrochemical methods of reprocessing in molten alkali metal chlorides. At present pyrochemical methods of SNF reprocessing in molten chlorides has reached such a level in their development that makes it possible to compare their competitiveness with classic aqueous methods. Their comparative advantage lies in high safety, compactness, high protectability as to nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and reduction of high level waste volume

  1. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  2. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  3. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O' Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G

    2003-04-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by {delta}{sup 15}N) is positively correlated with increasing {delta}{sup 13}C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCB) > chlordane-related compounds ({sigma}CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane ({sigma}HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) {>=}chlorobenzenes ({sigma}ClBz) > DDT-related isomers ({sigma}DDT). In liver, {sigma}CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by {sigma}PCB > TOX > {sigma}HCH > {sigma}ClBz > {sigma}DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While {sigma}PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  4. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  5. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  6. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  7. Techniques for the solidification of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the long-term management of the high-level wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is receiving world-wide attention. While the majority of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of commercial fuels are currently being stored in stainless-steel tanks, increasing effort is being devoted to developing technology for the conversion of these wastes into solids. A number of full-scale solidification facilities are expected to come into operation in the next decade. The object of this report is to survey and compare all the work currently in progress on the techniques available for the solidification of high-level wastes. It will examine the high-level liquid wastes arising from the various processes currently under development or in operation, the advantages and disadvantages of each process for different types and quantities of waste solutions, the stages of development, the scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes

  8. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigerman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  9. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  10. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  11. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  12. The influence of ecological processes on the accumulation of persistent organochlorines in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Olof

    1999-09-01

    Several ecological problems influences the fate, transport, and accumulation of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in aquatic ecosystems. In this thesis, I have focused on two processes, namely (i) the food chain bioaccumulation of OCs, and (ii) the trophic status of the aquatic system. To test the biomagnification theory, I investigated PCB concentrations in planktonic food chains in lakes. The concentrations of PCB on a lipid basis did not increase with increasing trophic level. Hence, I could give no support to the theory of biomagnification. Instead, lipid content explained most of the variation in PCB accumulation in these food chains. PCBs were differentially fractionated in the food chains, the relative amount of high molecular weight PCBs increased with increasing trophic level, indicating congener specific differences in either the accumulation or the elimination of PCBs at the different trophic levels. In another study, I investigated the relationship between OC concentrations and trophic level, measured as {delta}{sup 15}N, in a specific predatory fish population. The dry weight OC concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N were related, indicating effects of prey choice on the OC accumulation. However, here also, lipid content explained the major part of the variation in OC concentrations, independent of trophic level (e. g. {delta}{sup 15}N). I investigated the effects of trophic status, measured as Tot-P concentration in water, on the concentrations of OCs in water, planktonic food chains and sediment in lakes. The dry weight concentrations of PCBs in phytoplankton were negatively related to the trophic status of the lakes. However, this relationship was explained by the decreasing lipid content of phytoplankton with lake trophic status. The phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes had lower lipid content than phytoplankton in oligotrophic lakes, possibly due to inter- and intraspecific differences in lipid content due to nutrient stress. The sediment accumulation and

  13. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding

  14. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  15. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  16. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures

  17. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  18. Treatment technologies for non-high-level wastes (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Non-high-level waste arising from operations at nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, and reprocessing facilities can be treated using one of several technical alternatives prior to storage. Each alternative and the associated experience and status of development are summarized. The technology for treating non-high-level wastes is generally available for industrial use. Improved techniques applicable to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are being developed and demonstrated to reduce the volume of waste and to immobilize it for storage. 36 figures, 59 references

  19. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  1. Aeon: Synthesizing Scheduling Algorithms from High-Level Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Jean-Noël; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    This paper describes the aeon system whose aim is to synthesize scheduling algorithms from high-level models. A eon, which is entirely written in comet, receives as input a high-level model for a scheduling application which is then analyzed to generate a dedicated scheduling algorithm exploiting the structure of the model. A eon provides a variety of synthesizers for generating complete or heuristic algorithms. Moreover, synthesizers are compositional, making it possible to generate complex hybrid algorithms naturally. Preliminary experimental results indicate that this approach may be competitive with state-of-the-art search algorithms.

  2. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Parity dependence of the nuclear level density at high excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.V.; Agrawal, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The basic underlying assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) in the level density function ρ(U, J, π) has been checked on the basis of high quality data available on individual resonance parameters (E 0 , Γ n , J π ) for s- and p-wave neutrons in contrast to the earlier analysis where information about p-wave resonance parameters was meagre. The missing level estimator based on the partial integration over a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron reduced widths and the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic for the level spacing have been used to ascertain that the s- and p-wave resonance level spacings D(0) and D(1) are not in error because of spurious and missing levels. The present work does not validate the tacit assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) and confirms that the level density depends upon parity at high excitation. The possible implications of the parity dependence of the level density on the results of statistical model calculations of nuclear reaction cross sections as well as on pre-compound emission have been emphasized. (orig.)

  4. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Giacominelli Stuffler, R.; Ceci, E.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  5. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); M. Murcia (Mario); A. Iñiguez (Andrés); E. Vizcaino (Esther); O. Costa (Olga); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); M. Basterrechea (Mikel); A. Lertxundi (Aitana); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); M. Gascon (Mireia); F. Goñi-Irigoyen (Fernando); J.O. Grimalt (Joan O.); A. Tardón (Adonina); F. Ballester (Ferran)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective: We examined the relationship

  6. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  7. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  8. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  9. Leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1987-03-01

    The author's work in the study on the leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were summarized. The subjects described are (1) leach rates at high temperatures, (2) effects of cracks on leach rates, (3) effects of flow rate on leach rates, and (4) an in-situ burial test in natural groundwater. In the following section, the leach rates obtained by various experiments were summarized and discussed. (author)

  10. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  11. The american high school graduation rate : trends and levels

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multiple data sources and a unified methodology to estimate the trends and levels of the U.S. high school graduation rate. Correcting for important biases that plague previous calculations, we establish that (a) the true high school graduation rate is substantially lower than the official rate issued by the National Center for Educational Statistics; (b) it has been declining over the past 40 years; (c) majority/minority graduation rate differentials are substantial and have n...

  12. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1979-06-01

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240 Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  13. Development of cermets for high-level radioactive waste fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method is currently under development for the solidification and fixation of commercial and defense high-level radioactive wastes in the form of ceramic particles encapsulated by metal, i.e., a cermet. The chemical and physical processing techniques which have been developed and the properties of the resulting cermet bodies are described in this paper. These cermets have the advantages of high thermal conductivity and low leach rates

  14. The tracking of high level waste shipments - TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Thomas, T.M.; Lester, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY 1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  15. Partitioning of high level liquid waste: experiences in plant level adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Smitha; Kaushik, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Wastes are presently vitrified in borosilicate matrices in all our back end facilities in our country. This is in accordance with internationally endorsed methodology for the safe management of high level radioactive wastes. Recent advancements in the field of partitioning technology in our group, has presented us with an opportunity to have a fresh perspective on management of high level liquid radioactive wastes streams, that emanate from reprocessing operations. This paper will highlight our experiences with respect to both partitioning studies and vitrification practices, with a focus on waste volume reduction for final disposal. Incorporation of this technique has led to the implementation of the concept of recovering wealth from waste, a marked decrease on the load of disposal in deep geological repositories and serve as a step towards the vision of transmutation of long lived radionuclides

  16. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høyer, Annette P; Jørgensen, Torben; Rank, Fritz; Grandjean, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN) tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01). Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7), but no dose-response relation was apparent. The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified

  17. Detection of estrogen receptor endocrine disruptor potency of commonly used organochlorine pesticides using the LUMI-CELL ER bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J D; Chu, A C; Clark, G C [Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Chu, M D [Alta Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC (United States); Denison, M S [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In order to detect the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides and other compounds, BG-1 (human ovarian carcinoma) cells containing a stably transfected estrogenresponsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid (BG1Luc4E2), was used. This cell line, termed the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system, responds in a time-, dose dependent- and chemical-specific manner with the induction of luciferase gene expression in response to exposure to estrogen (but not other steroid hormones) and estrogenic chemicals in a high-throughput screening (HTPS) format6. Here we describe studies in which the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system was used for high throughput screening (HTPS) analysis of the estrogenic disrupting potency of several commonly used pesticides and organochlorines: p,p'DDT; p,p'-DDE; DDD; {alpha}a-chlordane; {psi}-chlordane; Kepone; Methoxychlor; Vinclozolin; Fenarimol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; and Dieldrin. Our results demonstrate the utility of XDS's LUMI-CELL trademark ER bioassay HTPS system for screening chemicals for estrogenic activity.

  18. Detection of estrogen receptor endocrine disruptor potency of commonly used organochlorine pesticides using the LUMI-CELL ER bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.D.; Chu, A.C.; Clark, G.C. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Chu, M.D. [Alta Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC (United States); Denison, M.S. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In order to detect the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides and other compounds, BG-1 (human ovarian carcinoma) cells containing a stably transfected estrogenresponsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid (BG1Luc4E2), was used. This cell line, termed the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system, responds in a time-, dose dependent- and chemical-specific manner with the induction of luciferase gene expression in response to exposure to estrogen (but not other steroid hormones) and estrogenic chemicals in a high-throughput screening (HTPS) format6. Here we describe studies in which the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system was used for high throughput screening (HTPS) analysis of the estrogenic disrupting potency of several commonly used pesticides and organochlorines: p,p'DDT; p,p'-DDE; DDD; {alpha}a-chlordane; {psi}-chlordane; Kepone; Methoxychlor; Vinclozolin; Fenarimol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; and Dieldrin. Our results demonstrate the utility of XDS's LUMI-CELL trademark ER bioassay HTPS system for screening chemicals for estrogenic activity.

  19. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  20. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  1. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  2. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  3. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  4. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  5. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...

  6. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  7. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  8. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  9. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  10. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  11. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  12. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  13. An emergency management demonstrator using the high level architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the issues of simulation interoperability within the emergency management training context. A prototype implementation in Java of a subset of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is described. The use of Web Browsers to provide graphical user interfaces to HLA is also investigated. (au)

  14. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." excerpt

  15. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  16. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  17. Observation of high spin levels in Cs from Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1157–1162. Observation of high spin levels in. 131. Cs from. 131. Ba decay. M SAINATH, DWARAKA RANI RAO*, K VENKATARAMANIAH and P C SOOD. Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam 515 134, India. £Permanent address: Department of Physics, ...

  18. The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non- Communicable Diseases: The Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. ... The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

  19. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  20. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in raft mussels coming from Galician rías.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2017-09-01

    This survey gives an overview of the range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) α and γ-HCH (lindane), HCB, pp´-DDE, pp´-DDD, op´-DDT, pp´-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor in raft mussels cultivated in several polygons of the Galician Rías (Ares-Betanzos, Muros-Noia, Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo) during the period 1998-2014. A significant number of OCPs were detected, but the levels found were generally low, mainly in the recent samplings (2010-2014). The levels of ∑DDs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites, pp´-DDE and pp´-DDD) ranged between 0.22 ng/g dry weight (dw) in samples from the Ría of Pontevedra and 46.4 ng/g dw in mussels from the Ría of Arousa. Both aldrin and endrin were not detected or were below the analytical limits of detection. With regard to other pesticides, dieldrin is the major compound, followed by γ-HCH, isodrin, α-HCH and transnonachlor. Significant ANOVA regressions indicated variations in levels of some OCPs with the biological parameters (lipid, condition index and shell length). Univariate and multivariate analysis of OCP levels revealed no significant differences between Rías. Temporal trends showed an important decline of OCPs in the studied samples during the period 1998-2014.

  2. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls pattern analysis: Potential nondestructive biomarker in vertebrates for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. De; Broekhuizen, S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2000-03-01

    Biomarkers are valuable instruments to assess the risks from exposure of organisms to organochlorines. In general, however, these biomarkers are either destructive to the animal of interest or extremely difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, the authors present a nondestructive biomarker for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines. This marker is based on a pattern analysis of metabolizable and nonmetabolizable polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, which occur in several kinds of tissues (and even blood) that can be obtained without serious effects on the organism involved. The fraction of metabolizable PCB congeners is negatively correlated with exposure to PCBs, which are known to induce specific P450 isoenzymes. This relation can be modeled by a logistic curve, which can be used to define critical levels of exposure. In addition, this method creates an opportunity to analyze biomarker responses in archived tissues stored at standard freezing temperatures ({minus}20 C), at which responses to established biomarkers deteriorate. Furthermore, this method facilitates attribution of the enzyme induction to certain classes of compounds.

  4. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035

  5. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  6. The measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jie.

    1986-01-01

    The various error factors in measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels are anslysed. The measuring method of error self compensation and its simplification for land use are shown

  7. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  8. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  9. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.L.H.; Xu, Y.; Lam, J.C.W.; Connell, D.W.; Lam, M.H.W.; Nicholson, S.; Richardson, B.J.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins

  10. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.L.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Y. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, J.C.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Connell, D.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Public Health, Griffith University, Logan Campus, University Drive, Meadowbrook, QLD 4131 (Australia); Lam, M.H.W. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholson, S. [Meinhardt Mouchel Limited, 12/F, MLC Tower, 248 Queen' s Road East, Wanchai, Hong Kong (China); Richardson, B.J. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, P.K.S. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-11-15

    The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in Hong Kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. Six species of fish Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. Risks due to total PCBs, total TEQs, PCB 118 and the pesticides were assessed with the use of toxicity reference values as the threshold reference benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that the risks associated with organochlorines were generally low. The highest RQ was associated with total TEQs suggesting that dioxin-like PCBs may pose the highest risk to the dolphins. The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further investigation. - Fish tainted with dioxin-like PCBs might pose a risk to Hong Kong dolphins.

  11. A high Tc superconducting liquid nitrogen level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J. X.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Grantham, C.; Beer, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The dramatic resistance change in the superconducting-normal transition temperature range enables a high T c superconductor to be considered for designing a liquid nitrogen level sensor. A (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire is selected and tested as a continuous liquid nitrogen level sensor to investigate the possibility for this application. The (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire has approximately 110 K critical temperature, with more flexible and stable properties compared with bulk shape ceramic high T c superconductors. The voltage drops across the sensor are tested with different immersion lengths in liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the HTS sensor is analysed with its dR/dT in the superconducting-normal transition range. The voltage signal is sensitive to liquid nitrogen level change, and this signal can be optimized by controlling the transport current. The problems of the Ag clad superconductor are that the Ag sheath thermal conductivity is very high, and the sensor normal resistance is low. These are the main disadvantages for using such a wire as a continuous level sensor. However, a satisfactory accuracy can be achieved by control of the transport current. A different configuration of the wire sensor is also designed to avoid this thermal influence

  12. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik

    1999-01-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low

  13. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  14. Cermet high level waste forms: a pregress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-06-01

    The fixation of high level radioactive waste from both commercial and DOE defense sources as cermets is currently under study. This waste form consists of a continuous iron-nickel base metal matrix containing small particles of fission product oxides. Preliminary evaluations of cermets fabricated from a variety of simulated wastes indicate they possess properties providing advantages over other waste forms presently being considered, namely thermal conductivity, waste loading levels, and leach resistance. This report describes the progress of this effort, to date, since its initiation in 1977

  15. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  16. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning

  17. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Berreth, J.R.; Freeby, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle

  18. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in various tissues of waterbirds in Nalabana bird sanctuary, Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, V

    2012-07-01

    In order to understand whether organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are responsible for the mortality of waterbirds in Nalaban bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake, the current investigation was carried out in tissues of 11 individuals comprising 7 species of birds. One or more residues were detected in all the tissues of birds analysed. Concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs were ranged from below detectable level (BDL)-811 ng/g, BDL-1,987 ng/g and BDL-1,027 ng/g respectively. PCBs levels were less than the food and drug administration's (FDA) action limits. Although varying levels of residues were detected among tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the mass mortality of waterfowl. However, the need for additional research is heightened when considering that some of the birds are classified as a globally protected species by the international bodies.

  20. Conceptual process for conversion of high level waste to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    During a ten-year period highly radioactive wastes amounting to 22 million gallons of salt cake and 5 million gallons of wet sludge are to be converted to 1.2 million gallons of glass and 24 million gallons of decontaminated salt cake and placed in the new storage facilities which will provide high assurance of containment with minimal reliance on maintenance and surveillance. The glass will contain nearly all of the radioactivity in a form that is highly resistant to leaching and dispersion. The salt cake will contain a small amount of residual radioactivity. The process is shown in Figure 1 and the facilities may be arranged in seven modules to accomplish seven tasks, (1) remove wastes from tanks, (2) separate sludge and salt, (3) decontaminate salt, (4) solidify and package sludge and 137 Cs, (5) solidify and package decontaminated salt, (6) store high level waste, and (7) store decontaminated salt cake

  1. Exposición prenatal a los plaguicidas organoclorados y criptorquidia Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Patrícia Bustamante Montes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos en desarrollo y los niños son particularmente vulnerables a los tóxicos ambientales. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados (HCB, ß-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT y pp'DDE en lípidos séricos de madres de niños con criptorquidia y comparar los niveles con un grupo control de madres de niños con testículos descendidos. El grupo de los casos fue constituido por recién nacidos con diagnóstico de criptorquidia (n=41. El grupo control (n=41 se conformó por niños con testículos descendidos. A las madres de ambos grupos se les determinaron los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados. La criptorquidia fue diagnosticada al nacimiento por neonatólogo. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados fueron encontrados en lípidos séricos de ambos grupos. Los niveles de la mediana (mgkg-1 en base lipídica fueron mayores para los metabolitos pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269 y ß-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192 en el grupo con criptorquidia comparado con el grupo control. (pFetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ß-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41, and the controls (n=41 newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269 and ß-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192 in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01. It

  2. High level trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, U.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestabo, A.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Schulz, M.; Steinbeck, T.; Wiebalck, A.; Skaali, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of ∼75 MByte/event. The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system. Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques. Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition. One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, and connected by a high bandwidth, low latency network

  3. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed

  4. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  5. Glass-solidification method for high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Masayuki; Sasage, Ken-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    High level liquid wastes are removed with precipitates mainly comprising Mo and Zr, thereafter, the high level liquid wastes are mixed with a glass raw material comprising a composition having a B 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ratio of not less than 0.41, a ZnO/Li 2 O ratio of not less than 1.00, and an Al 2 O 3 /Li 2 O ratio of not less than 2.58, and they are melted and solidified into glass-solidification products. The liquid waste content in the glass-solidification products can be increased up to about 45% by using the glass raw material having such a predetermined composition. In addition, deposition of a yellow phase does not occur, and a leaching rate identical with that in a conventional case can be maintained. (T.M.)

  6. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  7. Exploring Self - Confidence Level of High School Students Doing Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Emir Ekinci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate self-confidence levels of high school students, who do sport, in the extent of their gender, sport branch (individual/team sports and aim for participating in sport (professional/amateur. 185 active high school students from Kutahya voluntarily participated for the study. In the study as data gathering tool self-confidence scale was used. In the evaluation of the data as a hypothesis test Mann Whitney U non parametric test was used. As a result self-confidence levels of participants showed significant differences according to their gender and sport branch but there was no significant difference according to aim for participating in sport.

  8. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  9. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  10. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification

  11. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W; Gilardi, C; Kirschner, D; Lang, J; Lange, S; Liu, M; Perez, T; Yang, S; Schmitt, L; Jin, D; Li, L; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Wang, Q; Wei, S; Xu, H; Zhao, D; Korcyl, K; Otwinowski, J T; Salabura, P

    2008-01-01

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 10 7 /s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware

  12. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  13. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  14. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  15. High-level waste management technology program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  16. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  18. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  19. Status of the French nuclear high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1985-09-01

    French research on high level waste processing has led to the development of industrial vitrification facilities. Borosilicate glass is still being investigated for its long-term storage properties, since it is itself a component of the containment system. The other constituents of this system, the engineered barriers, are also being actively investigated. The geological barrier is now being assessed using a methodology applicable to various types of geological formations, and final site qualification should be possible before the end of 1992

  20. Soil-structure interaction effects on high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfeld, E.

    1991-01-01

    High Level Waste Tanks consist of steel tanks located in concrete vaults which are usually completely embedded in the soil. Many of these tanks are old and were designed to seismic standards which are not compatible with current requirements. The objective if this paper is to develop simple methods of modeling SSI effects for such structures and to obtain solutions for a range of parameters that can be used to identify significant aspects of the problem

  1. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78 ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  2. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  3. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrot, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify the behaviour of equipments under extreme environmental conditions (propulsion, falls, impacts...), it is necessary to create 'high level and long duration shocks'. For these shocks, the velocity variation ΔV, which is equal to the area under the accelerogram γ (t), can reach several hundred meters per second. These velocity variations cannot be performed via classical free fall shock machine (ΔV [fr

  4. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  5. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  6. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Kelley, J.A.; Zeyfang, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY 83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quantity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized. Early demonstration will both expedite and facilitate rational decision making on this aspect of the nuclear program. Delay in providing these facilities will result in significant DOE expenditures at SRP for new tanks just for continued temporary storage of wastes, and would probably result in dissipation of the intellectual and planning momentum that has built up in developing the project

  8. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  9. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  10. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  11. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, Norberto R.

    2000-01-01

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  12. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  13. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  14. The immobilization of High Level Waste Into Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Martono, H.

    1998-01-01

    High level liquid waste is generated from the first step extraction in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The waste is immobilized with boro-silicate glass. A certain composition of glass is needed for a certain type of waste, so that the properties of waste glass would meet the requirement either for further process or for disposal. The effect of waste loading on either density, thermal expansion, softening point and leaching rate has been studied. The composition of the high level liquid waste has been determined by ORIGEN 2 and the result has been used to prepare simulated high level waste. The waste loading in the waste glass has been set to be 19.48; 22.32; 25.27; and 26.59 weight percent. The result shows that increasing the waste loading has resulted in the higher density with no thermal expansion and softening point significant change. The increase in the waste loading increase that leaching rate. The properties of the waste glass in this research have not shown any deviation from the standard waste glass properties

  15. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  16. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food.

  17. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077. Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167. The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  18. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  19. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Some Selected Cocoa Beverages in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Ibigbami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17 OCP residues using gas chromatography coupled with an Electron Captured Detector (GC-ECD after extraction and silica-gel clean-up. The study reveals the presence of ten OCP residues in the cocoa beverages, with a concentration range from not detected ND—0.256 mg/kg, while α-BHC, β-BHC, methoxychlor, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin, endrin aldehyde, and endosulfan sulphate were not detected in any of the analysed samples. The contamination pattern of OCPs in the beverages was in the following order: Ovaltine > Milo > Cadbury-choco > Bournvita > Cowbell-coffee > Richoco > Oluji, with p,p′-DDT being the most frequently found pesticide. Heptachlor and endosulfan II showeda residual level above the European Union (EU Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs in only one sample.

  20. The development of a high level radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.

    1979-11-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste, from the removal of spent fuel from reactors to final disposal of vitrified waste, involves a complex choice of operational variables which interact one with another. If the various operations are designed and developed in isolation it will almost certainly lead to suboptimal choice. Management of highly active waste should therefore be viewed as a complete system and analysed in such a way that account is taken of the interactions between the various operations. This system must have clearly defined and agreed objectives as well as criteria against which performance can be judged. A thorough analysis of the system will provide a framework within which the necessary research and development can be carried out in a co-ordinated fashion and lead to an optimised strategy for managing highly active wastes. (author)

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    Full Text Available Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p’-DDE to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p’-DDT were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p’-DDT. The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Keywords: Pesticides, Organochlorine, Cocoa beans, Ondo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  2. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  3. Assessment of current dietary intake of organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in killer whales (Orcinus orca) through direct determination in a group of whales in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Henríquez-Hernandez, Luis A; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Garcia-Hartmann, Manuel; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-02-15

    We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  5. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  6. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  8. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  9. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 μg/L; range uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  10. Human exposure to PCBs and some other presistent organochlorines in eastern Slovakia as a consequence of former PCB production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Petrik, J.; Jursa, S.; Chovancova, J.; Conka, K.; Balla, B.; Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Out of estimated 1.3 million tonnes of PCBs totally produced in the world, about 21,500 t were manufactured in 1959-1984 by the chemical plant Chemko situated at the town of Strazske, Michalovce District, eastern Slovakia. Chemko PCB products called Delor 103, Delor 105, Delor 106, Delotherm and Hydelor were used inside former Czechoslovakia chiefly as heat transfer fluids, capacitor and transformer oils, and paint additives. Because of poor production technology, especially in the 1960s and early 1970s, high amounts of PCB waste discharged, into an open, several km long, muddy Chemko effluent canal causing the increased contamination of the nearby Laborec River and Zemplinska Sirava Lake. A higher PCB content in water sediment, surface water, soil, and air has resulted in high exposure of wild fish and food products coming from cattle, swine and poultry kept in the polluted area and fed with locally produced feed. Two previous pilot studies realized in 1993 and 1997-98 indicated that mean PCB levels measured in the blood, adipose tissue and milk of the human population living in the polluted area (Michalovce District) are several times higher if compared with other Slovak districts. The objective of this exposure oriented part of the EU's 5{sup th} Framework Programme PCBRISK project (www.pcbrisk.sk) was to evaluate the PCB and selected organochlorine pesticide exposure of minimally 2,000 adults (equally men and women) and 400 children (equally boys and girls, 8/9 years old) living in the towns and villages of the Michalovce District adjacent to the Laborec River downstream the Chemko plant where higher PCB human levels could be expected and in the towns and villages of the Svidnik and Stropkov Districts lying several tens km upstream the Laborec where lower PCB exposure was expected. The exposure of at least 300 adults out of those 2,000 to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs was evaluated as well. The assessment of health effects and other factors

  11. High level waste forms: glass marbles and thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Oma, K.H.; Slate, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process that converts high-level waste to glass marbles and then coats the marbles has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The process consists of a joule-heated glass melter, a marble-making device based on a patent issued to Corning Glass Works, and a coating system that includes a plasma spray coater and a marble tumbler. The process was developed under the Alternative Waste Forms Program which strived to improve upon monolithic glass for immobilizing high-level wastes. Coated glass marbles were found to be more leach-resistant, and the marbles, before coating were found to be very homogeneous, highly impact resistant, and conductive to encapsulation in a metal matric for improved heat transfer and containment. Marbles are also ideally suited for quality assurance and recycling. However, the marble process is more complex, and marbles require a larger number of canisters for waste containment and have a higher surface area than do glass monoliths

  12. Immobilisation of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E; Kesson, S E; Ware, N G; Hibberson, W; Major, A [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Inst. of Advanced Studies

    1979-03-15

    It is stated that the elements occurring in high-level nuclear reactor wastes can be safely immobilised by incorporating them within the crystal lattices of the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock (SYNROC). The preferred form of SYNROC can accept up to 20% of high level waste calcine to form dilute solid solutions. The constituent minerals, or close structural analogues, have survived in a wide range of geochemical environments for periods of 20 to 2,000 Myr whilst immobilising the same elements present in nuclear wastes. SYNROC is unaffected by leaching for 24 hours in pure water or 10 wt % NaCl solution at high temperatures and pressure whereas borosilicate glasses completely decompose in a few hours in much less severe hydrothermal conditions. The combination of these leaching results with the geological evidence of long-term stability indicates that SYNROC would be vastly superior to glass in its capacity to safely immobilise nuclear wastes, when buried in a suitable geological repository. A dense, compact, mechanically strong form of SYNROC suitable for geological disposal can be produced by a process as economical as that which incorporates radioactive waste in borosilicate glasses.

  13. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  14. FADO 2. 0: A high level tagging language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.M.L. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div.); Pimenta, M.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Souza, J. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia)

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high level language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and concise way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicitly a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering. (orig.).

  15. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...

  16. High-level waste description, inventory and hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.; Hennelly, E.J.; McElroy, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste (HLW), including its origin, is described and the current differences in definitions discussed. Quantities of defense and commercial radioactive HLW, both volume and curie content, are given. Current waste handling, which is interimin nature, is described for the several sites. The HLW hazard is defined by the times during which various radionuclides are the dominant contributors. The hazard is also compared to that of the ore. Using ICRP-2, which is the legal reference in the US, the hazard of the waste reduces to a level equal to the ore in about 300 years. The disposal plans are summarized and it is shown that regulatory requirements will probably govern disposal operations in such a conservative manner that the risk (product of hazard times probability of release) may well be lower than for any other wastes in existence or perhaps lower than those for any other human endeavor

  17. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  18. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERCEPTION AND SCIENTIFIC LITERACY IN LEVEL HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Álvarez-Valenzuela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in science education has helped to find some difficulties that hinder the teaching-learning process. These problems include conceptual content of school subjects, the influence of prior knowledge of the student and the teachers have not been trained in their university education epistemologically. This research presents the epistemological conceptions of a sample of 114 high school teachers university science area, which refer the ideas about the role of observation in scientific knowledge development and the work of scientists in the process of knowledge generation. It also includes the level of scientific literacy from the literature that is used as a source of information on the teaching. The result also identifies the level of scientific literacy in students and their influence on learning.

  19. High-level, but not low-level, motion perception is impaired in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Pedersen, Anya; Wehnes, Jana; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are compromised in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Although research has demonstrated that the motor components of smooth pursuit eye movements are intact, motion perception has been shown to be impaired. In particular, studies have consistently revealed deficits in performance on tasks specific to the high-order motion area V5 (middle temporal area, MT) in patients with schizophrenia. In contrast, data from low-level motion detectors in the primary visual cortex (V1) have been inconsistent. To differentiate between low-level and high-level visual motion processing, we applied a temporal-order judgment task for motion events and a motion-defined figure-ground segregation task using patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Successful judgments in both tasks rely on the same low-level motion detectors in the V1; however, the first task is further processed in the higher-order motion area MT in the magnocellular (dorsal) pathway, whereas the second task requires subsequent computations in the parvocellular (ventral) pathway in visual area V4 and the inferotemporal cortex (IT). These latter structures are supposed to be intact in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia revealed a significantly impaired temporal resolution on the motion-based temporal-order judgment task but only mild impairment in the motion-based segregation task. These results imply that low-level motion detection in V1 is not, or is only slightly, compromised; furthermore, our data restrain the locus of the well-known deficit in motion detection to areas beyond the primary visual cortex.

  20. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab

  1. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, R [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab.

  2. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  3. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  4. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IN RAW MILK IN TURIN DEPARTEMENT : HEAVY METALS, P.C.B, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES – YEARS 2005 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cavallera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period between 2005 and 2008 was carried out a survey on 252 samples of raw bovine milk collected in Turin departement to certain levels of contamination by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Zn, PCB and organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides. These results argue that the levels of heavy metals, PCB and pesticides are well below what is expected by the European legislation and that the situation is under control and that raw milk meets the hygiene requirements for human health.

  5. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  6. The IAEA's high level radioactive waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saire, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the different activities that are performed under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) high level radioactive waste management programme. The Agency's programme is composed of five main activities (information exchange, international safety standards, R ampersand D activities, advisory services and special projects) which are described in the paper. Special emphasis is placed on the RADioactive WAste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which was implemented in 1991 to document international consensus that exists on the safe management of radioactive waste. The paper also raises the question about the need for regional repositories to serve certain countries that do not have the resources or infrastructure to construct a national repository

  7. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to contribute to the implementation of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The major conclusion of that review is that NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a waste management system based on disposal in geologic repositories. Substantial new authority for other facilities will not be required unless major unexpected problems with geologic disposal are encountered. OTA also concludes that DOE's Draft Mission Plan published in 1984 falls short of its potential for enhancing the credibility and acceptability of the waste management program

  8. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted

  9. Global tracker for the ALICE high level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. The first is the implementation and testing of a Kalman filter algorithm in the HLT (High Level Trigger) reconstruction code. This will perform the global tracking in the HLT, that is merging tracklets and hits from the different sub-detectors in the central barrel detector. The second topic is a trigger mode of the HLT which uses the global tracking of particles through the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector), TPC (Time Projection Chamber) and the ITS (Inner Tracking System): The dielectron trigger. Global tracking: The Kalman filter algorithm has been introduced to the HLT tracking scheme. (Author)

  10. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  11. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  12. High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components

  13. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  14. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Lafontaine, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps.

  15. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Stevens, W.R. III.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures

  16. A critically educated public explores high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is vital to the citizens of Nevada that they and their children are given an opportunity to explore all sides of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The state-wide, national and international implications demand a reasoned and complete approach to this issue, which has become emotionally and irrationally charged and fueled by incomplete perception and information. The purpose of this paper is to provide curriculum suggestions and recommend concomitant policy developments that will lead to the implementation of a Critical Thinking (CT) approach to High Level Radioactive Waste Management

  17. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  18. High-level waste canister envelope study: structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The structural integrity of waste canisters, fabricated from standard weight Type 304L stainless steel pipe, was analyzed for sizes ranging from 8 to 24 in. diameter and 10 to 16 feet long under normal, abnormal, and improbable life cycle loading conditions. The canisters are assumed to be filled with vitrified high-level nuclear waste, stored temporarily at a fuel reprocessing plant, and then transported for storage in an underground salt bed or other geologic storage. In each of the three impact conditions studies, the resulting impact force is far greater than the elastic limit capacity of the material. Recommendations are made for further study

  19. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed-independent...

  20. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included