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Sample records for high order time

  1. factor high order fuzzy time series with applications to temperature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In this paper, a novel two – factor highorder fuzzy time series forecasting method based on .... to balance between local and global exploitations of the swarms. While, .... Although, there were a number of outliers but, the spread at the spot in ...

  2. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Jonás D.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

  3. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  4. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Joná s D.; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2010-01-01

    popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM

  5. A high-order time-accurate interrogation method for time-resolved PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Kyle; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    A novel method is introduced for increasing the accuracy and extending the dynamic range of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). The approach extends the concept of particle tracking velocimetry by multiple frames to the pattern tracking by cross-correlation analysis as employed in PIV. The working principle is based on tracking the patterned fluid element, within a chosen interrogation window, along its individual trajectory throughout an image sequence. In contrast to image-pair interrogation methods, the fluid trajectory correlation concept deals with variable velocity along curved trajectories and non-zero tangential acceleration during the observed time interval. As a result, the velocity magnitude and its direction are allowed to evolve in a nonlinear fashion along the fluid element trajectory. The continuum deformation (namely spatial derivatives of the velocity vector) is accounted for by adopting local image deformation. The principle offers important reductions of the measurement error based on three main points: by enlarging the temporal measurement interval, the relative error becomes reduced; secondly, the random and peak-locking errors are reduced by the use of least-squares polynomial fits to individual trajectories; finally, the introduction of high-order (nonlinear) fitting functions provides the basis for reducing the truncation error. Lastly, the instantaneous velocity is evaluated as the temporal derivative of the polynomial representation of the fluid parcel position in time. The principal features of this algorithm are compared with a single-pair iterative image deformation method. Synthetic image sequences are considered with steady flow (translation, shear and rotation) illustrating the increase of measurement precision. An experimental data set obtained by time-resolved PIV measurements of a circular jet is used to verify the robustness of the method on image sequences affected by camera noise and three-dimensional motions. In

  6. High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Valdes, Felipe

    2013-05-01

    Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  7. High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Valdes, Felipe; Ghaffari-Miab, Mohsen; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Cools, Kristof; Michielssen,

    2013-01-01

    Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  8. Planck 2015 results: VII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Time-ordered information and beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the d...

  9. a novel two – factor high order fuzzy time series with applications to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    objectively with multiple – factor fuzzy time series, recurrent number of fuzzy relationships, and assigning weights to elements of fuzzy forecasting rules. In this paper, a novel two – factor highorder fuzzy time series forecasting method based on fuzzy C-means clustering and particle swarm optimization is proposed to ...

  10. Global output feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kemei; Zhao, Cong-Ran; Xie, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of output feedback stabilisation for stochastic high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-varying delay. By using the homogeneous domination theory and solving several troublesome obstacles in the design and analysis, an output feedback controller is constructed to drive the closed-loop system globally asymptotically stable in probability.

  11. Dynamic analysis of high-order Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhang; Zhao Donghua; Ruan Jiong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a class of high-order Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delay is studied. Several sufficient conditions are obtained for global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability using Lyapunov and LMI method. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our method

  12. A Reduced-Order Controller Considering High-Order Modal Information of High-Rise Buildings for AMD Control System with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays of control force calculation, data acquisition, and actuator response will degrade the performance of Active Mass Damper (AMD control systems. To reduce the influence, model reduction method is used to deal with the original controlled structure. However, during the procedure, the related hierarchy information of small eigenvalues will be directly discorded. As a result, the reduced-order model ignores the information of high-order mode, which will reduce the design accuracy of an AMD control system. In this paper, a new reduced-order controller based on the improved Balanced Truncation (BT method is designed to reduce the calculation time and to retain the abandoned high-order modal information. It includes high-order natural frequency, damping ratio, and vibration modal information of the original structure. Then, a control gain design method based on Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC algorithm is presented to eliminate the adverse effects of data acquisition and actuator response time-delays in the design process of the reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single-span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the reduced-order controller with GCC algorithm has an excellent control effect; meanwhile it can compensate time-delays effectively.

  13. On global exponential stability of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baoyong; Xu Shengyuan; Li Yongmin; Chu Yuming

    2007-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of stability analysis for a class of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays. The delays are bounded but not necessarily differentiable. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and the use of Halanay inequality, sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the considered neural networks are presented. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria

  14. On global exponential stability of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baoyong [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail: baoyongzhang@yahoo.com.cn; Xu Shengyuan [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.cn; Li Yongmin [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China) and Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: ymlwww@163.com; Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)

    2007-06-18

    This Letter investigates the problem of stability analysis for a class of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays. The delays are bounded but not necessarily differentiable. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and the use of Halanay inequality, sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the considered neural networks are presented. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria.

  15. Finite-time output feedback stabilization of high-order uncertain nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng-Meng; Xie, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Kemei

    2018-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of finite-time output feedback stabilization for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with the unknown output function and control coefficients. Under the weaker assumption that output function is only continuous, by using homogeneous domination method together with adding a power integrator method, introducing a new analysis method, the maximal open sector Ω of output function is given. As long as output function belongs to any closed sector included in Ω, an output feedback controller can be developed to guarantee global finite-time stability of the closed-loop system.

  16. Planck 2015 results: VII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Time-ordered information and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This study describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map making are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the nonlinearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a factor of 10 relative to the2013 release. Noise correlations introduced by pipeline filtering function are assessed using dedicated simulations. Finally, angular cross-power spectra using data sets that are decorrelated in time are immune to the main systematic effects.

  17. Hidden discriminative features extraction for supervised high-order time series modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an orthogonal Tucker-decomposition-based extraction of high-order discriminative subspaces from a tensor-based time series data structure is presented, named as Tensor Discriminative Feature Extraction (TDFE). TDFE relies on the employment of category information for the maximization of the between-class scatter and the minimization of the within-class scatter to extract optimal hidden discriminative feature subspaces that are simultaneously spanned by every modality for supervised tensor modeling. In this context, the proposed tensor-decomposition method provides the following benefits: i) reduces dimensionality while robustly mining the underlying discriminative features, ii) results in effective interpretable features that lead to an improved classification and visualization, and iii) reduces the processing time during the training stage and the filtering of the projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue issue at each alternation step. Two real third-order tensor-structures of time series datasets (an epilepsy electroencephalogram (EEG) that is modeled as channel×frequency bin×time frame and a microarray data that is modeled as gene×sample×time) were used for the evaluation of the TDFE. The experiment results corroborate the advantages of the proposed method with averages of 98.26% and 89.63% for the classification accuracies of the epilepsy dataset and the microarray dataset, respectively. These performance averages represent an improvement on those of the matrix-based algorithms and recent tensor-based, discriminant-decomposition approaches; this is especially the case considering the small number of samples that are used in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time-Frequency Analysis Using Warped-Based High-Order Phase Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cornel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-order ambiguity function (HAF was introduced for the estimation of polynomial-phase signals (PPS embedded in noise. Since the HAF is a nonlinear operator, it suffers from noise-masking effects and from the appearance of undesired cross-terms when multicomponents PPS are analyzed. In order to improve the performances of the HAF, the multi-lag HAF concept was proposed. Based on this approach, several advanced methods (e.g., product high-order ambiguity function (PHAF have been recently proposed. Nevertheless, performances of these new methods are affected by the error propagation effect which drastically limits the order of the polynomial approximation. This phenomenon acts especially when a high-order polynomial modeling is needed: representation of the digital modulation signals or the acoustic transient signals. This effect is caused by the technique used for polynomial order reduction, common for existing approaches: signal multiplication with the complex conjugated exponentials formed with the estimated coefficients. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method to reduce the polynomial order, based on the successive unitary signal transformation, according to each polynomial order. We will prove that this method reduces considerably the effect of error propagation. Namely, with this order reduction method, the estimation error at a given order will depend only on the performances of the estimation method.

  19. Real-Time Order Tracking of Gear Mesh Vibration in High Speed Planetary Gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plöger Daniel Fritz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible approaches to real-time order tracking are discussed. Two methods for real-time order tracking are developed and validated experimentally for the entire audible spectrum. An adaptive heterodyne filter bank is compared to a direct integral transform. The performance of both methods is adequate for usage in an active vibration control (AVC algorithm. Vold-Kalman filters are not suitable for AVC. The vibration data of three different planetary gearboxes is analyzed using order tracking. While some of the existing research could be reproduced, the data contradicts statements made by several authors. Lastly, the architecture of a novel AVC algorithm is sketched out.

  20. Performance Analysis of High-Order Numerical Methods for Time-Dependent Acoustic Field Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Moy, Pedro Henrique Rocha

    2012-07-01

    The discretization of time-dependent wave propagation is plagued with dispersion in which the wavefield is perceived to travel with an erroneous velocity. To remediate the problem, simulations are run on dense and computationally expensive grids yielding plausible approximate solutions. This work introduces an error analysis tool which can be used to obtain optimal simulation parameters that account for mesh size, orders of spatial and temporal discretizations, angles of propagation, temporal stability conditions (usually referred to as CFL conditions), and time of propagation. The classical criteria of 10-15 nodes per wavelength for second-order finite differences, and 4-5 nodes per wavelength for fourth-order spectral elements are shown to be unrealistic and overly-optimistic simulation parameters for different propagation times. This work analyzes finite differences, spectral elements, optimally-blended spectral elements, and isogeometric analysis.

  1. Fully implicit solution of large-scale non-equilibrium radiation diffusion with high order time integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter N.; Shumaker, Dana E.; Woodward, Carol S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a solution method for fully implicit radiation diffusion problems discretized on meshes having millions of spatial zones. This solution method makes use of high order in time integration techniques, inexact Newton-Krylov nonlinear solvers, and multigrid preconditioners. We explore the advantages and disadvantages of high order time integration methods for the fully implicit formulation on both two- and three-dimensional problems with tabulated opacities and highly nonlinear fusion source terms

  2. Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Carpeggiani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Kühn, Sergei [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Calegari, Francesca [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nisoli, Mauro; Stagira, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Vozzi, Caterina [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dombi, Peter [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Wigner Research Center for Physics, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kahaly, Subhendu [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Tzallas, Paris; Charalambidis, Dimitris [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers, P.O. Box 1527, GR-711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Varju, Katalin [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Osvay, Karoly [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); and others

    2015-10-15

    We review the main research directions ongoing in the development of extreme ultraviolet sources based on high-harmonic generation for the synthesization and application of trains and isolated attosecond pulses to time-resolved spectroscopy. A few experimental and theoretical works will be discussed in connection to well-established attosecond techniques. In this context, we present the unique possibilities offered for time-resolved investigations on the attosecond timescale by the new Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source, which is currently under construction.

  3. Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Kühn, Sergei; Calegari, Francesca; Nisoli, Mauro; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Dombi, Peter; Kahaly, Subhendu; Tzallas, Paris; Charalambidis, Dimitris; Varju, Katalin; Osvay, Karoly

    2015-01-01

    We review the main research directions ongoing in the development of extreme ultraviolet sources based on high-harmonic generation for the synthesization and application of trains and isolated attosecond pulses to time-resolved spectroscopy. A few experimental and theoretical works will be discussed in connection to well-established attosecond techniques. In this context, we present the unique possibilities offered for time-resolved investigations on the attosecond timescale by the new Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source, which is currently under construction.

  4. A high-order multiscale finite-element method for time-domain acoustic-wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Chung, Eric T.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and efficient wave equation modeling is vital for many applications in such as acoustics, electromagnetics, and seismology. However, solving the wave equation in large-scale and highly heterogeneous models is usually computationally expensive because the computational cost is directly proportional to the number of grids in the model. We develop a novel high-order multiscale finite-element method to reduce the computational cost of time-domain acoustic-wave equation numerical modeling by solving the wave equation on a coarse mesh based on the multiscale finite-element theory. In contrast to existing multiscale finite-element methods that use only first-order multiscale basis functions, our new method constructs high-order multiscale basis functions from local elliptic problems which are closely related to the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points in a coarse element. Essentially, these basis functions are not only determined by the order of Legendre polynomials, but also by local medium properties, and therefore can effectively convey the fine-scale information to the coarse-scale solution with high-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that our method can significantly reduce the computation time while maintain high accuracy for wave equation modeling in highly heterogeneous media by solving the corresponding discrete system only on the coarse mesh with the new high-order multiscale basis functions.

  5. Analysis and Design of a High-Order Discrete-Time Passive IIR Low-Pass Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tohidian, M.; Madadi, I.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a discrete-time IIR low-pass filter that achieves a high-order of filtering through a charge-sharing rotation. Its sampling rate is then multiplied through pipelining. The first stage of the filter can operate in either a voltage-sampling or charge-sampling mode. It uses

  6. Studying the universality of field induced tunnel ionization times via high-order harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, H; Bruner, B D; Dudovich, N; Negro, M; Devetta, M; Vozzi, C; Faccialà, D; Silvestri, S de; Stagira, S

    2014-01-01

    High-harmonic generation spectroscopy is a promising tool for resolving electron dynamics and structure in atomic and molecular systems. This scheme, commonly described by the strong field approximation, requires a deep insight into the basic mechanism that leads to the harmonic generation. Recently, we have demonstrated the ability to resolve the first stage of the process—field induced tunnel ionization—by adding a weak perturbation to the strong fundamental field. Here we generalize this approach and show that the assumptions behind the strong field approximation are valid over a wide range of tunnel ionization conditions. Performing a systematic study—modifying the fundamental wavelength, intensity and atomic system—we observed a good agreement with quantum path analysis over a range of Keldysh parameters. The generality of this scheme opens new perspectives in high harmonics spectroscopy, holding the potential of probing large, complex molecular systems. (paper)

  7. Time-resolved Chemical Imaging of Molecules by High-order Harmonics and Ultrashort Rescattering Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chii Dong [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Directly monitoring atomic motion during a molecular transformation with atomic-scale spatio-temporal resolution is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. Here we provide the foundation for a new imaging method, fixed-angle broadband laser-induced electron scattering, based on structural retrieval by direct one-dimensional Fourier transform of a photoelectron energy distribution observed along the polarization direction of an intense ultrafast light pulse. The approach exploits the scattering of a broadband wave packet created by strong-field tunnel ionization to self-interrogate the molecular structure with picometre spatial resolution and bond specificity. With its inherent femtosecond resolution, combining our technique with molecular alignment can, in principle, provide the basis for time-resolved tomography for multi-dimensional transient structural determination.

  8. Decentralized adaptive neural control for high-order interconnected stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenjie; Dong, Xunde; Yang, Feifei

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of decentralized adaptive backstepping state-feedback control for uncertain high-order large-scale stochastic nonlinear time-delay systems. For the control design of high-order large-scale nonlinear systems, only one adaptive parameter is constructed to overcome the over-parameterization, and neural networks are employed to cope with the difficulties raised by completely unknown system dynamics and stochastic disturbances. And then, the appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the property of hyperbolic tangent functions are used to deal with the unknown unmatched time-delay interactions of high-order large-scale systems for the first time. At last, on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the decentralized adaptive neural controller was developed, and it decreases the number of learning parameters. The actual controller can be designed so as to ensure that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) and the tracking error converges in the small neighborhood of zero. The simulation example is used to further show the validity of the design method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-order space-time finite element schemes for acoustic and viscodynamic wave equations with temporal decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H T; Birch, Malcolm J; Brewin, Mark P; Greenwald, Stephen E; Hu, Shuhua; Kenz, Zackary R; Kruse, Carola; Maischak, Matthias; Shaw, Simon; Whiteman, John R

    2014-04-13

    We revisit a method originally introduced by Werder et al. (in Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 190:6685-6708, 2001) for temporally discontinuous Galerkin FEMs applied to a parabolic partial differential equation. In that approach, block systems arise because of the coupling of the spatial systems through inner products of the temporal basis functions. If the spatial finite element space is of dimension D and polynomials of degree r are used in time, the block system has dimension ( r + 1) D and is usually regarded as being too large when r > 1. Werder et al. found that the space-time coupling matrices are diagonalizable over [Formula: see text] for r ⩽ 100, and this means that the time-coupled computations within a time step can actually be decoupled. By using either continuous Galerkin or spectral element methods in space, we apply this DG-in-time methodology, for the first time, to second-order wave equations including elastodynamics with and without Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell-Zener viscoelasticity. An example set of numerical results is given to demonstrate the favourable effect on error and computational work of the moderately high-order (up to degree 7) temporal and spatio-temporal approximations, and we also touch on an application of this method to an ambitious problem related to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. High-order harmonic generation spectra and isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color time delayed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liqiang; Chu Tianshu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of HHG spectra and single isolated attosecond pulse generation. ► Irradiation from a model Ne atom by two-color time delayed pulse. ► Observation of time delay effect and relative phase effect. ► Revelation of the optimal condition for generating isolated attosecond pulse. ► Generation of a single isolated attosecond pulse of 45as. - Abstract: In this paper, we theoretically investigate the delay time effect on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) when a model Ne atom is exposed to a two-color time delayed pulse, consisting of a 5fs/800 nm fundamental field and a 20fs/2000 nm controlling field. It shows that the HHG spectra are strongly sensitive to the delay time between the two laser fields, in particular, for the zero carrier-envelope phase (CEP) φ case (corresponding to the 800 nm fundamental field), the maximum cutoff energy has been achieved at zero delay time. However, with the introduction of the CEP (φ = 180°), the delay effect on HHG is changed, exhibiting a ‘U’ structure harmonic emission from −1 T to 1 T. In addition, the combinations of different controlling pulse frequencies and pulse intensities have also been considered, showing the similar results as the original controlling field case, but with some characteristics. Finally, by properly superposing the optimal harmonic spectrum, an isolated 45as pulse is generated without phase compensation.

  11. Global exponential stability of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiying; Du, Qiaosheng; Kang, Xibing

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a class of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays is investigated. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time finite-state Markov chain. At first, the existence of equilibrium point for the addressed neural networks is studied. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory, stochastic analysis theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new delay-dependent stability criteria are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the neural networks to be globally exponentially stable in the mean square. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of fourth-order dispersion in very high-speed optical time-division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Pastor, D; Sales, S; Ortega, B

    2002-06-01

    We present a closed-form expression for computation of the output pulse's rms time width in an optical fiber link with up to fourth-order dispersion (FOD) by use of an optical source with arbitrary linewidth and chirp parameters. We then specialize the expression to analyze the effect of FOD on the transmission of very high-speed linear optical time-division multiplexing systems. By suitable source chirping, FOD can be compensated for to an upper link-length limit above which other techniques must be employed. Finally, a design formula to estimate the maximum attainable bit rate limited by FOD as a function of the link length is also presented.

  13. Symmetric and arbitrarily high-order Birkhoff-Hermite time integrators and their long-time behaviour for solving nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changying; Iserles, Arieh; Wu, Xinyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Klein-Gordon equation with nonlinear potential occurs in a wide range of application areas in science and engineering. Its computation represents a major challenge. The main theme of this paper is the construction of symmetric and arbitrarily high-order time integrators for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation by integrating Birkhoff-Hermite interpolation polynomials. To this end, under the assumption of periodic boundary conditions, we begin with the formulation of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation as an abstract second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) and its operator-variation-of-constants formula. We then derive a symmetric and arbitrarily high-order Birkhoff-Hermite time integration formula for the nonlinear abstract ODE. Accordingly, the stability, convergence and long-time behaviour are rigorously analysed once the spatial differential operator is approximated by an appropriate positive semi-definite matrix, subject to suitable temporal and spatial smoothness. A remarkable characteristic of this new approach is that the requirement of temporal smoothness is reduced compared with the traditional numerical methods for PDEs in the literature. Numerical results demonstrate the advantage and efficiency of our time integrators in comparison with the existing numerical approaches.

  14. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  15. A HIGH ORDER SOLUTION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL TIME DEPENDENT NONLINEAR CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE PROBLEM USING MODIFIED VARIATIONAL ITERATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Joshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have achieved high order solution of a three dimensional nonlinear diffusive-convective problem using modified variational iteration method. The efficiency of this approach has been shown by solving two examples. All computational work has been performed in MATHEMATICA.

  16. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  17. An analyzer for pulse-interval times to study high-order effects in the processing of nuclear detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, B.; Jonge, S. de

    1998-01-01

    An electronic device to measure interval time density distributions of subsequent pulses in nuclear detectors and their electronics is described. The device has a pair-pulse resolution of 10 ns and 25 ns for 3 subsequent input signals. The conversion range is 4096 channels and the lowest channel width is 10 ns. Counter dead times, single and in series were studied and compared with the statistical model. True count rates were obtained from an exponential fit through the interval-time distribution

  18. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  19. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  20. High-order fuzzy time-series based on multi-period adaptation model for forecasting stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Liang; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Teoh, Hia-Jong

    2008-02-01

    Stock investors usually make their short-term investment decisions according to recent stock information such as the late market news, technical analysis reports, and price fluctuations. To reflect these short-term factors which impact stock price, this paper proposes a comprehensive fuzzy time-series, which factors linear relationships between recent periods of stock prices and fuzzy logical relationships (nonlinear relationships) mined from time-series into forecasting processes. In empirical analysis, the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) and HSI (Heng Seng Index) are employed as experimental datasets, and four recent fuzzy time-series models, Chen’s (1996), Yu’s (2005), Cheng’s (2006) and Chen’s (2007), are used as comparison models. Besides, to compare with conventional statistic method, the method of least squares is utilized to estimate the auto-regressive models of the testing periods within the databases. From analysis results, the performance comparisons indicate that the multi-period adaptation model, proposed in this paper, can effectively improve the forecasting performance of conventional fuzzy time-series models which only factor fuzzy logical relationships in forecasting processes. From the empirical study, the traditional statistic method and the proposed model both reveal that stock price patterns in the Taiwan stock and Hong Kong stock markets are short-term.

  1. Time ordering in multi-electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J H; Godunov, A L; Shakov, Kh Kh; Shipakov, V A; Merabet, H; Bruch, R; Hanni, J

    2003-01-01

    Time ordering of interactions in dynamic quantum multi-electron systems provides a constraint that interconnects the time evolution of different electrons. In energy space, time ordering appears as the principal value contribution from the Green function, which corresponds to the asymptotic condition that specifies whether the system has outgoing (or possibly incoming) scattered waves. We report evidence of effects of time correlation found by comparing calculations to recent spectropolarimetric data

  2. Time ordering in multi-electron dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, J H [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Godunov, A L [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Shakov, Kh Kh [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Shipakov, V A [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Merabet, H [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Bruch, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Hanni, J [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2003-01-28

    Time ordering of interactions in dynamic quantum multi-electron systems provides a constraint that interconnects the time evolution of different electrons. In energy space, time ordering appears as the principal value contribution from the Green function, which corresponds to the asymptotic condition that specifies whether the system has outgoing (or possibly incoming) scattered waves. We report evidence of effects of time correlation found by comparing calculations to recent spectropolarimetric data.

  3. Evaluation of the CPU time for solving the radiative transfer equation with high-order resolution schemes applying the normalized weighting-factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xamán, J.; Zavala-Guillén, I.; Hernández-López, I.; Uriarte-Flores, J.; Hernández-Pérez, I.; Macías-Melo, E. V.; Aguilar-Castro, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluated the convergence rate (CPU time) of a new mathematical formulation for the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) with several High-Order (HO) and High-Resolution (HR) schemes. In computational fluid dynamics, this procedure is known as the Normalized Weighting-Factor (NWF) method and it is adopted here. The NWF method is used to incorporate the high-order resolution schemes in the discretized RTE. The NWF method is compared, in terms of computer time needed to obtain a converged solution, with the widely used deferred-correction (DC) technique for the calculations of a two-dimensional cavity with emitting-absorbing-scattering gray media using the discrete ordinates method. Six parameters, viz. the grid size, the order of quadrature, the absorption coefficient, the emissivity of the boundary surface, the under-relaxation factor, and the scattering albedo are considered to evaluate ten schemes. The results showed that using the DC method, in general, the scheme that had the lowest CPU time is the SOU. In contrast, with the results of theDC procedure the CPU time for DIAMOND and QUICK schemes using the NWF method is shown to be, between the 3.8 and 23.1% faster and 12.6 and 56.1% faster, respectively. However, the other schemes are more time consuming when theNWFis used instead of the DC method. Additionally, a second test case was presented and the results showed that depending on the problem under consideration, the NWF procedure may be computationally faster or slower that the DC method. As an example, the CPU time for QUICK and SMART schemes are 61.8 and 203.7%, respectively, slower when the NWF formulation is used for the second test case. Finally, future researches to explore the computational cost of the NWF method in more complex problems are required.

  4. Time-ordered products and Schwinger functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckmann, J.P.; Epstein, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that every system of time-ordered products for a local field theory determines a related system of Schwinger functions possessing an extended form of Osterwalder-Schrader positivity and that the converse is true provided certain growth conditions are satisfied. This is applied to the phi 3 4 theory and it is shown that the time-ordered functions and S-matrix elements admit the standard perturbation series as asymptotic expansions. (orig.) [de

  5. High-order passive photonic temporal integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2010-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an ultrafast photonic high-order (second-order) complex-field temporal integrator. The demonstrated device uses a single apodized uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and it is based on a general FBG design approach for implementing optimized arbitrary-order photonic passive temporal integrators. Using this same design approach, we also fabricate and test a first-order passive temporal integrator offering an energetic-efficiency improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude as compared with previously reported passive first-order temporal integrators. Accurate and efficient first- and second-order temporal integrations of ultrafast complex-field optical signals (with temporal features as fast as approximately 2.5ps) are successfully demonstrated using the fabricated FBG devices.

  6. Evaluation of the Xeon phi processor as a technology for the acceleration of real-time control in high-order adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Basden, Alastair; Dipper, Nigel; Schwartz, Noah; Vick, Andy; Schnetler, Hermine

    2014-08-01

    We present wavefront reconstruction acceleration of high-order AO systems using an Intel Xeon Phi processor. The Xeon Phi is a coprocessor providing many integrated cores and designed for accelerating compute intensive, numerical codes. Unlike other accelerator technologies, it allows virtually unchanged C/C++ to be recompiled to run on the Xeon Phi, giving the potential of making development, upgrade and maintenance faster and less complex. We benchmark the Xeon Phi in the context of AO real-time control by running a matrix vector multiply (MVM) algorithm. We investigate variability in execution time and demonstrate a substantial speed-up in loop frequency. We examine the integration of a Xeon Phi into an existing RTC system and show that performance improvements can be achieved with limited development effort.

  7. Distributed fault-tolerant time-varying formation control for high-order linear multi-agent systems with actuator failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the fault-tolerant time-varying formation control problems for high-order linear multi-agent systems in the presence of actuator failures. Firstly, a fully distributed formation control protocol is presented to compensate for the influences of both bias fault and loss of effectiveness fault. Using the adaptive online updating strategies, no global knowledge about the communication topology is required and the bounds of actuator failures can be unknown. Then an algorithm is proposed to determine the control parameters of the fault-tolerant formation protocol, where the time-varying formation feasible conditions and an approach to expand the feasible formation set are given. Furthermore, the stability of the proposed algorithm is proven based on the Lyapunov-like theory. Finally, two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatically ordering events and times in text

    CERN Document Server

    Derczynski, Leon R A

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a detailed guide to temporal ordering, exploring open problems in the field and providing solutions and extensive analysis. It addresses the challenge of automatically ordering events and times in text. Aided by TimeML, it also describes and presents concepts relating to time in easy-to-compute terms. Working out the order that events and times happen has proven difficult for computers, since the language used to discuss time can be vague and complex. Mapping out these concepts for a computational system, which does not have its own inherent idea of time, is, unsurprisingly, tough. Solving this problem enables powerful systems that can plan, reason about events, and construct stories of their own accord, as well as understand the complex narratives that humans express and comprehend so naturally. This book presents a theory and data-driven analysis of temporal ordering, leading to the identification of exactly what is difficult about the task. It then proposes and evaluates machine-learning so...

  9. N3S project of fluid mechanics. High order in time methods by operator splitting. Application to Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukir, K.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis deals with the extension to higher order in time of two splitting methods for the Navier-Stokes equations: the characteristics method and the projection one. The first consists in decoupling the convection operator from the Stokes one. The second decomposes this latter into a diffusion problem and a pressure-continuity one. Concerning the characteristics method, numerical and theoretical study is developed for the second order scheme together with a finite element spatial discretization. The case of a spectral spatial discretization is also treated and theoretical analysis are given respectively for second and third order schemes. For both spatial discretizations, we obtain good error estimates, unconditionally or under non stringent stability conditions, for both velocity and pressure. Numerical results illustrate the interest of the second order scheme comparing to the first order one. Extensions of the second order scheme to the K-epsilon turbulence model are proposed and tested, in the case of a finite element spatial discretization. Concerning the projection method, we define the order schemes. The theoretical study deals with stability and convergence of first and second order projection schemes, for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and with a finite element spatial discretization. The numerical study concerns mainly the second order scheme applied to the Navier-Stokes equations with varying density. (authors). 63 refs., figs

  10. High-order finite volume advection

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, James

    2018-01-01

    The cubicFit advection scheme is limited to second-order convergence because it uses a polynomial reconstruction fitted to point values at cell centres. The highOrderFit advection scheme achieves higher than second order by calculating high-order moments over the mesh geometry.

  11. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skokos, Ch., E-mail: haris.skokos@uct.ac.za [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Gerlach, E. [Lohrmann Observatory, Technical University Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bodyfelt, J.D., E-mail: J.Bodyfelt@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Papamikos, G. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Eggl, S. [IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-01

    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

  12. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokos, Ch.; Gerlach, E.; Bodyfelt, J.D.; Papamikos, G.; Eggl, S.

    2014-01-01

    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

  13. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  14. Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, L.; Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W.; Willert, J.A.; Womeldorff, G.

    2017-01-01

    We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.

  15. Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacón, L., E-mail: chacon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Willert, J.A. [Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Womeldorff, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.

  16. Extending the Riemann-Solver-Free High-Order Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Cell Vertex Scheme (DG-CVS) to Solve Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics,” J. Com- put. Phys., Vol. 153, No. 2, 1999, pp. 334–352. [14] Tang, H.-Z. and Xu, K., “A high-order gas -kinetic method for...notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...Riemann-solver-free spacetime discontinuous Galerkin method for general conservation laws to solve compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The

  17. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  18. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.

    2008-09-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 15 W/cm 2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 10 18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 10 19 W/cm 2 , two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)

  19. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, H.

    2010-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm -2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10 -18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  20. High Order Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian

    2014-11-01

    In most fluid phenomena, advection plays an important roll. A numerical scheme capable of making quantitative predictions and simulations must compute correctly the advection terms appearing in the equations governing fluid flow. Here we present a high order forward semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme specifically tailored to compute material derivatives. The scheme relies on the geometrical interpretation of material derivatives to compute the time evolution of fields on grids that deform with the material fluid domain, an interpolating procedure of arbitrary order that preserves the moments of the interpolated distributions, and a nonlinear mapping strategy to perform interpolations between undeformed and deformed grids. Additionally, a discontinuity criterion was implemented to deal with discontinuous fields and shocks. Tests of pure advection, shock formation and nonlinear phenomena are presented to show performance and convergence of the scheme. The high computational cost is considerably reduced when implemented on massively parallel architectures found in graphic cards. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).

  1. Reverse time migration by Krylov subspace reduced order modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, Hadi Mahdavi; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Firouz-Abadi, Roohollah Dehghani; Gholamy, Shaban Ali

    2018-04-01

    Imaging is a key step in seismic data processing. To date, a myriad of advanced pre-stack depth migration approaches have been developed; however, reverse time migration (RTM) is still considered as the high-end imaging algorithm. The main limitations associated with the performance cost of reverse time migration are the intensive computation of the forward and backward simulations, time consumption, and memory allocation related to imaging condition. Based on the reduced order modeling, we proposed an algorithm, which can be adapted to all the aforementioned factors. Our proposed method benefit from Krylov subspaces method to compute certain mode shapes of the velocity model computed by as an orthogonal base of reduced order modeling. Reverse time migration by reduced order modeling is helpful concerning the highly parallel computation and strongly reduces the memory requirement of reverse time migration. The synthetic model results showed that suggested method can decrease the computational costs of reverse time migration by several orders of magnitudes, compared with reverse time migration by finite element method.

  2. High-order beam optics - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heighway, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Beam-transport codes have been around for as long as thirty years and high order codes, second-order at least, for close to twenty years. Before this period of design-code development, there was considerable high-order treatment, but it was almost entirely analytical. History has a way of repeating itself, and the current excitement in the field of high-order optics is based on the application of Lie algebra and the so-called differential algebra to beam-transport codes, both of which are highly analytical in foundation. The author will describe some of the main design tools available today, giving a little of their history, and will conclude by trying to convey some of the excitement in the field through a brief description of Lie and differential algebra. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Bioinspired Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Highly Ordered Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziguang; Fang, Ruochen; Rong, Qinfeng; Liu, Mingjie

    2017-12-01

    In the human body, many soft tissues with hierarchically ordered composite structures, such as cartilage, skeletal muscle, the corneas, and blood vessels, exhibit highly anisotropic mechanical strength and functionality to adapt to complex environments. In artificial soft materials, hydrogels are analogous to these biological soft tissues due to their "soft and wet" properties, their biocompatibility, and their elastic performance. However, conventional hydrogel materials with unordered homogeneous structures inevitably lack high mechanical properties and anisotropic functional performances; thus, their further application is limited. Inspired by biological soft tissues with well-ordered structures, researchers have increasingly investigated highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels as functional biological engineering soft materials with unique mechanical, optical, and biological properties. These hydrogels incorporate long-range ordered nanocomposite structures within hydrogel network matrixes. Here, the critical design criteria and the state-of-the-art fabrication strategies of nanocomposite hydrogels with highly ordered structures are systemically reviewed. Then, recent progress in applications in the fields of soft actuators, tissue engineering, and sensors is highlighted. The future development and prospective application of highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high order method for solving the unbounded Poisson equation on a regular mesh using a Green’s function solution. The high order convergence was achieved by formulating mollified integration kernels, that were derived from a filter regularisation of the solution field....... The method was implemented on a rectangular domain using fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to increase computational efficiency. The Poisson solver was extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution. This is achieved either by including the differential operator in the integration kernel...... the equations of fluid mechanics as an example, but can be used in many physical problems to solve the Poisson equation on a rectangular unbounded domain. For the two-dimensional case we propose an infinitely smooth test function which allows for arbitrary high order convergence. Using Gaussian smoothing...

  5. NavyTime: Event and Time Ordering from Raw Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    time-time, and event-DCT (DCT is the doc- ument creation time). 74 Event Extraction F1 ATT-1 81.05 NavyTime 80.30 KUL 79.32 cleartk -4 & cleartk -3...71.88 KUL 70.17 cleartk 67.87 NavyTime 67.48 Temp:ESA 54.55 JU-CSE 52.69 Temp:WNet 50.00 FSS-TimEx 42.94 Tense and Aspect Attributes System Tense F1...Aspect F1 cleartk 62.18 70.40 NavyTime 61.67 72.43 ATT 59.47 73.50 JU-CSE 58.62 72.14 KUL 49.70 63.20 not all systems participated Figure 1: Complete

  6. High-order nonlinear susceptibilities of He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.C.; Clark, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    High-order nonlinear optical response of noble gases to intense laser radiation is of considerable experimental interest, but is difficult to measure or calculate accurately. The authors have begun a set of calculations of frequency-dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of He 1s, within the framework of Rayleigh=Schroedinger perturbation theory at lowest applicable order, with the goal of providing critically evaluated atomic data for modelling high harmonic generation processes. The atomic Hamiltonian is decomposed in term of Hylleraas coordinates and spherical harmonics using the formalism of Ponte and Shakeshaft, and the hierarchy of inhomogeneous equations of perturbation theory is solved iteratively. A combination of Hylleraas and Frankowski basis functions is used; the compact Hylleraas basis provides a highly accurate representation of the ground state wavefunction, whereas the diffuse Frankowski basis functions efficiently reproduce the correct asymptotic structure of the perturbed orbitals

  7. High-Order Weno Simulations of Three-Dimensional Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability to Late Times: Dynamics, Dependence on Initial Conditions, and Comparisons to Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2010-01-12

    The dynamics of the reshocked multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated using 513 x 257{sup 2} three-dimensional ninth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing simulations. A two-mode initial perturbation with superposed random noise is used to model the Mach 1.5 air/SF{sub 6} Vetter-Sturtevant shock tube experiment. The mass fraction and enstrophy isosurfaces, and density cross-sections are utilized to show the detailed flow structure before, during, and after reshock. It is shown that the mixing layer growth agrees well with the experimentally measured growth rate before and after reshock. The post-reshock growth rate is also in good agreement with the prediction of the Mikaelian model. A parametric study of the sensitivity of the layer growth to the choice of amplitudes of the short and long wavelength initial interfacial perturbation is also presented. Finally, the amplification effects of reshock are quantified using the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent enstrophy spectra, as well as the evolution of the baroclinic enstrophy production, buoyancy production, and shear production terms in the enstrophy and turbulent kinetic transport equations.

  8. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal; Grant, Zachary; Higgs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search

  9. High-order nonuniformly correlated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2018-02-01

    We have introduced a class of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlations named high-order nonuniformly correlated (HNUC) beams, as an extension of conventional nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams. Such beams bring a new parameter (mode order) which is used to tailor the spatial coherence properties. The behavior of the spectral density of the HNUC beams on propagation has been investigated through numerical examples with the help of discrete model decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Our results reveal that by selecting the mode order appropriately, the more sharpened intensity maxima can be achieved at a certain propagation distance compared to that of the NUC beams, and the lateral shift of the intensity maxima on propagation is closed related to the mode order. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the r.m.s width and the propagation factor of the HNUC beams on free-space propagation are derived by means of Wigner distribution function. The influence of initial beam parameters on the evolution of the r.m.s width and the propagation factor, and the relation between the r.m.s width and the occurring of the sharpened intensity maxima on propagation have been studied and discussed in detail.

  10. High order corrections to the renormalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faleev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    High order corrections to the renormalon are considered. Each new type of insertion into the renormalon chain of graphs generates a correction to the asymptotics of perturbation theory of the order of ∝1. However, this series of corrections to the asymptotics is not the asymptotic one (i.e. the mth correction does not grow like m.). The summation of these corrections for the UV renormalon may change the asymptotics by a factor N δ . For the traditional IR renormalon the mth correction diverges like (-2) m . However, this divergence has no infrared origin and may be removed by a proper redefinition of the IR renormalon. On the other hand, for IR renormalons in hadronic event shapes one should naturally expect these multiloop contributions to decrease like (-2) -m . Some problems expected upon reaching the best accuracy of perturbative QCD are also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time

  12. The order axiom and the biological space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Huu Nhu

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the field of Biological Space - Time. In fact the conception of Biological Space - Time is connected with order character of sets. Because the illustration of order axioms is very important for searching order systems. In this work, the new form of order axioms has been illustrated in the form of (a,b) ≠ (b.a). It is a common form of Descartes product. Based on this we suggest the following formation of order lemma (a.b) ≠(b.a)↔ a Φ b. In this case Φ is an order relation. From the new form of order axiom, we determine the order system as follows: If S = (a,b) the set of two elements and the order axiom (a.b) ≠ (b.a) is satisfied. So that, in this case, S is called an order system. The life system are the most important order systems. We could illustrate the biological system as: S = (A, T, G, C). In this set, A, T, G, C are the elements of the genetic code and the order axiom is satisfied. As we know, for example, in genetic code: (AUG) ≠ (UGA) ≠ (UAG). The order biological system induces an order relation and it is the origin of the conception of Biological Space Time. The students of Physics and Biology could use this book as basic course for studies of Biological Space Time. (author)

  13. Temporal Frequency Modulates Reaction Time Responses to First-Order and Second-Order Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V.; Ledgeway, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of temporal frequency and modulation depth on reaction times for discriminating the direction of first-order (luminance-defined) and second-order (contrast-defined) motion, equated for visibility using equal multiples of direction-discrimination threshold. Results showed that reaction times were heavily…

  14. Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-05-01

    This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.

  15. Least squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging using the reverse time migration of multiples generates inherent crosstalk artifacts due to the interference among different order multiples. Traditionally, least-square fitting has been used to address this issue by seeking the best objective function to measure the amplitude differences between the predicted and observed data. We have developed an alternative objective function by decomposing multiples into different orders to minimize the difference between Born modeling predicted multiples and specific-order multiples from observational data in order to attenuate the crosstalk. This method is denoted as the least-squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples (LSRTM-CM). Our numerical examples demonstrated that the LSRTM-CM can significantly improve image quality compared with reverse time migration of multiples and least-square reverse time migration of multiples. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41430321 and 41374138).

  16. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  17. Machine Learning Control For Highly Reconfigurable High-Order Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    calibration and applications,” Mechatronics and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA), 2010 IEEE/ASME International Conference on, IEEE, 2010, pp. 38–43...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0012 MACHINE LEARNING CONTROL FOR HIGHLY RECONFIGURABLE HIGH-ORDER SYSTEMS John Valasek TEXAS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION...DIMENSIONAL RECONFIGURABLE SYSTEMS FA9550-11-1-0302 Period of Performance 1 July 2011 – 29 September 2014 John Valasek Aerospace Engineering

  18. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  19. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  20. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  1. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal

    2015-04-10

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search for high order strong stability time-stepping methods with large allowable strong stability coefficient has been an active area of research over the last two decades. This research has shown that explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods exist only up to fourth order. However, if we restrict ourselves to solving only linear autonomous problems, the order conditions simplify and this order barrier is lifted: explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods of any linear order exist. These methods reduce to second order when applied to nonlinear problems. In the current work we aim to find explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods with large allowable time-step, that feature high linear order and simultaneously have the optimal fourth order nonlinear order. These methods have strong stability coefficients that approach those of the linear methods as the number of stages and the linear order is increased. This work shows that when a high linear order method is desired, it may still be worthwhile to use methods with higher nonlinear order.

  2. HOKF: High Order Kalman Filter for Epilepsy Forecasting Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee

    2017-08-01

    Epilepsy forecasting has been extensively studied using high-order time series obtained from scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An accurate seizure prediction system would not only help significantly improve patients' quality of life, but would also facilitate new therapeutic strategies to manage epilepsy. This paper thus proposes an improved Kalman Filter (KF) algorithm to mine seizure forecasts from neural activity by modeling three properties in the high-order EEG time series: noise, temporal smoothness, and tensor structure. The proposed High-Order Kalman Filter (HOKF) is an extension of the standard Kalman filter, for which higher-order modeling is limited. The efficient dynamic of HOKF system preserves the tensor structure of the observations and latent states. As such, the proposed method offers two main advantages: (i) effectiveness with HOKF results in hidden variables that capture major evolving trends suitable to predict neural activity, even in the presence of missing values; and (ii) scalability in that the wall clock time of the HOKF is linear with respect to the number of time-slices of the sequence. The HOKF algorithm is examined in terms of its effectiveness and scalability by conducting forecasting and scalability experiments with a real epilepsy EEG dataset. The results of the simulation demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the original Kalman Filter and other existing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Finite-Time Stability for Fractional-Order Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Time Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Jin; Li, Pei-Luan; Pang, Yi-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays. Applying Laplace transform, the generalized Gronwall inequality and estimates of Mittag-Leffler functions, some sufficient conditions which ensure the finite-time stability of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays are obtained. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos.~61673008, 11261010, 11101126, Project of High-Level Innovative Talents of Guizhou Province ([2016]5651), Natural Science and Technology Foundation of Guizhou Province (J[2015]2025 and J[2015]2026), 125 Special Major Science and Technology of Department of Education of Guizhou Province ([2012]011) and Natural Science Foundation of the Education Department of Guizhou Province (KY[2015]482)

  4. Lost time: Bindings do not represent temporal order information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Birte; Frings, Christian

    2018-06-04

    Many accounts of human action control assume bindings between features of stimuli and responses of individual events. One widely accepted assumption about these bindings is that they do not contain temporal-order representations regarding the integrated elements. Even though several theories either explicitly or implicitly include it, this assumption has never been tested directly. One reason for this lack of evidence is likely that typical stimulus-response binding paradigms are inapt for such a test. Adapting a new paradigm of response-response binding to include order switches between response integration and retrieval, we were able to analyze possible representation of order information in bindings for the first time. Binding effects were identical for intact and switched response orders, indicating that bindings indeed include no temporal-order information.

  5. Discrete time-crystalline order in black diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hengyun; Choi, Soonwon; Choi, Joonhee; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2017-04-01

    The interplay of periodic driving, disorder, and strong interactions has recently been predicted to result in exotic ``time-crystalline'' phases, which spontaneously break the discrete time-translation symmetry of the underlying drive. Here, we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of 106 dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room-temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, experimentally identify the phase boundary and find that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions; this order is remarkably stable against perturbations, even in the presence of slow thermalization. Our work opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.

  6. High Order Differential Frequency Hopping: Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers spectrally efficient differential frequency hopping (DFH system design. Relying on time-frequency diversity over large spectrum and high speed frequency hopping, DFH systems are robust against hostile jamming interference. However, the spectral efficiency of conventional DFH systems is very low due to only using the frequency of each channel. To improve the system capacity, in this paper, we propose an innovative high order differential frequency hopping (HODFH scheme. Unlike in traditional DFH where the message is carried by the frequency relationship between the adjacent hops using one order differential coding, in HODFH, the message is carried by the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding. As a result, system efficiency is increased significantly since the additional information transmission is achieved by the higher order differential coding at no extra cost on either bandwidth or power. Quantitative performance analysis on the proposed scheme demonstrates that transmission through the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding essentially introduces another dimension to the signal space, and the corresponding coding gain can increase the system efficiency.

  7. High order dark wavefront sensing simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide; Carolo, Elena; Vassallo, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Dark wavefront sensing takes shape following quantum mechanics concepts in which one is able to "see" an object in one path of a two-arm interferometer using an as low as desired amount of light actually "hitting" the occulting object. A theoretical way to achieve such a goal, but in the realm of wavefront sensing, is represented by a combination of two unequal beams interferometer sharing the same incoming light, and whose difference in path length is continuously adjusted in order to show different signals for different signs of the incoming perturbation. Furthermore, in order to obtain this in white light, the path difference should be properly adjusted vs the wavelength used. While we incidentally describe how this could be achieved in a true optomechanical setup, we focus our attention to the simulation of a hypothetical "perfect" dark wavefront sensor of this kind in which white light compensation is accomplished in a perfect manner and the gain is selectable in a numerical fashion. Although this would represent a sort of idealized dark wavefront sensor that would probably be hard to match in the real glass and metal, it would also give a firm indication of the maximum achievable gain or, in other words, of the prize for achieving such device. Details of how the simulation code works and first numerical results are outlined along with the perspective for an in-depth analysis of the performances and its extension to more realistic situations, including various sources of additional noise.

  8. Effects of multiple electronic shells on strong-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, S.-I

    2009-01-01

    We present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N 2 and F 2 in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, depending on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even strongly bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.

  9. High order QED corrections in Z physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marck, S.C. van der.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis a number of calculations of higher order QED corrections are presented, all applying to the standard LEP/SLC processes e + e - → f-bar f, where f stands for any fermion. In cases where f≠ e - , ν e , the above process is only possible via annihilation of the incoming electron positron pair. At LEP/SLC this mainly occurs via the production and the subsequent decay of a Z boson, i.e. the cross section is heavily dominated by the Z resonance. These processes and the corrections to them, treated in a semi-analytical way, are discussed (ch. 2). In the case f = e - (Bhabha scattering) the process can also occur via the exchange of a virtual photon in the t-channel. Since the latter contribution is dominant at small scattering angles one has to exclude these angles if one is interested in Z physics. Having excluded that region one has to recalculate all QED corrections (ch. 3). The techniques introduced there enables for the calculation the difference between forward and backward scattering, the forward backward symmetry, for the cases f ≠ e - , ν e (ch. 4). At small scattering angles, where Bhabha scattering is dominated by photon exchange in the t-channel, this process is used in experiments to determine the luminosity of the e + e - accelerator. hence an accurate theoretical description of this process at small angles is of vital interest to the overall normalization of all measurements at LEP/SLC. Ch. 5 gives such a description in a semi-analytical way. The last two chapters discuss Monte Carlo techniques that are used for the cases f≠ e - , ν e . Ch. 6 describes the simulation of two photon bremsstrahlung, which is a second order QED correction effect. The results are compared with results of the semi-analytical treatment in ch. 2. Finally ch. 7 reviews several techniques that have been used to simulate higher order QED corrections for the cases f≠ e - , ν e . (author). 132 refs.; 10 figs.; 16 tabs

  10. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghişoiu, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.ghisoiu@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Gorda, Tyler, E-mail: tyler.gorda@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Kurkela, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.kurkela@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul, E-mail: paul.romatschke@colorado.edu [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Säppi, Matias, E-mail: matias.sappi@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Vuorinen, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.vuorinen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes — a result reminiscent of a previously proposed “naive real-time formalism” for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  12. High-Order Curvilinear Finite Element Methods for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics [High Order Curvilinear Finite Elements for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, Veselin A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    The numerical approximation of the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a movingLagrangian frame is at the heart of many multiphysics simulation algorithms. Here, we present a general framework for high-order Lagrangian discretization of these compressible shock hydrodynamics equations using curvilinear finite elements. This method is an extension of the approach outlined in [Dobrev et al., Internat. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 65 (2010), pp. 1295--1310] and can be formulated for any finite dimensional approximation of the kinematic and thermodynamic fields, including generic finite elements on two- and three-dimensional meshes with triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, or hexahedral zones. We discretize the kinematic variables of position and velocity using a continuous high-order basis function expansion of arbitrary polynomial degree which is obtained via a corresponding high-order parametric mapping from a standard reference element. This enables the use of curvilinear zone geometry, higher-order approximations for fields within a zone, and a pointwise definition of mass conservation which we refer to as strong mass conservation. Moreover, we discretize the internal energy using a piecewise discontinuous high-order basis function expansion which is also of arbitrary polynomial degree. This facilitates multimaterial hydrodynamics by treating material properties, such as equations of state and constitutive models, as piecewise discontinuous functions which vary within a zone. To satisfy the Rankine--Hugoniot jump conditions at a shock boundary and generate the appropriate entropy, we introduce a general tensor artificial viscosity which takes advantage of the high-order kinematic and thermodynamic information available in each zone. Finally, we apply a generic high-order time discretization process to the semidiscrete equations to develop the fully discrete numerical algorithm. Our method can be viewed as the high-order generalization of the so-called staggered

  13. Average inactivity time model, associated orderings and reliability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayid, M.; Izadkhah, S.; Abouammoh, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a new model called 'average inactivity time model'. This new model is specifically applicable to handle the heterogeneity of the time of the failure of a system in which some inactive items exist. We provide some bounds for the mean average inactivity time of a lifespan unit. In addition, we discuss some dependence structures between the average variable and the mixing variable in the model when original random variable possesses some aging behaviors. Based on the conception of the new model, we introduce and study a new stochastic order. Finally, to illustrate the concept of the model, some interesting reliability problems are reserved.

  14. Ductile long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperature and wrought articles fabricated therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; Inouye, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Fe, Co).sub.3 and V(Fe, Co, Ni).sub.3 systems. These alloys have the following compositions comprising by weight: 22-23% V, 14-30% Fe, and the remainder Co or Co and Ni with an electron density no more than 7.85. The maximum combination of high temperature strength, ductility and creep resistance are manifested in the alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 14-20% Fe and the remainder Co and having an atomic composition of V(Fe .sub.0.20-0.26 C Co.sub.0.74-0.80).sub.3. The alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 16-17% Fe and 60-62% Co has excellent high temperature properties. The alloys are fabricable into wrought articles by casting, deforming, and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  15. Out-of-time-order fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Shitara, Tomohiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    We prove a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem for a certain class of out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs) with a modified statistical average, which we call bipartite OTOCs, for general quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. The difference between the bipartite and physical OTOCs defined by the usual statistical average is quantified by a measure of quantum fluctuations known as the Wigner-Yanase skew information. Within this difference, the theorem describes a universal relation between chaotic behavior in quantum systems and a nonlinear-response function that involves a time-reversed process. We show that the theorem can be generalized to higher-order n -partite OTOCs as well as in the form of generalized covariance.

  16. Time-ordered product expansions for computational stochastic system biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The time-ordered product framework of quantum field theory can also be used to understand salient phenomena in stochastic biochemical networks. It is used here to derive Gillespie’s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for chemical reaction networks; consequently, the SSA can be interpreted in terms of Feynman diagrams. It is also used here to derive other, more general simulation and parameter-learning algorithms including simulation algorithms for networks of stochastic reaction-like processes operating on parameterized objects, and also hybrid stochastic reaction/differential equation models in which systems of ordinary differential equations evolve the parameters of objects that can also undergo stochastic reactions. Thus, the time-ordered product expansion can be used systematically to derive simulation and parameter-fitting algorithms for stochastic systems. (paper)

  17. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  19. Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C

    2010-08-01

    Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research.

  20. High-order quantum algorithm for solving linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Dominic W

    2014-01-01

    Linear differential equations are ubiquitous in science and engineering. Quantum computers can simulate quantum systems, which are described by a restricted type of linear differential equations. Here we extend quantum simulation algorithms to general inhomogeneous sparse linear differential equations, which describe many classical physical systems. We examine the use of high-order methods (where the error over a time step is a high power of the size of the time step) to improve the efficiency. These provide scaling close to Δt 2 in the evolution time Δt. As with other algorithms of this type, the solution is encoded in amplitudes of the quantum state, and it is possible to extract global features of the solution. (paper)

  1. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Beghein, Yves; Nair, Naveen V.; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  2. Airfoil noise computation use high-order schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    High-order finite difference schemes with at least 4th-order spatial accuracy are used to simulate aerodynamically generated noise. The aeroacoustic solver with 4th-order up to 8th-order accuracy is implemented into the in-house flow solver, EllipSys2D/3D. Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) fin...

  3. Finite-Time Stability for Fractional-Order Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang-Jin; Li Pei-Luan; Pang Yi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays. Applying Laplace transform, the generalized Gronwall inequality and estimates of Mittag–Leffler functions, some sufficient conditions which ensure the finite-time stability of fractional-order bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time delays are obtained. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. (paper)

  4. Out-of-Time-Ordered Density Correlators in Luttinger Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2017-07-14

    Information scrambling and the butterfly effect in chaotic quantum systems can be diagnosed by out-of-time-ordered (OTO) commutators through an exponential growth and large late time value. We show that the latter feature shows up in a strongly correlated many-body system, a Luttinger liquid, whose density fluctuations we study at long and short wavelengths, both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. We find rich behavior combining robustly universal and nonuniversal features. The OTO commutators display temperature- and initial-state-independent behavior and grow as t^{2} for short times. For the short-wavelength density operator, they reach a sizable value after the light cone only in an interacting Luttinger liquid, where the bare excitations break up into collective modes. This challenges the common interpretation of the OTO commutator in chaotic systems. We benchmark our findings numerically on an interacting spinless fermion model in 1D and find persistence of central features even in the nonintegrable case. As a nonuniversal feature, the short-time growth exhibits a distance-dependent power.

  5. Analyzing time-ordered event data with missed observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; van Loon, E Emiel; Fokkema, Wimke; Lameris, Thomas K; Nolet, Bart A; van der Jeugd, Henk P

    2017-09-01

    A common problem with observational datasets is that not all events of interest may be detected. For example, observing animals in the wild can difficult when animals move, hide, or cannot be closely approached. We consider time series of events recorded in conditions where events are occasionally missed by observers or observational devices. These time series are not restricted to behavioral protocols, but can be any cyclic or recurring process where discrete outcomes are observed. Undetected events cause biased inferences on the process of interest, and statistical analyses are needed that can identify and correct the compromised detection processes. Missed observations in time series lead to observed time intervals between events at multiples of the true inter-event time, which conveys information on their detection probability. We derive the theoretical probability density function for observed intervals between events that includes a probability of missed detection. Methodology and software tools are provided for analysis of event data with potential observation bias and its removal. The methodology was applied to simulation data and a case study of defecation rate estimation in geese, which is commonly used to estimate their digestive throughput and energetic uptake, or to calculate goose usage of a feeding site from dropping density. Simulations indicate that at a moderate chance to miss arrival events ( p  = 0.3), uncorrected arrival intervals were biased upward by up to a factor 3, while parameter values corrected for missed observations were within 1% of their true simulated value. A field case study shows that not accounting for missed observations leads to substantial underestimates of the true defecation rate in geese, and spurious rate differences between sites, which are introduced by differences in observational conditions. These results show that the derived methodology can be used to effectively remove observational biases in time-ordered event

  6. Flow time prediction for a single-server order picking workstation using aggregate process times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simulation modeling approach based on aggregate process times for the performance analysis of order picking workstations in automated warehouses. The aggregate process time distribution is calculated from tote arrival and departure times. We refer to the aggregate process

  7. Feynman's operational calculus and beyond noncommutativity and time-ordering

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, George W; Nielsen, Lance

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing a coherent, essentially self-contained, rigorous and comprehensive abstract theory of Feynman's operational calculus for noncommuting operators. Although it is inspired by Feynman's original heuristic suggestions and time-ordering rules in his seminal 1951 paper An operator calculus having applications in quantum electrodynamics, as will be made abundantly clear in the introduction (Chapter 1) and elsewhere in the text, the theory developed in this book also goes well beyond them in a number of directions which were not anticipated in Feynman's work. Hence, the second part of the main title of this book. The basic properties of the operational calculus are developed and certain algebraic and analytic properties of the operational calculus are explored. Also, the operational calculus will be seen to possess some pleasant stability properties. Furthermore, an evolution equation and a generalized integral equation obeyed by the operational calculus are discussed and connections wi...

  8. Quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Swingle, Brian; Dressel, Justin

    2018-04-01

    Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC was shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability [Yunger Halpern, Phys. Rev. A 95, 012120 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.012120]. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze Yunger Halpern's weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct a circuit for implementing the weak-measurement scheme. Next, we calculate the quasiprobability (after coarse graining) numerically and analytically: we simulate a transverse-field Ising model first. Then, we calculate the quasiprobability averaged over random circuits, which model chaotic dynamics. The quasiprobability, we find, distinguishes chaotic from integrable regimes. We observe nonclassical behaviors: the quasiprobability typically has negative components. It becomes nonreal in some regimes. The onset of scrambling breaks a symmetry that bifurcates the quasiprobability, as in classical-chaos pitchforks. Finally, we present mathematical properties. We define an extended KD quasiprobability that generalizes the KD distribution. The quasiprobability obeys a Bayes-type theorem, for example, that exponentially decreases the memory required to calculate weak values, in certain cases. A time-ordered correlator analogous to the OTOC, insensitive to quantum-information scrambling, depends on a quasiprobability closer to a classical probability. This work not only illuminates the OTOC's underpinnings, but also generalizes

  9. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order

  10. A family of high-order gas-kinetic schemes and its comparison with Riemann solver based high-order methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xing; Zhao, Fengxiang; Shyy, Wei; Xu, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Most high order computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods for compressible flows are based on Riemann solver for the flux evaluation and Runge-Kutta (RK) time stepping technique for temporal accuracy. The advantage of this kind of space-time separation approach is the easy implementation and stability enhancement by introducing more middle stages. However, the nth-order time accuracy needs no less than n stages for the RK method, which can be very time and memory consuming due to the reconstruction at each stage for a high order method. On the other hand, the multi-stage multi-derivative (MSMD) method can be used to achieve the same order of time accuracy using less middle stages with the use of the time derivatives of the flux function. For traditional Riemann solver based CFD methods, the lack of time derivatives in the flux function prevents its direct implementation of the MSMD method. However, the gas kinetic scheme (GKS) provides such a time accurate evolution model. By combining the second-order or third-order GKS flux functions with the MSMD technique, a family of high order gas kinetic methods can be constructed. As an extension of the previous 2-stage 4th-order GKS, the 5th-order schemes with 2 and 3 stages will be developed in this paper. Based on the same 5th-order WENO reconstruction, the performance of gas kinetic schemes from the 2nd- to the 5th-order time accurate methods will be evaluated. The results show that the 5th-order scheme can achieve the theoretical order of accuracy for the Euler equations, and present accurate Navier-Stokes solutions as well due to the coupling of inviscid and viscous terms in the GKS formulation. In comparison with Riemann solver based 5th-order RK method, the high order GKS has advantages in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness, for all test cases. The 4th- and 5th-order GKS have the same robustness as the 2nd-order scheme for the capturing of discontinuous solutions. The current high order MSMD GKS is a

  11. High-order upwind schemes for the wave equation on overlapping grids: Maxwell's equations in second-order form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jordan B.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; Henshaw, William D.

    2018-01-01

    High-order accurate upwind approximations for the wave equation in second-order form on overlapping grids are developed. Although upwind schemes are well established for first-order hyperbolic systems, it was only recently shown by Banks and Henshaw [1] how upwinding could be incorporated into the second-order form of the wave equation. This new upwind approach is extended here to solve the time-domain Maxwell's equations in second-order form; schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy are formulated for general curvilinear grids. Taylor time-stepping is used to develop single-step space-time schemes, and the upwind dissipation is incorporated by embedding the exact solution of a local Riemann problem into the discretization. Second-order and fourth-order accurate schemes are implemented for problems in two and three space dimensions, and overlapping grids are used to treat complex geometry and problems with multiple materials. Stability analysis of the upwind-scheme on overlapping grids is performed using normal mode theory. The stability analysis and computations confirm that the upwind scheme remains stable on overlapping grids, including the difficult case of thin boundary grids when the traditional non-dissipative scheme becomes unstable. The accuracy properties of the scheme are carefully evaluated on a series of classical scattering problems for both perfect conductors and dielectric materials in two and three space dimensions. The upwind scheme is shown to be robust and provide high-order accuracy.

  12. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, Michael F.; Bruhwiler, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach

  13. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Computer Accelerator Physics Conference Williamsburg, Virginia 1996)

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. 75 FR 32846 - Final Rule Relating to Time and Order of Issuance of Domestic Relations Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... is issued after the parties divorce. Example 3 illustrates that an order would not fail to be a QDRO... Alternate payee, Divorce, Domestic relations orders, Employee benefit plans, Marital property, Spouse, Plan administrator, Pensions, Qualified domestic relations orders. 0 For the reasons set forth in the preamble, the...

  15. Delay induced high order locking effects in semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B.; Wishon, M. J.; Locquet, A.; Goulding, D.; Tykalewicz, B.; Huyet, G.; Viktorov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple time scales appear in many nonlinear dynamical systems. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, provide a fertile testing ground for multiple time scale dynamics. For solitary semiconductor lasers, the two fundamental time scales are the cavity repetition rate and the relaxation oscillation frequency which is a characteristic of the field-matter interaction in the cavity. Typically, these two time scales are of very different orders, and mutual resonances do not occur. Optical feedback endows the system with a third time scale: the external cavity repetition rate. This is typically much longer than the device cavity repetition rate and suggests the possibility of resonances with the relaxation oscillations. We show that for lasers with highly damped relaxation oscillations, such resonances can be obtained and lead to spontaneous mode-locking. Two different laser types-—a quantum dot based device and a quantum well based device—are analysed experimentally yielding qualitatively identical dynamics. A rate equation model is also employed showing an excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Time-optimal control of infinite order distributed parabolic systems involving time lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Bahaa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A time-optimal control problem for linear infinite order distributed parabolic systems involving constant time lags appear both in the state equation and in the boundary condition is presented. Some particular properties of the optimal control are discussed.

  17. RCS Leak Rate Calculation with High Order Least Squares Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Kang, Young Kyu; Kim, Yang Ki

    2010-01-01

    As a part of action items for Application of Leak before Break(LBB), RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program is upgraded in Kori unit 3 and 4. For real time monitoring of operators, periodic calculation is needed and corresponding noise reduction scheme is used. This kind of study was issued in Korea, so there have upgraded and used real time RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program in UCN unit 3 and 4 and YGN unit 1 and 2. For reduction of the noise in signals, Linear Regression Method was used in those programs. Linear Regression Method is powerful method for noise reduction. But the system is not static with some alternative flow paths and this makes mixed trend patterns of input signal values. In this condition, the trend of signal and average of Linear Regression are not entirely same pattern. In this study, high order Least squares Method is used to follow the trend of signal and the order of calculation is rearranged. The result of calculation makes reasonable trend and the procedure is physically consistence

  18. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  19. High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-01-22

    We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.

  20. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  1. Intra-cavity generation of high order LGpl modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gaussian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order LGpl Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  2. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  3. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...... of convergence consistent with the moments conserved by the applied smoothing function. In the hybrid particle-mesh method of Hockney and Eastwood (HE) the particles are interpolated onto a regular mesh where the unbounded Poisson equation is solved by a discrete non-cyclic convolution of the mesh values...... and the integration kernel. In this work we show an implementation of high order regularised integration kernels in the HE algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve an arbitrary high order convergence. We further present a quantitative study of the convergence rate to give further insight...

  4. Birth Order and Intelligence: Together Again for the Last Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2001-01-01

    The authors respond to critiques of their investigation of whether birth order reliably contributes to variance in intelligence, concluding that little in the critiques challenges the original position that cross-sectional data are suspect as evidence for within-family trends in intelligence. When looking inside families and directly comparing the…

  5. Analysis and Design of High-Order Parallel Resonant Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarseh, Issa Eid

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis, a special state variable transformation technique has been derived for the analysis of high order dc-to-dc resonant converters. Converters comprised of high order resonant tanks have the advantage of utilizing the parasitic elements by making them part of the resonant tank. A new set of state variables is defined in order to make use of two-dimensional state-plane diagrams in the analysis of high order converters. Such a method has been successfully used for the analysis of the conventional Parallel Resonant Converters (PRC). Consequently, two -dimensional state-plane diagrams are used to analyze the steady state response for third and fourth order PRC's when these converters are operated in the continuous conduction mode. Based on this analysis, a set of control characteristic curves for the LCC-, LLC- and LLCC-type PRC are presented from which various converter design parameters are obtained. Various design curves for component value selections and device ratings are given. This analysis of high order resonant converters shows that the addition of the reactive components to the resonant tank results in converters with better performance characteristics when compared with the conventional second order PRC. Complete design procedure along with design examples for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order converters are presented. Practical power supply units, normally used for computer applications, were built and tested by using the LCC-, LLC- and LLCC-type commutation schemes. In addition, computer simulation results are presented for these converters in order to verify the theoretical results.

  6. Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Maxwell; Heinecke, Alexander; Pabst, Hans; Henry, Greg; Parsani, Matteo; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.

  7. Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Maxwell

    2016-06-14

    High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.

  8. Is time enough in order to know where you are?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartaglia Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This talk discusses various aspects of the structure of space-time presenting mechanisms leading to the explanation of the “rigidity” of the manifold and to the emergence of time, i.e. of the Lorentzian signature. The proposed ingredient is the analog, in four dimensions, of the deformation energy associated with the common three-dimensional elasticity theory. The inclusion of this additional term in the Lagrangian of empty space-time accounts for gravity as an emergent feature from the microscopic structure of space-time. Once time has legitimately been introduced a global positioning method based on local measurements of proper times between the arrivals of electromagnetic pulses from independent distant sources is presented. The method considers both pulsars as well as artificial emitters located on celestial bodies of the solar system as pulsating beacons to be used for navigation and positioning.

  9. Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Argon-clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Yin; Hagmeijer, Rob; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Goh, S.J.; van der Slot, P.J.M.; Biedron, S.; Milton, S.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters is of high promise because clusters appear to offer an increased optical nonlinearity. We experimentally investigate HHG from Argon clusters in a supersonic gas jet that can generate monomer-cluster mixtures with varying atomic number density and

  10. A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weder, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al that are based on the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first-order transformations. In recent papers, Hendi et al and Cai et al considered invisibility cloaks with high-order transformations. In this paper, we study high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high-order transformations from general anisotropic media. We consider the case where there is a finite number of spherical cloaks located in different points in space. We prove that for any incident plane wave, at any frequency, the scattered wave is identically zero. We also consider the scattering of finite-energy wave packets. We prove that the scattering matrix is the identity, i.e., that for any incoming wave packet the outgoing wave packet is the same as the incoming one. This proves that the invisibility cloaks cannot be detected in any scattering experiment with electromagnetic waves in high-order transformation media, and in particular in the first-order transformation media of Pendry et al. We also prove that the high-order invisibility cloaks, as well as the first-order ones, cloak passive and active devices. The cloaked objects completely decouple from the exterior. Actually, the cloaking outside is independent of what is inside the cloaked objects. The electromagnetic waves inside the cloaked objects cannot leave the concealed regions and vice versa, the electromagnetic waves outside the cloaked objects cannot go inside the concealed regions. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic materials, we prove that it is possible to cloak objects inside general crystals

  11. Order Reduction in High-Order Runge-Kutta Methods for Initial Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Rodolfo Ruben; Seibold, Benjamin; Shirokoff, David; Zhou, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the order reduction phenomenon for initial-boundary-value problems that occurs with many Runge-Kutta time-stepping schemes. First, a geometric explanation of the mechanics of the phenomenon is provided: the approximation error develops boundary layers, induced by a mismatch between the approximation error in the interior and at the boundaries. Second, an analysis of the modes of the numerical scheme is conducted, which explains under which circumstances boundary layers pers...

  12. Effects of high-order deformation on high-K isomers in superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. L.; Bertulani, C. A.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Using, for the first time, configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations with the inclusion of β 6 deformation, we find remarkable effects of the high-order deformation on the high-K isomers in 254 No, the focus of recent spectroscopy experiments on superheavy nuclei. For shapes with multipolarity six, the isomers are more tightly bound and, microscopically, have enhanced deformed shell gaps at N=152 and Z=100. The inclusion of β 6 deformation significantly improves the description of the very heavy high-K isomers.

  13. Pattern Discovery in Time-Ordered Data; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONRAD, GREGORY N.; BRITANIK, JOHN M.; DELAND, SHARON M.; JENKIN, CHRISTINA L.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project on techniques for pattern discovery in discrete event time series data. In this project, we explored two different aspects of the pattern matching/discovery problem. The first aspect studied was the use of Dynamic Time Warping for pattern matching in continuous data. In essence, DTW is a technique for aligning time series along the time axis to optimize the similarity measure. The second aspect studied was techniques for discovering patterns in discrete event data. We developed a pattern discovery tool based on adaptations of the A-priori and GSP (Generalized Sequential Pattern mining) algorithms. We then used the tool on three different application areas-unattended monitoring system data from a storage magazine, computer network intrusion detection, and analysis of robot training data

  14. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  15. Dynamic Stability Analysis Using High-Order Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez-Toledo C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A non-linear model with robust precision for transient stability analysis in multimachine power systems is proposed. The proposed formulation uses the interpolation of Lagrange and Newton's Divided Difference. The High-Order Interpolation technique developed can be used for evaluation of the critical conditions of the dynamic system.The technique is applied to a 5-area 45-machine model of the Mexican interconnected system. As a particular case, this paper shows the application of the High-Order procedure for identifying the slow-frequency mode for a critical contingency. Numerical examples illustrate the method and demonstrate the ability of the High-Order technique to isolate and extract temporal modal behavior.

  16. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  17. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    . The method is extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution to Poissonʼs equation. In this way differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field can be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method, is applied......A high order converging Poisson solver is presented, based on the Greenʼs function solution to Poissonʼs equation subject to free-space boundary conditions. The high order convergence is achieved by formulating regularised integration kernels, analogous to a smoothing of the solution field...... and validated, however not restricted, to the equations of fluid mechanics, and can be used in many applications to solve Poissonʼs equation on a rectangular unbounded domain....

  18. Retrieval of high-order susceptibilities of nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Yu; Qiu Jin-Peng; Chen Hua; Mo Jiong-Jiong; Yu Fa-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Active metamaterials embedded with nonlinear elements are able to exhibit strong nonlinearity in microwave regime. However, existing S -parameter based parameter retrieval approaches developed for linear metamaterials do not apply in nonlinear cases. In this paper, a retrieval algorithm of high-order susceptibilities for nonlinear metamaterials is derived. Experimental demonstration shows that, by measuring the power level of each harmonic while sweeping the incident power, high-order susceptibilities of a thin-layer nonlinear metamaterial can be effectively retrieved. The proposedapproach can be widely used in the research of active metamaterials. (paper)

  19. High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1992-12-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals

  20. High-Density Quantum Sensing with Dissipative First Order Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2018-04-13

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to sqrt[N]. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system. We demonstrate this behavior by analyzing dissipative quantum sensors based upon nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. Using both a variational method and a numerical simulation of the master equation describing the open quantum many-body system, we establish the existence of a dissipative first order transition that can be used for quantum sensing. We investigate the properties of this phase transition for two- and three-dimensional setups, demonstrating that the transition can be observed using current experimental technology. Finally, we show that quantum sensors based on dissipative phase transitions are particularly robust against imperfections such as disorder or decoherence, with the sensitivity of the sensor not being limited by the T_{2} coherence time of the device. Our results can readily be applied to other applications in quantum sensing and quantum metrology where interactions are currently a limiting factor.

  1. High-Density Quantum Sensing with Dissipative First Order Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2018-04-01

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to √{N }. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system. We demonstrate this behavior by analyzing dissipative quantum sensors based upon nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. Using both a variational method and a numerical simulation of the master equation describing the open quantum many-body system, we establish the existence of a dissipative first order transition that can be used for quantum sensing. We investigate the properties of this phase transition for two- and three-dimensional setups, demonstrating that the transition can be observed using current experimental technology. Finally, we show that quantum sensors based on dissipative phase transitions are particularly robust against imperfections such as disorder or decoherence, with the sensitivity of the sensor not being limited by the T2 coherence time of the device. Our results can readily be applied to other applications in quantum sensing and quantum metrology where interactions are currently a limiting factor.

  2. Analyzing time-ordered event data with missed observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; van Loon, E. Emiel; Fokkema, Wimke; Lameris, Thomas K.; Nolet, Bart A.; van der Jeugd, Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    A common problem with observational datasets is that not all events of interest may be detected. For example, observing animals in the wild can difficult when animals move, hide, or cannot be closely approached. We consider time series of events recorded in conditions where events are occasionally

  3. Tensor-product preconditioners for higher-order space-time discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2017-02-01

    A space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high-order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  4. Tensor-Product Preconditioners for Higher-Order Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equat ions. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  5. Reduced-order LPV model of flexible wind turbines from high fidelity aeroelastic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Sønderby, Ivan Bergquist; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    of high-order linear time invariant (LTI) models. Firstly, the high-order LTI models are locally approximated using modal and balanced truncation and residualization. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation is applied to allow interpolation of the model matrices between points on the parameter...

  6. Quantum-path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L; Cohen, Oren; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2008-01-01

    We show through experiment and calculations how all-optical quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonic generation can be used to selectively enhance emission from distinct quantum trajectories at high photon energies. Electrons rescattered in a strong field can traverse short and long quantum trajectories that exhibit differing coherence lengths as a result of variations in intensity of the driving laser along the direction of propagation. By varying the separation of the pulses in a counterpropagating pulse train, we selectively enhance either the long or the short quantum trajectory, and observe distinct spectral signatures in each case. This demonstrates a new type of coupling between the coherence of high-order harmonic beams and the attosecond time-scale quantum dynamics inherent in the process

  7. Hybrid RANS-LES using high order numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Yellapantula, Shashank; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Knaus, Robert; Sprague, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the impact of wind turbine wake dynamics on downstream turbines is particularly important for the design of efficient wind farms. Due to their tractable computational cost, hybrid RANS/LES models are an attractive framework for simulating separation flows such as the wake dynamics behind a wind turbine. High-order numerical methods can be computationally efficient and provide increased accuracy in simulating complex flows. In the context of LES, high-order numerical methods have shown some success in predictions of turbulent flows. However, the specifics of hybrid RANS-LES models, including the transition region between both modeling frameworks, pose unique challenges for high-order numerical methods. In this work, we study the effect of increasing the order of accuracy of the numerical scheme in simulations of canonical turbulent flows using RANS, LES, and hybrid RANS-LES models. We describe the interactions between filtering, model transition, and order of accuracy and their effect on turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy spectra, boundary layer evolution, and dissipation rate. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Exascale Computing Project, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  8. Perceived Time, Temporal Order and Control in Boundaryless Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Kamp, Annette

    2010-01-01

    , habits, breaks, norms and meetings that occur through the inter-personal relationships. Therefore work life research can make use of time sociology concepts to understand and study how control is gained and lost in contemporary work. The results of our study show that individualized time conflicts leave......Contemporary working conditions are very different from just 30 years back. Many changes are characterized as new opportunities for personal development and autonomy for the individual employee. However work life researchers report of increased psychosocial strain and dissemination of work related...... psychological illnesses. This paradoxical tendency questions our basic knowledge about well being at work. For decades employee control has been seen as universal solution to work related psychosocial hazards, but this is now questioned. We find that control is still as important but needs to be studied in new...

  9. Eliminating high-order scattering effects in optical microbubble sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huihe

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of bubble size and velocity in multiphase flows are important in much research and many industrial applications. It has been found that high-order refractions have great impact on microbubble sizing by use of phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The problem has been investigated, and a model of phase-size correlation, which also takes high-order refractions into consideration, is introduced to improve the accuracy of bubble sizing. Hence the model relaxes the assumption of a single-scattering mechanism in a conventional PDA system. The results of simulation based on this new model are compared with those based on a single-scattering-mechanism approach or a first-order approach. An optimization method for accurately sizing air bubbles in water has been suggested.

  10. International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, Ney; Hesthaven, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book features a selection of high-quality papers chosen from the best presentations at the International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods (2016), offering an overview of the depth and breadth of the activities within this important research area. The carefully reviewed papers provide a snapshot of the state of the art, while the extensive bibliography helps initiate new research directions.

  11. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This work improves upon Hockney and Eastwood's Fourier-based algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve arbitrary high order of convergence without any additional computational cost. We assess the methodology on the kinematic relations between the velocity and vorticity fields....

  12. Fabrication of high quality ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kai; Du Kai; Chen Jing; Zhou Lan; Zhang Lin; Fang Yu

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates has been studied with oxalic acid as electrolyte. The morphology of the as-prepared templates has been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The pores distributed orderly and uniformly with the diameter ranging from 40 nm to 70 nm. The experimental results indicate that electrolyte concentration, oxidation voltage, oxidation temperature and oxidation time affect the structure of AAO templates. Ordered porous AAO templates can be derived without annealing and finishing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the aluminum oxide film is mainly composed of amorphous Al 2 O 3 . (authors)

  13. Optimized low-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for high- order spectral difference method

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Optimal explicit Runge-Kutta (ERK) schemes with large stable step sizes are developed for method-of-lines discretizations based on the spectral difference (SD) spatial discretization on quadrilateral grids. These methods involve many stages and provide the optimal linearly stable time step for a prescribed SD spectrum and the minimum leading truncation error coefficient, while admitting a low-storage implementation. Using a large number of stages, the new ERK schemes lead to efficiency improvements larger than 60% over standard ERK schemes for 4th- and 5th-order spatial discretization.

  14. High-order perturbations of a spherical collapsing star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2010-01-01

    A formalism to deal with high-order perturbations of a general spherical background was developed in earlier work [D. Brizuela, J. M. Martin-Garcia, and G. A. Mena Marugan, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044039 (2006); D. Brizuela, J. M. Martin-Garcia, and G. A. Mena Marugan, Phys. Rev. D 76, 024004 (2007)]. In this paper, we apply it to the particular case of a perfect fluid background. We have expressed the perturbations of the energy-momentum tensor at any order in terms of the perturbed fluid's pressure, density, and velocity. In general, these expressions are not linear and have sources depending on lower-order perturbations. For the second-order case we make the explicit decomposition of these sources in tensor spherical harmonics. Then, a general procedure is given to evolve the perturbative equations of motions of the perfect fluid for any value of the harmonic label. Finally, with the problem of a spherical collapsing star in mind, we discuss the high-order perturbative matching conditions across a timelike surface, in particular, the surface separating the perfect fluid interior from the exterior vacuum.

  15. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisoiu, Ioan; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Säppi, Matias; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes. Applications of these rules will be discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  16. High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Todd; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J

    2012-07-13

    Treating the effects of a time-dependent classical dephasing environment during quantum logic operations poses a theoretical challenge, as the application of noncommuting control operations gives rise to both dephasing and depolarization errors that must be accounted for in order to understand total average error rates. We develop a treatment based on effective Hamiltonian theory that allows us to efficiently model the effect of classical noise on nontrivial single-bit quantum logic operations composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength. In the weak noise limit we derive explicit filter functions for a broad class of piecewise-constant control sequences, and use them to study the performance of dynamically corrected gates, yielding good agreement with brute-force numerics.

  17. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr; Cohen, David; Vilmart, Gilles; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C.

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration

  18. Theoretical description of high-order harmonic generation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, A F; Moritz, B; Devereaux, T P; Freericks, J K

    2013-01-01

    We consider several aspects of high-order harmonic generation in solids: the effects of elastic and inelastic scattering, varying pulse characteristics and inclusion of material-specific parameters through a realistic band structure. We reproduce many observed characteristics of high harmonic generation experiments in solids including the formation of only odd harmonics in inversion-symmetric materials, and the nonlinear formation of high harmonics with increasing field. We find that the harmonic spectra are fairly robust against elastic and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, we find that the pulse characteristics can play an important role in determining the harmonic spectra. (paper)

  19. Very high order lattice perturbation theory for Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, R.

    2010-10-01

    We calculate perturbativeWilson loops of various sizes up to loop order n=20 at different lattice sizes for pure plaquette and tree-level improved Symanzik gauge theories using the technique of Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory. This allows us to investigate the behavior of the perturbative series at high orders. We observe differences in the behavior of perturbative coefficients as a function of the loop order. Up to n=20 we do not see evidence for the often assumed factorial growth of the coefficients. Based on the observed behavior we sum this series in a model with hypergeometric functions. Alternatively we estimate the series in boosted perturbation theory. Subtracting the estimated perturbative series for the average plaquette from the non-perturbative Monte Carlo result we estimate the gluon condensate. (orig.)

  20. Critical spare parts ordering decisions using conditional reliability and stochastic lead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, David R.; Pascual, Rodrigo; Knights, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Asset-intensive companies face great pressure to reduce operation costs and increase utilization. This scenario often leads to over-stress on critical equipment and its spare parts associated, affecting availability, reliability, and system performance. As these resources impact considerably on financial and operational structures, the opportunity is given by demand for decision-making methods for the management of spare parts processes. We proposed an ordering decision-aid technique which uses a measurement of spare performance, based on the stress–strength interference theory; which we have called Condition-Based Service Level (CBSL). We focus on Condition Managed Critical Spares (CMS), namely, spares which are expensive, highly reliable, with higher lead times, and are not available in store. As a mitigation measure, CMS are under condition monitoring. The aim of the paper is orienting the decision time for CMS ordering or just continuing the operation. The paper presents a graphic technique which considers a rule for decision based on both condition-based reliability function and a stochastic/fixed lead time. For the stochastic lead time case, results show that technique is effective to determine the time when the system operation is reliable and can withstand the lead time variability, satisfying a desired service level. Additionally, for the constant lead time case, the technique helps to define insurance spares. In conclusion, presented ordering decision rule is useful to asset managers for enhancing the operational continuity affected by spare parts

  1. High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Seimetz, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Catering to the current interest in increasing the spectral efficiency of optical fiber networks by the deployment of high-order modulation formats, this monograph describes transmitters, receivers and performance of optical systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation. In the first part of the book, the author discusses various transmitter implementation options as well as several receiver concepts based on direct and coherent detection, including designs of new structures. Hereby, both optical and electrical parts are considered, allowing the assessment of practicability and complexity. In the second part, a detailed characterization of optical fiber transmission systems is presented, regarding a wide range of modulation formats. It provides insight in the fundamental behavior of different formats with respect to relevant performance degradation effects and identifies the major trends in system performance.

  2. High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...

  3. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    -Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated.......A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz...

  4. High order modes in Project-X linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A., E-mail: ais@fnal.gov; Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; Awida, M.; Champion, M.; Ginsburg, C.; Gonin, I.; Grimm, C.; Khabiboulline, T.; Nicol, T.; Orlov, Yu.; Saini, A.; Sergatskov, D.; Solyak, N.; Vostrikov, A.

    2014-01-11

    Project-X, a multi-MW proton source, is now under development at Fermilab. In this paper we present study of high order modes (HOM) excited in continues-wave (CW) superconducting linac of Project-X. We investigate effects of cryogenic losses caused by HOMs and influence of HOMs on beam dynamics. We find that these effects are small. We conclude that HOM couplers/dampers are not needed in the Project-X SC RF cavities.

  5. Conditional High-Order Boltzmann Machines for Supervised Relation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-09-01

    Relation learning is a fundamental problem in many vision tasks. Recently, high-order Boltzmann machine and its variants have shown their great potentials in learning various types of data relation in a range of tasks. But most of these models are learned in an unsupervised way, i.e., without using relation class labels, which are not very discriminative for some challenging tasks, e.g., face verification. In this paper, with the goal to perform supervised relation learning, we introduce relation class labels into conventional high-order multiplicative interactions with pairwise input samples, and propose a conditional high-order Boltzmann Machine (CHBM), which can learn to classify the data relation in a binary classification way. To be able to deal with more complex data relation, we develop two improved variants of CHBM: 1) latent CHBM, which jointly performs relation feature learning and classification, by using a set of latent variables to block the pathway from pairwise input samples to output relation labels and 2) gated CHBM, which untangles factors of variation in data relation, by exploiting a set of latent variables to multiplicatively gate the classification of CHBM. To reduce the large number of model parameters generated by the multiplicative interactions, we approximately factorize high-order parameter tensors into multiple matrices. Then, we develop efficient supervised learning algorithms, by first pretraining the models using joint likelihood to provide good parameter initialization, and then finetuning them using conditional likelihood to enhance the discriminant ability. We apply the proposed models to a series of tasks including invariant recognition, face verification, and action similarity labeling. Experimental results demonstrate that by exploiting supervised relation labels, our models can greatly improve the performance.

  6. High order spectral difference lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) based high order spectral difference method for incompressible flows. In the present method, the spectral difference (SD) method is adopted to discretize the convection and collision term of the LBE to obtain high order (≥3) accuracy. Because the SD scheme represents the solution as cell local polynomials and the solution polynomials have good tensor-product property, the present spectral difference lattice Boltzmann method (SD-LBM) can be implemented on arbitrary unstructured quadrilateral meshes for effective and efficient treatment of complex geometries. Thanks to only first oder PDEs involved in the LBE, no special techniques, such as hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method (HDG), local discontinuous Galerkin method (LDG) and so on, are needed to discrete diffusion term, and thus, it simplifies the algorithm and implementation of the high order spectral difference method for simulating viscous flows. The proposed SD-LBM is validated with four incompressible flow benchmarks in two-dimensions: (a) the Poiseuille flow driven by a constant body force; (b) the lid-driven cavity flow without singularity at the two top corners-Burggraf flow; and (c) the unsteady Taylor-Green vortex flow; (d) the Blasius boundary-layer flow past a flat plate. Computational results are compared with analytical solutions of these cases and convergence studies of these cases are also given. The designed accuracy of the proposed SD-LBM is clearly verified.

  7. Parameters and Fractional Differentiation Orders Estimation for Linear Continuous-Time Non-Commensurate Fractional Order Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage estimation algorithm to solve the problem of joint estimation of the parameters and the fractional differentiation orders of a linear continuous-time fractional system with non-commensurate orders. The proposed algorithm combines the modulating functions and the first-order Newton methods. Sufficient conditions ensuring the convergence of the method are provided. An error analysis in the discrete case is performed. Moreover, the method is extended to the joint estimation of smooth unknown input and fractional differentiation orders. The performance of the proposed approach is illustrated with different numerical examples. Furthermore, a potential application of the algorithm is proposed which consists in the estimation of the differentiation orders of a fractional neurovascular model along with the neural activity considered as input for this model.

  8. Parameters and Fractional Differentiation Orders Estimation for Linear Continuous-Time Non-Commensurate Fractional Order Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-05-31

    This paper proposes a two-stage estimation algorithm to solve the problem of joint estimation of the parameters and the fractional differentiation orders of a linear continuous-time fractional system with non-commensurate orders. The proposed algorithm combines the modulating functions and the first-order Newton methods. Sufficient conditions ensuring the convergence of the method are provided. An error analysis in the discrete case is performed. Moreover, the method is extended to the joint estimation of smooth unknown input and fractional differentiation orders. The performance of the proposed approach is illustrated with different numerical examples. Furthermore, a potential application of the algorithm is proposed which consists in the estimation of the differentiation orders of a fractional neurovascular model along with the neural activity considered as input for this model.

  9. High-order harmonic conversion efficiency in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Calculated results are presented for the energy, number of photons, and conversion efficiency for high-order harmonic generation in helium. The results show the maximum values that we should expect to achieve experimentally with our current apparatus and the important parameters for scaling this source to higher output. In the desired operating regime where the coherence length, given by L coh =πb/(q-1), is greater than the gas column length, l, the harmonic output can be summarized by a single equation: N q =[(π z n z b 3 τ q |d q | z )/4h]{(p/q)(2l/b) z }. N q - numbers of photons of q-th harmonic; n - atom density; b - laser confocal parameter; τ q - pulse width of harmonic radiation; q - harmonic order; p - effective order of nonlinearity. (Note the term in brackets, the phase-matching function, has been separated from the rest of the expression in order to be consistent with the relevant literature)

  10. Wilson loops in very high order lattice perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Nakamura, Y.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schierholz, G.; Regensburg Univ.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate Wilson loops of various sizes up to loop order n=20 for lattice sizes of L 4 (L=4,6,8,12) using the technique of Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory in quenched QCD. This allows to investigate the behaviour of the perturbative series at high orders. We discuss three models to estimate the perturbative series: a renormalon inspired fit, a heuristic fit based on an assumed power-law singularity and boosted perturbation theory. We have found differences in the behavior of the perturbative series for smaller and larger Wilson loops at moderate n. A factorial growth of the coefficients could not be confirmed up to n=20. From Monte Carlo measured plaquette data and our perturbative result we estimate a value of the gluon condensate left angle (α)/(π)GG right angle. (orig.)

  11. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is usually expected to be an efficient numerical tool for calculating the fluid-structure interactions in compressors; however, an endogenetic restriction is the problem of low-order consistency. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels, which is quite easy to be implemented but efficient, is proposed for solving this restriction. The basic inverse method and the special treatment near boundary are introduced with also the discussion of the combination of the Least-Square (LS and Moving-Least-Square (MLS methods. Then detailed analysis in spectral space is presented for people to better understand this method. Finally we show three test examples to verify the method behavior.

  12. Calculation of neutron flux and reactivity by perturbation theory at high order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, W.L.P. da; Silva, F.C. da; Thome Filho, Z.D.

    1982-01-01

    A high order pertubation theory is studied, independent of time, applied to integral parameter calculation of a nuclear reactor. A pertubative formulation, based on flux difference technique, which gives directy the reactivity and neutron flux up to the aproximation order required, is presented. As an application of the method, global pertubations represented by fuel temperature variations, are used. Tests were done aiming to verify the relevancy of the approximation order for several intensities of the pertubations considered. (E.G.) [pt

  13. High-order harmonics generation from overdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, F.; Thaury, C.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Geindre, J.P.; Audebert, P.; Marjoribanks, R.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. When an intense laser beam reflects on an overdense plasma generated on a solid target, high-order harmonics of the incident laser frequency are observed in the reflected beam. This process provides a way to produce XUV femtosecond and attosecond pulses in the μJ range from ultrafast ultraintense lasers. Studying the mechanisms responsible for this harmonic emission is also of strong fundamental interest: just as HHG in gases has been instrumental in providing a comprehensive understanding of basic intense laser-atom interactions, HHG from solid-density plasmas is likely to become a unique tool to investigate many key features of laser-plasma interactions at high intensities. We will present both experimental and theoretical evidence that two mechanisms contribute to this harmonic emission: - Coherent Wake Emission: in this process, harmonics are emitted by plasma oscillations in te overdense plasma, triggered in the wake of jets of Brunel electrons generated by the laser field. - The relativistic oscillating mirror: in this process, the intense laser field drives a relativistic oscillation of the plasma surface, which in turn gives rise to a periodic phase modulation of the reflected beam, and hence to the generation of harmonics of the incident frequency. Left graph: experimental harmonic spectrum from a polypropylene target, obtained with 60 fs laser pulses at 10 19 W/cm 2 , with a very high temporal contrast (10 10 ). The plasma frequency of this target corresponds to harmonics 15-16, thus excluding the CWE mechanism for the generation of harmonics of higher orders. Images on the right: harmonic spectra from orders 13 et 18, for different distances z between the target and the best focus. At the highest intensity (z=0), harmonics emitted by the ROM mechanism are observed above the 15th order. These harmonics have a much smaller spectral width then those due to CWE (below the 15th order). These ROM harmonics vanish as soon

  14. Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).

  15. High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model

  16. New high order FDTD method to solve EMC problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Deymier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In electromagnetic compatibility (EMC context, we are interested in developing new ac- curate methods to solve efficiently and accurately Maxwell’s equations in the time domain. Indeed, usual methods such as FDTD or FVTD present im- portant dissipative and/or dispersive errors which prevent to obtain a good numerical approximation of the physical solution for a given industrial scene unless we use a mesh with a very small cell size. To avoid this problem, schemes like the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG method, based on higher order spa- tial approximations, have been introduced and stud- ied on unstructured meshes. However the cost of this kind of method can become prohibitive accord- ing to the mesh used. In this paper, we first present a higher order spatial approximation method on carte- sian meshes. It is based on a finite element ap- proach and recovers at the order 1 the well-known Yee’s schema. Next, to deal with EMC problem, a non-oriented thin wire formalism is proposed for this method. Finally, several examples are given to present the benefits of this new method by compar- ison with both Yee’s schema and DG approaches.

  17. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  18. High order effects in cross section sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Gilai, D.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of high order effects associated with perturbations in the flux shape are considered: Spectral Fine Structure Effects (SFSE) and non-linearity between changes in performance parameters and data uncertainties. SFSE are investigated in Part I using a simple single resonance model. Results obtained for each of the resolved and for representative unresolved resonances of 238 U in a ZPR-6/7 like environment indicate that SFSE can have a significant contribution to the sensitivity of group constants to resonance parameters. Methods to account for SFSE both for the propagation of uncertainties and for the adjustment of nuclear data are discussed. A Second Order Sensitivity Theory (SOST) is presented, and its accuracy relative to that of the first order sensitivity theory and of the direct substitution method is investigated in Part II. The investigation is done for the non-linear problem of the effect of changes in the 297 keV sodium minimum cross section on the transport of neutrons in a deep-penetration problem. It is found that the SOST provides a satisfactory accuracy for cross section uncertainty analysis. For the same degree of accuracy, the SOST can be significantly more efficient than the direct substitution method

  19. Design and high order optimization of the ATF2 lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, E; Woodley, M; Kubo, K; Okugi, T; Tauchi, T; Urakawa, J; Tomas, R

    2013-01-01

    The next generation of future linear colliders (LC) demands nano-meter beam sizes at the interaction point (IP) in order to reach the required luminosity. The final focus system (FFS) of a LC is meant to deliver such small beam sizes. The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) aims to test the feasibility of the new local chromaticity correction scheme which the future LCs are based on. To this end the ATF2 nominal and ultra-low beta* lattices are design to vertically focus the beam at the IP to 37nm and 23nm, respectively if error-free lattices are considered. However simulations show that the measured field errors of the ATF2 magnets preclude to reach the mentioned spot sizes. This paper describes the optimization of high order aberrations of the ATF2 lattices in order to minimize the detrimental effect of the measured multipole components for both ATF2 lattices. Specifically three solutions are studied, the replacement of the last focusing quadrupole (QF1FF), insertion of octupole magnets and optics modification....

  20. High-order FDTD methods via derivative matching for Maxwell's equations with material interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shan; Wei, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of novel hierarchical implicit derivative matching methods to restore the accuracy of high-order finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) schemes of computational electromagnetics (CEM) with material interfaces in one (1D) and two spatial dimensions (2D). By making use of fictitious points, systematic approaches are proposed to locally enforce the physical jump conditions at material interfaces in a preprocessing stage, to arbitrarily high orders of accuracy in principle. While often limited by numerical instability, orders up to 16 and 12 are achieved, respectively, in 1D and 2D. Detailed stability analyses are presented for the present approach to examine the upper limit in constructing embedded FDTD methods. As natural generalizations of the high-order FDTD schemes, the proposed derivative matching methods automatically reduce to the standard FDTD schemes when the material interfaces are absent. An interesting feature of the present approach is that it encompasses a variety of schemes of different orders in a single code. Another feature of the present approach is that it can be robustly implemented with other high accuracy time-domain approaches, such as the multiresolution time-domain method and the local spectral time-domain method, to cope with material interfaces. Numerical experiments on both 1D and 2D problems are carried out to test the convergence, examine the stability, access the efficiency, and explore the limitation of the proposed methods. It is found that operating at their best capacity, the proposed high-order schemes could be over 2000 times more efficient than their fourth-order versions in 2D. In conclusion, the present work indicates that the proposed hierarchical derivative matching methods might lead to practical high-order schemes for numerical solution of time-domain Maxwell's equations with material interfaces

  1. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X. X.; Wu, Z. C.; Zhang, Q.; Li, L.; Tang, D. Y.; Shen, D. Y.; Fu, S. N.; Liu, D. M.; Zhao, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS wit...

  2. Benchmarking with high-order nodal diffusion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress in the solution of multidimensional neutron diffusion problems was made in the late 1970s with the introduction of nodal methods. Modern nodal reactor analysis codes provide significant improvements in both accuracy and computing speed over earlier codes based on fine-mesh finite difference methods. In the past, the performance of advanced nodal methods was determined by comparisons with fine-mesh finite difference codes. More recently, the excellent spatial convergence of nodal methods has permitted their use in establishing reference solutions for some important bench-mark problems. The recent development of the self-consistent high-order nodal diffusion method and its subsequent variational formulation has permitted the calculation of reference solutions with one node per assembly mesh size. In this paper, we compare results for four selected benchmark problems to those obtained by high-order response matrix methods and by two well-known state-of-the-art nodal methods (the open-quotes analyticalclose quotes and open-quotes nodal expansionclose quotes methods)

  3. A High-Order CFS Algorithm for Clustering Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyu Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Internet of Everything such as Internet of Things, Internet of People, and Industrial Internet, big data is being generated. Clustering is a widely used technique for big data analytics and mining. However, most of current algorithms are not effective to cluster heterogeneous data which is prevalent in big data. In this paper, we propose a high-order CFS algorithm (HOCFS to cluster heterogeneous data by combining the CFS clustering algorithm and the dropout deep learning model, whose functionality rests on three pillars: (i an adaptive dropout deep learning model to learn features from each type of data, (ii a feature tensor model to capture the correlations of heterogeneous data, and (iii a tensor distance-based high-order CFS algorithm to cluster heterogeneous data. Furthermore, we verify our proposed algorithm on different datasets, by comparison with other two clustering schemes, that is, HOPCM and CFS. Results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in clustering heterogeneous data.

  4. Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented

  5. Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, S., E-mail: Sergey.Vinogradov@liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented.

  6. Linear Parameter Varying Versus Linear Time Invariant Reduced Order Controller Design of Turboprop Aircraft Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of parameter varying reduced order controllers to aircraft model is proposed. The generalization of the balanced singular perturbation method of linear time invariant (LTI system is used to reduce the order of linear parameter varying (LPV system. Based on the reduced order model the low-order LPV controller is designed by using synthesis technique. The performance of the reduced order controller is examined by applying it to lateral-directional control of aircraft model having 20th order. Furthermore, the time responses of the closed loop system with reduced order LPV controllers and reduced order LTI controller is compared. From the simulation results, the 8th order LPV controller can maintain stability and to provide the same level of closed-loop systems performance as the full-order LPV controller. It is different with the reduced-order LTI controller that cannot maintain stability and performance for all allowable parameter trajectories.

  7. Highly ordered macroporous woody biochar with ultra-high carbon content as supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinying; Holm, Nancy; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Chen, Fanglin; Ma, Shuguo

    2013-01-01

    Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750 °C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98 wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400 m 2 g −1 . We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3 V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14 F g −1 . Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115 F g −1 ). Because the HNO 3 -activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO 3 -activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications

  8. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  9. Global Monte Carlo Simulation with High Order Polynomial Expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Martin; James Paul Holloway; Kaushik Banerjee; Jesse Cheatham; Jeremy Conlin

    2007-01-01

    The functional expansion technique (FET) was recently developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The basic idea of the FET is to expand a Monte Carlo tally in terms of a high order expansion, the coefficients of which can be estimated via the usual random walk process in a conventional Monte Carlo code. If the expansion basis is chosen carefully, the lowest order coefficient is simply the conventional histogram tally, corresponding to a flat mode. This research project studied the applicability of using the FET to estimate the fission source, from which fission sites can be sampled for the next generation. The idea is that individual fission sites contribute to expansion modes that may span the geometry being considered, possibly increasing the communication across a loosely coupled system and thereby improving convergence over the conventional fission bank approach used in most production Monte Carlo codes. The project examined a number of basis functions, including global Legendre polynomials as well as 'local' piecewise polynomials such as finite element hat functions and higher order versions. The global FET showed an improvement in convergence over the conventional fission bank approach. The local FET methods showed some advantages versus global polynomials in handling geometries with discontinuous material properties. The conventional finite element hat functions had the disadvantage that the expansion coefficients could not be estimated directly but had to be obtained by solving a linear system whose matrix elements were estimated. An alternative fission matrix-based response matrix algorithm was formulated. Studies were made of two alternative applications of the FET, one based on the kernel density estimator and one based on Arnoldi's method of minimized iterations. Preliminary results for both methods indicate improvements in fission source convergence. These developments indicate that the FET has promise for speeding up Monte Carlo fission source convergence

  10. Recursive regularization step for high-order lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coreixas, Christophe; Wissocq, Gauthier; Puigt, Guillaume; Boussuge, Jean-François; Sagaut, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with enhanced stability and accuracy is presented for various Hermite tensor-based lattice structures. The collision operator relies on a regularization step, which is here improved through a recursive computation of nonequilibrium Hermite polynomial coefficients. In addition to the reduced computational cost of this procedure with respect to the standard one, the recursive step allows to considerably enhance the stability and accuracy of the numerical scheme by properly filtering out second- (and higher-) order nonhydrodynamic contributions in under-resolved conditions. This is first shown in the isothermal case where the simulation of the doubly periodic shear layer is performed with a Reynolds number ranging from 104 to 106, and where a thorough analysis of the case at Re=3 ×104 is conducted. In the latter, results obtained using both regularization steps are compared against the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook LBM for standard (D2Q9) and high-order (D2V17 and D2V37) lattice structures, confirming the tremendous increase of stability range of the proposed approach. Further comparisons on thermal and fully compressible flows, using the general extension of this procedure, are then conducted through the numerical simulation of Sod shock tubes with the D2V37 lattice. They confirm the stability increase induced by the recursive approach as compared with the standard one.

  11. Rapid removal of bisphenol A on highly ordered mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yousong; Chang, Xiaofeng; Ji, Guangbin; Deng, Shubo; Xie, Tao; Yu, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is of global concern due to its disruption of endocrine systems and ubiquity in the aquatic environment. It is important, therefore, that efforts are made to remove it from the aqueous phase. A novel adsorbent, mesoporous carbon CMK-3, prepared from hexagonal SBA-15 mesoporous silica was studied for BPA removal from aqueous phase, and compared with conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC). Characterization of CMK-3 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption indicated that prepared CMK-3 had an ordered mesoporous structure with a high specific surface area of 920 m2/g and a pore-size of about 4.9 nm. The adsorption of BPA on CMK-3 followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic constant was 0.00049 g/(mg x min), much higher than the adsorption of BPA on PAC. The adsorption isotherm fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model, and adsorption capacity decreased as temperature increased from 10 to 40 degrees C. No significant influence of pH on adsorption was observed at pH 3 to 9; however, adsorption capacity decreased dramatically from pH 9 to 13.

  12. OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR A FOURTH ORDER SUBLINEAR DYNAMIC EQUATION ON TIME SCALE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Some new criteria for the oscillation of a fourth order sublinear and/or linear dynamic equation on time scale are established. Our results are new for the corresponding fourth order differential equations as well as difference equations.

  13. High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efficiently the different...

  14. High-order hydrodynamic algorithms for exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Nathaniel Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Hydrodynamic algorithms are at the core of many laboratory missions ranging from simulating ICF implosions to climate modeling. The hydrodynamic algorithms commonly employed at the laboratory and in industry (1) typically lack requisite accuracy for complex multi- material vortical flows and (2) are not well suited for exascale computing due to poor data locality and poor FLOP/memory ratios. Exascale computing requires advances in both computer science and numerical algorithms. We propose to research the second requirement and create a new high-order hydrodynamic algorithm that has superior accuracy, excellent data locality, and excellent FLOP/memory ratios. This proposal will impact a broad range of research areas including numerical theory, discrete mathematics, vorticity evolution, gas dynamics, interface instability evolution, turbulent flows, fluid dynamics and shock driven flows. If successful, the proposed research has the potential to radically transform simulation capabilities and help position the laboratory for computing at the exascale.

  15. High-order multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, H.S. Jr.; Compton, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    Photoelectron energy angular distributions of NO following three different high-order multiphoton ionization (MPI) schemes have been measured. The 3 + 3 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the A 2 Σ + (v=O) level yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to all accessible vibrational levels (v + =O-6) of the nascent ion. Angular distributions of electrons corresponding to v + =O and v + =3 were significantly different. The 3 + 2 REMPI via the A 2 Σ + (v=1) level produced only one low-energy electron peak (v + =1). Nonresonant MPI at 532 nm yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to both four- and five-photon ionization. Prominent peaks in the five-photon photoelectron spectrum (PES) suggest contributions from near-resonant states at the three-photon level. 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  17. Reduced order surrogate modelling (ROSM) of high dimensional deterministic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Mina

    Often, computationally expensive engineering simulations can prohibit the engineering design process. As a result, designers may turn to a less computationally demanding approximate, or surrogate, model to facilitate their design process. However, owing to the the curse of dimensionality, classical surrogate models become too computationally expensive for high dimensional data. To address this limitation of classical methods, we develop linear and non-linear Reduced Order Surrogate Modelling (ROSM) techniques. Two algorithms are presented, which are based on a combination of linear/kernel principal component analysis and radial basis functions. These algorithms are applied to subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data, as well as a model for a chemical spill in a channel. The results of this thesis show that ROSM can provide a significant computational benefit over classical surrogate modelling, sometimes at the expense of a minor loss in accuracy.

  18. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  19. High-order computer-assisted estimates of topological entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Johannes

    The concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offers highly accurate C0-estimates for the enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order Taylor polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified interval arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly nonlinear dynamical systems. A method to obtain sharp rigorous enclosures of Poincare maps for certain types of flows and surfaces is developed and numerical examples are presented. Differential algebraic techniques allow the efficient and accurate computation of polynomial approximations for invariant curves of certain planar maps around hyperbolic fixed points. Subsequently we introduce a procedure to extend these polynomial curves to verified Taylor Model enclosures of local invariant manifolds with C0-errors of size 10-10--10 -14, and proceed to generate the global invariant manifold tangle up to comparable accuracy through iteration in Taylor Model arithmetic. Knowledge of the global manifold structure up to finite iterations of the local manifold pieces enables us to find all homoclinic and heteroclinic intersections in the generated manifold tangle. Combined with the mapping properties of the homoclinic points and their ordering we are able to construct a subshift of finite type as a topological factor of the original planar system to obtain rigorous lower bounds for its topological entropy. This construction is fully automatic and yields homoclinic tangles with several hundred homoclinic points. As an example rigorous lower bounds for the topological entropy of the Henon map are computed, which to the best knowledge of the authors yield the largest such estimates published so far.

  20. Single-order laser high harmonics in XUV for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular wavepacket dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuho Fushitani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present applications of extreme ultraviolet (XUV single-order laser harmonics to gas-phase ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrashort XUV pulses at 80 nm are obtained as the 5th order harmonics of the fundamental laser at 400 nm by using Xe or Kr as the nonlinear medium and separated from other harmonic orders by using an indium foil. The single-order laser harmonics is applied for real-time probing of vibrational wavepacket dynamics of I2 molecules in the bound and dissociating low-lying electronic states and electronic-vibrational wavepacket dynamics of highly excited Rydberg N2 molecules.

  1. Single-order laser high harmonics in XUV for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular wavepacket dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushitani, Mizuho; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2016-11-01

    We present applications of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) single-order laser harmonics to gas-phase ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrashort XUV pulses at 80 nm are obtained as the 5th order harmonics of the fundamental laser at 400 nm by using Xe or Kr as the nonlinear medium and separated from other harmonic orders by using an indium foil. The single-order laser harmonics is applied for real-time probing of vibrational wavepacket dynamics of I 2 molecules in the bound and dissociating low-lying electronic states and electronic-vibrational wavepacket dynamics of highly excited Rydberg N 2 molecules.

  2. Time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions: Basic formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.

    1993-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied in second order to describe time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Emphasis is given to the conditions for interferences between first- and second-order terms. In systems with two active electrons, time ordering gives rise to a pair of associated paths involving a second-order process and its time-inverted process. Combining these paths within the independent-particle frozen orbital model, time ordering is lost. It is shown that the loss of time ordering modifies the second-order amplitude so that its ability to interfere with the first-order amplitude is essentially reduced. Time ordering and the capability for interference is regained, as one path is blocked by means of the Pauli exclusion principle. The time-ordering formalism is prepared for papers dealing with collision experiments of single excitation [Stolterfoht et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2986 (1993)] and double excitation [Stolterfoht et al. (unpublished)

  3. Computational Aero-Acoustic Using High-order Finite-Difference Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    are solved using the in-house flow solver EllipSys2D/3D which is a second-order finite volume code. The acoustic solution is found by solving the acoustic equations using high-order finite difference schemes. The incompressible flow equations and the acoustic equations are solved at the same time levels......In this paper, a high-order technique to accurately predict flow-generated noise is introduced. The technique consists of solving the viscous incompressible flow equations and inviscid acoustic equations using a incompressible/compressible splitting technique. The incompressible flow equations...

  4. Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina

    Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high-order

  5. Synchronization of Different Fractional Order Time-Delay Chaotic Systems Using Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianeng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems is considered. Based on the Laplace transform theory, the conditions for achieving synchronization of different fractional order time-delay chaotic systems are analyzed by use of active control technique. Then numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method. At last, effects of the fraction order and the time delay on synchronization are further researched.

  6. High-Order Dielectric Metasurfaces for High-Efficiency Polarization Beam Splitters and Optical Vortex Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongyi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Kai; Shen, Fei; Yin, Zhiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a high-order dielectric metasurface based on silicon nanobrick array is proposed and investigated. By controlling the length and width of the nanobricks, the metasurfaces could supply two different incremental transmission phases for the X-linear-polarized (XLP) and Y-linear-polarized (YLP) light with extremely high efficiency over 88%. Based on the designed metasurface, two polarization beam splitters working in high-order diffraction modes have been designed successfully, which demonstrated a high transmitted efficiency. In addition, we have also designed two vortex-beam generators working in high-order diffraction modes to create vortex beams with the topological charges of 2 and 3. The employment of dielectric metasurfaces operating in high-order diffraction modes could pave the way for a variety of new ultra-efficient optical devices.

  7. Performance comparison of optimal fractional order hybrid fuzzy PID controllers for handling oscillatory fractional order processes with dead time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2013-07-01

    Fuzzy logic based PID controllers have been studied in this paper, considering several combinations of hybrid controllers by grouping the proportional, integral and derivative actions with fuzzy inferencing in different forms. Fractional order (FO) rate of error signal and FO integral of control signal have been used in the design of a family of decomposed hybrid FO fuzzy PID controllers. The input and output scaling factors (SF) along with the integro-differential operators are tuned with real coded genetic algorithm (GA) to produce optimum closed loop performance by simultaneous consideration of the control loop error index and the control signal. Three different classes of fractional order oscillatory processes with various levels of relative dominance between time constant and time delay have been used to test the comparative merits of the proposed family of hybrid fractional order fuzzy PID controllers. Performance comparison of the different FO fuzzy PID controller structures has been done in terms of optimal set-point tracking, load disturbance rejection and minimal variation of manipulated variable or smaller actuator requirement etc. In addition, multi-objective Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) has been used to study the Pareto optimal trade-offs between the set point tracking and control signal, and the set point tracking and load disturbance performance for each of the controller structure to handle the three different types of processes. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulation using high-order finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Schnack, D.D.; Tarditi, A.; Chu, M.S.; Gianakon, T.A.; Kruger, S.E.; Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Sovinec, C.R.; Glasser, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    A conforming representation composed of 2D finite elements and finite Fourier series is applied to 3D nonlinear non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics using a semi-implicit time-advance. The self-adjoint semi-implicit operator and variational approach to spatial discretization are synergistic and enable simulation in the extremely stiff conditions found in high temperature plasmas without sacrificing the geometric flexibility needed for modeling laboratory experiments. Growth rates for resistive tearing modes with experimentally relevant Lundquist number are computed accurately with time-steps that are large with respect to the global Alfven time and moderate spatial resolution when the finite elements have basis functions of polynomial degree (p) two or larger. An error diffusion method controls the generation of magnetic divergence error. Convergence studies show that this approach is effective for continuous basis functions with p (ge) 2, where the number of test functions for the divergence control terms is less than the number of degrees of freedom in the expansion for vector fields. Anisotropic thermal conduction at realistic ratios of parallel to perpendicular conductivity (x(parallel)/x(perpendicular)) is computed accurately with p (ge) 3 without mesh alignment. A simulation of tearing-mode evolution for a shaped toroidal tokamak equilibrium demonstrates the effectiveness of the algorithm in nonlinear conditions, and its results are used to verify the accuracy of the numerical anisotropic thermal conduction in 3D magnetic topologies.

  9. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkinjon Karimov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  10. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Erkinjon Karimov; Sardor Pirnafasov

    2017-01-01

    In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  11. Two-degree-of-freedom fractional order-PID controllers design for fractional order processes with dead-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jinggang

    2016-03-01

    Recently, fractional order (FO) processes with dead-time have attracted more and more attention of many researchers in control field, but FO-PID controllers design techniques available for the FO processes with dead-time suffer from lack of direct systematic approaches. In this paper, a simple design and parameters tuning approach of two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FO-PID controller based on internal model control (IMC) is proposed for FO processes with dead-time, conventional one-degree-of-freedom control exhibited the shortcoming of coupling of robustness and dynamic response performance. 2-DOF control can overcome the above weakness which means it realizes decoupling of robustness and dynamic performance from each other. The adjustable parameter η2 of FO-PID controller is directly related to the robustness of closed-loop system, and the analytical expression is given between the maximum sensitivity specification Ms and parameters η2. In addition, according to the dynamic performance requirement of the practical system, the parameters η1 can also be selected easily. By approximating the dead-time term of the process model with the first-order Padé or Taylor series, the expressions for 2-DOF FO-PID controller parameters are derived for three classes of FO processes with dead-time. Moreover, compared with other methods, the proposed method is simple and easy to implement. Finally, the simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-order adaptive secondary mirrors: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinari, Piero; Sandler, David G.

    1998-09-01

    We discuss the current developments and the perspective performances of adaptive secondary mirrors for high order adaptive a correction on large ground based telescopes. The development of the basic techniques involved a large collaborative effort of public research Institutes and of private companies is now essentially complete. The next crucial step will be the construction of an adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 m MMT. Problems such as the fabrication of very thin mirrors, the low cost implementation of fast position sensors, of efficient and compact electromagnetic actuators, of the control and communication electronics, of the actuator control system, of the thermal control and of the mechanical layout can be considered as solved, in some cases with more than one viable solution. To verify performances at system level two complete prototypes have been built and tested, one at ThermoTrex and the other at Arcetri. The two prototypes adopt the same basic approach concerning actuators, sensor and support of the thin mirror, but differ in a number of aspects such as the material of the rigid back plate used as reference for the thin mirror, the number and surface density of the actuators, the solution adopted for the removal of the heat, and the design of the electronics. We discuss how the results obtained by of the two prototypes and by numerical simulations will guide the design of full size adaptive secondary units.

  13. Analytical and experimental study of high phase order induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingshirn, Eugene A.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors having more than three phases were investigated to determine their suitability for electric vehicle applications. The objective was to have a motor with a current rating lower than that of a three-phase motor. The name chosen for these is high phase order (HPO) motors. Motors having six phases and nine phases were given the most attention. It was found that HPO motors are quite suitable for electric vehicles, and for many other applications as well. They have characteristics which are as good as or better than three-phase motors for practically all applications where polyphase induction motors are appropriate. Some of the analysis methods are presented, and several of the equivalent circuits which facilitate the determination of harmonic currents and losses, or currents with unbalanced sources, are included. The sometimes large stator currents due to harmonics in the source voltages are pointed out. Filters which can limit these currents were developed. An analysis and description of these filters is included. Experimental results which confirm and illustrate much of the theory are also included. These include locked rotor test results and full-load performance with an open phase. Also shown are oscillograms which display the reduction in harmonic currents when a filter is used with the experimental motor supplied by a non-sinusoidal source.

  14. Application of high-order uncertainty for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Donghan; Ha, Jaejoo

    1998-01-01

    The use of probability distribution to represent uncertainty about point-valued probabilities has been a controversial subject. Probability theorists have argued that it is inherently meaningless to be uncertain about a probability since this appears to violate the subjectivists' assumption that individual can develop unique and precise probability judgments. However, many others have found the concept of uncertainty about the probability to be both intuitively appealing and potentially useful. Especially, high-order uncertainty, i.e., the uncertainty about the probability, can be potentially relevant to decision-making when expert's judgment is needed under very uncertain data and imprecise knowledge and where the phenomena and events are frequently complicated and ill-defined. This paper presents two approaches for evaluating the uncertainties inherent in accident management strategies: 'a fuzzy probability' and 'an interval-valued subjective probability'. At first, this analysis considers accident management as a decision problem (i.e., 'applying a strategy' vs. 'do nothing') and uses an influence diagram. Then, the analysis applies two approaches above to evaluate imprecise node probabilities in the influence diagram. For the propagation of subjective probabilities, the analysis uses the Monte-Carlo simulation. In case of fuzzy probabilities, the fuzzy logic is applied to propagate them. We believe that these approaches can allow us to understand uncertainties associated with severe accident management strategy since they offer not only information similar to the classical approach using point-estimate values but also additional information regarding the impact from imprecise input data

  15. High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics.

  16. Mode of conception of triplets and high order multiple pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Basit, I

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective audit was performed of all high order multiple pregnancies (HOMPs) delivered in three maternity hospitals in Dublin between 1999 and 2008. The mode of conception for each pregnancy was established with a view to determining means of reducing their incidence. A total of 101 HOMPs occurred, 93 triplet, 7 quadruplet and 1 quintuplet. Information regarding the mode of conception was available for 78 (81%) pregnancies. Twenty eight (27.7%) were spontaneous, 34 (33.7%) followedlVF\\/ICSI\\/FET treatment (in-vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, frozen embryo transfer), 16 (15.8%) resulted from Clomiphene Citrate treatment and 6 (6%) followed ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. Triplet and HOMPs are a major cause of maternal, feta land neonatal morbidity. Many are iatrogenic, arising from fertility treatments including Clomiphene. Reducing the numbers of embryos transferred will address IVF\\/ICSI\\/FET-related multiple pregnancy rates and this is currently happening in Ireland. Clomiphene and gonadotrophins should only be prescribed when appropriate resources are available to monitor patients adequately.

  17. High orders of perturbation theory. Are renormalons significant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    According to Lipatov [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 216 (1977)], the high orders of perturbation theory are determined by saddle-point configurations, i.e., instantons, which correspond to functional integrals. According to another opinion, the contributions of individual large diagrams, i.e., renormalons, which, according to t'Hooft [The Whys of Subnuclear Physics: Proceedings of the 1977 International School of Subnuclear Physics (Erice, Trapani, Sicily, 1977), A. Zichichi (Ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1979)], are not contained in the Lipatov contribution, are also significant. The history of the conception of renormalons is presented, and the arguments in favor of and against their existence are discussed. The analytic properties of the Borel transforms of functional integrals, Green's functions, vertex parts, and scaling functions are investigated in the case of φ 4 theory. Their analyticity in a complex plane with a cut from the first instanton singularity to infinity (the Le Guillou-Zinn-Justin hypothesis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 95 (1977); Phys. Rev. B 21, 3976 (1980)] is proved. It rules out the existence of the renormalon singularities pointed out by t'Hooft and demonstrates the nonconstructiveness of the conception of renormalons as a whole. The results can be interpreted as an indication of the internal consistency of φ 4 theory

  18. A high-order boundary integral method for surface diffusions on elastically stressed axisymmetric rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing

    2009-07-01

    Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green's functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated.

  19. High-brightness high-order harmonic generation at 13 nm with a long gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Kim, I Jong; Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Jong Ju; Hong, Kyung Han; Nam, Chang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics is well-known method producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation with pulse duration in the femtosecond regime. High-order harmonics have attracted much attention due to their unique features such as coherence, ultrashort pulse duration, and table-top scale system. Due to these unique properties, high-order harmonics have many applications of atomic and molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and solid-state physics. Bright generation of high-order harmonics is important for actual applications. Especially, the generation of strong well-collimated harmonics at 13 nm can be useful for the metrology of EUV lithography optics because of the high reflectivity of Mo-Si mirrors at this wavelength. The generation of bright high-order harmonics is rather difficult in the wavelength region below 15nm. Though argon and xenon gases have large conversion efficiency, harmonic generation from these gases is restricted to wavelengths over 20 nm due to low ionization potential. Hence, we choose neon for the harmonic generation around 13 nm; it has larger conversion efficiency than helium and higher ionization potential than argon. In this experiment, we have observed enhanced harmonic generation efficiency and low beam divergence of high-order harmonics from a elongated neon gas jet by the enhancement of laser propagation in an elongated gas jet. A uniform plasma column was produced when the gas jet was exposed to converging laser pulses.

  20. First order simulations on time measurements using inorganic scintillators for PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, B.; Montarou, G.; Pauna, N.

    2008-01-01

    Time measurements based on scintillating crystals are used in many different experimental sets-up in high energy physics, nuclear physics and medical imaging (e.g. PET). Time of Flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) is based on the measurement of the difference between the detection times of the two gamma arising from positrons decays. The fundamental improvement of TOF is an increase in signal to noise ratio which translates into sensitivity improvement. Conventional method for time measurements is based on the detection of first photoelectrons. Recently, in LHC experiments and more particularly for electromagnetic calorimeter, a fully digital method based on optimal filtering that considers samples of the entire signal was successfully applied. Since such a method allows ultimately time resolutions of about a few tens of picoseconds, for this report, first order simulations were performed using a simplified model of a detection block made of a PMT coupled to a LYSO or LaBr 3 crystal. These simulations were achieved to estimate time resolutions with the conventional method (first photoelectrons detection with CFD) or the optimal filtering. A hybrid method is also tested to be applied with fast running front-end electronics. These simulations will be the basis for experimental future studies. (authors)

  1. First order simulations on time measurements using inorganic scintillators for PET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, B.; Montarou, G.; Pauna, N

    2008-07-01

    Time measurements based on scintillating crystals are used in many different experimental sets-up in high energy physics, nuclear physics and medical imaging (e.g. PET). Time of Flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) is based on the measurement of the difference between the detection times of the two gamma arising from positrons decays. The fundamental improvement of TOF is an increase in signal to noise ratio which translates into sensitivity improvement. Conventional method for time measurements is based on the detection of first photoelectrons. Recently, in LHC experiments and more particularly for electromagnetic calorimeter, a fully digital method based on optimal filtering that considers samples of the entire signal was successfully applied. Since such a method allows ultimately time resolutions of about a few tens of picoseconds, for this report, first order simulations were performed using a simplified model of a detection block made of a PMT coupled to a LYSO or LaBr{sub 3} crystal. These simulations were achieved to estimate time resolutions with the conventional method (first photoelectrons detection with CFD) or the optimal filtering. A hybrid method is also tested to be applied with fast running front-end electronics. These simulations will be the basis for experimental future studies. (authors)

  2. Simulation model of a single-server order picking workstation using aggregate process times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.; Biles, W.E.; Saltelli, A.; Dini, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simulation modeling approach based on aggregate process times for the performance analysis of order picking workstations in automated warehouses with first-in-first-out processing of orders. The aggregate process time distribution is calculated from tote arrival and

  3. Improving Spiking Dynamical Networks: Accurate Delays, Higher-Order Synapses, and Time Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Aaron R; Eliasmith, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Researchers building spiking neural networks face the challenge of improving the biological plausibility of their model networks while maintaining the ability to quantitatively characterize network behavior. In this work, we extend the theory behind the neural engineering framework (NEF), a method of building spiking dynamical networks, to permit the use of a broad class of synapse models while maintaining prescribed dynamics up to a given order. This theory improves our understanding of how low-level synaptic properties alter the accuracy of high-level computations in spiking dynamical networks. For completeness, we provide characterizations for both continuous-time (i.e., analog) and discrete-time (i.e., digital) simulations. We demonstrate the utility of these extensions by mapping an optimal delay line onto various spiking dynamical networks using higher-order models of the synapse. We show that these networks nonlinearly encode rolling windows of input history, using a scale invariant representation, with accuracy depending on the frequency content of the input signal. Finally, we reveal that these methods provide a novel explanation of time cell responses during a delay task, which have been observed throughout hippocampus, striatum, and cortex.

  4. High-order multi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for problems of reactive flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlioux, Anne; Layton, Anita T.; Minion, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Models for reacting flow are typically based on advection-diffusion-reaction (A-D-R) partial differential equations. Many practical cases correspond to situations where the relevant time scales associated with each of the three sub-processes can be widely different, leading to disparate time-step requirements for robust and accurate time-integration. In particular, interesting regimes in combustion correspond to systems in which diffusion and reaction are much faster processes than advection. The numerical strategy introduced in this paper is a general procedure to account for this time-scale disparity. The proposed methods are high-order multi-implicit generalizations of spectral deferred correction methods (MISDC methods), constructed for the temporal integration of A-D-R equations. Spectral deferred correction methods compute a high-order approximation to the solution of a differential equation by using a simple, low-order numerical method to solve a series of correction equations, each of which increases the order of accuracy of the approximation. The key feature of MISDC methods is their flexibility in handling several sub-processes implicitly but independently, while avoiding the splitting errors present in traditional operator-splitting methods and also allowing for different time steps for each process. The stability, accuracy, and efficiency of MISDC methods are first analyzed using a linear model problem and the results are compared to semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods. Furthermore, numerical tests on simplified reacting flows demonstrate the expected convergence rates for MISDC methods of orders three, four, and five. The gain in efficiency by independently controlling the sub-process time steps is illustrated for nonlinear problems, where reaction and diffusion are much stiffer than advection. Although the paper focuses on this specific time-scales ordering, the generalization to any ordering combination is straightforward

  5. Cheap arbitrary high order methods for single integrand SDEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2017-01-01

    For a particular class of Stratonovich SDE problems, here denoted as single integrand SDEs, we prove that by applying a deterministic Runge-Kutta method of order $p_d$ we obtain methods converging in the mean-square and weak sense with order $\\lfloor p_d/2\\rfloor$. The reason is that the B-series...

  6. High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength...

  7. Stability analysis of fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Yu, Yongguang; Wen, Guoguang

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability for fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with time delays. Firstly, the fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with hub structure and time delays are studied. Some sufficient conditions for stability of the systems are obtained. Next, two fractional-order Hopfield neural networks with different ring structures and time delays are developed. By studying the developed neural networks, the corresponding sufficient conditions for stability of the systems are also derived. It is shown that the stability conditions are independent of time delays. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results obtained in this paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous alumina films by stable high-field anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li; Shen Wenzhong

    2006-01-01

    Stable high-field anodization (1500-4000 A m -2 ) for the fabrication of highly ordered porous anodic alumina films has been realized in a H 3 PO 4 -H 2 O-C 2 H 5 OH system. By maintaining the self-ordering voltage and adjusting the anodizing current density, high-quality self-ordered alumina films with a controllable inter-pore distance over a large range are achieved. The high anodizing current densities lead to high-speed film growth (4-10 μm min -1 ). The inter-pore distance is not solely dependent on the anodizing voltage, but is also influenced by the anodizing current density. This approach is simple and cost-effective, and is of great value for applications in diverse areas of nanotechnology

  9. Identification of fractional-order systems with time delays using block pulse functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinggan; Li, Ning; Liu, Minmin; Lu, Yao; Wang, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel method based on block pulse functions is proposed to identify continuous-time fractional-order systems with time delays. First, the operational matrices of block pulse functions for fractional integral operator and time delay operator are derived. Then, these operational matrices are applied to convert the continuous-time fractional-order systems with time delays to an algebraic equation. Finally, the system's parameters along with the differentiation orders and the time delays are all simultaneously estimated through minimizing a quadric error function. The proposed method reduces the computation complexity of the identification process, and also it does not require the system's differentiation orders to be commensurate. The effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by several numerical examples.

  10. Fluctuations of order parameters in the high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Saif, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    Recently we have proposed a phenomenological approach in terms of two coexisting macroscopic order parameters corresponding to the superconducting and insulating states and have discussed the electrodynamical responses of the superconducting ceramics. In this paper we discuss the fluctuations of the order parameters both in the static and in the dynamical situations in the mean field approach and obtain results for the electrical conductivity which possesses anomalies as in granular materials. (author). 22 refs

  11. Effect of closed-loop order processing on the time to initial antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosh, Nicole; Rew, Richardd; Sharpe, Michelle

    2012-08-15

    The results of a study comparing the average time to initiation of i.v. antimicrobial therapy with closed-versus open-loop order entry and processing are reported. A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare order-to-administration times for initial doses of i.v. antimicrobials before and after a closed-loop order-processing system including computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) was implemented at a large medical center. A total of 741 i.v. antimicrobial administrations to adult patients during designated five-month preimplementation and postimplementation study periods were assessed. Drug-use reports generated by the pharmacy database were used to identify order-entry times, and medication administration records were reviewed to determine times of i.v. antimicrobial administration. The mean ± S.D. order-to-administration times before and after the implementation of the CPOE system and closed-loop order processing were 3.18 ± 2.60 and 2.00 ± 1.89 hours, respectively, a reduction of 1.18 hours (p Closed-loop order processing was associated with significant reductions in the average time to initiation of i.v. therapy in all patient care areas evaluated (cardiology, general medicine, and oncology). The study results suggest that CPOE-based closed-loop order processing can play an important role in achieving compliance with current practice guidelines calling for increased efforts to ensure the prompt initiation of i.v. antimicrobials for severe infections (e.g., sepsis, meningitis). Implementation of a closed-loop order-processing system resulted in a significant decrease in order-to-administration times for i.v. antimicrobial therapy.

  12. Synchronization of a coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons via high order sliding-mode feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Lopez, R. [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: raguilar@correo.azc.uam.mx; Martinez-Guerra, R. [Departamento de Control Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico, D.F. C.P. 07360 (Mexico)], E-mail: rguerra@ctrl.cinvestav.mx

    2008-07-15

    This work deals with the synchronizations of two both coupled Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neurons, where the master neuron posses inner noise and the slave neuron is considered in a resting state, (without inner noise) and an exciting state (with inner noise). The synchronization procedure is done via a feedback control, considering a class of high order sliding-mode controller which provides chattering reduction and finite time synchronization convergence, with a satisfactory performance. Theoretical analysis is done in order to show the closed-loop stability of the proposed controller and the calculated finite time for convergence. The main results are illustrated via numerical experiments.

  13. Synchronization of a coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons via high order sliding-mode feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Martinez-Guerra, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the synchronizations of two both coupled Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neurons, where the master neuron posses inner noise and the slave neuron is considered in a resting state, (without inner noise) and an exciting state (with inner noise). The synchronization procedure is done via a feedback control, considering a class of high order sliding-mode controller which provides chattering reduction and finite time synchronization convergence, with a satisfactory performance. Theoretical analysis is done in order to show the closed-loop stability of the proposed controller and the calculated finite time for convergence. The main results are illustrated via numerical experiments

  14. A high-order boundary integral method for surface diffusions on elastically stressed axisymmetric rods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...

  15. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  16. Discrete integration of continuous Kalman filtering equations for time invariant second-order structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Belvin, W. Keith

    1990-01-01

    A general form for the first-order representation of the continuous second-order linear structural-dynamics equations is introduced to derive a corresponding form of first-order continuous Kalman filtering equations. Time integration of the resulting equations is carried out via a set of linear multistep integration formulas. It is shown that a judicious combined selection of computational paths and the undetermined matrices introduced in the general form of the first-order linear structural systems leads to a class of second-order discrete Kalman filtering equations involving only symmetric sparse N x N solution matrices.

  17. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... functions of arbitrary order in space on each element of an unstructured computational domain. A fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Methods for introducing artificial damping to control mild nonlinear instabilities are also discussed. The accuracy...... and convergence of the model with both h (grid size) and p (order) refinement are verified for the linearized equations, and calculations are provided for two nonlinear test cases in one horizontal dimension: harmonic generation over a submerged bar; and reflection of a steep solitary wave from a vertical wall...

  18. Influence of time delay on fractional-order PI-controlled system for a second-order oscillatory plant model with time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadalla Talar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the influence of an open-loop time delay on the stability and tracking performance of a second-order open-loop system and continuoustime fractional-order PI controller. The tuning method of this controller is based on Hermite- Biehler and Pontryagin theorems, and the tracking performance is evaluated on the basis of two integral performance indices, namely IAE and ISE. The paper extends the results and methodology presented in previous work of the authors to analysis of the influence of time delay on the closed-loop system taking its destabilizing properties into account, as well as concerning possible application of the presented results and used models.

  19. An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giscard, P.-L.; Lui, K.; Thwaite, S. J.; Jaksch, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures

  20. An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giscard, P.-L.; Lui, K.; Thwaite, S. J.; Jaksch, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures.

  1. High-order harmonic generation in solid slabs beyond the single-active-electron approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth K.; Deffge, Tobias; Bauer, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    High-harmonic generation by a laser-driven solid slab is simulated using time-dependent density functional theory. Multiple harmonic plateaus up to very high harmonic orders are observed already at surprisingly low field strengths. The full all-electron harmonic spectra are, in general, very different from those of any individual Kohn-Sham orbital. Freezing the Kohn-Sham potential instead is found to be a good approximation for the laser intensities and harmonic orders considered. The origins of the plateau cutoffs are explained in terms of band gaps that can be reached by Kohn-Sham electrons and holes moving through the band structure.

  2. Synchronization in reduced-order of chaotic systems via control approaches based on high-order sliding-mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A. [Electrical Engineering Doctoral Program, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)], E-mail: angelrdz@gmail.com; De Leon, J. [Electrical Engineering Doctoral Program, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)], E-mail: drjleon@gmail.com; Fridman, L. [Department of Control, Division of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)], E-mail: lfridman@servidor.unam.mx

    2009-12-15

    The reduced-order synchronization problem of two chaotic systems (master-slave) with different dimension and relative degree is considered. A control scheme based on a high-order sliding-mode observer-identifier and a feedback state controller is proposed, where the trajectories of slave can be synchronized with a canonical projection of the master. Thus, the reduced-order synchronization is achieved in spite of master/slave mismatches. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  3. Synchronization in reduced-order of chaotic systems via control approaches based on high-order sliding-mode observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; De Leon, J.; Fridman, L.

    2009-01-01

    The reduced-order synchronization problem of two chaotic systems (master-slave) with different dimension and relative degree is considered. A control scheme based on a high-order sliding-mode observer-identifier and a feedback state controller is proposed, where the trajectories of slave can be synchronized with a canonical projection of the master. Thus, the reduced-order synchronization is achieved in spite of master/slave mismatches. Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  4. High order curvilinear finite elements for elastic–plastic Lagrangian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, Veselin A.; Kolev, Tzanio V.; Rieben, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a high-order finite element method for calculating elastic–plastic flow on moving curvilinear meshes and is an extension of our general high-order curvilinear finite element approach for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a Lagrangian frame [1,2]. In order to handle transition to plastic flow, we formulate the stress–strain relation in rate (or incremental) form and augment our semi-discrete equations for Lagrangian hydrodynamics with an additional evolution equation for the deviatoric stress which is valid for arbitrary order spatial discretizations of the kinematic and thermodynamic variables. The semi-discrete equation for the deviatoric stress rate is developed for 2D planar, 2D axisymmetric and full 3D geometries. For each case, the strain rate is approximated via a collocation method at zone quadrature points while the deviatoric stress is approximated using an L 2 projection onto the thermodynamic basis. We apply high order, energy conserving, explicit time stepping methods to the semi-discrete equations to develop the fully discrete method. We conclude with numerical results from an extensive series of verification tests that demonstrate several practical advantages of using high-order finite elements for elastic–plastic flow

  5. String Chopping and Time-ordered Products of Linear String-localized Quantum Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Lucas T.; Mund, Jens; Várilly, Joseph C.

    2018-03-01

    For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme with string-localized quantum fields, one needs to know what freedom one has in the definition of time-ordered products of the interaction Lagrangian. This paper provides a first step in that direction. The basic issue is the presence of an open set of n-tuples of strings which cannot be chronologically ordered. We resolve it by showing that almost all such string configurations can be dissected into finitely many pieces which can indeed be chronologically ordered. This fixes the time-ordered products of linear field factors outside a nullset of string configurations. (The extension across the nullset, as well as the definition of time-ordered products of Wick monomials, will be discussed elsewhere).

  6. Integrated model for pricing, delivery time setting, and scheduling in make-to-order environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmdare, Hamid Sattari; Lotfi, M. M.; Honarvar, Mahboobeh

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in make-to-order environments which work only in response to the customer's orders, manufacturers for maximizing the profits should offer the best price and delivery time for an order considering the existing capacity and the customer's sensitivity to both the factors. In this paper, an integrated approach for pricing, delivery time setting and scheduling of new arrival orders are proposed based on the existing capacity and accepted orders in system. In the problem, the acquired market demands dependent on the price and delivery time of both the manufacturer and its competitors. A mixed-integer non-linear programming model is presented for the problem. After converting to a pure non-linear model, it is validated through a case study. The efficiency of proposed model is confirmed by comparing it to both the literature and the current practice. Finally, sensitivity analysis for the key parameters is carried out.

  7. Model order reduction for complex high-tech systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutowska, A.; Hochstenbach, M.E.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Michielsen, B.; Poirier, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient model order reduction (MOR) technique for interconnected systems. This MOR technique preserves block structures and zero blocks and exploits separate MOR approximations for the individual sub-systems in combination with low rank approximations for the

  8. Time- and Space-Order Effects in Timed Discrimination of Brightness and Size of Paired Visual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, Geoffrey R.; Englund, Mats P.; Hellstrom, Ake

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of both response probability and response time for testing models of choice, there is a dearth of chronometric studies examining systematic asymmetries that occur over time- and space-orders in the method of paired comparisons. In this study, systematic asymmetries in discriminating the magnitude of paired visual stimuli are…

  9. Second-order contributions to relativistic time delay in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, G.W.; Matzner, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Using a parametrized expansion of the solar metric to second order in the Newtonian potential, we calculate the relativistic delay in the round-trip travel time of a radar signal reflected from a nearby planet. We find that one second-order contribution to the delay is on the order of ten nanoseconds, which is comparable to the uncertainties in present-day experiments involving the Viking spacecraft

  10. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  11. Polarization control of high order harmonics in the EUV photon energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Barszczak Sardinha, Anna; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Valentin, Constance; Lozano, Magali; Iaquaniello, Grégory; Delmotte, Franck; Sebban, Stéphane; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2011-02-28

    We report the generation of circularly polarized high order harmonics in the extreme ultraviolet range (18-27 nm) from a linearly polarized infrared laser (40 fs, 0.25 TW) focused into a neon filled gas cell. To circularly polarize the initially linearly polarized harmonics we have implemented a four-reflector phase-shifter. Fully circularly polarized radiation has been obtained with an efficiency of a few percents, thus being significantly more efficient than currently demonstrated direct generation of elliptically polarized harmonics. This demonstration opens up new experimental capabilities based on high order harmonics, for example, in biology and materials science. The inherent femtosecond time resolution of high order harmonic generating table top laser sources renders these an ideal tool for the investigation of ultrafast magnetization dynamics now that the magnetic circular dichroism at the absorption M-edges of transition metals can be exploited.

  12. Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, I; Altun, Z [Department of Physics, Marmara University, 34722 Ziverbey, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcu, T, E-mail: ilhan.yavuz@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Auburn University, AL 36849-5311 (United States)

    2011-07-14

    We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.

  13. Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, I; Altun, Z; Topcu, T

    2011-01-01

    We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.

  14. A New Approach to Rational Discrete-Time Approximations to Continuous-Time Fractional-Order Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matos , Carlos; Ortigueira , Manuel ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 10: Signal Processing; International audience; In this paper a new approach to rational discrete-time approximations to continuous fractional-order systems of the form 1/(sα+p) is proposed. We will show that such fractional-order LTI system can be decomposed into sub-systems. One has the classic behavior and the other is similar to a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) system. The conversion from continuous-time to discrete-time systems will be done using the Laplace transform inversion integr...

  15. Order Patterns Networks (orpan – a method toestimate time-evolving functional connectivity frommultivariate time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSchinkel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks provide an excellent framework for studying the functionof the human brain activity. Yet estimating functional networks from mea-sured signals is not trivial, especially if the data is non-stationary and noisyas it is often the case with physiological recordings. In this article we proposea method that uses the local rank structure of the data to define functionallinks in terms of identical rank structures. The method yields temporal se-quences of networks which permits to trace the evolution of the functionalconnectivity during the time course of the observation. We demonstrate thepotentials of this approach with model data as well as with experimentaldata from an electrophysiological study on language processing.

  16. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  17. A limit set trichotomy for order-preserving systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poetzsche

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we derive a limit set trichotomy for abstract order-preserving 2-parameter semiflows in normal cones of strongly ordered Banach spaces. Additionally, to provide an example, Muller's theorem is generalized to dynamic equations on arbitrary time scales and applied to a model from population dynamics.

  18. Debates and diatribes in Milanese religious orders at the time of Boscovich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, F.

    Many religious orders were involved in education at the time of Boscovich, but I thought that it would be useful to focus on the Barnabites and the Jesuits, which were extremely active in Milan in that period. Debates and diatribes among these two religious orders are discussed.

  19. An order insertion scheduling model of logistics service supply chain considering capacity and time factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful.

  20. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our

  1. SMAP L1B Radiometer Half-Orbit Time-Ordered Brightness Temperatures V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-1B (L1B) product provides calibrated estimates of time-ordered geolocated brightness temperatures measured by the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP)...

  2. Learning High-Order Filters for Efficient Blind Deconvolution of Document Photographs

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2016-09-16

    Photographs of text documents taken by hand-held cameras can be easily degraded by camera motion during exposure. In this paper, we propose a new method for blind deconvolution of document images. Observing that document images are usually dominated by small-scale high-order structures, we propose to learn a multi-scale, interleaved cascade of shrinkage fields model, which contains a series of high-order filters to facilitate joint recovery of blur kernel and latent image. With extensive experiments, we show that our method produces high quality results and is highly efficient at the same time, making it a practical choice for deblurring high resolution text images captured by modern mobile devices. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  3. FEA identification of high order generalized equivalent circuits for MF high voltage transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Candolfi, Sylvain; Cros, Jérôme; Aguglia, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a specific methodology to derive high order generalized equivalent circuits from electromagnetic finite element analysis for high voltage medium frequency and pulse transformers by splitting the main windings in an arbitrary number of elementary windings. With this modeling approach, the dynamic model of the transformer over a large bandwidth is improved and the order of the generalized equivalent circuit can be adapted to a specified bandwidth. This efficient tool can be used by the designer to quantify the influence of the local structure of transformers on their dynamic behavior. The influence of different topologies and winding configurations is investigated. Several application examples and an experimental validation are also presented.

  4. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  5. Fabrication and structural characterization of highly ordered titania nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongtao; Ordonez, Rosita

    Titanium (Ti) dioxide nanotubes have drawn much attention in the past decade due to the fact that titania is an extremely versatile material with a variety of technological applications. Anodizing Ti in different electrolytes has proved to be quite successful so far in creating the nanotubes, however, their degree of order is still not nearly as good as nanoporous anodic alumina. In this work, we first deposit a thin layer of aluminum (Al) onto electropolished Ti substrates, using thermal evaporation. Such an Al layer is then anodized in 0.3 M oxalic acid, forming an ordered nanoporous alumina mask on top of Ti. Afterwards, the anodization of Ti is accomplished at 20 V in solutions containing 1 M NaH2PO4 and 0.5% HF or H2SO4, which results in the creation of ordered titania nanotube arrays. The inner pore diameter of the nanotubes can be tuned from ~50 nm to ~75 nm, depending on the anodization voltage applied to Al or Ti. X-ray diffractometry shows the as-grown titania nanotubes are amorphous. Samples annealed at different temperatures in ambient atmosphere will be also reported.

  6. Superluminal Kinematics in the Milne Universe Causality in the Cosmic Time Order

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    The causality of superluminal signal transfer in the galaxy background is scrutinized. The cosmic time of the comoving galaxy frame determines a distinguished time order for events connected by superluminal signals. Every observer can relate his rest frame to the galaxy frame, and compare so the time order of events in his proper time to the cosmic time order. In this way all observers arrive at identical conclusions on the causality of events connected by superluminal signals. The energy of tachyons (superluminal particles) is defined in the comoving galaxy frame analogous to the energy of subluminal particles. It is positive in the galaxy frame and bounded from below in the rest frames of geodesically moving observers, so that particle-tachyon interactions can be based on energy-momentum conservation. We study tachyons in a Robertson-Walker cosmology with linear expansion factor and open, negatively curved 3-space (Milne universe). This cosmology admits globally geodesic rest frames for uniformly moving obs...

  7. Reduced order for nuclear reactor model in frequency and time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugroho, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    In control system theory, a model can be represented by frequency or time domain. In frequency domain, the model was represented by transfer function. in time domain, the model was represented by state space. for the sake of simplification in computation, it is necessary to reduce the model order. the main aim of this research is to find the best in nuclear reactor model. Model order reduction in frequency domain can be done utilizing pole-zero cancellation method; while in time domain utilizing balanced aggregation method the balanced aggregation method was developed by moore (1981). In this paper, the two kinds of method were applied to reduce a nuclear reactor model which was constructed by neutron dynamics and heat transfer equations. to validate that the model characteristics were not change when model order reduction applied, the response was utilized for full and reduced order. it was shown that the nuclear reactor order model can be reduced from order 8 to 2 order 2 is the best order for nuclear reactor model

  8. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  9. An Automated Approach to Very High Order Aeroacoustic Computations in Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Goodrich, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Computational aeroacoustics requires efficient, high-resolution simulation tools. And for smooth problems, this is best accomplished with very high order in space and time methods on small stencils. But the complexity of highly accurate numerical methods can inhibit their practical application, especially in irregular geometries. This complexity is reduced by using a special form of Hermite divided-difference spatial interpolation on Cartesian grids, and a Cauchy-Kowalewslci recursion procedure for time advancement. In addition, a stencil constraint tree reduces the complexity of interpolating grid points that are located near wall boundaries. These procedures are used to automatically develop and implement very high order methods (>15) for solving the linearized Euler equations that can achieve less than one grid point per wavelength resolution away from boundaries by including spatial derivatives of the primitive variables at each grid point. The accuracy of stable surface treatments is currently limited to 11th order for grid aligned boundaries and to 2nd order for irregular boundaries.

  10. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  11. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  12. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  13. High order mode damping in a pill box cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, F.; Lambertson, G.; Rimmer, R.

    1991-04-01

    We have substantially damped the higher order modes (HOM's) in a pill box cavity with attached beam pipe, while reducing the Q of the principal mode by less that 10%. This was accomplished by cutting slots in the cavity end wall at a radius at which the magnetic field of the lowest frequency HOM's is large. The slots couple energy from the cavity into waveguides which are below cut off for the principal mode, but which propagate energy at the HOM frequencies. Three slots 120 degrees apart couple HOM energy to three waveguides. We are concerned primarily with accelerating and deflecting modes: i.e. the TM mnp modes of order m=0 and m=1. For the strongest damping, only three m=0 and m=1 modes were detectable. These were the principal TM 010 mode, the TM 011 longitudinal mode, and the TM 110 deflecting mode. In addition the HOM Q's and the reduction of Q for the principal mode were determined by computer calculation. The principal mode Q for an actual rf cavity could not be measured because the bolted joints used in the construction of the cavity were not sufficiently good to support Q's above 6000. The measured Q of the first longitudinal mode was 31 and of the first transverse mode 37. Our maximum damping was limited by how well we could terminated the waveguides, and indeed, the computer calculations for the TM 011 and TM 110 modes give values in the range we measured. 2 refs., 2 figs

  14. High-order FDTD methods for transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan

    2011-08-15

    This Letter introduces a novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation for solving transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive media. Based on the auxiliary differential equation approach, the Debye dispersion model is coupled with Maxwell's equations to derive a supplementary ordinary differential equation for describing the regularity changes in electromagnetic fields at the dispersive interface. The resulting time-dependent jump conditions are rigorously enforced in the FDTD discretization by means of the matched interface and boundary scheme. High-order convergences are numerically achieved for the first time in the literature in the FDTD simulations of dispersive inhomogeneous media. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Application of Bf-EVALPSN to Real-time Process Order Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Akama, Seiki; Abe, Jair M.

    2009-01-01

    We have already proposed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called EVALPSN. In this paper, EVALPSN is developed to deal with before-after relations between two processes (time intervals), and its application to real-time process order control based on logical safety verification.

  16. High Order Tensor Formulation for Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2017-12-25

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) has gained attention for its successful role as a reconstruction and a classification tool in the computer vision and machine learning community. Current CSC methods can only reconstruct singlefeature 2D images independently. However, learning multidimensional dictionaries and sparse codes for the reconstruction of multi-dimensional data is very important, as it examines correlations among all the data jointly. This provides more capacity for the learned dictionaries to better reconstruct data. In this paper, we propose a generic and novel formulation for the CSC problem that can handle an arbitrary order tensor of data. Backed with experimental results, our proposed formulation can not only tackle applications that are not possible with standard CSC solvers, including colored video reconstruction (5D- tensors), but it also performs favorably in reconstruction with much fewer parameters as compared to naive extensions of standard CSC to multiple features/channels.

  17. High level waste facilities - Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed

  18. Variational methods for high-order multiphoton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, B.; Pan, C.; Liu, C.; Starace, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for applying the variationally stable procedure for Nth-order perturbative transition matrix elements of Gao and Starace [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 404 (1988); Phys. Rev. A 39, 4550 (1989)] to multiphoton processes involving systems other than atomic H are presented. Three specific cases are discussed: one-electron ions or atoms in which the electron--ion interaction is described by a central potential; two-electron ions or atoms in which the electronic states are described by the adiabatic hyperspherical representation; and closed-shell ions or atoms in which the electronic states are described by the multiconfiguration Hartree--Fock representation. Applications are made to the dynamic polarizability of He and the two-photon ionization cross section of Ar

  19. Importance of high order momentum terms in SLC optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanecki, W.

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of background levels at the SLC relies, in several cases, on the proper representation of how low momentum electrons propagate through the Arcs and the Final Focus System (FFS). For example, beam - gas bremsstrahlung in the arcs causes electrons of up to 6% energy loss to be transported through to the IP; secondary showers on edges of masks and collimators yield debris with a very wide momentum spectrum. This note is a naive attempt at checking the validity of TRANSPORT and TURTLE calculations, by evaluating the contributions of the momentum terms to increasingly higher order, and checking the mutual consistency of the results produced by the two methods on a beam of wide momentum spread. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. High order discrete ordinates transport in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkuszewski, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A two-dimensional neutron transport equation in (x,y) geometry is solved by the subdomain version of the weighted residual method. The weight functions are chosen to be characteristic functions of computational boxes (subdomains). In the case of bilinear interpolant the conventional diamond relations are obtained, while the quadratic one produces generalized diamond relations containing first derivatives of the solution. The balance equation remains the same. The derivation yields also additional relations for extrapolating boundary values of derivatives and leaves the room for supplementing the interpolant with specially curtailed higher order polynomials. The method requires only slight modifications in inner iteration process used by conventional discrete ordinates programs, and has been introduced as an option into the program DOT2. The paper contains comparisons of the proposed method with conventional one based on calculations of IAEA-CRP transport theory benchmarks. (author)

  1. Finite Time Control for Fractional Order Nonlinear Hydroturbine Governing System via Frequency Distributed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the application of frequency distributed model for finite time control of a fractional order nonlinear hydroturbine governing system (HGS. Firstly, the mathematical model of HGS with external random disturbances is introduced. Secondly, a novel terminal sliding surface is proposed and its stability to origin is proved based on the frequency distributed model and Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, based on finite time stability and sliding mode control theory, a robust control law to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion in a finite time is designed for stabilization of the fractional order HGS. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  2. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Many important properties of transition metal oxides such as, copper oxide high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites are due to strong electron-electron interactions, and hence these systems are called highly correlated systems. These materials are characterised by the coexistence of different kinds of order, including charge, orbital, and magnetic moment. This thesis contains high-resolution X-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in such systems namely the high-T C copper oxides isostructural system, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with various Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2), and the CMR manganite system, Nd 1/2 Sr 1/2 MnO 3 . It also includes a review of charge ordering in a large variety of transition metal oxides, such as ferrates, vanadates, cobaltates, nickelates, manganites, and cuprates systems, which have been reported to date in the scientific literature. Using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering, it has been demonstrated that the charge stripes exist in a series of single crystals of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2) at low temperatures. Satellite reflections due to the charge ordering were found with the wavevector (2ε, 0, 1) below the charge ordering transition temperature, T CO , where 2ε is the amount of separation from the corresponding Bragg peak. The charge stripes are shown to be two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd

  3. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration of stochastic differential equations. This approach is illustrated with the constructions of new methods of weak order two, in particular, semi-implicit integrators well suited for stiff (meansquare stable) stochastic problems, and implicit integrators that exactly conserve all quadratic first integrals of a stochastic dynamical system. Numerical examples confirm the theoretical results and show the versatility of our methodology.

  4. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Equation for disentangling time-ordered exponentials with arbitrary quadratic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    In many quantum-mechanical constructions, it is necessary to disentangle an operator-valued time-ordered exponential with time-dependent generators quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. By disentangling, one understands the finding of the matrix elements of the time-ordered exponential or, in a more general formulation. The solution of the problem can also be reduced to calculation of a matrix time-ordered exponential that solves the corresponding classical problem. However, in either case the evolution equations in their usual form do not enable one to take into account explicitly the symmetry of the system. In this paper the methods of Weyl analysis are used to find an ordinary differential equation on a matrix Lie algebra that is invariant with respect to the adjoint action of the dynamical symmetry group of a quadratic Hamiltonian and replaces the operator evolution equation for the Green's function

  6. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  7. A time correlation function theory describing static field enhanced third order optical effects at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipert, Christine; Space, Brian

    2006-12-14

    Sum vibrational frequency spectroscopy, a second order optical process, is interface specific in the dipole approximation. At charged interfaces, there exists a static field, and as a direct consequence, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second and static field induced third order contributions. There is significant evidence in the literature of the importance/relative magnitude of this third order contribution, but no previous molecularly detailed approach existed to separately calculate the second and third order contributions. Thus, for the first time, a molecularly detailed time correlation function theory is derived here that allows for the second and third order contributions to sum frequency vibrational spectra to be individually determined. Further, a practical, molecular dynamics based, implementation procedure for the derived correlation functions that describe the third order phenomenon is also presented. This approach includes a novel generalization of point atomic polarizability models to calculate the hyperpolarizability of a molecular system. The full system hyperpolarizability appears in the time correlation functions responsible for third order contributions in the presence of a static field.

  8. Effectiveness of a real-time clinical decision support system for computerized physician order entry of plasma orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Triulzi, Darrell J; Reddy, Vivek; Waters, Jonathan H

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of implementing adaptive plasma ordering criteria in the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system, with alerts that were automatically generated if the recipient's antecedent international normalized ratio (INR) did not meet the institutional criteria. In a regional health care system consisting of 11 hospitals using a common CPOE, data on the number of plasma orders and alerts that were generated were collected over a 4-month period before prescribers were required to select an indication for plasma. When adaptive ordering was implemented prescribers had to choose from prepopulated indications for plasma: INR of 1.6 or greater with bleeding, INR of 1.6 or greater before an invasive procedure, therapeutic exchange, massive transfusion, and other. Regardless of the antecedent INR the alert did not trigger if massive transfusion or plasmapheresis was selected. Information on prescribers and recipients was collected during this 5-month period. In the 4-month period before the adaptive alerts were implemented, 42.9% of the plasma orders generated an alert; in the 5-month period thereafter the alert rate was significantly lower at 27.9% (p plasma orders were for periprocedure or bleeding patients whose antecedent INR was less than 1.6. There were significant differences in prescriber specialties among those who ordered plasma using the other indication compared to all plasma orders. Electronic interventions improve compliance with plasma guidelines but as implemented are not sufficient to completely curtail non-evidence-based ordering. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Pricing Exotic Options under a High-Order Markovian Regime Switching Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ki Ching

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the pricing of exotic options when the price dynamics of the underlying risky asset are governed by a discrete-time Markovian regime-switching process driven by an observable, high-order Markov model (HOMM. We assume that the market interest rate, the drift, and the volatility of the underlying risky asset's return switch over time according to the states of the HOMM, which are interpreted as the states of an economy. We will then employ the well-known tool in actuarial science, namely, the Esscher transform to determine an equivalent martingale measure for option valuation. Moreover, we will also investigate the impact of the high-order effect of the states of the economy on the prices of some path-dependent exotic options, such as Asian options, lookback options, and barrier options.

  10. Impact of leakage delay on bifurcation in high-order fractional BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde

    2018-02-01

    The effects of leakage delay on the dynamics of neural networks with integer-order have lately been received considerable attention. It has been confirmed that fractional neural networks more appropriately uncover the dynamical properties of neural networks, but the results of fractional neural networks with leakage delay are relatively few. This paper primarily concentrates on the issue of bifurcation for high-order fractional bidirectional associative memory(BAM) neural networks involving leakage delay. The first attempt is made to tackle the stability and bifurcation of high-order fractional BAM neural networks with time delay in leakage terms in this paper. The conditions for the appearance of bifurcation for the proposed systems with leakage delay are firstly established by adopting time delay as a bifurcation parameter. Then, the bifurcation criteria of such system without leakage delay are successfully acquired. Comparative analysis wondrously detects that the stability performance of the proposed high-order fractional neural networks is critically weakened by leakage delay, they cannot be overlooked. Numerical examples are ultimately exhibited to attest the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High order resonances in the evolution of the lunar orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the long term evolution of the motion of the Moon or any other natural satellite under the combined influence of gravitational forces (lunar theory) and the tidal effects. The author studied the equations that are left when all the periodic non-resonant terms are eliminated. They describe the evolution of the mean elements of the Moon. Only the equations involving the variation of the semi-major axis are considered here. Simplified equations, preserving the Hamiltonian form of the lunar theory are first considered and solved. It is shown that librations exist only for those terms which have a coefficient in the lunar theory larger than a quantity A which is a function of the magnitude of the tidal effects. The solution of the general case can be derived from a Hamiltonian solution by a method of variation of constants. The crossing of a libration region causes a retardation in the increase of the semi-major axis. These results are confirmed by numerical integration and orders of magnitude of this retardation are given. (Auth.)

  12. Detection of Doppler Microembolic Signals Using High Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroun Geryes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust detection of the smallest circulating cerebral microemboli is an efficient way of preventing strokes, which is second cause of mortality worldwide. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is widely considered the most convenient system for the detection of microemboli. The most common standard detection is achieved through the Doppler energy signal and depends on an empirically set constant threshold. On the other hand, in the past few years, higher order statistics have been an extensive field of research as they represent descriptive statistics that can be used to detect signal outliers. In this study, we propose new types of microembolic detectors based on the windowed calculation of the third moment skewness and fourth moment kurtosis of the energy signal. During energy embolus-free periods the distribution of the energy is not altered and the skewness and kurtosis signals do not exhibit any peak values. In the presence of emboli, the energy distribution is distorted and the skewness and kurtosis signals exhibit peaks, corresponding to the latter emboli. Applied on real signals, the detection of microemboli through the skewness and kurtosis signals outperformed the detection through standard methods. The sensitivities and specificities reached 78% and 91% and 80% and 90% for the skewness and kurtosis detectors, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of real-time clinical decision support systems for platelet and cryoprecipitate orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ryan A; Triulzi, Darrell J; Waters, Jonathan H; Reddy, Vivek; Yazer, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate cryoprecipitate and platelet ordering practices after the implementation of real-time clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) in a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system. Uniform platelet and cryoprecipitate transfusion thresholds were implemented at 11 hospitals in a regional health care system with a common CPOE system. Over 6 months, a variety of information was collected on the ordering physicians and the number of alerts generated by the CDSSs when these products were ordered outside of the institutional guidelines. There were 1,889 orders for platelets and 152 orders for cryoprecipitate placed in 6 months. Of these, 1,102 (58.3%) platelet and 74 (48.7%) cryoprecipitate orders triggered an alert. The proportion of orders canceled after an alert was generated ranged from 13.5% to 17.9% for platelets and 0% to 50.0% for cryoprecipitate orders. CDSS alerts reduce, but do not eliminate, platelet and cryoprecipitate transfusions that do not meet institutional guidelines.

  14. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only....... The Boussinesq-type model is then used to simulate numerous tsunami-type events generated from submerged landslides, in both one and two horizontal dimensions. The results again compare well against previous experiments and/or numerical simulations. The new extension compliments recently developed run...

  15. High accurate time system of the Low Latitude Meridian Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Li, Zhiming

    In order to obtain the high accurate time signal for the Low Latitude Meridian Circle (LLMC), a new GPS accurate time system is developed which include GPS, 1 MC frequency source and self-made clock system. The second signal of GPS is synchronously used in the clock system and information can be collected by a computer automatically. The difficulty of the cancellation of the time keeper can be overcomed by using this system.

  16. Ordered Functionalized Silica Materials with High Proton Conductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marschall, R.; Rathouský, Jiří; Wark, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 26 (2007), s. 6401-6407 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) CA 147/13-1, SPP1181 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : silica * high proton conductivity * Si-MCM-41 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.883, year: 2007

  17. High order backward discretization of the neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginestar, D.; Bru, R.; Marin, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada; Verdu, G.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear; Vidal, V. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion

    1997-11-21

    Fast codes capable of dealing with three-dimensional geometries, are needed to be able to simulate spatially complicated transients in a nuclear reactor. We propose a new discretization technique for the time integration of the neutron diffusion equation, based on the backward difference formulas for systems of stiff ordinary differential equations. This method needs to solve a system of linear equations for each integration step, and for this purpose, we have developed an iterative block algorithm combined with a variational acceleration technique. We tested the algorithm with two benchmark problems, and compared the results with those provided by other codes, concluding that the performance and overall agreement are very good. (author).

  18. Quantum-orbit theory of high-order atomic processes in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Atoms submitted to strong laser fields can emit electrons and photons of very high energies. These processes find a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits. The quantum-orbit formalism is particularly useful for high-order atomic processes in strong laser fields. For such multi-step processes there is an intermediate step during which the electron is approximately under the influence of the laser field only and can absorb energy from the field. This leads to the appearance of the plateau structures in the emitted electron or photon spectra. Usual examples of such processes are high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and high-order above threshold ionization (HATI). These structures were also observed in high-order above-threshold detachment, laser-assisted x-ray-atom scattering, laser-assisted electron-ion recombination, and electron-atom scattering. We will present high-order strong-field approximation (SFA) and show how the quantum-orbit formalism follows from it. This will be done for various above-mentioned processes. For HHG a classification of quantum orbits will be given [10) and generalized to the presence of a static field. The low-energy part of the HHG spectra and the enhancement of HHG near the channel closings can be explained taking into account a large number of quantum orbits. For HATI we will concentrate on the case of few-cycle laser pulse. The influence of the carrier-envelope relative phase on the HATI spectrum can easily be explained in terms of quantum orbits. The SFA and the quantum-orbit results will be compared with the results obtained by Dieter Bauer using ab initio solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. It will be shown that the Coulomb effects are important for low-energy electron spectra. Refs. 11 (author)

  19. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  20. Estimation of the order of an autoregressive time series: a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    Finite-order autoregressive models for time series are often used for prediction and other inferences. Given the order of the model, the parameters of the models can be estimated by least-squares, maximum-likelihood, or Yule-Walker method. The basic problem is estimating the order of the model. The problem of autoregressive order estimation is placed in a Bayesian framework. This approach illustrates how the Bayesian method brings the numerous aspects of the problem together into a coherent structure. A joint prior probability density is proposed for the order, the partial autocorrelation coefficients, and the variance; and the marginal posterior probability distribution for the order, given the data, is obtained. It is noted that the value with maximum posterior probability is the Bayes estimate of the order with respect to a particular loss function. The asymptotic posterior distribution of the order is also given. In conclusion, Wolfer's sunspot data as well as simulated data corresponding to several autoregressive models are analyzed according to Akaike's method and the Bayesian method. Both methods are observed to perform quite well, although the Bayesian method was clearly superior, in most cases

  1. Construction of Low Dissipative High Order Well-Balanced Filter Schemes for Non-Equilibrium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. [26] to a class of low dissipative high order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. [30], Sjoegreen & Yee [24] and Yee & Sjoegreen [35] consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive nonlinear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e., choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high order). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g., turbulence fluctuations; it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.

  2. The impact of COI-based storage on order-picking times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Tarczyński

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing competitiveness on the global markets enforces the need for a fast and reliable delivery. This task is possible to perform by improving the order-picking systems. The implementation of automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS is not always profitable. In the warehouses where the order-picking is performed in accordance with the principle of picker-to-part rule, the picking efficiency optimization includes among others: the warehouse layout, the storage policy, the routing heuristic, the way of zoning, the order-batching method, and the sequencing of pick-lists. In the paper the impact of the storage policy on the order-picking times is checked. Methods: The influence of storage based on Heskett’s cube-per-order index (COI on the average order-picking times is analyzed. The items based on increasing values of COI index are divided on classes. To determine the demand for items the analytical function proposed by Caron is used. Results: In the paper the benefits of storage based on COI index are compared with random storage and storage based only on picking frequency. It is assumed that the bin, to which the picker collects items has limited capacity – some orders has to be divided on smaller pick-lists. The analysis was performed using simulation tools. Additionally, the algorithm (taking into account different sizes of picker’s bin for order-batching is presented. Conclusions: The analysis shows that the COI-based storage is particularly effective when the size of items increases. The COI-based curve is less skewed than the curve based only on picking frequency. The choice of storage policy should be carried out together with routing heuristic. The use of batching algorithm significantly increases the effectiveness of the order-picking process, but the optimal size of picker’s bin (and batch should be optimized with consideration the sorting process.

  3. Enhancement of high-order harmonics in a plasma waveguide formed in clustered Ar gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaotao; Zhong, Shiyang; Chen, Guanglong; Ling, Weijun; He, Xinkui; Wei, Zhiyi; Kim, Dong Eon

    2018-02-05

    Generation of high-order harmonics (HHs) is intensified by using a plasma waveguide created by a laser in a clustered gas jet. The formation of a plasma waveguide and the guiding of a laser beam are also demonstrated. Compared to the case without a waveguide, harmonics were strengthened up to nine times, and blue-shifted. Numerical simulation by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in strong field approximation agreed well with experimental results. This result reveals that the strengthening is the result of improved phase matching and that the blue shift is a result of change in fundamental laser frequency due to self-phase modulation (SPM).

  4. High-accuracy self-mixing interferometer based on single high-order orthogonally polarized feedback effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoli; Qu, Xueming; Tan, Yidong; Tan, Runtao; Zhang, Shulian

    2015-06-29

    A simple and high-accuracy self-mixing interferometer based on single high-order orthogonally polarized feedback effects is presented. The single high-order feedback effect is realized when dual-frequency laser reflects numerous times in a Fabry-Perot cavity and then goes back to the laser resonator along the same route. In this case, two orthogonally polarized feedback fringes with nanoscale resolution are obtained. This self-mixing interferometer has the advantages of higher sensitivity to weak signal than that of conventional interferometer. In addition, two orthogonally polarized fringes are useful for discriminating the moving direction of measured object. The experiment of measuring 2.5nm step is conducted, which shows a great potential in nanometrology.

  5. An innovative approach to synthesize highly-ordered TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Yang, D Q; Rohani, Sohrab; Ray, Ajay K

    2011-02-01

    An innovative route to prepare highly-ordered and dimensionally controlled TiO2 nanotubes has been proposed using a mild sonication method. The nanotube arrays were prepared by the anodization of titanium in an electrolyte containing 3% NH4F and 5% H2O in glycerol. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 nanostructures has two layers: the top layer is TiO2 nanowire and underneath is well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes. The top layer can easily fall off and form nanowires bundles by implementing a mild sonication after a short annealing time. We found that the dimensions of the TiO2 nanotubes were only dependent on the anodizing condition. The proposed technique may be extended to fabricate reproducible well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes with large area on other metals.

  6. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Modified AH-FDTD Unconditionally Stable Method Based on High-Order Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unconditionally stable method, Associated-Hermite FDTD, has attracted more and more attentions in computational electromagnetic for its time-frequency compact property. Because of the fewer orders of AH basis needed in signal reconstruction, the computational efficiency can be improved further. In order to further improve the accuracy of the traditional AH-FDTD, a high-order algorithm is introduced. Using this method, the dispersion error induced by the space grid can be reduced, which makes it possible to set coarser grid. The simulation results show that, on the condition of coarse grid, the waveforms obtained from the proposed method are matched well with the analytic result, and the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than the traditional AH-FDTD. And the efficiency of the proposed method is higher than the traditional FDTD method in analysing 2D waveguide problems with fine-structure.

  8. An arbitrary-order staggered time integrator for the linear acoustic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Hyunseo; Park, Yoonseo; Shin, Changsoo

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a staggered time integrator whose order of accuracy can arbitrarily be extended to solve the linear acoustic wave equation. A strategy to select the appropriate order of accuracy is also proposed based on the error analysis that quantitatively predicts the truncation error of the numerical solution. This strategy not only reduces the computational cost several times, but also allows us to flexibly set the modelling parameters such as the time step length, grid interval and P-wave speed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can almost eliminate temporal dispersive errors during long term simulations regardless of the heterogeneity of the media and time step lengths. The method can also be successfully applied to the source problem with an absorbing boundary condition, which is frequently encountered in the practical usage for the imaging algorithms or the inverse problems.

  9. Consensus Analysis of Second-Order Multiagent Systems with General Topology and Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the consensus of second-order multiagent systems with general topology and time delay based on the nearest neighbor rule. By using the Laplace transform technique, it is proved that the second-order multi-agent system in the presence of time-delay can reach consensus if the network topology contains a globally reachable node and time delay is bounded. The bound of time-delay only depends on eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of the system. The main contribution of this paper is that the accurate state of the consensus center and the upper bound of the communication delay to make the agents reach consensus are given. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  10. Computation of nonlinear water waves with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Computational highlights from a recently developed high-order Boussinesq model are shown. The model is capable of treating fully nonlinear waves (up to the breaking point) out to dimensionless depths of (wavenumber times depth) kh \\approx 25. Cases considered include the study of short......-crested waves in shallow/deep water, resulting in hexagonal/rectangular surface patterns; crescent waves, resulting from unstable perturbations of plane progressive waves; and highly-nonlinear wave-structure interactions. The emphasis is on physically demanding problems, and in eachcase qualitative and (when...

  11. Order Level Inventory Models for Deteriorating Seasonable/Fashionable Products with Time Dependent Demand and Shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Skouri, K.; Konstantaras, I.

    2009-01-01

    An order level inventory model for seasonable/fashionable products subject to a period of increasing demand followed by a period of level demand and then by a period of decreasing demand rate (three branches ramp type demand rate) is considered. The unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged with a time dependent backlogging rate. In addition, the product deteriorates with a time dependent, namely, Weibull, deterioration rate. The model is studied under the following different replenishment p...

  12. Real-Time Fixed-Order Lateral H2 Controller for Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a fixed low-order, robust H2 controller for a micro air vehicle (MAV named Sarika-2. The controller synthesis uses strengthened discrete optimal projection equations and frequency-dependent performance index to achieve robust performance and stability. A single fixed gain low-order dynamic controller provides simultaneous stabilization, disturbance rejection, and sensor noise attenuation over the entire flight speed range of 16 m/sec to 26 m/sec. Comparative study indicates that the low-order H2-controller achieves robust performance levels similar to that of full order controller. Subsequently, the controller is implemented on a digital signal processor-based flight computer and is validated through the real time hardware in loop simulation. The responses obtained with hardware in loop simulation compares well with those obtained from the offline simulation.

  13. Time-dependent Second Order Scattering Theory for Weather Radar with a Finite Beam Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Ito, Shigeo; Oguchi, Tomohiro

    2006-01-01

    Multiple scattering effects from spherical water particles of uniform diameter are studied for a W-band pulsed radar. The Gaussian transverse beam-profile and the rectangular pulse-duration are used for calculation. An second-order analytical solution is derived for a single layer structure, based on a time-dependent radiative transfer theory as described in the authors' companion paper. When the range resolution is fixed, increase in footprint radius leads to increase in the second order reflectivity that is defined as the ratio of the second order return to the first order one. This feature becomes more serious as the range increases. Since the spaceborne millimeter-wavelength radar has a large footprint radius that is competitive to the mean free path, the multiple scattering effect must be taken into account for analysis.

  14. A high order multi-resolution solver for the Poisson equation with application to vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik Juul; Walther, Jens Honore

    A high order method is presented for solving the Poisson equation subject to mixed free-space and periodic boundary conditions by using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The high order convergence is achieved by deriving mollified Green’s functions from a high order regularization function which...

  15. Global stability of stochastic high-order neural networks with discrete and distributed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zidong; Fang Jianan; Liu Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    High-order neural networks can be considered as an expansion of Hopfield neural networks, and have stronger approximation property, faster convergence rate, greater storage capacity, and higher fault tolerance than lower-order neural networks. In this paper, the global asymptotic stability analysis problem is considered for a class of stochastic high-order neural networks with discrete and distributed time-delays. Based on an Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic stability analysis theory, several sufficient conditions are derived, which guarantee the global asymptotic convergence of the equilibrium point in the mean square. It is shown that the stochastic high-order delayed neural networks under consideration are globally asymptotically stable in the mean square if two linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are feasible, where the feasibility of LMIs can be readily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. It is also shown that the main results in this paper cover some recently published works. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed global stability criteria

  16. A Linear-Elasticity Solver for Higher-Order Space-Time Mesh Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2018-01-01

    A linear-elasticity approach is presented for the generation of meshes appropriate for a higher-order space-time discontinuous finite-element method. The equations of linear-elasticity are discretized using a higher-order, spatially-continuous, finite-element method. Given an initial finite-element mesh, and a specified boundary displacement, we solve for the mesh displacements to obtain a higher-order curvilinear mesh. Alternatively, for moving-domain problems we use the linear-elasticity approach to solve for a temporally discontinuous mesh velocity on each time-slab and recover a continuous mesh deformation by integrating the velocity. The applicability of this methodology is presented for several benchmark test cases.

  17. Reversal in the time order of interactive events: the collision of inclined rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Chandru; Prabhu, G M

    2006-01-01

    In the rod and hole paradox as described by Rindler (1961 Am. J. Phys. 29 365-6), a rigid rod moves at high speed over a table towards a hole of the same size. Observations from the inertial frames of the rod and slot are widely different. Rindler explains these differences by the concept of differing perceptions in rigidity. Groen and Johannesen (1993 Eur. J. Phys. 14 97-100) confirmed this aspect by computer simulation where the shapes of the rod are different as observed from the co-moving frames of the rod and slot. Lintel and Gruber (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 19-23) presented an approach based on retardation due to speed of stress propagation. In this paper, we consider the situation when two parallel rods collide while approaching each other along a line at an inclination with their axis. The collisions of the top and bottom ends are shown to be reversed in time order as seen from the two co-moving frames. This result is explained by the concept of 'extended present' derived from the principle of relativity of simultaneity

  18. Designing 3D highly ordered nanoporous CuO electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed E; El-Kady, Maher F; Rahmanifar, Mohammad S; Kaner, Richard B; Mousavi, Mir F

    2015-03-04

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research efforts for the development of lightweight and durable energy storage devices. Herein, we report a simple, yet effective, strategy for high-performance supercapacitors by building three-dimensional pseudocapacitive CuO frameworks with highly ordered and interconnected bimodal nanopores, nanosized walls (∼4 nm) and large specific surface area of 149 m(2) g(-1). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing facilitated ion transport, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and more active sites for electrochemical reactions. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 431 F g(-1) (1.51 F cm(-2)) at 3.5 mA cm(-2) and retains over 70% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrafast rate of 70 mA cm(-2). When this highly ordered CuO electrode is assembled in an asymmetric cell with an activated carbon electrode, the as-fabricated device demonstrates remarkable performance with an energy density of 19.7 W h kg(-1), power density of 7 kW kg(-1), and excellent cycle life. This work presents a new platform for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors for the next generation of portable electronics and electric vehicles.

  19. Covariance of time-ordered products implies local commutativity of fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate Lorentz covariance of a quantum field theory in terms of covariance of time-ordered products (or other Green's functions). This formulation of Lorentz covariance implies spacelike local commutativity or anticommutativity of fields, sometimes called microscopic causality or microcausality. With this formulation microcausality does not have to be taken as a separate assumption

  20. A sixth-order continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta modulator for digital radio IF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van J.A.E.P.; Plassche, van de R.J.; Stikvoort, E.F.; Venes, A.G.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a sixth-order continuous-time bandpass sigma-delta modulator (SDM) for analog-to-digital conversion of intermediate-frequency signals. An important aspect in the design of this SDM is the stability analysis using the describing function method. The key to the analysis is the

  1. Time-integration methods for finite element discretisations of the second-order Maxwell equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmany, D.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.

    This article deals with time integration for the second-order Maxwell equations with possibly non-zero conductivity in the context of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method DG-FEM) and the $H(\\mathrm{curl})$-conforming FEM. For the spatial discretisation, hierarchic

  2. What drives security issuance decisions : Market timing, pecking order, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, M.; Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We study market timing and pecking order in a sample of debt and equity issues and share repurchases of Canadian firms from 1998 to 2007. We find that only when firms are not financially constrained is there evidence that firms issue (repurchase) equity when their shares are overvalued (undervalued)

  3. The last picture show? Timing and order of movie distribution channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten; Henning, Victor; Sattler, Henrik; Eggers, Felix; Houston, Mark B.

    2007-01-01

    Movies and other media goods are traditionally distributed across distinct sequential channels (e.g., theaters, home video, video on demand). The optimality of the currently employed timing and order of channel openings has become a matter of contentious debate among both industry experts and

  4. Synthesis of highly ordered nanopores on alumina by two-step anodization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bwana, Nicholas N. [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering Science (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Nicholas.Bwana@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    Highly ordered anodic alumina was produced, on RF sputtered aluminium on a conductive glass substrate, by two step anodizing process in 0.4 M sulphuric acid at constant cell potentials of between 5 and 25 V and at a constant current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2}. The temperature was kept constant at 15 deg. C during both anodization processes. The effects of the anodizing potential, current density, and time on the pore diameters were established. Longer anodization periods result in wider irregular pores with reduced porosity for both constant potential and constant current density anodization processes. The current density increases with increasing constant anodizing potential and generally remains constant with time after a sharp rise. Potential drop during constant current density anodization behaves in a similar manner. We confirm that sulphuric acid has a self-ordering potential of 25 V above which burning occurs.

  5. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of ''Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions''(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  6. Synthetic Control of Kinetic Reaction Pathway and Cationic Ordering in High-Ni Layered Oxide Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dawei [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, State Key Laboratory Physical Chemistry Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 China; Kou, Ronghui [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Ren, Yang [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Sun, Cheng-Jun [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Zhao, Hu [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Zhang, Ming-Jian [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; School of Advanced Materials, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 P. R. China; Li, Yan [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Huq, Ashifia [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Ko, J. Y. Peter [The Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 USA; Pan, Feng [School of Advanced Materials, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 P. R. China; Sun, Yang-Kook [Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 South Korea; Yang, Yong [Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, State Key Laboratory Physical Chemistry Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 China; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Bai, Jianming [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Wang, Feng [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA

    2017-08-25

    Nickel-rich layered transition metal oxides, LiNi1-x(MnCo)(x)O-2 (1-x >= 0.5), are appealing candidates for cathodes in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles and other large-scale applications, due to their high capacity and low cost. However, synthetic control of the structural ordering in such a complex quaternary system has been a great challenge, especially in the presence of high Ni content. Herein, synthesis reactions for preparing layered LiNi0.7Mn0.15Co0.15O2 (NMC71515) by solid-state methods are investigated through a combination of time-resolved in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy measurements. The real-time observation reveals a strong temperature dependence of the kinetics of cationic ordering in NMC71515 as a result of thermal-driven oxidation of transition metals and lithium/oxygen loss that concomitantly occur during heat treatment. Through synthetic control of the kinetic reaction pathway, a layered NMC71515 with low cationic disordering and a high reversible capacity is prepared in air. The findings may help to pave the way for designing high-Ni layered oxide cathodes for LIBs.

  7. Solving nonlinear, High-order partial differential equations using a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework

    KAUST Repository

    Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Garcí a, Daniel O.; Collier, Nathan; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present PetIGA, a high-performance implementation of Isogeometric Analysis built on top of PETSc. We show its use in solving nonlinear and time-dependent problems, such as phase-field models, by taking advantage of the high-continuity of the basis functions granted by the isogeometric framework. In this work, we focus on the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the phase-field crystal equation.

  8. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty; Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D

    2008-01-01

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N 2 , O 2 and CO 2 molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible

  9. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty [Department of Physics, University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2008-04-28

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible.

  10. Estimating order-picking times for return heuristic - equations and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Tarczyński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key element of the evaluation of warehouse operation is the average order-picking time. In warehouses where the order-picking process is carried out according to the "picker-to-part" rule the order-picking time is usually proportional to the distance covered by the picker while picking items. This distance can by estimated by simulations or using mathematical equations. In the paper only the best described in the literature one-block rectangular warehouses are considered. Material and methods: For the one-block rectangular warehouses there are well known five routing heuristics. In the paper the author considers the return heuristic in two variants. The paper presents well known Hall's and De Koster's equations for the average distance traveled by the picker while completing items from one pick list. The author presents own proposals for calculating the expected distance. Results: the results calculated by the use of mathematical equations (the formulas of Hall, De Koster and own propositions were compared with the average values obtained using computer simulations. For the most cases the average error does not exceed 1% (except for Hall's equations. To carry out simulation the computer software Warehouse Real-Time Simulator was used. Conclusions: the order-picking time is a function of many variables and its optimization is not easy. It can be done in two stages: firstly using mathematical equations the set of the potentially best variants is established, next the results are verified using simulations. The results calculated by the use of equations are not precise, but possible to achieve immediately. The simulations are more time-consuming, but allow to analyze the order-picking process more accurately.

  11. Simultaneous correction of large low-order and high-order aberrations with a new deformable mirror technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooms, F.; Camet, S.; Curis, J. F.

    2010-02-01

    A new technology of deformable mirror will be presented. Based on magnetic actuators, these deformable mirrors feature record strokes (more than +/- 45μm of astigmatism and focus correction) with an optimized temporal behavior. Furthermore, the development has been made in order to have a large density of actuators within a small clear aperture (typically 52 actuators within a diameter of 9.0mm). We will present the key benefits of this technology for vision science: simultaneous correction of low and high order aberrations, AO-SLO image without artifacts due to the membrane vibration, optimized control, etc. Using recent papers published by Doble, Thibos and Miller, we show the performances that can be achieved by various configurations using statistical approach. The typical distribution of wavefront aberrations (both the low order aberration (LOA) and high order aberration (HOA)) have been computed and the correction applied by the mirror. We compare two configurations of deformable mirrors (52 and 97 actuators) and highlight the influence of the number of actuators on the fitting error, the photon noise error and the effective bandwidth of correction.

  12. Strategic WIP Inventory Positioning for Make-to-Order Production with Stochastic Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is vital for make-to-order manufacturers to shorten the lead time to meet the customers’ requirements. Holding work-in-process (WIP inventory at more stations can reduce the lead time, but it also brings about higher inventory holding cost. Therefore, it is important to seek out the optimal set of stations to hold WIP inventory to minimize the total inventory holding cost, while meeting the required due date for the final product at the same time. Since the problem with deterministic processing times at the stations has been addressed, as a natural extension, in this study, we address the problem with stochastic processing times, which is more realistic in the manufacturing environment. Assuming that the processing times follow normal distributions, we propose a solution procedure using genetic algorithm.

  13. High-order shock-fitted detonation propagation in high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romick, Christopher M.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-03-01

    A highly accurate numerical shock and material interface fitting scheme composed of fifth-order spatial and third- or fifth-order temporal discretizations is applied to the two-dimensional reactive Euler equations in both slab and axisymmetric geometries. High rates of convergence are not typically possible with shock-capturing methods as the Taylor series analysis breaks down in the vicinity of discontinuities. Furthermore, for typical high explosive (HE) simulations, the effects of material interfaces at the charge boundary can also cause significant computational errors. Fitting a computational boundary to both the shock front and material interface (i.e. streamline) alleviates the computational errors associated with captured shocks and thus opens up the possibility of high rates of convergence for multi-dimensional shock and detonation flows. Several verification tests, including a Sedov blast wave, a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring (ZND) detonation wave, and Taylor-Maccoll supersonic flow over a cone, are utilized to demonstrate high rates of convergence to nontrivial shock and reaction flows. Comparisons to previously published shock-capturing multi-dimensional detonations in a polytropic fluid with a constant adiabatic exponent (PF-CAE) are made, demonstrating significantly lower computational error for the present shock and material interface fitting method. For an error on the order of 10 m /s, which is similar to that observed in experiments, shock-fitting offers a computational savings on the order of 1000. In addition, the behavior of the detonation phase speed is examined for several slab widths to evaluate the detonation performance of PBX 9501 while utilizing the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model, which is commonly used in HE modeling. It is found that the thickness effect curve resulting from this equation of state and reaction model using published values is dramatically more steep than observed in recent experiments. Utilizing the present fitting

  14. a Time-Resolved X-Ray Scattering Study of the Ordering Kinetics in COPPER(3)-GOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robert Francis, Jr.

    Time-resolved x-ray scattering has been used to study ordering kinetics in single crystal bulk Cu _3Au, as well as in sputtered and molecular beam epitaxy grown films. After annealing at high temperatures the sample is rapidly quenched to fixed temperatures below the order-disorder transition temperature. The development of order is monitored in real time using scattering techniques. The bulk sample clearly showed three regimes: nucleation, ordering, and coarsening. The anisotropic superlattice peaks that reflect the domains structure are investigated in connection with the ordering kinetics. The line shape of the scattering function exhibits a crossover from gaussian to lorentzian-squared as the system goes from the ordering regime to the coarsening regime. Coarsening in Cu_3Au is consistent with curvature driven growth. Domain coarsening in stoichiometric sputtered films is also consistent with curvature driven growth. However, coarsening in copper rich films proceeds much more slowly. The results suggest the extra copper affects the ordering kinetics in the same way diffusive impurities would, resulting in a logarithmic like time dependence. The M.B.E. films show a slowing of the growth at late times. The 4500A film starts out with curvature driven growth but then continuously slows down as the domains grow. The 710A film shows an interesting temperature dependence for the growth, in such a way that at temperatures close to the transition, the domain growth almost freezes at late times. The dominate factor is probably strain, all of the trends for slower growth are consistent with greater strain. The dimensionality in the M.B.E. film systems is considered. The scaling in the 4500A and 710A films is clearly three dimensional. However, the dimension of the scaling in the 260A film is unclear.

  15. Optimal order and time-step criterion for Aarseth-type N-body integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Junichiro

    1991-01-01

    How the selection of the time-step criterion and the order of the integrator change the efficiency of Aarseth-type N-body integrators is discussed. An alternative to Aarseth's scheme based on the direct calculation of the time derivative of the force using the Hermite interpolation is compared to Aarseth's scheme, which uses the Newton interpolation to construct the predictor and corrector. How the number of particles in the system changes the behavior of integrators is examined. The Hermite scheme allows a time step twice as large as that for the standard Aarseth scheme for the same accuracy. The calculation cost of the Hermite scheme per time step is roughly twice as much as that of the standard Aarseth scheme. The optimal order of the integrators depends on both the particle number and the accuracy required. The time-step criterion of the standard Aarseth scheme is found to be inapplicable to higher-order integrators, and a more uniformly reliable criterion is proposed. 18 refs

  16. Cycle time reduction using lean six sigma in make-to-order (MTO) environment: Conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Siti Mariam; Zain, Zakiyah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines the framework for application of lean six sigma (LSS) methodology to improve semiconductor assembly cycle time in a make-to-order (MTO) business environment. The cycle time reduction is the prime objective in the context of an overall productivity improvement particularly in the MTO environment. The interaction of the production rate and cycle time is described, while the emphasis is on Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) and Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) activities. A framework for the conceptual understanding is provided along with practical implementation issues. A relevant measure for the degree of flexibility (DOF) in the context of quick setup is also discussed.

  17. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Mironov, S Yu; Khazanov, Efim A; Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Lutsenko, Andrei P [' Avesta-project' Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-30

    A third-order correlator with a single-shot time window and a full dynamic range of 10{sup 8} is developed. The time contrast of radiation from the front-end system of a petawatt femtosecond laser complex measured with the correlator within time windows {+-}1 ps and {+-}100 ps was 10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 8}, respectively. Based on the theoretical analysis of the cross-correlator operation, a number of requirements providing the optimal functioning of the cross-correlator are found. The reasons restricting the technical parameters of the correlator are discussed. (measurement of parameters of laser radiation)

  19. Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Mironov, S Yu; Khazanov, Efim A; Yakovlev, I V; Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Lutsenko, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    A third-order correlator with a single-shot time window and a full dynamic range of 10 8 is developed. The time contrast of radiation from the front-end system of a petawatt femtosecond laser complex measured with the correlator within time windows ±1 ps and ±100 ps was 10 4 and more than 10 8 , respectively. Based on the theoretical analysis of the cross-correlator operation, a number of requirements providing the optimal functioning of the cross-correlator are found. The reasons restricting the technical parameters of the correlator are discussed. (measurement of parameters of laser radiation)

  20. Periodic Solution of Second-Order Hamiltonian Systems with a Change Sign Potential on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales 𝕋 of the form uΔΔ(ρ(t+μb(t|u(t|μ−2u(t+∇¯H(t,u(t=0, Δ-a.e. t∈[0,T]𝕋 , u(0−u(T=uΔ(ρ(0−uΔ(ρ(T=0, where 0,T∈𝕋. By using the minimax methods in critical theory, an existence theorem of periodic solution for the above system is established. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the result. This is probably the first time the existence of periodic solutions for second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales has been studied by critical theory.

  1. Approximate solution of space and time fractional higher order phase field equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of space and time fractional partial differential equation (STFDE) with Riesz derivative in space and Caputo in time. The proposed STFDE is considered as a generalization of a sixth-order partial phase field equation. We describe the application of the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) to obtain an approximate solution for the suggested fractional initial value problem. An averaged-squared residual error function is defined and used to determine the optimal convergence control parameter. Two numerical examples are studied, considering periodic and non-periodic initial conditions, to justify the efficiency and the accuracy of the adopted iterative approach. The dependence of the solution on the order of the fractional derivative in space and time and model parameters is investigated.

  2. Flow simulations past helicopters at different flight conditions using low and high order CFD methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamou, M.; Xu, H.; Khalid, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper contains a comprehensive literature survey on helicopter flow analyses and describes some true unsteady flows past helicopter rotors obtained using low and high order CFD models. The low order model is based on a panel method coupled with a viscous boundary layer approach and a compressibility correction. The USAERO software is used for the computations. The high order model is based on Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. For the high order models, a true unsteady scheme, as implemented in the CFD-FASTRAN code using the Euler equations, is considered for flows past hovering rotor. On the other hand, a quasi-steady approach, using the WIND code with the Navier-Stokes equations and the SST turbulence model, is used to assess the validity of the approach for the simulation of flows past a helicopter in forward flight conditions. When using the high order models, a Chimera grid technique is used to describe the blade motions within the parent stationary grid. Comparisons with experimental data are performed and the true unsteady simulations provide a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The panel method and the quasisteady approach are found to overestimate the loads on the helicopter rotors. The USAERO panel code is found to produce more thrust owing to some error sources in the computations when a wake-surface collision occurs, as the blades interact with their own wakes. The automatic cutting of the wake sheets, as they approach the model surface, is not working properly at every time step. (author)

  3. Flow simulations past helicopters at different flight conditions using low and high order CFD methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamou, M.; Xu, H.; Khalid, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Mahmoud.Mamou@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2004-07-01

    The present paper contains a comprehensive literature survey on helicopter flow analyses and describes some true unsteady flows past helicopter rotors obtained using low and high order CFD models. The low order model is based on a panel method coupled with a viscous boundary layer approach and a compressibility correction. The USAERO software is used for the computations. The high order model is based on Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. For the high order models, a true unsteady scheme, as implemented in the CFD-FASTRAN code using the Euler equations, is considered for flows past hovering rotor. On the other hand, a quasi-steady approach, using the WIND code with the Navier-Stokes equations and the SST turbulence model, is used to assess the validity of the approach for the simulation of flows past a helicopter in forward flight conditions. When using the high order models, a Chimera grid technique is used to describe the blade motions within the parent stationary grid. Comparisons with experimental data are performed and the true unsteady simulations provide a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The panel method and the quasisteady approach are found to overestimate the loads on the helicopter rotors. The USAERO panel code is found to produce more thrust owing to some error sources in the computations when a wake-surface collision occurs, as the blades interact with their own wakes. The automatic cutting of the wake sheets, as they approach the model surface, is not working properly at every time step. (author)

  4. A capacitated vehicle routing problem with order available time in e-commerce industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Li, Kunpeng; Liu, Zhixue

    2017-03-01

    In this article, a variant of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) called the capacitated vehicle routing problem with order available time (CVRPOAT) is considered, which is observed in the operations of the current e-commerce industry. In this problem, the orders are not available for delivery at the beginning of the planning period. CVRPOAT takes all the assumptions of CVRP, except the order available time, which is determined by the precedent order picking and packing stage in the warehouse of the online grocer. The objective is to minimize the sum of vehicle completion times. An efficient tabu search algorithm is presented to tackle the problem. Moreover, a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm is developed to obtain the lower bounds of reasonably sized problems. Based on the test instances derived from benchmark data, the proposed tabu search algorithm is compared with a published related genetic algorithm, as well as the derived lower bounds. Also, the tabu search algorithm is compared with the current operation strategy of the online grocer. Computational results indicate that the gap between the lower bounds and the results of the tabu search algorithm is small and the tabu search algorithm is superior to the genetic algorithm. Moreover, the CVRPOAT formulation together with the tabu search algorithm performs much better than the current operation strategy of the online grocer.

  5. High precision timing in a FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, Matthias; Cardinali, Matteo; Dickescheid, Michael; Schlimme, Soeren; Sfienti, Concettina; Spruck, Bjoern; Thiel, Michaela [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A segmented highly precise start counter (FLASH) was designed and constructed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. Besides determining a precise reference time, a Time-of-Flight measurement can be performed with two identical FLASH units. Thus, particle identification can be provided for mixed hadron beam environments. The detector design is based on the detection of Cherenkov light produced in fused silica radiator bars with fast multi-anode MCP-PMTs. The segmentation of the radiator improves the timing resolution while allowing a coarse position resolution along one direction. Both, the arrival time and the Time-over-Threshold are determined by the readout electronics, which enables walk correction of the arrival time. The performance of two FLASH units was investigated in test experiments at the Mainz Microton (MAMI) using an electron beam with an energy of 855 MeV and at CERN's PS T9 beam line with a mixed hadron beam with momenta between 3-8 GeV/c. Effective Time-walk correction methods based on Time-over-Threshold were developed for the data analysis. The achieved Time-Of-Flight resolution after applying all corrections was found to be 70 ps. Furthermore, the PID and position resolution capabilities are discussed in this contribution.

  6. Formal Solutions for Polarized Radiative Transfer. II. High-order Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janett, Gioele; Steiner, Oskar; Belluzzi, Luca, E-mail: gioele.janett@irsol.ch [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), 6605 Locarno-Monti (Switzerland)

    2017-08-20

    When integrating the radiative transfer equation for polarized light, the necessity of high-order numerical methods is well known. In fact, well-performing high-order formal solvers enable higher accuracy and the use of coarser spatial grids. Aiming to provide a clear comparison between formal solvers, this work presents different high-order numerical schemes and applies the systematic analysis proposed by Janett et al., emphasizing their advantages and drawbacks in terms of order of accuracy, stability, and computational cost.

  7. Hybrid approximations via second order combined dynamic derivatives on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the approximation of conventional second order derivative via the combined (diamond-$\\alpha$ dynamic derivative on time scales with necessary smoothness conditions embedded. We will show the constraints under which the second order dynamic derivative provides a consistent approximation to the conventional second derivative; the cases where the dynamic derivative approximates the derivative only via a proper modification of the existing formula; and the situations in which the dynamic derivative can never approximate consistently even with the help of available structure correction methods. Constructive error analysis will be given via asymptotic expansions for practical hybrid modeling and computational applications.

  8. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U 0  = U g  − U th , where U g is the gate voltage and U th is the threshold voltage, such that μU 0 /L < v s , where L is the channel length and v s is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L 2 /(μU 0 ), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits

  9. A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.

  10. Global synchronization in finite time for fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations and time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao; Wu, Huaiqin; Song, Ka; Shi, Jiaxin

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization and the synchronization in finite time for fractional-order neural networks (FNNs) with discontinuous activations and time delays. Firstly, the properties with respect to Mittag-Leffler convergence and convergence in finite time, which play a critical role in the investigation of the global synchronization of FNNs, are developed, respectively. Secondly, the novel state-feedback controller, which includes time delays and discontinuous factors, is designed to realize the synchronization goal. By applying the fractional differential inclusion theory, inequality analysis technique and the proposed convergence properties, the sufficient conditions to achieve the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization and the synchronization in finite time are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In addition, the upper bound of the setting time of the global synchronization in finite time is explicitly evaluated. Finally, two examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design method and theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. N3S project of fluid mechanics. High order in time methods by operator splitting. Application to Navier-Stokes equations; Projet N3S. Methode en temps d`ordre eleve par decomposition d`operateurs. Application aux equations de Navier-Stokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukir, K

    1994-06-01

    This thesis deals with the extension to higher order in time of two splitting methods for the Navier-Stokes equations: the characteristics method and the projection one. The first consists in decoupling the convection operator from the Stokes one. The second decomposes this latter into a diffusion problem and a pressure-continuity one. Concerning the characteristics method, numerical and theoretical study is developed for the second order scheme together with a finite element spatial discretization. The case of a spectral spatial discretization is also treated and theoretical analysis are given respectively for second and third order schemes. For both spatial discretizations, we obtain good error estimates, unconditionally or under non stringent stability conditions, for both velocity and pressure. Numerical results illustrate the interest of the second order scheme comparing to the first order one. Extensions of the second order scheme to the K-epsilon turbulence model are proposed and tested, in the case of a finite element spatial discretization. Concerning the projection method, we define the order schemes. The theoretical study deals with stability and convergence of first and second order projection schemes, for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and with a finite element spatial discretization. The numerical study concerns mainly the second order scheme applied to the Navier-Stokes equations with varying density. (authors). 63 refs., figs.

  12. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  13. Real-time networked control of an industrial robot manipulator via discrete-time second-order sliding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimiliano Capisani, Luca; Facchinetti, Tullio; Ferrara, Antonella

    2010-08-01

    This article presents the networked control of a robotic anthropomorphic manipulator based on a second-order sliding mode technique, where the control objective is to track a desired trajectory for the manipulator. The adopted control scheme allows an easy and effective distribution of the control algorithm over two networked machines. While the predictability of real-time tasks execution is achieved by the Soft Hard Real-Time Kernel (S.Ha.R.K.) real-time operating system, the communication is established via a standard Ethernet network. The performances of the control system are evaluated under different experimental system configurations using, to perform the experiments, a COMAU SMART3-S2 industrial robot, and the results are analysed to put into evidence the robustness of the proposed approach against possible network delays, packet losses and unmodelled effects.

  14. Convergency analysis of the high-order mimetic finite difference method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veiga Da Beirao, L [UNIV DEGLI STUDI; Manzini, G [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We prove second-order convergence of the conservative variable and its flux in the high-order MFD method. The convergence results are proved for unstructured polyhedral meshes and full tensor diffusion coefficients. For the case of non-constant coefficients, we also develop a new family of high-order MFD methods. Theoretical result are confirmed through numerical experiments.

  15. A variable-order time-dependent neutron transport method for nuclear reactor kinetics using analytically-integrated space-time characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A. J.; Lee, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new time-dependent neutron transport method based on the method of characteristics (MOC) has been developed. Whereas most spatial kinetics methods treat time dependence through temporal discretization, this new method treats time dependence by defining the characteristics to span space and time. In this implementation regions are defined in space-time where the thickness of the region in time fulfills an analogous role to the time step in discretized methods. The time dependence of the local source is approximated using a truncated Taylor series expansion with high order derivatives approximated using backward differences, permitting the solution of the resulting space-time characteristic equation. To avoid a drastic increase in computational expense and memory requirements due to solving many discrete characteristics in the space-time planes, the temporal variation of the boundary source is similarly approximated. This allows the characteristics in the space-time plane to be represented analytically rather than discretely, resulting in an algorithm comparable in implementation and expense to one that arises from conventional time integration techniques. Furthermore, by defining the boundary flux time derivative in terms of the preceding local source time derivative and boundary flux time derivative, the need to store angularly-dependent data is avoided without approximating the angular dependence of the angular flux time derivative. The accuracy of this method is assessed through implementation in the neutron transport code DeCART. The method is employed with variable-order local source representation to model a TWIGL transient. The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and more efficient than the discretized method. (authors)

  16. Efficient method for time-domain simulation of the linear feedback systems containing fractional order controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad

    2011-04-01

    One main approach for time-domain simulation of the linear output-feedback systems containing fractional-order controllers is to approximate the transfer function of the controller with an integer-order transfer function and then perform the simulation. In general, this approach suffers from two main disadvantages: first, the internal stability of the resulting feedback system is not guaranteed, and second, the amount of error caused by this approximation is not exactly known. The aim of this paper is to propose an efficient method for time-domain simulation of such systems without facing the above mentioned drawbacks. For this purpose, the fractional-order controller is approximated with an integer-order transfer function (possibly in combination with the delay term) such that the internal stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed, and then the simulation is performed. It is also shown that the resulting approximate controller can effectively be realized by using the proposed method. Some formulas for estimating and correcting the simulation error, when the feedback system under consideration is subjected to the unit step command or the unit step disturbance, are also presented. Finally, three numerical examples are studied and the results are compared with the Oustaloup continuous approximation method. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P1 equations for radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. → A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. → The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. → The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P 1 forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.

  18. photon-plasma: A modern high-order particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugbølle, Troels; Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Nordlund, Åke

    2013-01-01

    We present the photon-plasma code, a modern high order charge conserving particle-in-cell code for simulating relativistic plasmas. The code is using a high order implicit field solver and a novel high order charge conserving interpolation scheme for particle-to-cell interpolation and charge deposition. It includes powerful diagnostics tools with on-the-fly particle tracking, synthetic spectra integration, 2D volume slicing, and a new method to correctly account for radiative cooling in the simulations. A robust technique for imposing (time-dependent) particle and field fluxes on the boundaries is also presented. Using a hybrid OpenMP and MPI approach, the code scales efficiently from 8 to more than 250.000 cores with almost linear weak scaling on a range of architectures. The code is tested with the classical benchmarks particle heating, cold beam instability, and two-stream instability. We also present particle-in-cell simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and new results on radiative collisionless shocks

  19. Time courses of MRI BOLD signals in prolonged visual stimulation. Comparison between colors and orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikura, Kenichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Kershaw, J.B.; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Seki, Chie; Kashikura, Akemi; Ardekani, B.A.; Kanno, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    We investigated: the BOLD signal response during 270 second photic stimulation using an EPI pulse sequence; the BOLD signal response for two different color checkerboards; and the BOLD signal response during six consecutive stimulation series. Ten healthy human subjects (age 25±5.5 years) were studied with a 1.5 T MRI system (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany). Black and white (BW) and red and white (RW) checkerboards alternating at 8 Hz were applied in turns for a total series of six. Stimulation timing was: 30 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 270 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off. Acquired data were analyzed according to color and/or order: color (without considering the order); color and order (1st BW vs. 1st RW, 2nd BW vs. 2nd RW, 3rd BW vs. 3rd RW); and order (without considering the color). A t-test (p<0.001) was used for obtaining the activated areas, and simple regression and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA were used for testing the statistical significance of the BOLD response. Results were: the BOLD signal responses during sustained photic stimulation maintained a constant level for the full duration and all series, suggesting stable levels of oxygen extraction and metabolism during cortical activation; the BOLD signal responses in two colors showed no significant difference in time response, suggesting that the neuronal populations perceiving black and red give a similar time response; and the effect of habituation or fatigue as observed by a signal decrease was not obtained, although the S.D. for each subject greatly increased with time and might be an indicator for evaluation fatigue or attention. (author)

  20. Fabrication of highly ordered polyaniline nanocone on pristine graphene for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Wucong; Wu, Yue; Xiao, Ding; Zhao, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    The hybrids of pristine graphene with polyaniline were synthesized by in situ polymerizations for making a high-performance supercapacitor. The formed high-ordered PANI nanocones were vertically aligned on the graphene sheets. The length of the PANI nanocones increased with the concentration of aniline monomer. The specific capacitance of the hybrids electrode in the three-electrode system was measured as high as 481 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g, and its stability remained 87% after constant charge-discharge 10000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. This outstanding performance is attributed to the coupling effects of the pristine graphene and the hierarchical structure of the PANI possessing high specific surface area. The unique structure of the PANI provided more charge transmission pathways and fast charge-transfer speed of electrons to the pristine graphene because of its large specific area exposed to the electrolyte. The hybrid is expected to have potential applications in supercapacitor electrodes.

  1. Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional fourth-order evolution equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional nonlinear fourth-order evolution equation. Using the method of Lie point symmetry, we provide the associated vector fields, and derive the similarity reductions of the equation, respectively. The method can be applied wisely and efficiently to get the reduced fractional ordinary differential equations based on the similarity reductions. Finally, by using the nonlinear self-adjointness method and Riemann-Liouville time-fractional derivative operator as well as Euler-Lagrange operator, the conservation laws of the equation are obtained.

  2. Observation of Discrete-Time-Crystal Signatures in an Ordered Dipolar Many-Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovny, Jared; Blum, Robert L.; Barrett, Sean E.

    2018-05-01

    A discrete time crystal (DTC) is a robust phase of driven systems that breaks the discrete time translation symmetry of the driving Hamiltonian. Recent experiments have observed DTC signatures in two distinct systems. Here we show nuclear magnetic resonance observations of DTC signatures in a third, strikingly different system: an ordered spatial crystal. We use a novel DTC echo experiment to probe the coherence of the driven system. Finally, we show that interactions during the pulse of the DTC sequence contribute to the decay of the signal, complicating attempts to measure the intrinsic lifetime of the DTC.

  3. Order Level Inventory Models for Deteriorating Seasonable/Fashionable Products with Time Dependent Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Skouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An order level inventory model for seasonable/fashionable products subject to a period of increasing demand followed by a period of level demand and then by a period of decreasing demand rate (three branches ramp type demand rate is considered. The unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged with a time dependent backlogging rate. In addition, the product deteriorates with a time dependent, namely, Weibull, deterioration rate. The model is studied under the following different replenishment policies: (a starting with no shortages and (b starting with shortages. The optimal replenishment policy for the model is derived for both the above mentioned policies.

  4. Pump-probe study of atoms and small molecules with laser driven high order harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei

    A commercially available modern laser can emit over 1015 photons within a time window of a few tens of femtoseconds (10-15second), which can be focused into a spot size of about 10 mum, resulting in a peak intensity above 1014W/cm2. This paves the way for table-top strong field physics studies such as above threshold ionization (ATI), non-sequential double ionization (NSDI), high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.. Among these strong laser-matter interactions, high order harmonic generation, which combines many photons of the fundamental laser field into a single photon, offers a unique way to generate light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. High order harmonic photons are emitted within a short time window from a few tens of femtoseconds down to a few hundreds of attoseconds (10 -18second). This highly coherent nature of HHG allows it to be synchronized with an infrared (IR) laser pulse, and the pump-probe technique can be adopted to study ultrafast dynamic processes in a quantum system. The major work of this thesis is to develop a table-top VUV(EUV) light source based on HHG, and use it to study dynamic processes in atoms and small molecules with the VUV(EUV)-pump IR-probe method. A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus is used for momentum imaging of the interaction products. Two types of high harmonic pump pulses are generated and applied for pump-probe studies. The first one consists of several harmonics forming a short attosecond pulse train (APT) in the EUV regime (around 40 eV). We demonstrate that, (1) the auto-ionization process triggered by the EUV in cation carbon-monoxide and oxygen molecules can be modified by scanning the EUV-IR delay, (2) the phase information of quantum trajectories in bifurcated high harmonics can be extracted by performing an EUV-IR cross-correlation experiment, thus disclosing the macroscopic quantum control in HHG. The second type of high harmonic source

  5. High-order non-uniform grid schemes for numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer stability and transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiaolin; Tatineni, Mahidhar

    2003-01-01

    The direct numerical simulation of receptivity, instability and transition of hypersonic boundary layers requires high-order accurate schemes because lower-order schemes do not have an adequate accuracy level to compute the large range of time and length scales in such flow fields. The main limiting factor in the application of high-order schemes to practical boundary-layer flow problems is the numerical instability of high-order boundary closure schemes on the wall. This paper presents a family of high-order non-uniform grid finite difference schemes with stable boundary closures for the direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer transition. By using an appropriate grid stretching, and clustering grid points near the boundary, high-order schemes with stable boundary closures can be obtained. The order of the schemes ranges from first-order at the lowest, to the global spectral collocation method at the highest. The accuracy and stability of the new high-order numerical schemes is tested by numerical simulations of the linear wave equation and two-dimensional incompressible flat plate boundary layer flows. The high-order non-uniform-grid schemes (up to the 11th-order) are subsequently applied for the simulation of the receptivity of a hypersonic boundary layer to free stream disturbances over a blunt leading edge. The steady and unsteady results show that the new high-order schemes are stable and are able to produce high accuracy for computations of the nonlinear two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the wall bounded supersonic flow

  6. Randomness in preference orderings, outcomes and attribute tastes: An application to journey time risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    estimate a mean ‘reliability ratio’ (ratio of the value of standard deviation of journey time to the value of scheduled journey time) of 2.07, against a median of 0.85. The properties of the distribution of the reliability ratio suggest a predominant behaviour of aversion to journey time risk.......Within the broad area of probabilistic modelling of individual discrete choice, we develop three strands of discussion. First, we outline a theoretical framework for the modelling of individual discrete choice under risk, distinguishing between three specific sources of randomness; in preference...... orderings, in outcomes, and in attribute tastes. Second, we apply this theoretical modelling framework to the domain of journey time risk (or ‘reliability’), a subject which has acquired prominence in the transportation policies of many countries. Third, we apply the modelling framework empirically, based...

  7. Study and development of a soft X-ray laser seeded by high-order harmonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddet, J.Ph.

    2009-05-01

    The work in this thesis aimed to study a geometry of X-UV lasers inspired by high power laser. This architecture, consisting of an injector (a source of high-order harmonics) coupled to an amplifier (plasma created by laser), corresponds to that of a laser chain in the spectral range of the X-UV. The laser at 32.8 nm studied here, is produced by the injection of high-order harmonic in a krypton plasma created by Optical Field Ionization (OFI). This scheme, initially tested by T. Ditmire in 1995, was validated in 2003 with a plasma amplifier created by the interaction of intense laser and a gaseous medium. This thesis is a continuation of that work in trying to address different aspects, not only a better understanding of the physical processes involved, but also of the spatio-temporal characterization of this type of source. We have demonstrated experimentally for the first time a source in the X-UV, which can be highly compact, energetic (1 μJ per pulse), close to the diffraction limit and Fourier transform limited. Indeed, through the spatial filtering of harmonics by the amplifying medium, the injected X-UV laser at 32.8 nm shows a Gaussian spatial profile with a divergence of 0.7 mrad (at 1/e 2 ). The wavefront was measured with a Hartmann sensor and presents a value of λ/17 in standard deviation, demonstrating that the X-UV source is diffraction limited. The temporal characterization of laser shows that the coherence time is of the order of the duration of spontaneous emission of the amplifier. The temporal coherence presents a Gaussian profile with a relative spectral width Δλ/λ equal to 10 -5 (FWHM) corresponding to a pulse duration of about 5 ps. (author)

  8. Lyapunov Exponent and Out-of-Time-Ordered Correlator's Growth Rate in a Chaotic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Efim B; Ganeshan, Sriram; Galitski, Victor

    2017-02-24

    It was proposed recently that the out-of-time-ordered four-point correlator (OTOC) may serve as a useful characteristic of quantum-chaotic behavior, because, in the semiclassical limit ℏ→0, its rate of exponential growth resembles the classical Lyapunov exponent. Here, we calculate the four-point correlator C(t) for the classical and quantum kicked rotor-a textbook driven chaotic system-and compare its growth rate at initial times with the standard definition of the classical Lyapunov exponent. Using both quantum and classical arguments, we show that the OTOC's growth rate and the Lyapunov exponent are, in general, distinct quantities, corresponding to the logarithm of the phase-space averaged divergence rate of classical trajectories and to the phase-space average of the logarithm, respectively. The difference appears to be more pronounced in the regime of low kicking strength K, where no classical chaos exists globally. In this case, the Lyapunov exponent quickly decreases as K→0, while the OTOC's growth rate may decrease much slower, showing a higher sensitivity to small chaotic islands in the phase space. We also show that the quantum correlator as a function of time exhibits a clear singularity at the Ehrenfest time t_{E}: transitioning from a time-independent value of t^{-1}lnC(t) at ttime at t>t_{E}. We note that the underlying physics here is the same as in the theory of weak (dynamical) localization [Aleiner and Larkin, Phys. Rev. B 54, 14423 (1996)PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.54.14423; Tian, Kamenev, and Larkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 124101 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.124101] and is due to a delay in the onset of quantum interference effects, which occur sharply at a time of the order of the Ehrenfest time.

  9. High-Order Local Pooling and Encoding Gaussians Over a Dictionary of Gaussians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peihua; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Qilong; Shiu, Simon C K; Zhang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Local pooling (LP) in configuration (feature) space proposed by Boureau et al. explicitly restricts similar features to be aggregated, which can preserve as much discriminative information as possible. At the time it appeared, this method combined with sparse coding achieved competitive classification results with only a small dictionary. However, its performance lags far behind the state-of-the-art results as only the zero-order information is exploited. Inspired by the success of high-order statistical information in existing advanced feature coding or pooling methods, we make an attempt to address the limitation of LP. To this end, we present a novel method called high-order LP (HO-LP) to leverage the information higher than the zero-order one. Our idea is intuitively simple: we compute the first- and second-order statistics per configuration bin and model them as a Gaussian. Accordingly, we employ a collection of Gaussians as visual words to represent the universal probability distribution of features from all classes. Our problem is naturally formulated as encoding Gaussians over a dictionary of Gaussians as visual words. This problem, however, is challenging since the space of Gaussians is not a Euclidean space but forms a Riemannian manifold. We address this challenge by mapping Gaussians into the Euclidean space, which enables us to perform coding with common Euclidean operations rather than complex and often expensive Riemannian operations. Our HO-LP preserves the advantages of the original LP: pooling only similar features and using a small dictionary. Meanwhile, it achieves very promising performance on standard benchmarks, with either conventional, hand-engineered features or deep learning-based features.

  10. Riemann-Christoffel Tensor in Differential Geometry of Fractional Order Application to Fractal Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Guy

    2013-04-01

    By using fractional differences, one recently proposed an alternative to the formulation of fractional differential calculus, of which the main characteristics is a new fractional Taylor series and its companion Rolle's formula which apply to non-differentiable functions. The key is that now we have at hand a differential increment of fractional order which can be manipulated exactly like in the standard Leibniz differential calculus. Briefly the fractional derivative is the quotient of fractional increments. It has been proposed that this calculus can be used to construct a differential geometry on manifold of fractional order. The present paper, on the one hand, refines the framework, and on the other hand, contributes some new results related to arc length of fractional curves, area on fractional differentiable manifold, covariant fractal derivative, Riemann-Christoffel tensor of fractional order, fractional differential equations of fractional geodesic, strip modeling of fractal space time and its relation with Lorentz transformation. The relation with Nottale's fractal space-time theory then appears in quite a natural way.

  11. Time and order estimation of paintings based on visual features and expert priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Ricardo S.; Costeira, João P.; de La Torre, Fernando; Bernardino, Alexandre; Carneiro, Gustavo

    2011-03-01

    Time and order are considered crucial information in the art domain, and subject of many research efforts by historians. In this paper, we present a framework for estimating the ordering and date information of paintings and drawings. We formulate this problem as the embedding into a one dimension manifold, which aims to place paintings far or close to each other according to a measure of similarity. Our formulation can be seen as a manifold learning algorithm, albeit properly adapted to deal with existing questions in the art community. To solve this problem, we propose an approach based in Laplacian Eigenmaps and a convex optimization formulation. Both methods are able to incorporate art expertise as priors to the estimation, in the form of constraints. Types of information include exact or approximate dating and partial orderings. We explore the use of soft penalty terms to allow for constraint violation to account for the fact that prior knowledge may contain small errors. Our problem is tested within the scope of the PrintART project, which aims to assist art historians in tracing Portuguese Tile art "Azulejos" back to the engravings that inspired them. Furthermore, we describe other possible applications where time information (and hence, this method) could be of use in art history, fake detection or curatorial treatment.

  12. Time discretization of the point kinetic equations using matrix exponential method and First-Order Hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yujin; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Parlos, Alexander G.; Chong, Kil To

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical solution for stiff differential equations using matrix exponential method. • The approximation is based on First Order Hold assumption. • Various input examples applied to the point kinetics equations. • The method shows superior useful and effective activity. - Abstract: A system of nonlinear differential equations is derived to model the dynamics of neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors within a point kinetics equation modeling framework for a nuclear reactor. The point kinetic equations are mathematically characterized as stiff, occasionally nonlinear, ordinary differential equations, posing significant challenges when numerical solutions are sought and traditionally resulting in the need for smaller time step intervals within various computational schemes. In light of the above realization, the present paper proposes a new discretization method inspired by system-theoretic notions and technically based on a combination of the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the First-Order Hold (FOH) assumption. Under the proposed time discretization structure, the sampled-data representation of the nonlinear point kinetic system of equations is derived. The performance of the proposed time discretization procedure is evaluated using several case studies with sinusoidal reactivity profiles and multiple input examples (reactivity and neutron source function). It is shown, that by applying the proposed method under a First-Order Hold for the neutron density and the precursor concentrations at each time step interval, the stiffness problem associated with the point kinetic equations can be adequately addressed and resolved. Finally, as evidenced by the aforementioned detailed simulation studies, the proposed method retains its validity and accuracy for a wide range of reactor operating conditions, including large sampling periods dictated by physical and/or technical limitations associated with the current state of sensor and

  13. Optimization of multi-color laser waveform for high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Lin, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    With the development of laser technologies, multi-color light-field synthesis with complete amplitude and phase control would make it possible to generate arbitrary optical waveforms. A practical optimization algorithm is needed to generate such a waveform in order to control strong-field processes. We review some recent theoretical works of the optimization of amplitudes and phases of multi-color lasers to modify the single-atom high-order harmonic generation based on genetic algorithm. By choosing different fitness criteria, we demonstrate that: (i) harmonic yields can be enhanced by 10 to 100 times, (ii) harmonic cutoff energy can be substantially extended, (iii) specific harmonic orders can be selectively enhanced, and (iv) single attosecond pulses can be efficiently generated. The possibility of optimizing macroscopic conditions for the improved phase matching and low divergence of high harmonics is also discussed. The waveform control and optimization are expected to be new drivers for the next wave of breakthrough in the strong-field physics in the coming years. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 30916011207), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13491), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USA (Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0255).

  14. An optimal PID controller via LQR for standard second order plus time delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Anuraag; Thakur, S K; Pandit, V S

    2016-01-01

    An improved tuning methodology of PID controller for standard second order plus time delay systems (SOPTD) is developed using the approach of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and pole placement technique to obtain the desired performance measures. The pole placement method together with LQR is ingeniously used for SOPTD systems where the time delay part is handled in the controller output equation instead of characteristic equation. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been demonstrated via simulation of stable open loop oscillatory, over damped, critical damped and unstable open loop systems. Results show improved closed loop time response over the existing LQR based PI/PID tuning methods with less control effort. The effect of non-dominant pole on the stability and robustness of the controller has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analisis Kemampuan Siswa dalam Menyelesaikan Soal High Order Thinking Ditinjau dari Kemampuan Awal Matematis Siswa

    OpenAIRE

    Gais, Zakkina; Afriansyah, Ekasatya Aldila

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to know the effect of prior mathematical students ability to solve on high order thinking questions looked by analysis question, evaluation question, creating question and genera question.This research also aims to know about students ability in solving high order thinking question and to know about the factors that cause students to be wrong in solving high order thinking questions. The research method that used is mixed method with embedded concurrent type. From the resu...

  16. Practical aspects of spherical near-field antenna measurements using a high-order probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2006-01-01

    Two practical aspects related to accurate antenna pattern characterization by probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with a high-order probe are examined. First, the requirements set by an arbitrary high-order probe on the scanning technique are pointed out. Secondly, a channel...... balance calibration procedure for a high-order dual-port probe with non-identical ports is presented, and the requirements set by this procedure for the probe are discussed....

  17. Topological order and memory time in marginally-self-correcting quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, Karthik; Yoshida, Beni

    2017-03-01

    We examine two proposals for marginally-self-correcting quantum memory: the cubic code by Haah and the welded code by Michnicki. In particular, we prove explicitly that they are absent of topological order above zero temperature, as their Gibbs ensembles can be prepared via a short-depth quantum circuit from classical ensembles. Our proof technique naturally gives rise to the notion of free energy associated with excitations. Further, we develop a framework for an ergodic decomposition of Davies generators in CSS codes which enables formal reduction to simpler classical memory problems. We then show that memory time in the welded code is doubly exponential in inverse temperature via the Peierls argument. These results introduce further connections between thermal topological order and self-correction from the viewpoint of free energy and quantum circuit depth.

  18. Orderly Discharging Strategy for Electric Vehicles at Workplace Based on Time-of-Use Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the parking features of electric vehicles (EVs and load of production unit, a power supply system including EVs charging station was established, and an orderly discharging strategy for EVs was proposed as well to reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging. Based on the target of maximizing the annual income of producer, considering the total benefits of EV discharging, the electric vehicle aggregator (EVA and time-of-use (TOU price were introduced to establish the optimization scheduling model of EVs discharging. Furthermore, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA combined with the penalty function methods was applied to solve the model. It can be shown from the simulation results that the optimal solution obtained by IAFSA is regarded as the orderly discharging strategy for EVs, which could reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging.

  19. RDTM solution of Caputo time fractional-order hyperbolic telegraph equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet K. Srivastava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mathematical model has been developed for the second order hyperbolic one-dimensional time fractional Telegraph equation (TFTE. The fractional derivative has been described in the Caputo sense. The governing equations have been solved by a recent reliable semi-analytic method known as the reduced differential transformation method (RDTM. The method is a powerful mathematical technique for solving wide range of problems. Using RDTM method, it is possible to find exact solution as well as closed approximate solution of any ordinary or partial differential equation. Three numerical examples of TFTE have been provided in order to check the effectiveness, accuracy and convergence of the method. The computed results are also depicted graphically.

  20. A VLSI Implementation of Rank-Order Searching Circuit Employing a Time-Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Tu Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a compact and low-power rank-order searching (ROS circuit that can be used for building associative memories and rank-order filters (ROFs by employing time-domain computation and floating-gate MOS techniques. The architecture inherits the accuracy and programmability of digital implementations as well as the compactness and low-power consumption of analog ones. We aim to implement identification function as the first priority objective. Filtering function would be implemented once the location identification function has been carried out. The prototype circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It consumes only 132.3 μW for an eight-input demonstration case.

  1. Nonadiabatic Dynamics for Electrons at Second-Order: Real-Time TDDFT and OSCF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Triet S; Parkhill, John

    2015-07-14

    We develop a new model to simulate nonradiative relaxation and dephasing by combining real-time Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) with our recent open-systems theory of electronic dynamics. The approach has some key advantages: it has been systematically derived and properly relaxes noninteracting electrons to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. This paper combines the new dissipation theory with an atomistic, all-electron quantum chemistry code and an atom-centered model of the thermal environment. The environment is represented nonempirically and is dependent on molecular structure in a nonlocal way. A production quality, O(N(3)) closed-shell implementation of our theory applicable to realistic molecular systems is presented, including timing information. This scaling implies that the added cost of our nonadiabatic relaxation model, time-dependent open self-consistent field at second order (OSCF2), is computationally inexpensive, relative to adiabatic propagation of real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) or time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Details of the implementation and numerical algorithm, including factorization and efficiency, are discussed. We demonstrate that OSCF2 approaches the stationary self-consistent field (SCF) ground state when the gap is large relative to k(b)T. The code is used to calculate linear-response spectra including the effects of bath dynamics. Finally, we show how our theory of finite-temperature relaxation can be used to correct ground-state DFT calculations.

  2. The ATLAS High-Granularity Timing Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sacerdoti, Sabrina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In the high luminosity phase of the LHC, scheduled to start in 2026, the instantaneous luminosity will be increased to up to $\\mathcal{L} = 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. As a consequence, the detectors will be faced with challenging conditions, in particular the increase of pile-up: an average of 200 interactions per bunch crossing are expected, corresponding to an average interaction density of 1.8 collisions/mm. The reconstruction performance will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region of the ATLAS detector, especially for jets and transverse missing energy. The addition of timing information in forward objects through the High-Granularity Timing Detector will help to recover the performance of these regions to levels similar to the ones expected in the central region of the detector. It will also provide a bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. This talk will be focused on the developments surrounding the LGAD sensors and front-end electronics, which are aimed to achieve a low time res...

  3. First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic generation of wind speed time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad, A.; Bawadi, M.A.; Wan Hussin, W.M.A.; Majid, T.A.; Sanusi, S.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hourly wind speed time series data of two meteorological stations in Malaysia have been used for stochastic generation of wind speed data using the transition matrix approach of the Markov chain process. The transition probability matrices have been formed using two different approaches: the first approach involves the use of the first order transition probability matrix of a Markov chain, and the second involves the use of a second order transition probability matrix that uses the current and preceding values to describe the next wind speed value. The algorithm to generate the wind speed time series from the transition probability matrices is described. Uniform random number generators have been used for transition between successive time states and within state wind speed values. The ability of each approach to retain the statistical properties of the generated speed is compared with the observed ones. The main statistical properties used for this purpose are mean, standard deviation, median, percentiles, Weibull distribution parameters, autocorrelations and spectral density of wind speed values. The comparison of the observed wind speed and the synthetically generated ones shows that the statistical characteristics are satisfactorily preserved

  4. Calculating Higher-Order Moments of Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Summaries in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Amrit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree. Fast, simulation-free algorithms for calculating the mean of stochastic mapping summaries exist. Importantly, these algorithms scale linearly in the number of tips/leaves of the phylogenetic tree. However, to our knowledge, no such algorithm exists for calculating higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries. We present one such simulation-free dynamic programming algorithm that calculates prior and posterior mapping variances and scales linearly in the number of phylogeny tips. Our procedure suggests a general framework that can be used to efficiently compute higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries without simulations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our algorithm by extending previously developed statistical tests for rate variation across sites and for detecting evolutionarily conserved regions in genomic sequences. PMID:28177780

  5. Th unnatural order of things: A history of the high school science sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis M.

    Historical studies of US high school science education are rare. This study examines the historical origins of a unique characteristic of the secondary science curriculum, the Biology-Chemistry-Physics (B-C-P) order of courses. Statements from scientists, educators and the media claim that B-C-P has been the traditional curriculum sequence for over a century and can be traced back to the influential educational commission known as the Committee of Ten (CoT) of 1893. This study examines the history of the ordering of high school science subjects over the last 150 years. The reports and primary documents of important national educational commissions, such as the CoT, were searched for their recommendations on secondary science, particularly on course ordering. These recommendations were then compared to national, state and local statistical data on subject offerings and student enrollments to measure the effect of these national commissions on school policy. This study concludes that the Committee of Ten did not create B-P-C. The CoT made six recommendations, five placed Chemistry before Physics (P-C). One recommendation for C-P met with strong disagreement because it was thought an illogical order. Biology as a "uniform" course did not exist at this time and so the CoT made no recommendations for its grade placement. Statistical data shows that B-C-P evolved over many decades. From 1860 up to 1920 most schools used a P-C curriculum believing Physics was a foundational prerequisite of Chemistry. Biology was introduced in the early 1900s and it assumed a position before the physical sciences. Through the 1920s Chemistry and Physics were placed equally likely in 11th or 12 th grades and Biology was in the 10th grade. After World War II, B-C-P became the dominant pattern, exhibited in over 90% of schools. But up to this point in time no educational body or national commission had recommended B-C-P. The Biology-Chemistry-Physics order of courses is a product of many

  6. A novel interval type-2 fractional order fuzzy PID controller: Design, performance evaluation, and its optimal time domain tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anupam; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a novel concept of an interval type-2 fractional order fuzzy PID (IT2FO-FPID) controller, which requires fractional order integrator and fractional order differentiator, is proposed. The incorporation of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2FLC) with fractional controller of PID-type is investigated for time response measure due to both unit step response and unit load disturbance. The resulting IT2FO-FPID controller is examined on different delayed linear and nonlinear benchmark plants followed by robustness analysis. In order to design this controller, fractional order integrator-differentiator operators are considered as design variables including input-output scaling factors. A new hybridized algorithm named as artificial bee colony-genetic algorithm (ABC-GA) is used to optimize the parameters of the controller while minimizing weighted sum of integral of time absolute error (ITAE) and integral of square of control output (ISCO). To assess the comparative performance of the IT2FO-FPID, authors compared it against existing controllers, i.e., interval type-2 fuzzy PID (IT2-FPID), type-1 fractional order fuzzy PID (T1FO-FPID), type-1 fuzzy PID (T1-FPID), and conventional PID controllers. Furthermore, to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller, the perturbed processes along with the larger dead time are tested. Moreover, the proposed controllers are also implemented on multi input multi output (MIMO), coupled, and highly complex nonlinear two-link robot manipulator system in presence of un-modeled dynamics. Finally, the simulation results explicitly indicate that the performance of the proposed IT2FO-FPID controller is superior to its conventional counterparts in most of the cases. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube in malonic acid solution by anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2008-10-01

    We synthesized TiO2 nanotube array by anodizing in a solution of malonic acid (HOOCCH2COOH) and NH4F, and analyzed the morphology of the nanotube using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of TiO2 nanotube was largely affected by anodizing time, anodizing voltage, and malonic acid concentration. With increasing the anodizing voltage from 5 V to 20 V, the diameter of TiO2 nanotube was increased from about 20 nm to 110 nm and its length from about 10 nm to 700 nm. In addition, the length of TiO2 nanotube was increased with increasing anodizing time up to 6 h at 20 V. We obtained the longest and the most highly ordered nanotube structure when anodizing Ti in a solution of 0.5 wt% NH4F and 1 M malonic acid at 20 V for 6 h.

  8. An approach for second order control with finite time convergence for electro-hydraulic drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    algorithm parameters. However a discontinuous term internally in the control structure may excite pressures of transmission lines in hydraulic drives as the control structure strives to maintain the control error and its derivative equal to zero. In this paper a modified version of a controller based......Being a second order sliding algorithm, the super twisting algorithm is highly attractive for application in control of hydraulic drives and mechanical systems in general, as it utilizes only the control error while driving the control error as well as its derivative to zero for properly chosen...... on the super twisting algorithm is proposed, with the focus of eliminating the discontinuous term in order to achieve a more smooth control operation. The convergence properties of the proposed controller are analyzed via a conservative phase plane analysis. Furthermore, homogeneity considerations imply finite...

  9. Convergence acceleration for time-independent first-order PDE using optimal PNB-approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, S.; Branden, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    We consider solving time-independent (steady-state) flow problems in 2D or 3D governed by hyperbolic or {open_quotes}almost hyperbolic{close_quotes} systems of partial differential equations (PDE). Examples of such PDE are the Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations. The PDE is discretized using a finite difference or finite volume scheme with arbitrary order of accuracy. If the matrix B describes the discretized differential operator and u denotes the approximate solution, the discrete problem is given by a large system of equations.

  10. Optimized Signaling Method for High-Speed Transmission Channels with Higher Order Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Břetislav; Brančík, Lubomír; Kubíček, Michal

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the selected results from testing of optimized CMOS friendly signaling method for high-speed communications over cables and printed circuit boards (PCBs) are presented and discussed. The proposed signaling scheme uses modified concept of pulse width modulated (PWM) signal which enables to better equalize significant channel losses during data high-speed transmission. Thus, the very effective signaling method to overcome losses in transmission channels with higher order transfer function, typical for long cables and multilayer PCBs, is clearly analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Experimental results of the measurements include the performance comparison of conventional PWM scheme and clearly show the great potential of the modified signaling method for use in low power CMOS friendly equalization circuits, commonly considered in modern communication standards as PCI-Express, SATA or in Multi-gigabit SerDes interconnects.

  11. Estimating High-Dimensional Time Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros, Marcelo C.; Mendes, Eduardo F.

    We study the asymptotic properties of the Adaptive LASSO (adaLASSO) in sparse, high-dimensional, linear time-series models. We assume both the number of covariates in the model and candidate variables can increase with the number of observations and the number of candidate variables is, possibly......, larger than the number of observations. We show the adaLASSO consistently chooses the relevant variables as the number of observations increases (model selection consistency), and has the oracle property, even when the errors are non-Gaussian and conditionally heteroskedastic. A simulation study shows...

  12. Optimal design of PID controller for second order plus time delay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Kumar, Y.; Thakur, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the effect of time delay in the forward path of control loop deteriorates the system performance and at the same time makes it difficult to compute the optimum PID controller parameters of the feedback control systems. PI/PID controller is most popular and used more than 80% in industries as well as in accelerators lab due to its simple structure and appropriate robustness. At VECC we have planned to use a PID controller for the speed control of DC motor which will be used to adjust the solenoid coil position of the 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for optimum performance during the online operation. In this paper we present a comparison of the two methods which have been used to design the optimum PID controller parameters: one by optimizing different time domain performance indices such as lAE, ITSE etc. and other using analytical formulation based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). We have performed numerical simulations using MATLAB and compare the closed loop time response performance measures using the PID parameters obtained from above mentioned two methods on a second order transfer function of a DC motor with time delay. (author)

  13. Out-of-time-ordered correlators in a quantum Ising chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2018-04-01

    Out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOC) have been proposed to characterize quantum chaos in generic systems. However, they can also show interesting behavior in integrable models, resembling the OTOC in chaotic systems in some aspects. Here we study the OTOC for different operators in the exactly-solvable one-dimensional quantum Ising spin chain. The OTOC for spin operators that are local in terms of the Jordan-Wigner fermions has a "shell-like" structure: After the wavefront passes, the OTOC approaches its original value in the long-time limit, showing no signature of scrambling; the approach is described by a t-1 power law at long time t . On the other hand, the OTOC for spin operators that are nonlocal in the Jordan-Wigner fermions has a "ball-like" structure, with its value reaching zero in the long-time limit, looking like a signature of scrambling; the approach to zero, however, is described by a slow power law t-1 /4 for the Ising model at the critical coupling. These long-time power-law behaviors in the lattice model are not captured by conformal field theory calculations. The mixed OTOC with both local and nonlocal operators in the Jordan-Wigner fermions also has a "ball-like" structure, but the limiting values and the decay behavior appear to be nonuniversal. In all cases, we are not able to define a parametrically large window around the wavefront to extract the Lyapunov exponent.

  14. Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid

  15. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Divan, Hozefa A; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems while accounting for the random family effect among siblings. The association of behavioral problems with both prenatal and postnatal exposure differed between siblings (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.66) and non-siblings (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) and within siblings by birth order; the association was strongest for first-born siblings (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.86-3.42) and negative for later-born siblings (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.31-1.25), which may be because of increases in cell phone use with later birth year. Sibling analysis can be a powerful tool for (partially) accounting for confounding by invariant unmeasured within-family factors, but it cannot account for uncontrolled confounding by varying family-level factors, such as those that vary with time and birth order.

  16. Time-bound product returns and optimal order quantities for mass merchandisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min-Chun; Goh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The return guidelines for a mass merchandiser usually entail a grace period, a markdown on the original price and the condition of the returned items. This research utilises eight scenarios formed from the variation of possible return guidelines to model the cost functions of single-product categories for a typical mass merchandiser. Models for the eight scenarios are developed and solved with the objective of maximising the expected profit so as to obtain closed form solutions for the associated optimal order quantity. An illustrative example and sensitivity analysis are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Our results show that merchandisers who allow for returns within a time window, albeit with a penalty cost imposed and the returned products being recoverable, should plan for larger order amounts as such products do not affect the business. Similarly, the merchandisers who allow for returns beyond a grace period and without any penalty charges, but where the returned products are irrecoverable, should manage their stocks in this category more judiciously by ordering as little as possible so as to limit the number of returns and carefully consider the effects of their customer satisfaction-guaranteed policies, if any.

  17. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  18. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth; Virta, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions

  19. Fractional-Order Discrete-Time Laguerre Filters: A New Tool for Modeling and Stability Analysis of Fractional-Order LTI SISO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stanisławski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results on modeling and analysis of dynamics of fractional-order discrete-time linear time-invariant single-input single-output (LTI SISO systems by means of new, two-layer, “fractional-order discrete-time Laguerre filters.” It is interesting that the fractionality of the filters at the upper system dynamics layer is directly projected from the lower Laguerre-based approximation layer for the Grünwald-Letnikov difference. A new stability criterion for discrete-time fractional-order Laguerre-based LTI SISO systems is introduced and supplemented with a stability preservation analysis. Both the stability criterion and the stability preservation analysis bring up rather surprising results, which is illustrated with simulation examples.

  20. Learning High-Order Filters for Efficient Blind Deconvolution of Document Photographs

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Wang, Jue; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    by small-scale high-order structures, we propose to learn a multi-scale, interleaved cascade of shrinkage fields model, which contains a series of high-order filters to facilitate joint recovery of blur kernel and latent image. With extensive experiments

  1. Design of a high order Campbelling mode measurement system using open source hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izarra, G. de [CEA, DEN,DER, Experimental Programs Laboratory, Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Elter, Zs. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); CEA, DEN,DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN,DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-12-11

    This paper reviews a new real-time measurement instrument dedicated for online neutron monitoring with fission chambers in nuclear reactors. The instrument implements the higher order Campbelling methods and self-monitoring capabilities on an open source development board. The board includes an CPU/FPGA System on a Chip. The feasibility of the measurement instrument was tested both in laboratory with a signal generator and in the Minerve reactor. It is shown that the instrument provides reliable and robust count rate estimation over a wide reactor power range based on the third order statistics of the fission chamber signal. In addition, the system is able to identify whether the measured count rate change is due to the malfunction of the detector or due to the change in the neutron flux. The applied self-monitoring method is based on the spectral properties of the fission chamber signal. During the experimental verification, the considered malfunction was the change of the polarization voltage. - Highlights: • A new online High Order Campelling measurement system is proposed. • It includes a fission chamber failure detection system. • The complete architecture of the measurement system is given. • Test on reactor show its accuracy over a wide count rate range.

  2. Mechanical properties of ground state structures in substitutional ordered alloys: High strength, high ductility and high thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawancy, H.M.; Aboelfotoh, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of atom arrangements in the ground state structures of substitutional ordered alloys on their mechanical properties using nickel–molybdenum-based alloys as model systems. Three alloys with nominal compositions of Ni–19.43 at% Mo, Ni–18.53 at% Mo–15.21 at% Cr and Ni–18.72 at% Mo–6.14 at% Nb are included in the study. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the closely related Pt 2 Mo-type, DO 22 and D1 a superlattices with similar energies are identified by electron diffraction of ground state structures, which can directly be derived from the parent disordered fcc structure by minor atom rearrangements on {420} fcc planes. The three superlattices are observed to coexist during the disorder–order transformation at 700 °C with the most stable superlattice being determined by the exact chemical composition. Although most of the slip systems in the parent disordered fcc structure are suppressed, many of the twinning systems remain operative in the superlattices favoring deformation by twinning, which leads to considerable strengthening while maintaining high ductility levels. Both the Pt 2 Mo-type and DO 22 superlattices are distinguished by high strength and high ductility due to their nanoscale microstructures, which have high thermal stability. However, the D1 a superlattice is found to exhibit poor thermal stability leading to considerable loss of ductility, which has been correlated with self-induced recrystallization by migration of grain boundaries

  3. Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations, and filters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.

  4. On a higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equation involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Pirnapasov, Sardor; Karimov, Erkinjon

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. We investigate a boundary value problem for fractional heat equation involving higher order Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives in time-variable. Using method of separation of variables and integration by parts, we reduce fractional order PDE to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  5. Osteoinductive peptide-functionalized nanofibers with highly ordered structure as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Song, Jinlin; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Anxiu; Wang, Mengke; Xie, Bingwu; Huang, Enyi; Deng, Feng; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA) was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than cells on randomly oriented nanofibers. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides could direct osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells even in the absence of osteoinducting factors, suggesting superior osteogenic efficacy of biomimetic design that combines the advantages of osteoinductive peptide signal and highly ordered nanofibers on cell fate decision. The presented peptide-decorated bone-mimic nanofiber scaffolds hold a promising potential in the context of bone tissue engineering.

  6. High-Order Model and Dynamic Filtering for Frame Rate Up-Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Li; Ding, Lianghui; Gao, Zhiyong

    2018-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel frame rate up-conversion method through high-order model and dynamic filtering (HOMDF) for video pixels. Unlike the constant brightness and linear motion assumptions in traditional methods, the intensity and position of the video pixels are both modeled with high-order polynomials in terms of time. Then, the key problem of our method is to estimate the polynomial coefficients that represent the pixel's intensity variation, velocity, and acceleration. We propose to solve it with two energy objectives: one minimizes the auto-regressive prediction error of intensity variation by its past samples, and the other minimizes video frame's reconstruction error along the motion trajectory. To efficiently address the optimization problem for these coefficients, we propose the dynamic filtering solution inspired by video's temporal coherence. The optimal estimation of these coefficients is reformulated into a dynamic fusion of the prior estimate from pixel's temporal predecessor and the maximum likelihood estimate from current new observation. Finally, frame rate up-conversion is implemented using motion-compensated interpolation by pixel-wise intensity variation and motion trajectory. Benefited from the advanced model and dynamic filtering, the interpolated frame has much better visual quality. Extensive experiments on the natural and synthesized videos demonstrate the superiority of HOMDF over the state-of-the-art methods in both subjective and objective comparisons.

  7. HIGHLY-ACCURATE MODEL ORDER REDUCTION TECHNIQUE ON A DISCRETE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, we present a highly-accurate technique of model order reduction applied to staged processes. The proposed method reduces the dimension of the original system based on null values of moment-weighted sums of heat and mass balance residuals on real stages. To compute these sums of weighted residuals, a discrete form of Gauss-Lobatto quadrature was developed, allowing a high degree of accuracy in these calculations. The locations where the residuals are cancelled vary with time and operating conditions, characterizing a desirable adaptive nature of this technique. Balances related to upstream and downstream devices (such as condenser, reboiler, and feed tray of a distillation column are considered as boundary conditions of the corresponding difference-differential equations system. The chosen number of moments is the dimension of the reduced model being much lower than the dimension of the complete model and does not depend on the size of the original model. Scaling of the discrete independent variable related with the stages was crucial for the computational implementation of the proposed method, avoiding accumulation of round-off errors present even in low-degree polynomial approximations in the original discrete variable. Dynamical simulations of distillation columns were carried out to check the performance of the proposed model order reduction technique. The obtained results show the superiority of the proposed procedure in comparison with the orthogonal collocation method.

  8. High-order-harmonic generation from H2+ molecular ions near plasmon-enhanced laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, I.; Tikman, Y.; Altun, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Simulations of plasmon-enhanced high-order-harmonic generation are performed for a H2+ molecular cation near the metallic nanostructures. We employ the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in reduced coordinates. We assume that the main axis of H2+ is aligned perfectly with the polarization direction of the plasmon-enhanced field. We perform systematic calculations on plasmon-enhanced harmonic generation based on an infinite-mass approximation, i.e., pausing nuclear vibrations. Our simulations show that molecular high-order-harmonic generation from plasmon-enhanced laser fields is possible. We observe the dispersion of a plateau of harmonics when the laser field is plasmon enhanced. We find that the maximum kinetic energy of the returning electron follows 4 Up . We also find that when nuclear vibrations are enabled, the efficiency of the harmonics is greatly enhanced relative to that of static nuclei. However, the maximum kinetic energy 4 Up is largely maintained.

  9. 3D detectors with high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, A.

    2018-01-01

    For future high luminosity LHC experiments it will be important to develop new detector systems with increased space and time resolution and also better radiation hardness in order to operate in high luminosity environment. A possible technology which could give such performances is 3D silicon detectors. This work explores the possibility of a pixel geometry by designing and simulating different solutions, using Sentaurus Tecnology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) as design and simulation tool, and analysing their performances. A key factor during the selection was the generated electric field and the carrier velocity inside the active area of the pixel.

  10. Analyzing a stochastic time series obeying a second-order differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehle, B; Peinke, J

    2015-06-01

    The stochastic properties of a Langevin-type Markov process can be extracted from a given time series by a Markov analysis. Also processes that obey a stochastically forced second-order differential equation can be analyzed this way by employing a particular embedding approach: To obtain a Markovian process in 2N dimensions from a non-Markovian signal in N dimensions, the system is described in a phase space that is extended by the temporal derivative of the signal. For a discrete time series, however, this derivative can only be calculated by a differencing scheme, which introduces an error. If the effects of this error are not accounted for, this leads to systematic errors in the estimation of the drift and diffusion functions of the process. In this paper we will analyze these errors and we will propose an approach that correctly accounts for them. This approach allows an accurate parameter estimation and, additionally, is able to cope with weak measurement noise, which may be superimposed to a given time series.

  11. A time series model: First-order integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, D. M.; Novkaniza, F.; Widyaningsih, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Nonnegative integer-valued time series arises in many applications. A time series model: first-order Integer-valued AutoRegressive (INAR(1)) is constructed by binomial thinning operator to model nonnegative integer-valued time series. INAR (1) depends on one period from the process before. The parameter of the model can be estimated by Conditional Least Squares (CLS). Specification of INAR(1) is following the specification of (AR(1)). Forecasting in INAR(1) uses median or Bayesian forecasting methodology. Median forecasting methodology obtains integer s, which is cumulative density function (CDF) until s, is more than or equal to 0.5. Bayesian forecasting methodology forecasts h-step-ahead of generating the parameter of the model and parameter of innovation term using Adaptive Rejection Metropolis Sampling within Gibbs sampling (ARMS), then finding the least integer s, where CDF until s is more than or equal to u . u is a value taken from the Uniform(0,1) distribution. INAR(1) is applied on pneumonia case in Penjaringan, Jakarta Utara, January 2008 until April 2016 monthly.

  12. Vacuum-venipuncture skills: time required and importance of tube order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujii C

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chieko FujiiFaculty of Nursing and Medical Care, Keio University, Fujisawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess specific vacuum-venipuncture skills and the influence of the time involved in skin puncture and blood collection.Methods: Thirty subjects undergoing venipuncture in which video analysis was possible were included. These procedures were carried out by four nurses and recorded with a digital camera. Venipuncture skills classified by our observations were delineated on the basis of frame-by-frame video images, and a graph of x and y coordinates was created.Results: With the first blood-collection tube, strong blood flow required the practitioner to push the tube back in to compensate for the strong repulsive force in approximately 46% of cases. By the third blood-collection tube, the blood flow had weakened; therefore, the tube was moved up and down. In cases that required a second venipuncture, the tube was already pierced, so the time required to fill it to 5 mL was significantly longer.Conclusion: Hand movement of the practitioner is adjusted according to blood flow. Reflex movement in response to strong blood flow may increase the risk of pushing the needle through the vein with excessive force. The time required to fill the tube varies among nurses, tube order, and level of venipuncture skills.Keywords: blood collection, blood-collection tube, clinical practice, venipuncture skill

  13. Radiation ordering in quenched alloys observed 'in situ' in the high voltage microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendeloo, G. van; Landuyt, J. van; Amelinckx, S.

    1979-01-01

    Different alloys with a face centered cubic disordered structure have been electron irradiated in the quenched or short range order state under direct observation in a high voltage electron microscope. Ordering due to 1 MeV irradiation has been observed in Au 4 MN, Ni 4 Mo and Cu 3 Pd. Care has been taken to avoid ordering due to the thermal effect of the electron beam. It has been demonstrated that although similar states of order can be achieved by thermal and irradiation ordering, the path followed can be different. (author)

  14. Nuclear material enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fan; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Ren Yong

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear material identification system (NMIS) against the change of nuclear material enrichment, the principle of high order statistic feature is introduced and applied to traditional NMIS. We present a new enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectrum algorithm. By applying the identification method to NMIS, the 3D graphs with nuclear material character are presented and can be used as new signatures to identify the enrichment of nuclear materials. The simulation result shows that the identification method could suppress the background noises, electronic system noises, and improve the sensitivity against enrichment change to exponential order with no system structure modification. (authors)

  15. Validation and application of an high-order spectral difference method for flow induced noise simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the radiated far field noise provided by an unsteady flow field from bodies in arbitrary motion. The method computes a turbulent flow field in the near fields using a high-order spectral difference method coupled with large-eddy simulation approach. The unsteady equations are solved by advancing in time using a second-order backward difference formulae scheme. The nonlinear algebraic system arising from the time discretization is solved with the nonlinear lowerupper symmetric GaussSeidel algorithm. In the second step, the method calculates the far field sound pressure based on the acoustic source information provided by the first step simulation. The method is based on the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings approach, which provides noise contributions for monopole, dipole and quadrupole acoustic sources. This paper will focus on the validation and assessment of this hybrid approach using different test cases. The test cases used are: a laminar flow over a two-dimensional (2D) open cavity at Re = 1.5 × 10 3 and M = 0.15 and a laminar flow past a 2D square cylinder at Re = 200 and M = 0.5. In order to show the application of the numerical method in industrial cases and to assess its capability for sound field simulation, a three-dimensional turbulent flow in a muffler at Re = 4.665 × 10 4 and M = 0.05 has been chosen as a third test case. The flow results show good agreement with numerical and experimental reference solutions. Comparison of the computed noise results with those of reference solutions also shows that the numerical approach predicts noise accurately. © 2011 IMACS.

  16. High frequency, high time resolution time-to-digital converter employing passive resonating circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Abba, Andrea; Geraci, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    A method for measuring time intervals accurate to the picosecond range is based on phase measurements of oscillating waveforms synchronous with their beginning and/or end. The oscillation is generated by triggering an LC resonant circuit, whose capacitance is precharged. By using high Q resonators and a final active quenching of the oscillation, it is possible to conjugate high time resolution and a small measurement time, which allows a high measurement rate. Methods for fast analysis of the data are considered and discussed with reference to computing resource requirements, speed, and accuracy. Experimental tests show the feasibility of the method and a time accuracy better than 4 ps rms. Methods aimed at further reducing hardware resources are finally discussed.

  17. High frequency, high time resolution time-to-digital converter employing passive resonating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Abba, Andrea; Geraci, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    A method for measuring time intervals accurate to the picosecond range is based on phase measurements of oscillating waveforms synchronous with their beginning and/or end. The oscillation is generated by triggering an LC resonant circuit, whose capacitance is precharged. By using high Q resonators and a final active quenching of the oscillation, it is possible to conjugate high time resolution and a small measurement time, which allows a high measurement rate. Methods for fast analysis of the data are considered and discussed with reference to computing resource requirements, speed, and accuracy. Experimental tests show the feasibility of the method and a time accuracy better than 4 ps rms. Methods aimed at further reducing hardware resources are finally discussed.

  18. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  19. Cross-Term Suppression in Time Order Distribution for AWGN Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAQAS MAHMOOD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A technique of cross-term suppression in WD (Wigner Distribution for a multi-component signal that is embedded WGN (White Gaussian Noise is proposed. In this technique, an optimized algorithm is developed for time-varying noisy signal and a CAD (Computer Aided Design simulator is designed for Numerical simulations of synthetic signal. In proposed technique, signal components are localized in tf (time frequency plane by STFT (Short Time Fourier Transform. Rectified STFT is computed and Spectral Kurtosis is used to separate a signal components from noise in t-f plane. The t-f plane is segmented and then signal components are filtered out by FFT (Fractional Fourier Transform. Finally, WD (free of cross terms of isolated signal component is computed to obtain high resolution in t-f plane.

  20. Relating Out-of-Time-Order Correlations to Entanglement via Multiple-Quantum Coherences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärttner, Martin; Hauke, Philipp; Rey, Ana Maria

    2018-01-26

    Out-of-time-order correlations (OTOCs) characterize the scrambling, or delocalization, of quantum information over all the degrees of freedom of a system and thus have been proposed as a proxy for chaos in quantum systems. Recent experimental progress in measuring OTOCs calls for a more thorough understanding of how these quantities characterize complex quantum systems, most importantly in terms of the buildup of entanglement. Although a connection between OTOCs and entanglement entropy has been derived, the latter only quantifies entanglement in pure systems and is hard to access experimentally. In this work, we formally demonstrate that the multiple-quantum coherence spectra, a specific family of OTOCs well known in NMR, can be used as an entanglement witness and as a direct probe of multiparticle entanglement. Our results open a path to experimentally testing the fascinating idea that entanglement is the underlying glue that links thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum gravity.

  1. A First-order Prediction-Correction Algorithm for Time-varying (Constrained) Optimization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simonetto, Andrea [Universite catholique de Louvain

    2017-07-25

    This paper focuses on the design of online algorithms based on prediction-correction steps to track the optimal solution of a time-varying constrained problem. Existing prediction-correction methods have been shown to work well for unconstrained convex problems and for settings where obtaining the inverse of the Hessian of the cost function can be computationally affordable. The prediction-correction algorithm proposed in this paper addresses the limitations of existing methods by tackling constrained problems and by designing a first-order prediction step that relies on the Hessian of the cost function (and do not require the computation of its inverse). Analytical results are established to quantify the tracking error. Numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results and showcase performance and benefits of the algorithms.

  2. Space-Time Convolutional Codes over Finite Fields and Rings for Systems with Large Diversity Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Uchôa-Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a convolutional encoder over the finite ring of integers modulo pk,ℤpk, where p is a prime number and k is any positive integer, to generate a space-time convolutional code (STCC. Under this structure, we prove three properties related to the generator matrix of the convolutional code that can be used to simplify the code search procedure for STCCs over ℤpk. Some STCCs of large diversity order (≥4 designed under the trace criterion for n=2,3, and 4 transmit antennas are presented for various PSK signal constellations.

  3. Relating Out-of-Time-Order Correlations to Entanglement via Multiple-Quantum Coherences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärttner, Martin; Hauke, Philipp; Rey, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-time-order correlations (OTOCs) characterize the scrambling, or delocalization, of quantum information over all the degrees of freedom of a system and thus have been proposed as a proxy for chaos in quantum systems. Recent experimental progress in measuring OTOCs calls for a more thorough understanding of how these quantities characterize complex quantum systems, most importantly in terms of the buildup of entanglement. Although a connection between OTOCs and entanglement entropy has been derived, the latter only quantifies entanglement in pure systems and is hard to access experimentally. In this work, we formally demonstrate that the multiple-quantum coherence spectra, a specific family of OTOCs well known in NMR, can be used as an entanglement witness and as a direct probe of multiparticle entanglement. Our results open a path to experimentally testing the fascinating idea that entanglement is the underlying glue that links thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum gravity.

  4. Effects of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation of Cu electrodeposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effects of TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation density of Cu during electrodeposition in a solution of CuSO4 and H2SO4 at 50 degrees C compared with those of pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates. During electrodeposition, the density of Cu nuclei on the TiO2 nanotube substrate increased and the average size of Cu nuclei decreased with increasing anodizing voltage and time for the synthesis of the substrate. In addition, the nucleation density of Cu electrodeposits on the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrate was much higher than that on pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates.

  5. Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of COq+ excited states generated with high-order harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.; De, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic process of fragmentation of CO q+ excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C + -O + fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C + -O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.

  6. High order harmonic generation in noble gases using plasmonic field enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Shaaran, Tahir; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases driven by plasmonic field enhancement are presented. This kind of fields appears when plasmonic nanostructures are illuminated by an intense few-cycle laser and have a particular spatial dependency, depending on the geometrical shape of the nanostructure. It is demonstrated that the strong nonhomogeneous character of the laser enhanced field plays an important role in the HHG process and significantly extends the harmonic cutoff. The models are based on numerical solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) and supported by classical and semiclassical calculations. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Computational Performance of a Parallelized Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Element Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Christoph; Bouffanais, Roland; Clémençon, Christian; Deville, Michel O.; Fiétier, Nicolas; Gruber, Ralf; Kehtari, Sohrab; Keller, Vincent; Latt, Jonas

    In this paper, a comprehensive performance review of an MPI-based high-order three-dimensional spectral element method C++ toolbox is presented. The focus is put on the performance evaluation of several aspects with a particular emphasis on the parallel efficiency. The performance evaluation is analyzed with help of a time prediction model based on a parameterization of the application and the hardware resources. A tailor-made CFD computation benchmark case is introduced and used to carry out this review, stressing the particular interest for clusters with up to 8192 cores. Some problems in the parallel implementation have been detected and corrected. The theoretical complexities with respect to the number of elements, to the polynomial degree, and to communication needs are correctly reproduced. It is concluded that this type of code has a nearly perfect speed up on machines with thousands of cores, and is ready to make the step to next-generation petaflop machines.

  8. Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation Soft X-Ray Lasers and High-Order Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeglé, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation, also referred to as soft X-rays or XUV, offers very special optical properties. The X-UV refractive index of matter is such that normal reflection cannot take place on polished surfaces whereas beam transmission through one micrometer of almost all materials reduces to zero. Therefore, it has long been a difficult task to imagine and to implement devices designed for complex optics experiments in this wavelength range. Thanks to new sources of coherent radiation - XUV-lasers and High Order Harmonics - the use of XUV radiation, for interferometry, holography, diffractive optics, non-linear radiation-matter interaction, time-resolved study of fast and ultrafast phenomena and many other applications, including medical sciences, is ubiquitous.

  9. High-order above-threshold ionization beyond the electric dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Simon; Lein, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron momentum distributions from strong-field ionization are calculated by numerical solution of the one-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a model atom including effects beyond the electric dipole approximation. We focus on the high-energy electrons from rescattering and analyze their momentum component along the field propagation direction. We show that the boundary of the calculated momentum distribution is deformed in accordance with the classical three-step model including the beyond-dipole Lorentz force. In addition, the momentum distribution exhibits an asymmetry in the signal strengths of electrons emitted in the forward/backward directions. Taken together, the two non-dipole effects give rise to a considerable average forward momentum component of the order of 0.1 a.u. for realistic laser parameters.

  10. Immersed boundary method combined with a high order compact scheme on half-staggered meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Księżyk, M; Tyliszczak, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of computations of incompressible flows performed with a high-order compact scheme and the immersed boundary method. The solution algorithm is based on the projection method implemented using the half-staggered grid arrangement in which the velocity components are stored in the same locations while the pressure nodes are shifted half a cell size. The time discretization is performed using the predictor-corrector method in which the forcing terms used in the immersed boundary method acts in both steps. The solution algorithm is verified based on 2D flow problems (flow in a lid-driven skewed cavity, flow over a backward facing step) and turns out to be very accurate on computational meshes comparable with ones used in the classical approaches, i.e. not based on the immersed boundary method.

  11. High-order Finite Difference Solution of Euler Equations for Nonlinear Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben Robert Bilgrav; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    is discretized using arbitrary-order finite difference schemes on a staggered grid with one optional stretching in each coordinate direction. The momentum equations and kinematic free surface condition are integrated in time using the classic fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Mass conservation is satisfied...

  12. Real-Time Prediction of Gamers Behavior Using Variable Order Markov and Big Data Technology: A Case of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Baldominos Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results and conclusions found when predicting the behavior of gamers in commercial videogames datasets. In particular, it uses Variable-Order Markov (VOM to build a probabilistic model that is able to use the historic behavior of gamers and to infer what will be their next actions. Being able to predict with accuracy the next user’s actions can be of special interest to learn from the behavior of gamers, to make them more engaged and to reduce churn rate. In order to support a big volume and velocity of data, the system is built on top of the Hadoop ecosystem, using HBase for real-time processing; and the prediction tool is provided as a service (SaaS and accessible through a RESTful API. The prediction system is evaluated using a case of study with two commercial videogames, attaining promising results with high prediction accuracies.

  13. Validation of a RANS transition model using a high-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, GuoHua; Deng, XiaoGang; Mao, MeiLiang

    2013-04-01

    A modified transition model is given based on the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and an intermittency transport equation. The energy gradient term in the original model is replaced by flow strain rate to saving computational costs. The model employs local variables only, and then it can be conveniently implemented in modern computational fluid dynamics codes. The fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme and the fourth-order staggered scheme are applied to discrete the governing equations for the purpose of minimizing discretization errors, so as to mitigate the confusion between numerical errors and transition model errors. The high-order package is compared with a second-order TVD method on simulating the transitional flow of a flat plate. Numerical results indicate that the high-order package give better grid convergence property than that of the second-order method. Validation of the transition model is performed for transitional flows ranging from low speed to hypersonic speed.

  14. Replication and explorations of high-order epistasis using a large advanced intercross line pedigree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Pettersson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of the genetic architecture of complex traits persists as a major challenge in biology; despite considerable efforts, much remains unclear including the role and importance of genetic interactions. This study provides empirical evidence for a strong and persistent contribution of both second- and third-order epistatic interactions to long-term selection response for body weight in two divergently selected chicken lines. We earlier reported a network of interacting loci with large effects on body weight in an F(2 intercross between these high- and low-body weight lines. Here, most pair-wise interactions in the network are replicated in an independent eight-generation advanced intercross line (AIL. The original report showed an important contribution of capacitating epistasis to growth, meaning that the genotype at a hub in the network releases the effects of one or several peripheral loci. After fine-mapping of the loci in the AIL, we show that these interactions were persistent over time. The replication of five of six originally reported epistatic loci, as well as the capacitating epistasis, provides strong empirical evidence that the originally observed epistasis is of biological importance and is a contributor in the genetic architecture of this population. The stability of genetic interaction mechanisms over time indicates a non-transient role of epistasis on phenotypic change. Third-order epistasis was for the first time examined in this study and was shown to make an important contribution to growth, which suggests that the genetic architecture of growth is more complex than can be explained by two-locus interactions only. Our results illustrate the importance of designing studies that facilitate exploration of epistasis in populations for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the genetics underlying a complex trait.

  15. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Xue, Li-Xia; Dai, Yun; Liu, Qian; Rao, Xue-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  16. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao-Xin, Zhao; Bing, Xu; Li-Xia, Xue; Yun, Dai; Qian, Liu; Xue-Jun, Rao

    2008-01-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory

  17. Mechanical properties of ground state structures in substitutional ordered alloys: High strength, high ductility and high thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawancy, H.M., E-mail: tawancy@kfupm.edu.sa [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1639, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Aboelfotoh, M.O., E-mail: oaboelfotoh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the effect of atom arrangements in the ground state structures of substitutional ordered alloys on their mechanical properties using nickel–molybdenum-based alloys as model systems. Three alloys with nominal compositions of Ni–19.43 at% Mo, Ni–18.53 at% Mo–15.21 at% Cr and Ni–18.72 at% Mo–6.14 at% Nb are included in the study. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the closely related Pt{sub 2}Mo-type, DO{sub 22} and D1{sub a} superlattices with similar energies are identified by electron diffraction of ground state structures, which can directly be derived from the parent disordered fcc structure by minor atom rearrangements on {420}{sub fcc} planes. The three superlattices are observed to coexist during the disorder–order transformation at 700 °C with the most stable superlattice being determined by the exact chemical composition. Although most of the slip systems in the parent disordered fcc structure are suppressed, many of the twinning systems remain operative in the superlattices favoring deformation by twinning, which leads to considerable strengthening while maintaining high ductility levels. Both the Pt{sub 2}Mo-type and DO{sub 22} superlattices are distinguished by high strength and high ductility due to their nanoscale microstructures, which have high thermal stability. However, the D1{sub a} superlattice is found to exhibit poor thermal stability leading to considerable loss of ductility, which has been correlated with self-induced recrystallization by migration of grain boundaries.

  18. Alignment of time-resolved data from high throughput experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Nada; Franke, Raimo; Findeisen, Peter; Klawonn, Frank

    2016-12-01

    To better understand the dynamics of the underlying processes in cells, it is necessary to take measurements over a time course. Modern high-throughput technologies are often used for this purpose to measure the behavior of cell products like metabolites, peptides, proteins, [Formula: see text]RNA or mRNA at different points in time. Compared to classical time series, the number of time points is usually very limited and the measurements are taken at irregular time intervals. The main reasons for this are the costs of the experiments and the fact that the dynamic behavior usually shows a strong reaction and fast changes shortly after a stimulus and then slowly converges to a certain stable state. Another reason might simply be missing values. It is common to repeat the experiments and to have replicates in order to carry out a more reliable analysis. The ideal assumptions that the initial stimulus really started exactly at the same time for all replicates and that the replicates are perfectly synchronized are seldom satisfied. Therefore, there is a need to first adjust or align the time-resolved data before further analysis is carried out. Dynamic time warping (DTW) is considered as one of the common alignment techniques for time series data with equidistant time points. In this paper, we modified the DTW algorithm so that it can align sequences with measurements at different, non-equidistant time points with large gaps in between. This type of data is usually known as time-resolved data characterized by irregular time intervals between measurements as well as non-identical time points for different replicates. This new algorithm can be easily used to align time-resolved data from high-throughput experiments and to come across existing problems such as time scarcity and existing noise in the measurements. We propose a modified method of DTW to adapt requirements imposed by time-resolved data by use of monotone cubic interpolation splines. Our presented approach

  19. Highly ordered Ni–Ti–O nanotubes for non-enzymatic glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Ruiqiang, E-mail: hangruiqiang@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Yanlian [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Ang [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Tang, Bin, E-mail: tangbin@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-06-01

    Anodization is used to fabricate Ni–Ti–O nanotube (NT) electrodes for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the materials are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show amorphous and highly ordered NTs with diameter of 50 nm, length of 800 nm, and Ni/Ti ratio (at %) of 0.35 can be fabricated in ethylene glycol electrolyte supplemented with 0.2 wt.% NH{sub 4}F and 0.5 vol.% H{sub 2}O at 30 °C and 25 V for 1 h. Electrochemical experiments indicate that at an applied potential of 0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the electrode exhibits a linear response window for glucose concentrations from 0.002 mM to 0.2 mM with a response time of 10 s, detection limit of 0.13 μM (S/N = 3), and sensitivity of 83 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. The excellent performance of the electrode is attributed to its large specific area and fast electron transfer between the NT walls. The good electrochemical performance of the Ni–Ti–O NTs as well as their simple and low-cost preparation method make the strategy promising in non-enzymatic glucose detection. - Highlights: • Highly ordered Ni–Ti–O nanotubes have been fabricated by one-step anodization. • We find H{sub 2}O contents in the electrolyte is critical to successful fabrication of the NTs. • The Ni–Ti–O nanotubes are ideal electrode materials for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

  20. Exact Sampling and Decoding in High-Order Hidden Markov Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Dymetman, M.; Bouchard, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for exact optimization and sampling from high order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which are generally handled by approximation techniques. Motivated by adaptive rejection sampling and heuristic search, we propose a strategy based on sequentially refining a lower-order language

  1. High Order Sliding Mode Control of Doubly-fed Induction Generator under Unbalanced Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a doubly-fed induction generator-based (DFIG) wind turbine system under grid fault conditions such as: unbalanced grid voltage, three-phase grid fault, using a high order sliding mode control (SMC). A second order sliding mode controller, which is robust with respect...

  2. J.F. Schouten revisited : pitch of complex tones having many high-order harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smurzynski, J.; Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing many high-order, aurally unresolvable partials. Melodic-interval identilication performance ill the case of sounds with increasing harmonic order remains significantly above chalice level, even if the

  3. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  4. A high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary for scalar waves in semi-infinite layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prempramote, S; Song, Ch; Birk, C

    2010-01-01

    Wave propagation in semi-infinite layered systems is of interest in earthquake engineering, acoustics, electromagnetism, etc. The numerical modelling of this problem is particularly challenging as evanescent waves exist below the cut-off frequency. Most of the high-order transmitting boundaries are unable to model the evanescent waves. As a result, spurious reflection occurs at late time. In this paper, a high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary is developed for scalar waves propagating in semi-infinite layered systems. It is derived from the equation of dynamic stiffness matrix obtained in the scaled boundary finite-element method in the frequency domain. A continued-fraction solution of the dynamic stiffness matrix is determined recursively by satisfying the scaled boundary finite-element equation at both high- and low-frequency limits. In the time domain, the continued-fraction solution permits the force-displacement relationship to be formulated as a system of first-order ordinary differential equations. Standard time-step schemes in structural dynamics can be directly applied to evaluate the response history. Examples of a semi-infinite homogeneous layer and a semi-infinite two-layered system are investigated herein. The displacement results obtained from the open boundary converge rapidly as the order of continued fractions increases. Accurate results are obtained at early time and late time.

  5. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  6. 77 FR 37377 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-977] High Pressure Steel... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on high pressure steel cylinders from the People's Republic... determination of material injury to a U.S. industry.\\1\\ \\1\\ See High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China...

  7. 77 FR 37384 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-978] High Pressure Steel...''), the Department is issuing a countervailing duty order on high pressure steel cylinders (``steel... investigation of steel cylinders from the PRC. See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of...

  8. High-order dynamic lattice method for seismic simulation in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    The discrete particle-based dynamic lattice method (DLM) offers an approach to simulate elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media by calculating the anisotropic micromechanical interactions between these particles based on the directions of the bonds that connect them in the lattice. To build such a lattice, the media are discretized into particles. This discretization inevitably leads to numerical dispersion. The basic lattice unit used in the original DLM only includes interactions between the central particle and its nearest neighbours; therefore, it represents the first-order form of a particle lattice. The first-order lattice suffers from numerical dispersion compared with other numerical methods, such as high-order finite-difference methods, in terms of seismic wave simulation. Due to its unique way of discretizing the media, the particle-based DLM no longer solves elastic wave equations; this means that one cannot build a high-order DLM by simply creating a high-order discrete operator to better approximate a partial derivative operator. To build a high-order DLM, we carry out a thorough dispersion analysis of the method and discover that by adding more neighbouring particles into the lattice unit, the DLM will yield different spatial accuracy. According to the dispersion analysis, the high-order DLM presented here can adapt the requirement of spatial accuracy for seismic wave simulations. For any given spatial accuracy, we can design a corresponding high-order lattice unit to satisfy the accuracy requirement. Numerical tests show that the high-order DLM improves the accuracy of elastic wave simulation in anisotropic media.

  9. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  10. A practical technique for the fabrication of highly ordered macroporous structures of inorganic oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fengqiu; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Sakka, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    Well-defined macroporous ceramics consisting of SiO 2 , TiO 2 and ZrO 2 have been fabricated via a template-assisted colloidal processing technique. Close-packed polymer spheres were first prepared as a template using centrifugation or gravitational sedimentation, followed by infiltration with alkoxide precursors. The centrifugation should be preferred because it is a less time-consuming process and the materials are better ordered. The removal of the template beads was achieved by calcination of the organic-inorganic hybrids at appropriate temperatures, yielding well-ordered macroporous ceramics. The arrangement of the porous structures could be changing the preparation of the packed polymer templates. Some novel arrangements of macropores were obtained in these macroporous ceramics: a simple square-packed arrangement for SiO 2 , the coexistence of hexagonal close-packed and simple close-packed arrangements for TiO 2 , and face-centered cubic packed arrangement for ZrO 2 . The resulting highly structured ceramics could have applications in areas ranging from quantum electronics to photocatalysis and battery materials

  11. Teledosimetry: Personal and Area Dosimetry Control in order to evaluate the risk in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Montenegro, P.; Macias Jaen, J.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Sanchez Hidalgo, M.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is now an essential part of Health care and so, in addition to the scientific programme in the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga, Physics Department is involved into a process of change about the vision as a new Health Centre of XXI Century: Knowledge Hospital, by digital architecture and digitally integrated in its world. The Integrating the Health care Enterprise is the model used in order to get a big grade of relationship between medical images and information system. This change must be done in colaboration between some Departments of our centre, because it is a multidisciplinary task. It is understood that Teledosimetry can be considered as an important part of Telemedicine in the Radiological Protection field for workers and general public. In order to get this objective, the first step since 2000 it has been to prepare the internal hospital network with personal dosimetry information. From here workers in our hospital can obtain their dosimetry information data in more than 300 computers and since 2003, from home too. For access, each one of all have got an user identification and a password and so it can be guaranteed the privacy. We transform dose data reported by CND (Dosimetry National Center) in a big and visible database in PHP4 and Javascript format. This process is marked of problems about all due to the big manipulated information. Our intention is to make a better and friendly control, customisable and in real-time of the information dosimetry by a modular monitoring system of electronic dosimeters by the web. These radiation detectors would be located in representatives places. (Author)

  12. Teledosimetry: Personal and Area Dosimetry Control in order to evaluate the risk in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Montenegro, P.; Macias Jaen, J.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Sanchez Hidalgo, M.

    2004-07-01

    Telemedicine is now an essential part of Health care and so, in addition to the scientific programme in the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga, Physics Department is involved into a process of change about the vision as a new Health Centre of XXI Century: Knowledge Hospital, by digital architecture and digitally integrated in its world. The Integrating the Health care Enterprise is the model used in order to get a big grade of relationship between medical images and information system. This change must be done in colaboration between some Departments of our centre, because it is a multidisciplinary task. It is understood that Teledosimetry can be considered as an important part of Telemedicine in the Radiological Protection field for workers and general public. In order to get this objective, the first step since 2000 it has been to prepare the internal hospital network with personal dosimetry information. From here workers in our hospital can obtain their dosimetry information data in more than 300 computers and since 2003, from home too. For access, each one of all have got an user identification and a password and so it can be guaranteed the privacy. We transform dose data reported by CND (Dosimetry National Center) in a big and visible database in PHP4 and Javascript format. This process is marked of problems about all due to the big manipulated information. Our intention is to make a better and friendly control, customisable and in real-time of the information dosimetry by a modular monitoring system of electronic dosimeters by the web. These radiation detectors would be located in representatives places. (Author)

  13. Propagation of high-order circularly polarized Bessel beams and vortex generation in uniaxial crystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Belyi, VN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the generation and transformation of Bessel beams through linear and nonlinear optical crystals. They outline the generation of high-order vortices due to propagation of Bessel beams along the optical axis of uniaxial...

  14. High-Order Quadratures for the Solution of Scattering Problems in Two Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Ran; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    .... The scheme is based on the combination of high-order quadrature formulae, fast application of integral operators in Lippmann-Schwinger equations, and the stabilized biconjugate gradient method (BI-CGSTAB...

  15. High-Order Automatic Differentiation of Unmodified Linear Algebra Routines via Nilpotent Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Benjamin Z.

    This work presents a new automatic differentiation method, Nilpotent Matrix Differentiation (NMD), capable of propagating any order of mixed or univariate derivative through common linear algebra functions--most notably third-party sparse solvers and decomposition routines, in addition to basic matrix arithmetic operations and power series--without changing data-type or modifying code line by line; this allows differentiation across sequences of arbitrarily many such functions with minimal implementation effort. NMD works by enlarging the matrices and vectors passed to the routines, replacing each original scalar with a matrix block augmented by derivative data; these blocks are constructed with special sparsity structures, termed "stencils," each designed to be isomorphic to a particular multidimensional hypercomplex algebra. The algebras are in turn designed such that Taylor expansions of hypercomplex function evaluations are finite in length and thus exactly track derivatives without approximation error. Although this use of the method in the "forward mode" is unique in its own right, it is also possible to apply it to existing implementations of the (first-order) discrete adjoint method to find high-order derivatives with lowered cost complexity; for example, for a problem with N inputs and an adjoint solver whose cost is independent of N--i.e., O(1)--the N x N Hessian can be found in O(N) time, which is comparable to existing second-order adjoint methods that require far more problem-specific implementation effort. Higher derivatives are likewise less expensive--e.g., a N x N x N rank-three tensor can be found in O(N2). Alternatively, a Hessian-vector product can be found in O(1) time, which may open up many matrix-based simulations to a range of existing optimization or surrogate modeling approaches. As a final corollary in parallel to the NMD-adjoint hybrid method, the existing complex-step differentiation (CD) technique is also shown to be capable of

  16. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable

  17. High Order Thinking Skills: Analisis Soal dan Implementasinya dalam Pembelajaran Fisika di Sekolah Menengah Atas

    OpenAIRE

    Siswoyo, Siswoyo; Sunaryo, Sunaryo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the implementation of High Order Thinking Skills in high school physics teaching focused on the analysis of the questions that were developed by teachers in Jakarta. Data obtained in training physics teachers in Jakarta. Teachers followed training on how to develop the learning of physics to develop higher order thinking skills. Then the teachers were asked to develop physics problems test as an instrument measuring tool of learning physics at school. Pro...

  18. High order spectral volume and spectral difference methods on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ravishekar

    The spectral volume (SV) and the spectral difference (SD) methods were developed by Wang and Liu and their collaborators for conservation laws on unstructured grids. They were introduced to achieve high-order accuracy in an efficient manner. Recently, these methods were extended to three-dimensional systems and to the Navier Stokes equations. The simplicity and robustness of these methods have made them competitive against other higher order methods such as the discontinuous Galerkin and residual distribution methods. Although explicit TVD Runge-Kutta schemes for the temporal advancement are easy to implement, they suffer from small time step limited by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. When the polynomial order is high or when the grid is stretched due to complex geometries or boundary layers, the convergence rate of explicit schemes slows down rapidly. Solution strategies to remedy this problem include implicit methods and multigrid methods. A novel implicit lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) relaxation method is employed as an iterative smoother. It is compared to the explicit TVD Runge-Kutta smoothers. For some p-multigrid calculations, combining implicit and explicit smoothers for different p-levels is also studied. The multigrid method considered is nonlinear and uses Full Approximation Scheme (FAS). An overall speed-up factor of up to 150 is obtained using a three-level p-multigrid LU-SGS approach in comparison with the single level explicit method for the Euler equations for the 3rd order SD method. A study of viscous flux formulations was carried out for the SV method. Three formulations were used to discretize the viscous fluxes: local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG), a penalty method and the 2nd method of Bassi and Rebay. Fourier analysis revealed some interesting advantages for the penalty method. These were implemented in the Navier Stokes solver. An implicit and p-multigrid method was also implemented for the above. An overall speed

  19. Propagation effects in the generation process of high-order vortex harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaojin; Wu, Erheng; Gu, Mingliang; Liu, Chengpu

    2017-09-04

    We numerically study the propagation of a Laguerre-Gaussian beam through polar molecular media via the exact solution of full-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations where the rotating-wave and slowly-varying-envelope approximations are not included. It is found that beyond the coexistence of odd-order and even-order vortex harmonics due to inversion asymmetry of the system, the light propagation effect results in the intensity enhancement of a high-order vortex harmonics. Moreover, the orbital momentum successfully transfers from the fundamental laser driver to the vortex harmonics which topological charger number is directly proportional to its order.

  20. On The Settling And Response Times Of Underdamped Second-Order Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Fattah Mohamed Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The normalized settling time (ts/t values of oscillatory second order systems, when subjected to a step-change forcing function (SCFF, depend on the sensitivity of the measuring instrument employed to indicate the response (± x%. An attempt is made to mathematically relate ts/t to ± x% utilizing the exact, and a simplified, expression for the lower boundary of the decay envelope (LBDE. The two obtained relationships were tested against the actual ts/t values for a settling bands range of ±1% = ±x% = ±6%, covering a damping coefficient range of 0.1 = ? = 0.65. Although the relationships are not exact, their general trend is a marginal overestimation of ts/t. The relationship based on the simplified LBDE was chosen for being simpler and slightly more accurate of the two. This led to a suggested distinction between ts/t and the normalized response time (tR/t, with the latter assigned the value 5/ ? . The ratio ts/tR can thus be readily established for any ± x% value.ABSTRAK: Masa enapan ternormal (ts/t  nilai ayunan system terbit kedua, apabila fungsi memaksa ubah berperingkat (step-change forcing function (SCFF dijalankan ke atasnya, bergantung kepada kepekaan alat pengukur yang digunakan untuk mengukur respons (± x%. Satu percubaan dijalankan secara matematik untuk mengaitkan ts/t to ± x% dengan mempergunakan ekspresi yang tepat dan mudah, pada sempadan bawah sampul reputan (lower boundary of the decay envelope (LBDE. Dua hubungan yang diperolehi dikaji terhadap nilai ts/t sebenar untuk julat jalur enapan ±1% = ±x% = ±6%, melingkungi julat pekali redaman 0.1 = ? = 0.65. Walaupun hubungannya tidak tepat, trend umum merupakan penganggaran marginal ts/t. Hubungan berdasarkan LBDE adalah berdasarkan  LBDE yang telah dipermudahkan, ia dipilih kerana ianya senang dan agak tepat antara keduanya. Ini mendorong kepada perbezaan yang disarankan antara ts/t  dan waktu respons ternormal (tR/t, dengan nilai 5/ ? yang ditetapkan kemudiannya

  1. Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara Corsi; Angela Pirri; Emiliano Sali

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. For low gas densities and negligible ionization, the so-called atomic dipole phase, connected with the electronic dynamics involved in the generation process, is the main source of phase modulation and incoherence of high-order harmonics. To accurately determine these laser-intensity-induced phase shifts is therefore of great importance, both for the possible spectroscopic applications of harmonics and for the controlled generation of attosecond pulses. In a semiclassical description, only two electronic trajectories contribute to generate plateau harmonics during each pump optical half-cycle. Electrons appearing in the continuum by tunnel ionization may follow two different quantum paths, namely a long (l) and a short (s) trajectory before recombination. According to the SFA approximation, the harmonic of q th order acquires a phase proportional to the electronic classical action, and simply given by: ψ 0 j (r,t) -α q j I(r,t) with j = l, s where α q j are non-linear phase coefficients, roughly proportional to the time that the originating electron spends in the continuum before recombination. The space and time variation of the laser intensity (I(r,t), causes just a little phase modulation for the s-trajectory harmonic component, while the l-trajectory component becomes strongly chirped and spatially defocused; this gives rise to two spatially-separated regions having different temporal coherence. Here we report the first direct measurement of such atomic dipole phase in the process of high-order harmonic generation. Differently from previous measurements based in the most natural way, i.e., by interferometry. Two phase-locked pump pulses generate two phase-locked harmonic pulses in two nearby positions in a gas jet; one of them is used as a fixed phase reference while the generating intensity of the other is varied. The shift of the XUV interference fringes observed in the far field then gives a direct estimate of the

  2. Guiding of low-energy electrons by highly ordered Al2 O3 nanocapillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milosavljević, A.R.; Víkor, G.; Pešić, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental study of guided transmission of low-energy (200-350 eV) electrons through highly ordered Al2 O3 nanocapillaries with large aspect ratio (140 nm diameter and 15 μm length). The nanochannel array was prepared using self-ordering phenomena during a two-step anodization...... process of a high-purity aluminum foil. The experimental results clearly show the existence of the guiding effect, as found for highly charged ions. The guiding of the electron beam was observed for tilt angles up to 12°. As seen for highly charged ions, the guiding efficiency increases with decreasing...

  3. High order scheme for the non-local transport in ICF plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feugeas, J.L.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (UMR 5107), 33 - Talence (France); Charrier, P.; Ahusborde, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)

    2006-06-15

    A high order practical scheme for a model of non-local transport is here proposed to be used in multidimensional radiation hydrodynamic codes. A high order scheme is necessary to solve non-local problems on strongly deformed meshes that are on hot point or ablation front zones. It is shown that the errors made by a classical 5 point scheme on a disturbed grid can be of the same order of magnitude as the non-local effects. The use of a 9 point scheme in a simulation of inertial confinement fusion appears to be essential.

  4. Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process

  5. The low-order wavefront control system for the PICTURE-C mission: high-speed image acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewawasam, Kuravi; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Howe, Glenn A.; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph (PICTURE-C) mission will directly image debris disks and exozodiacal dust around nearby stars from a high-altitude balloon using a vector vortex coronagraph. The PICTURE-C low-order wavefront control (LOWC) system will be used to correct time-varying low-order aberrations due to pointing jitter, gravity sag, thermal deformation, and the gondola pendulum motion. We present the hardware and software implementation of the low-order ShackHartmann and reflective Lyot stop sensors. Development of the high-speed image acquisition and processing system is discussed with the emphasis on the reduction of hardware and computational latencies through the use of a real-time operating system and optimized data handling. By characterizing all of the LOWC latencies, we describe techniques to achieve a framerate of 200 Hz with a mean latency of ˜378 μs

  6. Variable High Order Multiblock Overlapping Grid Methods for Mixed Steady and Unsteady Multiscale Viscous Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows,a multi- block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.

  7. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  8. Comparing temporal order judgments and choice reaction time tasks as indices of exogenous spatial cuing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Gail A; Klein, Raymond M; Dove, Mary Beth; Coolican, Jamesie; Shore, David I

    2007-11-30

    Attentional disorders are common in individuals with neurological or psychiatric conditions and impact on recovery and outcome. Thus, it is critical to develop theory-based measures of attentional function to understand potential mechanisms underlying the disorder and to evaluate the effect of intervention. The present study compared two alternative methods to measure the effects of attentional cuing that could be used in populations of individuals who may not be able to make manual responses normally or may show overall slowing in responses. Spatial attention was measured with speeded and unspeeded methods using either manual or voice responses in two standard attention paradigms: the cued target discrimination reaction time (RT) paradigm and the unspeeded temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. The comparison of speeded and unspeeded tasks specifically addresses the concern about interpreting RT differences between cued and uncued trials (taken as a proxy for attention) in the context of drastically different baseline RTs. We found significant cuing effects for both tasks (speeded RT and untimed TOJ) and both response types (vocal and manual) giving clinicians and researchers alternative methods with which to measure the effects of attention in different populations who may not be able to perform the standard speeded RT task.

  9. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-01

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE h after 10 6 Monte Carlo steps

  10. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Center for Superfunctional Materials, Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE{sub h} after 10{sup 6} Monte Carlo steps.

  11. Compact high order schemes with gradient-direction derivatives for absorbing boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan; Gordon, Rachel; Turkel, Eli

    2015-09-01

    We consider several compact high order absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) for the Helmholtz equation in three dimensions. A technique called "the gradient method" (GM) for ABCs is also introduced and combined with the high order ABCs. GM is based on the principle of using directional derivatives in the direction of the wavefront propagation. The new ABCs are used together with the recently introduced compact sixth order finite difference scheme for variable wave numbers. Experiments on problems with known analytic solutions produced very accurate results, demonstrating the efficacy of the high order schemes, particularly when combined with GM. The new ABCs are then applied to the SEG/EAGE Salt model, showing the advantages of the new schemes.

  12. Decomposition of conditional probability for high-order symbolic Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, S. S.; Usatenko, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the conditional probability function of random stationary ergodic symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. We elaborate on a decomposition procedure for the conditional probability function of sequences considered to be high-order Markov chains. We represent the conditional probability function as the sum of multilinear memory function monomials of different orders (from zero up to the chain order). This allows us to introduce a family of Markov chain models and to construct artificial sequences via a method of successive iterations, taking into account at each step increasingly high correlations among random elements. At weak correlations, the memory functions are uniquely expressed in terms of the high-order symbolic correlation functions. The proposed method fills the gap between two approaches, namely the likelihood estimation and the additive Markov chains. The obtained results may have applications for sequential approximation of artificial neural network training.

  13. Tumor Classification Using High-Order Gene Expression Profiles Based on Multilinear ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-gang Du

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Independent Components Analysis (ICA maximizes the statistical independence of the representational components of a training gene expression profiles (GEP ensemble, but it cannot distinguish relations between the different factors, or different modes, and it is not available to high-order GEP Data Mining. In order to generalize ICA, we introduce Multilinear-ICA and apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Firstly, we introduce the basis conceptions and operations of tensor and recommend Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier and Multilinear-ICA. Secondly, the higher score genes of original high order GEP are selected by using t-statistics and tabulate tensors. Thirdly, the tensors are performed by Multilinear-ICA. Finally, the SVM is used to classify the tumor subtypes. Results. To show the validity of the proposed method, we apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Though we only use three datasets, the experimental results show that the method is effective and feasible. Through this survey, we hope to gain some insight into the problem of high order GEP tumor classification, in aid of further developing more effective tumor classification algorithms.

  14. Orientation dependence of temporal and spectral properties of high-order harmonics in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxi; You, Yongsing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Reis, David A.; Browne, Dana A.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the connection between crystal symmetry and temporal and spectral properties of high-order harmonics in solids. We calculate the orientation-dependent harmonic spectrum driven by an intense, linearly polarized infrared laser field, using a momentum-space description of the generation process in terms of strong-field-driven electron dynamics on the band structure. We show that the orientation dependence of both the spectral yield and the subcycle time profile of the harmonic radiation can be understood in terms of the coupling strengths and relative curvatures of the valence band and the low-lying conduction bands. In particular, we show that in some systems this gives rise to a rapid shift of a quarter optical cycle in the timing of harmonics in the secondary plateau as the crystal is rotated relative to the laser polarization. We address recent experimental results in MgO [Y. S. You et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 345 (2017)., 10.1038/nphys3955] and show that the observed change in orientation dependence for the highest harmonics can be interpreted in the momentum space picture in terms of the contributions of several different conduction bands.

  15. HIGHLY PRECISE APPROXIMATION OF FREE SURFACE GREEN FUNCTION AND ITS HIGH ORDER DERIVATIVES BASED ON REFINED SUBDOMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiameng Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The infinite depth free surface Green function (GF and its high order derivatives for diffraction and radiation of water waves are considered. Especially second order derivatives are essential requirements in high-order panel method. In this paper, concerning the classical representation, composed of a semi-infinite integral involving a Bessel function and a Cauchy singularity, not only the GF and its first order derivatives but also second order derivatives are derived from four kinds of analytical series expansion and refined division of whole calculation domain. The approximations of special functions, particularly the hypergeometric function and the algorithmic applicability with different subdomains are implemented. As a result, the computation accuracy can reach 10-9 in whole domain compared with conventional methods based on direct numerical integration. Furthermore, numerical efficiency is almost equivalent to that with the classical method.

  16. On the POD based reduced order modeling of high Reynolds flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Fariduddin; Helenbrook, Brian; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2012-11-01

    Reduced-order modeling (ROM) of a high Reynolds fluid flow using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was studied. Particular attention was given to incompressible, unsteady flow over a two-dimensional NACA0015 airfoil. The Reynolds number is 105 and the angle of attacked of the airfoil is 12°. For DNS solution, hp-finite element method is employed to drive flow samples from which the POD modes are extracted. Particular attention is paid on two issues. First, the stability of POD-ROM resimulation of the turbulent flow is studied. High Reynolds flow contains a lot of fluctuating modes. So, to reach a certain amount of error, more POD modes are needed and the effect of truncation of POD modes is more important. Second, the role of convergence rate on the results of POD. Due to complexity of the flow, convergence of the governing equations is more difficult and the influences of weak convergence appear in the results of POD-ROM. For each issue, the capability of the POD-ROM is assessed in terms of predictions quality of times upon which the POD model was derived. The results are compared with DNS solution and the accuracy and efficiency of different cases are evaluated.

  17. Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingrube, Daniel S.; Vockerodt, Tobias; Schulz, Emilia; Morgner, Uwe; Kovacev, Milutin

    2009-01-01

    Phase matching of high-order harmonic generation is investigated experimentally for various parameters in a semi-infinite gas-cell (SIGC) geometry. The optimized harmonic yield is identified using two different noble gases (Xe and He) and its parameter dependence is studied in a systematic way. Beside the straightforward setup of the SIGC, this geometry promises a high photon flux due to a large interaction region. Moreover, since the experimental parameters within this cell are known accurately, direct comparison to simulations is performed. Spectral splitting and blueshift of high-order harmonics are observed.

  18. Efficiency of High-Order Accurate Difference Schemes for the Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuta Poochinapan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two numerical models to obtain the solution of the KdV equation are proposed. Numerical tools, compact fourth-order and standard fourth-order finite difference techniques, are applied to the KdV equation. The fundamental conservative properties of the equation are preserved by the finite difference methods. Linear stability analysis of two methods is presented by the Von Neumann analysis. The new methods give second- and fourth-order accuracy in time and space, respectively. The numerical experiments show that the proposed methods improve the accuracy of the solution significantly.

  19. Lot-Order Assignment Applying Priority Rules for the Single-Machine Total Tardiness Scheduling with Nonnegative Time-Dependent Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lot-order assignment is to assign items in lots being processed to orders to fulfill the orders. It is usually performed periodically for meeting the due dates of orders especially in a manufacturing industry with a long production cycle time such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this paper, we consider the lot-order assignment problem (LOAP with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness of the orders with distinct due dates. We show that we can solve the LOAP optimally by finding an optimal sequence for the single-machine total tardiness scheduling problem with nonnegative time-dependent processing times (SMTTSP-NNTDPT. Also, we address how the priority rules for the SMTTSP can be modified to those for the SMTTSP-NNTDPT to solve the LOAP. In computational experiments, we discuss the performances of the suggested priority rules and show the result of the proposed approach outperforms that of the commercial optimization software package.

  20. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  1. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sauppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  2. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  3. High-order boundary integral equation solution of high frequency wave scattering from obstacles in an unbounded linearly stratified medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.

  4. Birth Order and Child Cognitive Outcomes: An Exploration of the Parental Time Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace

    2016-01-01

    Higher birth order positions are associated with poorer outcomes due to smaller shares of resources received within the household. Using a sample of Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement children, we investigate if the negative birth order effect we find in cognitive outcomes is due to unequal allocation of mother and father…

  5. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  6. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  7. High order aberrations calculation of a hexapole corrector using a differential algebra method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yongfeng, E-mail: yfkang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Xing [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhao, Jingyi, E-mail: jingyi.zhao@foxmail.com [School of Science, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064 (China); Tang, Tiantong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2017-02-21

    A differential algebraic (DA) method is proved as an unusual and effective tool in numerical analysis. It implements conveniently differentiation up to arbitrary high order, based on the nonstandard analysis. In this paper, the differential algebra (DA) method has been employed to compute the high order aberrations up to the fifth order of a practical hexapole corrector including round lenses and hexapole lenses. The program has been developed and tested as well. The electro-magnetic fields of arbitrary point are obtained by local analytic expressions, then field potentials are transformed into new forms which can be operated in the DA calculation. In this paper, the geometric and chromatic aberrations up to fifth order of a practical hexapole corrector system are calculated by the developed program.

  8. A compatible high-order meshless method for the Stokes equations with applications to suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Nathaniel; Maxey, Martin; Hu, Xiaozhe

    2018-02-01

    A stable numerical solution of the steady Stokes problem requires compatibility between the choice of velocity and pressure approximation that has traditionally proven problematic for meshless methods. In this work, we present a discretization that couples a staggered scheme for pressure approximation with a divergence-free velocity reconstruction to obtain an adaptive, high-order, finite difference-like discretization that can be efficiently solved with conventional algebraic multigrid techniques. We use analytic benchmarks to demonstrate equal-order convergence for both velocity and pressure when solving problems with curvilinear geometries. In order to study problems in dense suspensions, we couple the solution for the flow to the equations of motion for freely suspended particles in an implicit monolithic scheme. The combination of high-order accuracy with fully-implicit schemes allows the accurate resolution of stiff lubrication forces directly from the solution of the Stokes problem without the need to introduce sub-grid lubrication models.

  9. Dependence of high order harmonics intensity on laser focal spot position in preformed plasma plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, H.; Ganeev, R.; Naik, P. A.; Arora, V.; Chakravarty, U.; Gupta, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the high-order harmonic intensity on the laser focal spot position in laser produced plasma plumes is experimentally studied. High order harmonics up to the 59th order (λ∼13.5 nm) were generated by focusing 48 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system in silver plasma plume produced using 300 ps uncompressed laser radiation as the prepulse. The intensity of harmonics nearly vanished when the best focus was located in the plume center, whereas it peaked on either side with unequal intensity. The focal spot position corresponding to the peak harmonic intensity moved away from the plume center for higher order harmonics. The results are explained in terms of the variation of phase mismatch between the driving laser beam and harmonics radiation produced, relativistic drift of electrons, and defocusing effect due to radial ionization gradient in the plasma for different focal spot positions

  10. High-order diffraction gratings for high-power semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil’eva, V. V.; Vinokurov, D. A.; Zolotarev, V. V.; Leshko, A. Yu.; Petrunov, A. N.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Rastegaeva, M. G.; Sokolova, Z. N.; Shashkin, I. S.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2012-01-01

    A deep diffraction grating with a large period (∼2 μm) within one of the cladding layers is proposed for the implementation of selective feedback in a semiconductor laser. Frequency dependences of reflectance in the 12th diffraction order for rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal diffraction gratings are calculated. It is shown that the maximum reflectance of the waveguide mode is attained using a rectangular or trapezoidal grating ∼2 μm deep in the laser structure. Deep trapezoidal diffraction gratings with large periods are fabricated in the Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As cladding layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure using photolithography and reactive ion etching.

  11. Machine remaining useful life prediction: An integrated adaptive neuro-fuzzy and high-order particle filtering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaochao; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2012-04-01

    Machine prognosis can be considered as the generation of long-term predictions that describe the evolution in time of a fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem so that timely maintenance can be performed to avoid catastrophic failures. This paper proposes an integrated RUL prediction method using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) and high-order particle filtering, which forecasts the time evolution of the fault indicator and estimates the probability density function (pdf) of RUL. The ANFIS is trained and integrated in a high-order particle filter as a model describing the fault progression. The high-order particle filter is used to estimate the current state and carry out p-step-ahead predictions via a set of particles. These predictions are used to estimate the RUL pdf. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated via the real-world data from a seeded fault test for a UH-60 helicopter planetary gear plate. The results demonstrate that it outperforms both the conventional ANFIS predictor and the particle-filter-based predictor where the fault growth model is a first-order model that is trained via the ANFIS.

  12. Further results on global state feedback stabilization of nonlinear high-order feedforward systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Hui

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, by introducing a combined method of sign function, homogeneous domination and adding a power integrator, and overcoming several troublesome obstacles in the design and analysis, the problem of state feedback control for a class of nonlinear high-order feedforward systems with the nonlinearity's order being relaxed to an interval rather than a fixed point is solved. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly ordered FEPT and FePd magnetic nano-structures: Correlated structural and magnetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszew, Rosa Alejandra; Cebollada, Alfonso; Clavero, Cesar; Garcia-Martin, Jose Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The micro-structure of epitaxial FePt and FePd films grown on MgO (0 0 1) substrates is correlated to their magnetic behavior. The FePd films exhibit high chemical ordering and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand FePt films exhibit low chemical ordering, with nano-grains oriented in two orthogonal directions, forcing the magnetization to remain in the plane of the films

  14. A high-order q-difference equation for q-Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvesú, J.; Esposito, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    A high-order linear q-difference equation with polynomial coefficients having q-Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials as eigenfunctions is given. The order of the equation coincides with the number of orthogonality conditions that these polynomials satisfy. Some limiting situations when are studie....... Indeed, the difference equation for Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials given in Lee [J. Approx. Theory (2007), ), doi: 10.1016/j.jat.2007.06.002] is obtained as a limiting case....

  15. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  16. High order P-G finite elements for convection-dominated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, E.D. do; Galeao, A.C.

    1989-06-01

    From the error analysis presented in this paper it is shown that de CCAU method derived by Dutra do Carmo and Galeao [3] preserves the same order of approximation obtained with SUPH (cf. Books and Hughes [2]) when advection-diffusion regular solutions are considered, and improves the accuracy of the approximate boundary layer solution when high order interpolating polynomials are used near sharp layers [pt

  17. High temperature color conductivity at next-to-leading log order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Peter; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2000-01-01

    The non-Abelian analogue of electrical conductivity at high temperature has previously been known only at leading logarithmic order -- that is, neglecting effects suppressed only by an inverse logarithm of the gauge coupling. We calculate the first sub-leading correction. This has immediate application to improving, to next-to-leading log order, both effective theories of non-perturbative color dynamics, and calculations of the hot electroweak baryon number violation rate

  18. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  19. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct high-order hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for general advection-diffusion problems on arbitrary triangular grids. We demonstrate that the second-order accuracy of the hyperbolic schemes can be greatly improved by requiring the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. We also show that the improved second-order scheme can be easily extended to third-order by further requiring the exactness for cubic solutions. We construct these schemes based on the LDA and the SUPG methodology formulated in the framework of the residual-distribution method. For both second- and third-order-schemes, we construct a fully implicit solver by the exact residual Jacobian of the second-order scheme, and demonstrate rapid convergence of 10-15 iterations to reduce the residuals by 10 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate also that these schemes can be constructed based on a separate treatment of the advective and diffusive terms, which paves the way for the construction of hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results show that these schemes produce exceptionally accurate and smooth solution gradients on highly skewed and anisotropic triangular grids, including curved boundary problems, using linear elements. We also present Fourier analysis performed on the constructed linear system and show that an under-relaxation parameter is needed for stabilization of Gauss-Seidel relaxation.

  20. Effective high-order solver with thermally perfect gas model for hypersonic heating prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian; Qu, Feng; Ma, Libin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. • Line-implicit LUSGS enhances efficiency without extra memory consumption. • Develop unified framework for both second-order MUSCL and fifth-order WENO. • The designed gas model can be applied to much wider temperature range. - Abstract: Effective high-order solver based on the model of thermally perfect gas has been developed for hypersonic heat transfer computation. The technique of polynomial curve fit coupling to thermodynamics equation is suggested to establish the current model and particular attention has been paid to the design of proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. We present procedures that unify five-order WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) scheme in the existing second-order finite volume framework and a line-implicit method that improves the computational efficiency without increasing memory consumption. A variety of hypersonic viscous flows are performed to examine the capability of the resulted high order thermally perfect gas solver. Numerical results demonstrate its superior performance compared to low-order calorically perfect gas method and indicate its potential application to hypersonic heating predictions for real-life problem.