WorldWideScience

Sample records for high optical absorption

  1. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    Vezie, Michelle S.

    2016-05-16

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  2. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    Vezie, Michelle S.; Few, Sheridan; Meager, Iain; Pieridou, Galatia; Dö rling, Bernhard; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Goñ i, Alejandro R.; Bronstein, Hugo; McCulloch, Iain; Hayes, Sophia C.; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Nelson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  3. Optical absorption measurement system

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  4. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  5. Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Kolle, Mathias; Genevet, Patrice; Aizenberg, Joanna; Capasso, Federico

    2013-09-01

    Recently a new class of optical interference coatings was introduced which comprises ultra-thin, highly absorbing dielectric layers on metal substrates. We show that these lossy coatings can be augmented by an additional transparent subwavelength layer. We fabricated a sample comprising a gold substrate, an ultra-thin film of germanium with a thickness gradient, and several alumina films. The experimental reflectivity spectra showed that the additional alumina layer increases the color range that can be obtained, in agreement with calculations. More generally, this transparent layer can be used to enhance optical absorption, protect against erosion, or as a transparent electrode for optoelectronic devices.

  6. Simultaneous high crystallinity and sub-bandgap optical absorptance in hyperdoped black silicon using nanosecond laser annealing

    Franta, Benjamin, E-mail: bafranta@gmail.com; Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Aziz, Michael J.; Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Rekemeyer, Paul H.; Gradečak, Silvija [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Hyperdoped black silicon fabricated with femtosecond laser irradiation has attracted interest for applications in infrared photodetectors and intermediate band photovoltaics due to its sub-bandgap optical absorptance and light-trapping surface. However, hyperdoped black silicon typically has an amorphous and polyphasic polycrystalline surface that can interfere with carrier transport, electrical rectification, and intermediate band formation. Past studies have used thermal annealing to obtain high crystallinity in hyperdoped black silicon, but thermal annealing causes a deactivation of the sub-bandgap optical absorptance. In this study, nanosecond laser annealing is used to obtain high crystallinity and remove pressure-induced phases in hyperdoped black silicon while maintaining high sub-bandgap optical absorptance and a light-trapping surface morphology. Furthermore, it is shown that nanosecond laser annealing reactivates the sub-bandgap optical absorptance of hyperdoped black silicon after deactivation by thermal annealing. Thermal annealing and nanosecond laser annealing can be combined in sequence to fabricate hyperdoped black silicon that simultaneously shows high crystallinity, high above-bandgap and sub-bandgap absorptance, and a rectifying electrical homojunction. Such nanosecond laser annealing could potentially be applied to non-equilibrium material systems beyond hyperdoped black silicon.

  7. Linear optical absorption response of poly(vinylidene fluoride - trifluoroethylene) copolymers to high gamma dose

    Medeiros, Adriana S.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] is a semicrystalline linear homopolymer composed by the repetition of CH 2 - CF 2 monomers. The Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] is a copolymer which is obtained with the random introduction of fluorinated CHF-CF 2 monomers in the PVDF main chain. PVDF, and also its copolymers with TrFE contents ranging from 18 to 63 wt. %, have long been studied for their striking ferroelectric properties and their applications in actuators, transducers and ferroelectric memory. Recent research work around the world have demonstrated that, for TrFE contents ranging from with 30 to 50 wt. %, the copolymer can have its ferroelectric properties modified by high doses of ionizing radiation, with the appearing of radio-induced relaxor ferroelectric features. These studies have lead us to investigate the possible use of these copolymers as high dose dosemeters, once the reported amount of induced C=C conjugated bonds after X-ray, UV and gamma irradiation seems to be a function of the delivered radiation dose. In a first investigation for doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 kGy we found out a linear relation between the gamma radiation dose and the absorption peak intensities in the UV region of the spectrum, i.e., at 223 and 274 nm. The absorption peak at 223 nm is the most sensitive to gamma rays and can be used for detecting gamma doses ranging from 0.3 to 75 kGy. Simultaneously, the absorption peak at 274 nm can be used for doses ranging from 1 to 100 kGy. Now, in the present work, we extended the investigation to gamma doses up to 3 MGy. Particularly, this study is focused in the optical absorption peak at 274 nm, corresponding to the radio-induction of triplets of conjugated C=C double bonds. The investigation revealed a linear correlation between the gamma dose and peak intensity at 274 nm for gamma doses ranging from 0.1 to more than 750 KGy, with a huge extension of the original usable dose range. Calorimetric data revealed a

  8. Optical absorption in dendrimers

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner

  9. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  10. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  11. Optical absorption of BaF2 crystals with different prehistory when irradiated by high-energy electrons

    Chinkov, E P; Stepanov, S A; Shtan'ko, V F; Ivanova, T S

    2016-01-01

    The spectra of stable optical absorption of BaF 2 crystals containing uncontrollable impurities after irradiation with 3 MeV electrons are studied at room temperature. The dependence of the efficiency of stable color accumulation in the region of emerging crossluminescence on the absorption coefficients measured near the fundamental absorption edge in unirradiated crystals of various prehistory is traced. (paper)

  12. An Inexpensive High Pressure Optical Absorption Cell for IR-VIS-UV Studies.

    Rodgers, V. E.; Angell, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an optical cell, suitable for high-pressure studies between at least -130 and +150 degrees Celsius, which may be assembled for about $50. Discusses experimental demonstration of principles involved when using the apparatus, including effects of pressure on coordination of ions in solution and on reaction rates in solution. (JN)

  13. Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2

    Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng

    2012-07-01

    A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.

  14. Highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules in low-pressure inductively-coupled plasmas detected by high sensitivity ultra-broad-band optical absorption spectroscopy

    Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Carbone, Emile; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5-80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200-450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to vʺ = 18) by Schumann-Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities indicates a vibrational temperature up to 10,000 K, but these hot molecules only represent a fraction of the total O2 density. By analysing the (11-0) band at higher spectral resolution the O2 rotational temperature was also determined, and was found to increase with both pressure and power, reaching 900 K at 80 mTorr 500 W. These measurements were achieved using a new high-sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy setup, based on a laser-plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration-corrected spectrograph. This setup allows the measurement of weak broadband absorbances due to a baseline variability lower than 2   ×   10-5 across a spectral range of 250 nm.

  15. Remote measurement of high preeruptive water vapor emissions at Sabancaya volcano by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Kern, Christoph; Masias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Reath, Kevin; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Water (H2O) is by far the most abundant volcanic volatile species and plays a predominant role in driving volcanic eruptions. However, numerous difficulties associated with making accurate measurements of water vapor in volcanic plumes have limited their use as a diagnostic tool. Here we present the first detection of water vapor in a volcanic plume using passive visible-light differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Ultraviolet and visible-light DOAS measurements were made on 21 May 2016 at Sabancaya Volcano, Peru. We find that Sabancaya's plume contained an exceptionally high relative water vapor abundance 6 months prior to its November 2016 eruption. Our measurements yielded average sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 800–900 t/d, H2O emission rates of around 250,000 t/d, and an H2O/SO2 molecular ratio of 1000 which is about an order of magnitude larger than typically found in high-temperature volcanic gases. We attribute the high water vapor emissions to a boiling-off of Sabancaya's hydrothermal system caused by intrusion of magma to shallow depths. This hypothesis is supported by a significant increase in the thermal output of the volcanic edifice detected in infrared satellite imagery leading up to and after our measurements. Though the measurement conditions encountered at Sabancaya were very favorable for our experiment, we show that visible-light DOAS systems could be used to measure water vapor emissions at numerous other high-elevation volcanoes. Such measurements would provide observatories with additional information particularly useful for forecasting eruptions at volcanoes harboring significant hydrothermal systems.

  16. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry; Filho, Luiz Tomaz; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe 3+ . -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca 2 MgAl 2 (SiO 4 )(Si 2 O 7 )(OH) 2 ·(H 2 O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe 2+ → e − + Fe 3+ . On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn 2+ , and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe 3+ around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe 3+ hides all Mn 2+ lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe 3+ dipole–dipole interactions

  17. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry, E-mail: henrysjc@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Arequipa, Urb. D. A. Carrión G-14, J. L. Bustamante y Rivero, Arequipa (Peru); Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Filho, Luiz Tomaz [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências Exatas, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, Rua Taquari 546, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+}. •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca{sub 2}MgAl{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe{sup 2+} → e{sup −} + Fe{sup 3+}. On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn{sup 2+}, and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe{sup 3+} around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe{sup 3+} hides all Mn{sup 2+} lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe{sup 3+} dipole–dipole interactions.

  18. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  19. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  20. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  1. Optical absorption in compact and extended dendrimers

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2005-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems, in nano-technological or in medical applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear optical absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. We discuss compact dendrimers with equal excitation energies at all molecules, dendrimers with a functionalized core as well as with a whole branch functionalized. Furthermore the line shape of a compact dendrimer is discussed when neighboring molecules at the periphery interact and when all molecules have randomly distributed excitation energies due to disorder. Finally, we discuss two models for extended dendrimers

  2. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  3. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  4. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...... of perovskites the solar light absorption efficiency varies greatly depending not only on bandgap size and character (direct/indirect) but also on the dipole matrix elements. The oxides exhibit generally a fairly weak absorption efficiency due to indirect bandgaps while the most efficient absorbers are found...... in the classes of oxynitride and organometal halide perovskites with strong direct transitions....

  5. Defects and the optical absorption in nanocrystalline ZnO

    Dutta, Sreetama; Chattopadhyay, Sanjay; Sutradhar, Manas; Sarkar, Anindya; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, Dirtha; Jana, Debnarayan

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the structural and optical properties of mechanically milled high purity ZnO powder is reported in the present work. Reduction of average grain size and enhancement of strain as a result of milling have been estimated from the broadening of x-ray powder diffraction patterns. After milling, the optical bandgap, revealed from absorption spectroscopy, has been red-shifted and the width of the localized states, calculated from the analysis of the Urbach tail below the absorption edge, has been extended more and more into the bandgap. Moreover, the band tailing parameter is seen to vary exponentially with the inverse of the grain size. Finally, the positron annihilation technique has been employed to identify the nature of defects present (or generated due to milling) in the system and thereby to correlate the defect mediated modification of optical absorption in ZnO

  6. Defects and the optical absorption in nanocrystalline ZnO

    Dutta, Sreetama [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sanjay [Department of Physics, Taki Government College, Taki 743429 (India); Sutradhar, Manas [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Sarkar, Anindya [Department of Physics, Bangabasi Morning College, 19 Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Mahuya [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sanyal, Dirtha [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Jana, Debnarayan [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2007-06-13

    The correlation between the structural and optical properties of mechanically milled high purity ZnO powder is reported in the present work. Reduction of average grain size and enhancement of strain as a result of milling have been estimated from the broadening of x-ray powder diffraction patterns. After milling, the optical bandgap, revealed from absorption spectroscopy, has been red-shifted and the width of the localized states, calculated from the analysis of the Urbach tail below the absorption edge, has been extended more and more into the bandgap. Moreover, the band tailing parameter is seen to vary exponentially with the inverse of the grain size. Finally, the positron annihilation technique has been employed to identify the nature of defects present (or generated due to milling) in the system and thereby to correlate the defect mediated modification of optical absorption in ZnO.

  7. Novel Fiber Optic Sensor Probe with a Pair of Highly Reflected Connectors and a Vessel of Water Absorption Material for Water Leak Detection

    Tae-Sik Cho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases.

  8. Novel fiber optic sensor probe with a pair of highly reflected connectors and a vessel of water absorption material for water leak detection.

    Cho, Tae-Sik; Choi, Ki-Sun; Seo, Dae-Cheol; Kwon, Il-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-01-01

    The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS) located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases.

  9. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  10. High-pressure Raman and optical absorption studies on lead pyroniobate (Pb2Nb2O7) and pressure-induced phase transitions

    Jayaraman, A.; Kourouklis, G.A.; Cooper, A.S.; Espinosa, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    High-pressure Raman scattering and optical absorption studies have been carried out on lead pyroniobate (Pb 2 Nb 2 O 7 ) up to 33 GPa, using a gasketed diamond anvil cell. The Raman study reveals the occurrence of two, possibly three, pressure-induced phase changes; a rather subtle change is indicated near 4.5 GPa. The transition near 13 GPa is attributed to a structural transition from the rhombohedral to the cubic pyrochlore structure. The third phase change occurs near 20 GPa. From the broad Raman feature that is observed at about 800 cm -1 , it is concluded that the system turns amorphous at pressures above 20 GPa. The amorphous phase recrystallizes to the original rhombohedral phase, on release of pressure. The broad Raman peaks of the recrystallized phase indicate a high degree of disorder in the material. Lead pyroniobate turns deep red near 30 GPa, from light yellow at ambient pressure. Semi quantitative absorption measurements show that the energy gap shifts red at a rate of 30 meV/GPa. This shift is attributed to the downward motion of the 5d (es) conduction band of Pb

  11. Optical absorption in disordered monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    Ekuma, C. E.; Gunlycke, D.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the combined impact of sulfur vacancies and electronic interactions on the optical properties of monolayer MoS2. First, we present a generalized Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian that accounts for both randomly distributed sulfur vacancies and the presence of dielectric screening within the material. Second, we parametrize this energy-dependent Hamiltonian from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Green's function and screened Coulomb (GW) method. Third, we apply a first-principles-based many-body typical medium method to determine the single-particle electronic structure. Fourth, we solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation to obtain the charge susceptibility χ with its imaginary part being related to the absorbance A . Our results show that an increased vacancy concentration leads to decreased absorption both in the band continuum and from exciton states within the band gap. We also observe increased absorption below the band-gap threshold and present an expression, which describes Lifshitz tails, in excellent qualitative agreement with our numerical calculations. This latter increased absorption in the 1.0 -2.5 eV range makes defect engineering of potential interest for solar cell applications.

  12. Two-Photon-Absorption Scheme for Optical Beam Tracking

    Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Farr, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A new optical beam tracking approach for free-space optical communication links using two-photon absorption (TPA) in a high-bandgap detector material was demonstrated. This tracking scheme is part of the canonical architecture described in the preceding article. TPA is used to track a long-wavelength transmit laser while direct absorption on the same sensor simultaneously tracks a shorter-wavelength beacon. The TPA responsivity was measured for silicon using a PIN photodiode at a laser beacon wavelength of 1,550 nm. As expected, the responsivity shows a linear dependence with incident power level. The responsivity slope is 4.5 x 10(exp -7) A/W2. Also, optical beam spots from the 1,550-nm laser beacon were characterized on commercial charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imagers with as little as 13.7 microWatts of optical power (see figure). This new tracker technology offers an innovative solution to reduce system complexity, improve transmit/receive isolation, improve optical efficiency, improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reduce cost for free-space optical communications transceivers.

  13. Fluorescence and optical absorption in spodumene

    Antonini, R.

    1987-01-01

    This work studied the mechanism of the isothermal decay's kinetic of the 15.600 cm-1 optical absorption band (A.O.) of irradiated spodumene, and the phosphorescence of irradiated spodumene in low temperatures. The kinetic mechanisms applying the bimolecular model to liberation, capture and recombination reactions are analysed. The coupled differential equations, resultants of this model, numerically using the Runge-Kutta method is solved, and a computer programs that allowed determine the kinetics parameters by try and error methods is developped. This work showed that the electrons are untrapped according to Arrhernios kinetic and that the parameters of the trap and recombination are proportional to a factor (√T - √T o ), where T o is the cutting temperature, bfore which the reactions do not occur. (author) [pt

  14. Black phosphorus: broadband nonlinear optical absorption and application

    Li, Ying; He, Yanliang; Cai, Yao; Chen, Shuqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Yuanjiang, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), 2D layered material with layered dependent direct bandgap (0.3 eV (bulk), 2.0 eV (single layer)) that has gained renewed attention, has been demonstrated as an extremely appropriate optical material for broadband optical applications from infrared to mid-infrared wavebands. Herein, by coupling multi-layer BP films with microfiber, we fabricated a nonlinear optical device with long light-matter interaction distance and enhanced damage threshold. Through taking full advantage of its fine nonlinear optical absorption property, we obtained stable mode-locking (51 ps) and Q-switched mode-locking states in Yb-doped or Er-doped (403.7 fs) all-fiber lasers and the single-longitudinal-mode operation (53 kHz) in an Er-doped fiber laser with enhanced power tolerance, using the same nonlinear optical device. Our results showed that BP could be a favorable nonlinear optical material for developing BP-enabled wave-guiding photonic devices, and revealed new insight into BP for high optical power unexplored optical devices.

  15. Optical absorption of selenite single crystals subjected to high electric fields and irradiated with X-rays or γ-rays

    Mishra, Sakuntala; Rao, A.V.K.; Rao, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the optical absorption coefficient of selenite single crystals show two peaks at 236 and 400 nm when plotted as a function of wavelength. These peaks decrease with increasing irradiation time for both γ and X-rays. Subsequent thermal bleaching increases the absorption coefficient at all wavelengths and flattens out the peaks at 140 0 C and 330 0 C respectively. The imposition of an a.c. or d.c. field prior to irradiation preserves the thermal bleaching characteristics with an overall increase in absorption coefficient. These effects are attributed to two different types of bond formed by water of crystallization giving rise to the two absorption peaks. Irradiation may destroy some of the bands of loosely bound water molecules near defect regions leading to a decrease in absorption. Thermal bleaching removes water molecules reducing the transparency of the samples, the more strongly bound molecules being removed at the higher temperature. Irradiation after a.c. or d.c. field treatment may introduce more defect regions enabling the removal of more water molecules by bleaching and hence increasing the absorption. (U.K.)

  16. TL, EPR and optical absorption in natural grossular crystal

    Yauri, J.M. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Physics, University of San Agustin, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Cano, N.F. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.br; Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Grossular is one of six members of silicate Garnet group. Two samples GI and GII have been investigated concerning their luminescence thermally stimulated (TL). EPR and optical absorption and the measurements were carried out to find out whether or not same point defects are responsible for all three properties. Although X-rays diffraction analysis has shown that both GI and GII have practically the same crystal structure of a standard grossular crystal, they presented different behavior in many aspects. The TL glow curve shape, TL response to radiation dose, the effect of annealing at high temperatures before irradiation, the dependence of UV bleaching parameters on peak temperature, all of them differ going from GI to GII. The EPR signals around g=2.0 as well as at g=4.3 and 6.0 have much larger intensity in GI than in GII. Very high temperature (>800 deg. C) annealing causes large increase in the bulk background absorption in GI, however, only very little in GII. In the cases of EPR and optical absorption, the difference in their behavior can be attributed to Fe{sup 3+} ions; however, in the TL case one cannot and the cause was not found as yet.

  17. TL, EPR and optical absorption in natural grossular crystal

    Yauri, J.M.; Cano, N.F.; Watanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Grossular is one of six members of silicate Garnet group. Two samples GI and GII have been investigated concerning their luminescence thermally stimulated (TL). EPR and optical absorption and the measurements were carried out to find out whether or not same point defects are responsible for all three properties. Although X-rays diffraction analysis has shown that both GI and GII have practically the same crystal structure of a standard grossular crystal, they presented different behavior in many aspects. The TL glow curve shape, TL response to radiation dose, the effect of annealing at high temperatures before irradiation, the dependence of UV bleaching parameters on peak temperature, all of them differ going from GI to GII. The EPR signals around g=2.0 as well as at g=4.3 and 6.0 have much larger intensity in GI than in GII. Very high temperature (>800 deg. C) annealing causes large increase in the bulk background absorption in GI, however, only very little in GII. In the cases of EPR and optical absorption, the difference in their behavior can be attributed to Fe 3+ ions; however, in the TL case one cannot and the cause was not found as yet

  18. Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R

    2012-06-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.

  19. Water absorption length measurement with the ANTARES optical beacon system

    Yepes-Ramirez, Harold

    2011-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of detecting high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. It consists of a three dimensional array on 12 detection lines of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by muons produced in the interaction of neutrinos with the surrounding water and seabed. To reach the best angular resolution, good time and positioning calibrations are required. The propagation of Cherenkov photons strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, which has an impact on the reconstruction efficiency. The determination of the optical parameters, as the absorption and scattering lengths, is crucial to calculate properly the effective area and the angular resolution of the detector. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of pulsed and fast, well controlled light sources distributed throughout the detector to carry out in situ the relative time calibration of the detector components. In this contribution we show some results on the sea water optical properties and their stability measured with the optical beacon system.

  20. Effect of intense high-frequency laser field on the linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field

    Yesilgul, U., E-mail: uyesilgul@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Ungan, F. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E.; Sarı, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    The effects of the intense high-frequency laser field on the optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/GaAlAs parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy levels and the envelope wave functions of the parabolic quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation. Analytical expressions for optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach. The numerical results show that the intense high-frequency laser field has a large effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. Also we can observe that the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes are very sensitive to the electric field in large dimension wells. Thus, this result gives a new degree of freedom in the optoelectronic device applications. -- Highlights: • ILF has a large effect on the optical properties of parabolic quantum wells. • The total absorption coefficients increase as the ILF increases. • The RICs increase as the ILF increases.

  1. Effect of idler absorption in pulsed optical parametric oscillators.

    Rustad, Gunnar; Arisholm, Gunnar; Farsund, Øystein

    2011-01-31

    Absorption at the idler wavelength in an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is often considered detrimental. We show through simulations that pulsed OPOs with significant idler absorption can perform better than OPOs with low idler absorption both in terms of conversion efficiency and beam quality. The main reason for this is reduced back conversion. We also show how the beam quality depends on the beam width and pump pulse length, and present scaling relations to use the example simulations for other pulsed nanosecond OPOs.

  2. Identification of inhomogenous optical absorptive response by chaotic photonic signals in Au nanoparticles

    Muñoz-César, J C; Torres-Torres, C; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Moreno-Valenzuela, J; Torres-Torres, D; Trejo-Valdez, M

    2013-01-01

    A chaotic circuit allows us to identify with a high sensitivity the optical absorption associated with a highly transparent sample with Au nanoparticles embedded in a TiO 2 thin film prepared by a sol–gel method. The measurements are based on a comparison of the correlation between a controlled optical irradiance that propagates through different zones of the sample. Nanosecond nonlinear optical measurements were obtained by monitoring the transmittance and the amplitude modification for the vectorial components of the electric fields in a two-wave mixing interaction. In addition, we theoretically study chaotic physical behavior exhibited by optical signals under nonlinear optical absorption. Our numerical results point out that small intensity fluctuations related to excitations of the absorptive nonlinearity can be described using a simple fractal model. Potential applications for developing sensors and instrumentation of the optical response of advanced materials are contemplated. (paper)

  3. Optical absorption and Faraday rotation in spin doped Cd1-xHgxSe : Mn crystals

    Savchuk, AI; Paranchich, SY; Paranchich, LD; Romanyuk, OS; Andriychuk, MD; Nikitin, PI; Tomlinson, RD; Hill, AE; Pilkington, RD

    1998-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra and the Faraday effect in crystals of Cd1-xHgxSe : Mn have been studied. The studied samples have been characterized abrupt absorption edge and transparency region with high transmission coefficient. The measured values of Verdet constant were considerably larger than in

  4. Quantum of optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductors.

    Fang, Hui; Bechtel, Hans A; Plis, Elena; Martin, Michael C; Krishna, Sanjay; Yablonovitch, Eli; Javey, Ali

    2013-07-16

    The optical absorption properties of free-standing InAs nanomembranes of thicknesses ranging from 3 nm to 19 nm are investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Stepwise absorption at room temperature is observed, arising from the interband transitions between the subbands of 2D InAs nanomembranes. Interestingly, the absorptance associated with each step is measured to be ∼1.6%, independent of thickness of the membranes. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretically predicted absorptance quantum, AQ = πα/nc for each set of interband transitions in a 2D semiconductor, where α is the fine structure constant and nc is an optical local field correction factor. Absorptance quantization appears to be universal in 2D systems including III-V quantum wells and graphene.

  5. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B.W.; Swallow, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel. (author)

  6. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B. W.; Swallow, A. J.

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel.

  7. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Wu, Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Korolkov, Ilia [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Qiao, Xvsheng [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Xianghua [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of the copper selenides nanoparticles and nanoplates synthesized at 180 °C for 0 min, 10 min, 60 min. And the growth mechanism of the copper selenide nanoplates via the “oriented attachment”. Display Omitted - Highlights: • CuSe nanoparticles and nanoplates are synthesized by a rapid injection approach. • CuSe band gap can be widely tuned simply by modifying the synthesized time. • Al{sup 3+} ions have a significant impact on the growth rate of the nanoplates. • Growth mechanism of the CuSe nanoplates is based on the “oriented attachment”.

  8. Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel.

    Thareja, Vrinda; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; Milaninia, Kaveh M; Hwang, Harold Y; Cui, Yi; Kik, Pieter G; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-03-11

    We demonstrate electrical control over coherent optical absorption in a graphene-based Salisbury screen consisting of a single layer of graphene placed in close proximity to a gold back reflector. The screen was designed to enhance light absorption at a target wavelength of 3.2 μm by using a 600 nm-thick, nonabsorbing silica spacer layer. An ionic gel layer placed on top of the screen was used to electrically gate the charge density in the graphene layer. Spectroscopic reflectance measurements were performed in situ as a function of gate bias. The changes in the reflectance spectra were analyzed using a Fresnel based transfer matrix model in which graphene was treated as an infinitesimally thin sheet with a conductivity given by the Kubo formula. The analysis reveals that a careful choice of the ionic gel layer thickness can lead to optical absorption enhancements of up to 5.5 times for the Salisbury screen compared to a suspended sheet of graphene. In addition to these absorption enhancements, we demonstrate very large electrically induced changes in the optical absorption of graphene of ∼3.3% per volt, the highest attained so far in a device that features an atomically thick active layer. This is attributable in part to the more effective gating achieved with the ion gel over the conventional dielectric back gates and partially by achieving a desirable coherent absorption effect linked to the presence of the thin ion gel that boosts the absorption by 40%.

  9. Theory of absorption integrated optical sensor of gaseous materials

    Egorov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The eigen and noneigen (leaky) modes of a three-layer planar integrated optical waveguide are described. The dispersion relation of a three-layer planar waveguide and other dependences are derived, and the cutoff conditions are analyzed. The diagram of propagation constants of the guided and radiation modes of an irregular asymmetric three-layer waveguide and the dependence of the electric field amplitudes of radiation modes of substrate on vertical coordinate in a tantalum integrated optical waveguide are presented. The operating principles of an absorption integrated optical waveguide sensor are investigated. The dependences of sensitivity of an integrated optical waveguide sensor on the sensory cell length, the coupling efficiency of the laser radiation into the waveguide, the absorption cross-section of the studied material, and the level of additive statistical noise are investigated. Some of the prospective areas of application of integrated-optical waveguide sensors are outlined.

  10. Two-color interpolation of the absorption response for quantitative acousto-optic imaging

    Bocoum, Maimouna; Gennisson, Jean Luc; Venet, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a reliable and widespread technique for monitoring qualitative changes in absorption inside highly scattering media. It has been shown, however, that acousto-optic (AO) imaging can provide significantly more qualitative information without the need for inversio...

  11. Tunable optical absorption in silicene molecules

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials with a tunable band gap that covers a wide range of the solar spectrum hold great promise for sunlight harvesting. For this reason, we investigate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of silicene molecules using time dependent density functional theory. We address the influence of the molecular size, buckling, and charge state as well as that of a dielectric environment. Unlike planar graphene molecules, silicene molecules prefer to form low-buckled structures with strong visible to ultraviolet optical response. We also identify molecular plasmons.

  12. Tunable optical absorption in silicene molecules

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2016-07-13

    Two-dimensional materials with a tunable band gap that covers a wide range of the solar spectrum hold great promise for sunlight harvesting. For this reason, we investigate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of silicene molecules using time dependent density functional theory. We address the influence of the molecular size, buckling, and charge state as well as that of a dielectric environment. Unlike planar graphene molecules, silicene molecules prefer to form low-buckled structures with strong visible to ultraviolet optical response. We also identify molecular plasmons.

  13. Luminescence and optical absorption determination in porous silicon

    Nogal, U.; Calderon, A.; Marin, E.; Rojas T, J. B.; Juarez, A. G.

    2012-10-01

    We applied the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique in order to obtain the optical absorption spectrum in porous silicon samples prepared by electrochemical anodic etching on n-type, phosphorous doped, (100)-oriented crystal-line silicon wafer with thickness of 300 μm and 1-5 ωcm resistivity. The porous layers were prepared with etching times of 13, 20, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. Also, we realized a comparison among the optical absorption spectrum with the photoluminescence and photo reflectance ones, both obtained at room temperature. Our results show that the absorption spectrum of the samples of porous silicon depends notably of the etching time an it consist of two distinguishable absorption bands, one in the Vis region and the other one in the UV region. (Author)

  14. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    Castelli, Ivano E. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Thygesen, Kristian S. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Jacobsen, Karsten W. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden–Popper and Dion–Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum.

  15. Optical nonlinear absorption characteristics of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles

    Muralikrishna, Molli; Kiran, Aditha Sai; Ravikanth, B.; Sowmendran, P.; Muthukumar, V. Sai; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10 - 40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. By employing open aperture z-scan technique, we have evaluated the effective two-photon absorption coefficient of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles to be 5e-10 m/W at 532 nm. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power limiting applications in the visible range.

  16. Examination of TL and optical absorption in calcite's mineral

    Sabikoglu, I.; Can, N.

    2009-01-01

    Calcite which is a form of crystalline of the calcium carbonate composes parent material of chalk stone (limestone) and marble. Calcite which presents in various colors also in our country consists of yellow, blue, transparent and green colors. In this study, green calcite mineral which is taken from the region of Ayvalik, was examined of its thermoluminescence (TL) and optical absorption features in different doses. It has been obtained a large TL peak in 179 degree C and absorption peak in 550 mm.

  17. Temperature-dependent optical absorption of SrTiO3

    Kok, Dirk J.; Irmscher, Klaus; Naumann, Martin; Guguschev, Christo; Galazka, Zbigniew; Uecker, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The optical absorption edge and near infrared absorption of SrTiO 3 were measured at temperatures from 4 to 1703 K. The absorption edge decreases from 3.25 eV at 4 K to 1.8 eV at 1703 K and is extrapolated to approximately 1.2 eV at the melting point (2350 K). The transmission in the near IR decreases rapidly above 1400 K because of free carrier absorption and is about 50% of the room temperature value at 1673 K. The free carriers are generated by thermal excitation of electrons over the band gap and the formation of charged vacancies. The observed temperature-dependent infrared absorption can be well reproduced by a calculation based on simple models for the intrinsic free carrier concentration and the free carrier absorption coefficient. The measured red shift of the optical absorption edge and the rising free carrier absorption strongly narrow the spectral range of transmission and impede radiative heat transport through the crystal. These effects have to be considered in high temperature applications of SrTiO 3 -based devices, as the number of free carriers rises considerably, and in bulk crystal growth to avoid growth instabilities. Temperature dependent optical absorption edge of SrTiO 3 , measured, fitted, and extrapolated to the melting point. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Optical absorption and energy transfer processes in dendrimers

    Reineker, P.; Engelmann, A.; Yudson, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    For dendrimers of various sizes the energy transfer and the optical absorption is investigated theoretically. The molecular subunits of a dendrimer are modeled as two-level systems. The electronic interaction between them is described via transfer integrals and the influence of vibrational degrees of freedom is taken into account in a first approach using a stochastic model. We discuss the time dependence of the energy transport and show that rim states of the dendrimer dominate the absorption spectra, that in general the electronic excitation energy is concentrated on peripheric molecules, and that the energetically lowest absorption peak is redshifted with increasing dendrimer size due to delocalization of the electronic excitation

  19. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    Bakr, Osman M.; Amendola, Vincenzo; Aikens, Christine M.; Wenseleers, Wim; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Schatz, George C.; Stellacci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  1. Optical absorption in a degenerate Bose-Einstein gas

    Yip, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory on optical absorption in a dilute Bose-Einstein gas at low temperatures. This theory is motivated by the Bogoliubov theory of elementary excitations for this system, and takes into account explicitly the modification of the nature and dispersion of elementary excitations due to Bose-Einstein condensation. Our results show important differences from existing theories

  2. Optical absorption of copper met-myoglobin complexes

    Lamy, M.T.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1976-01-01

    It is reported on the use of a known denaturing agent, namely Cu 2+ ions, to induce a gradual change in the optical spectrum of Mb solutions, in order to identify the absorption bands that undergo similar changes which may be attributed to the transitions between correlated energy levels [pt

  3. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    Cai, Yijun [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhu, Jinfeng, E-mail: nanoantenna@hotmail.com [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-01-26

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  4. Fundamental optical absorption edge in MnGa2Te4 single crystals

    Medvedkin, G.A.; Rud, Yu.V.; Tairov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study is made of the optical properties of oriented MnGa 2 Te 4 crystals in the region of the fundamental absorption edge. The energy gap width for the temperatures 77, 300, and 370 K is determined to be E G = 1.635, 1.52, and 1.50 eV. The spectral response α(ℎω/2π) is found to follow Urbach's rule thoughout the temperature range studied, the slope of the absorption edge remaining constant (α = 10 2 cm -1 ). Crystal annealing with subsequent rapid cooling results in a shift of the absorption edge longward by 25 meV with the exponential form of α(ℎω/2π) prevailing over the range T = 77 to 370 K. An analysis shows the optical absorption in the region of the fundamental edge to be a sum of the effects coming from the density-of-states tails, local scattering centers associated with a high vacancy concentration, and electron-phonon interaction. Optical linear dichroism of the absorption edge of MnGa 2 Te 4 single crystals with pseudotetragonal structure is revealed and studied. The single crystals are established to be optically uniaxial, their optical transmission dichroism being negative. It is shown that the minimal direct optical transitions in MnGa 2 Te 4 are allowed in the E parallel c polarization in the temperature range 77 to 370 K, the crystal-field splitting of the valence band increasing with temperature. (author)

  5. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  6. Linear optical absorption spectra of mesoscopic structures in intense THz fields: Free-particle properties

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of THz radiation on the linear optical absorption spectra of semiconductor structures. A general theoretical framework, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, is formulated and applied to the calculation of linear optical absorption spectrum for several...

  7. Ultraviolet optical absorptions of semiconducting copper phosphate glasses

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a quantitative investigation of the change in UV optical absorption in semiconducting copper phosphate glasses with batch compositions of 40, 50, and 55 percent CuO, as a function of the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glasses for each glass composition. It was found that optical energy gap, E(opt), of copper phosphate glass is a function of both glass composition and Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glass. E(opt) increases as the CuO content for fixed Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio and the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio for fixed glass composition are reduced.

  8. Electron localization and optical absorption of polygonal quantum rings

    Sitek, Anna; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    We investigate theoretically polygonal quantum rings and focus mostly on the triangular geometry where the corner effects are maximal. Such rings can be seen as short core-shell nanowires, a generation of semiconductor heterostructures with multiple applications. We show how the geometry of the sample determines the electronic energy spectrum, and also the localization of electrons, with effects on the optical absorption. In particular, we show that irrespective of the ring shape low-energy electrons are always attracted by corners and are localized in their vicinity. The absorption spectrum in the presence of a magnetic field shows only two peaks within the corner-localized state domain, each associated with different circular polarization. This picture may be changed by an external electric field which allows previously forbidden transitions, and thus enables the number of corners to be determined. We show that polygonal quantum rings allow absorption of waves from distant ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum within one sample.

  9. Probing molecular chirality by coherent optical absorption spectra

    Jia, W. Z. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wei, L. F. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-11-15

    We propose an approach to sensitively probe the chirality of molecules by measuring their coherent optical-absorption spectra. It is shown that quantum dynamics of the cyclic three-level chiral molecules driven by appropriately designed external fields is total-phase dependent. This will result in chirality-dependent absorption spectra for the probe field. As a consequence, the charality-dependent information in the spectra (such as the locations and relative heights of the characteristic absorption peaks) can be utilized to identify molecular chirality and determinate enantiomer excess (i.e., the percentages of different enantiomers). The feasibility of the proposal with chiral molecules confined in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is also discussed.

  10. Optimization of extraordinary optical absorption in plasmonic and dielectric structures

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Extraordinary optical absorption (EOA) can be obtained by plasmonic surface structuring. However, studies that compare the performance of these plasmonic devices with similar structured dielectric devices are rarely found in the literature. In this work we show different methods to enhance the EOA...... by optimizing the geometry of the surface structuring for both plasmonic and dielectric devices, and the optimized performances are compared. Two different problem types with periodic structures are considered. The first case shows that strips of silicon on a surface can increase the absorption in an underlying...... it is important to compare the absorption performance of plasmonic devices with similarly structured dielectric devices in order to find the best possible solution....

  11. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  12. High Collection Nonimaging Optics

    Winston, Roland

    1989-07-01

    Nonimaging optics departs from the methods of traditional optical design to develop instead techniques for maximizing the collecting power of concentrating elements and systems. Designs which exceed the concentration attainable with focusing techniques by factors of four or more and approach the theoretical limit are possible (ideal concentrators). The methodology for designing high collection nonirnaging systems is described.

  13. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance studies of Cu in ...

    Unknown

    Na2O–50B2O3–10As2O3 glasses. In this paper, we report the ESR and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xLi2O–(40 – x)Na2O–50B2O3–. 10As2O3 glasses. The values of x were adjusted so that the compositional parameter defined as ...

  14. Optical components based on two-photon absorption process in functionalized polymers

    Klein, S.; Barsella, A.; Taupier, G.; Stortz, V.; Fort, A.; Dorkenoo, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of basic elements needed in optical circuits in a photopolymerizable resin, using a two-photon absorption (TPA) process to perform a selective polymerization. By taking advantage of the high spatial selectivity of the TPA approach, we can control the value of the local index of refraction in the material and realize permanent optical pathways in the bulk of photopolymerizable matrices. The computer-controlled design of such pathways allows creating optical circuits. As an example of application, optical fibers separated by millimetric distances and placed in arbitrary positions have been connected with moderate losses. Moreover, active components, such as electro-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be fabricated using photopolymers functionalized with non-linear optical chromophores, in order to be integrated in micro-optical circuits

  15. Differential Optical-absorption Spectroscopy (doas) System For Urban Atmospheric-pollution Monitoring

    Edner, H; Ragnarson, P; Spannare, S; Svanberg, Sune

    1993-01-01

    We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength ...

  16. Optical absorption of hyperbolic metamaterial with stochastic surfaces

    Liu, Jingjing; Naik, Gururaj V.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the absorption properties of planar hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) consisting of metal-dielectric multilayers, which support propagating plane waves with anomalously large wavevectors and high photonic-density-of-states over a broad bandwidth. An interface formed by depositing...... indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles on an HMM surface scatters light into the high-k propagating modes of the metamaterial and reduces reflection. We compare the reflection and absorption from an HMM with the nanoparticle cover layer versus those of a metal film with the same thickness also covered...... with the nanoparticles. It is predicted that the super absorption properties of HMM show up when exceedingly large amounts of high-k modes are excited by strong plasmonic resonances. In the case that the coupling interface is formed by non-resonance scatterers, there is almost the same enhancement in the absorption...

  17. Electronic properties and optical absorption of a phosphorene quantum dot

    Liang, F. X.; Ren, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Jiang, Z. T.

    2018-03-01

    Using the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we theoretically study the electronic and optical properties of a triangular phosphorene quantum dot (PQD) including one normal zigzag edge and two skewed armchair edges (ZAA-PQD). It is shown that the energy spectrum can be classified into the filled band (FB), the zero-energy band (ZB), and the unfilled band (UB). Numerical calculations of the FB, ZB, and UB probability distributions show that the FB and the UB correspond to the bulk states, while the ZB corresponds to the edge states, which appear on all of the three edges of the ZAA-PQD sharply different from the other PQDs. We also find that the strains and the electric fields can affect the energy levels inhomogeneously. Then the optical properties of the ZAA-PQD are investigated. There appear some strong low-energy optical absorption peaks indicating its sensitive low-energy optical response that is absent in other PQDs. Moreover, the strains and the electric fields can make inhomogeneous influences on the optical spectrum of the ZAA-PQD. This work may provide a useful reference for designing the electrical, mechanical, and optical PQD devices.

  18. Reversible unidirectional reflection and absorption of PT-symmetry structure under electro-optical modulation

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Zhang, Yi-chi; Xia, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In order to obtain tunable unidirectional device, we assumed an ideal periodic layered Parity-Time (PT) symmetry structure inserted by doped LiNbO3 (LN) interlayers. LN is a typical electro-optical material of which the refractive index depends on the external electric field. In our work, we theoretically investigate the modulation effect of the external electric field on the transmittance and reflectance of the structure through numerical method. Through selected structural parameters, the one-way enhanced reflection and high absorption (above 0.9) behaviors are found. Within a special frequency band (not a single frequency), our theoretical model performs enhanced reflection in one incidence direction and high absorption in the other direction. Furthermore, the directions of enhanced reflection and absorption can be reversed through reversing the direction of applied electric field. Such structure with reversible properties has the potential in designing new optical devices.

  19. Statistical evidences of absorption at high latitudes

    Fesenko, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    Evidences are considered which indicate to the significant effect of the irregular interstellar absorption at high latitudes b. The number density of faint galaxies grows with the increasing |b| even at the values of |b| exceeding 50 deg. The effects of interstellar medium are traced even in the directions of the stars and globular clusters with very low values of the colour excess. The coefficient of absorption, Asub(B)=0.29+-0.05, was estimated from the colours of the bright E-galaxies [ru

  20. Quantum quench of Kondo correlations in optical absorption.

    Latta, C; Haupt, F; Hanl, M; Weichselbaum, A; Claassen, M; Wuester, W; Fallahi, P; Faelt, S; Glazman, L; von Delft, J; Türeci, H E; Imamoglu, A

    2011-06-29

    The interaction between a single confined spin and the spins of an electron reservoir leads to one of the most remarkable phenomena of many-body physics--the Kondo effect. Electronic transport measurements on single artificial atoms, or quantum dots, have made it possible to study the effect in great detail. Here we report optical measurements on a single semiconductor quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a degenerate electron gas which show that absorption of a single photon leads to an abrupt change in the system Hamiltonian and a quantum quench of Kondo correlations. By inferring the characteristic power-law exponents from the experimental absorption line shapes, we find a unique signature of the quench in the form of an Anderson orthogonality catastrophe, induced by a vanishing overlap between the initial and final many-body wavefunctions. We show that the power-law exponent that determines the degree of orthogonality can be tuned using an external magnetic field, which unequivocally demonstrates that the observed absorption line shape originates from Kondo correlations. Our experiments demonstrate that optical measurements on single artificial atoms offer new perspectives on many-body phenomena previously studied using transport spectroscopy only.

  1. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption in Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposites with gold nanoparticle concentration

    Bijeesh, M. M.; Shakhi, P. K.; Varier, Geetha K.; Nandakumar, P.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films and its dependence on gold nanoparticle concentration. Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films with different molar ratio of Au/Ba are prepared by sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV Visible absorption spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. An open aperture Z-scan technique is employed to study the third order nonlinear optical properties of Au/BaTiO3 thin films. An Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm wavelength having a pulse width of 5 ns is used for the measurements. The two-photon absorption coefficient of the films increases linearly with gold nanoparticle concentration and significant enhancement of nonlinear optical absorption is observed. This ability to fine tune the nonlinear optical coefficients of Au/BaTiO3 films would be handy in optical device applications.

  2. Optical absorption of zigzag single walled boron nitride nanotubes

    Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2010-11-01

    In a realistic three-dimensional model, optical matrix element and linear optical absorption of zigzag single walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in the tight binding approximation are studied. In terms of absolute value of dipole matrix elements of the first three direct transitions at kz=0, we divided the zigzag BNNTs into three groups and investigated their optical absorption spectrum in energy ranges E7.5 eV. We found that in lower energies, E7.5 eV, their behaviors depend on their even or odd nanotube index. We also found that in the energy range 7

  3. Optical absorption in gel grown cadmium tartrate single crystals

    Arora, S K; Kothari, A J; Patel, R G; Chauha, K M; Chudasama, B N

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of cadmium tartrate pentahydrate (CTP) have been grown by the famous gel technique. The slow and controlled reaction between Cd 2+ and (C 4 H 4 O 6 ) 2- ions in silica hydrogel results in formation of the insoluble product, CdC 4 H 4 O 6 .5H 2 O. Optical absorption spectra have been recorded in the range 200 to 2500 nm. Fundamental absorption edge for electronic transition has been analyzed. The direct allowed transition is found to be present in the region of relatively higher photon energy. Analysis of the segments of α 1/2 versus hν graph has been made to separate individual contribution of phonons. The phonons involved in the indirect transition are found to correspond to 335 and 420 cm -1 . Scattering of charge carriers in the lattice is found due to acoustic phonons

  4. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  5. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy for Gas Analysis in Biomass Gasification

    Grosch, Helge

    important gas species of the low-temperature circulating fluidized bed gasifier. At first, a special gas cell,the hot gas flow cell (HGC), was build up and veried. In this custom-made gas cell, the optical properties, the so-called absorption cross-sections, of the most important sulfur and aromatic...... compounds were determined in laboratory experiments. By means of the laboratory results and spectroscopic databases,the concentrations of the major gas species and the aromatic compounds phenol and naphthalene were determined in extraction and in-situ measurements....

  6. Optical absorption analysis of quaternary molybdate- and tungstate-ordered double perovskites

    Tablero, C., E-mail: ctablero@etsit.upm.es

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • These compounds present a high optical absorption. • The absorption coefficients using different DFT + U alternatives have been compared. • The absorption coefficients have been split into different contributions. • The maximum efficiency is near the maximum efficiency for multiple-gap solar cells. - Abstract: Quaternary-ordered double perovskite A{sub 2}MM′O{sub 6} (M = Mo,W) semiconductors are a group of materials with a variety of photocatalytic and optoelectronic applications. An analysis focused on the optoelectronic properties is carried out using first-principles density-functional theory with several U orbital-dependent one-electron potentials applied to different orbital subspaces. The structural non-equivalence of the atoms resulting from the symmetry has been taken in account. In order to analyze optical absorption in these materials deeply, the absorption coefficients have been split into inter- and intra-non-equivalent species contributions. The results indicate that the effect of the A and M′ atoms on the optical properties are minimal whereas the largest contribution comes from the non-equivalent O atoms to M transitions.

  7. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-05

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  8. Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption

    Pang, Yongqiang; Shen, Yang; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiafu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    Naturally occurring water is a promising candidate for achieving broadband absorption. In this work, by virtue of the optically transparent character of the water, the water-based metamaterial absorbers (MAs) are proposed to achieve the broadband absorption at microwave frequencies and optical transparence simultaneously. For this purpose, the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are chosen as the constitutive materials. The water is encapsulated between the ITO backed plate and PMMA, serving as the microwave loss as well as optically transparent material. Numerical simulations show that the broadband absorption with the efficiency over 90% in the frequency band of 6.4-30 GHz and highly optical transparency of about 85% in the visible region can be achieved and have been well demonstrated experimentally. Additionally, the proposed water-based MA displays a wide-angle absorption performance for both TE and TM waves and is also robust to the variations of the structure parameters, which is much desired in a practical application.

  9. Matrix Optical Absorption in UV-MALDI MS.

    Robinson, Kenneth N; Steven, Rory T; Bunch, Josephine

    2018-03-01

    In ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS) matrix compound optical absorption governs the uptake of laser energy, which in turn has a strong influence on experimental results. Despite this, quantitative absorption measurements are lacking for most matrix compounds. Furthermore, despite the use of UV-MALDI MS to detect a vast range of compounds, investigations into the effects of laser energy have been primarily restricted to single classes of analytes. We report the absolute solid state absorption spectra of the matrix compounds α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), para-nitroaniline (PNA), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP). The desorption/ionization characteristics of these matrix compounds with respect to laser fluence was investigated using mixed systems of matrix with either angiotensin II, PC(34:1) lipid standard, or haloperidol, acting as representatives for typical classes of analyte encountered in UV-MALDI MS. The first absolute solid phase spectra for PNA, MBT, and THAP are reported; additionally, inconsistencies between previously published spectra for CHCA are resolved. In light of these findings, suggestions are made for experimental optimization with regards to matrix and laser wavelength selection. The relationship between matrix optical cross-section and wavelength-dependant threshold fluence, fluence of maximum ion yield, and R, a new descriptor for the change in ion intensity with fluence, are described. A matrix cross-section of 1.3 × 10 -17 cm -2 was identified as a potential minimum for desorption/ionization of analytes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Study of electron-beam-evaporated MgO films using electron diffraction, optical absorption and cathodoluminescence

    Aboelfotoh, M.O.; Ramsey, J.N.

    1982-05-21

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction, optical absorption and cathodoluminescence were used to study MgO films deposited onto fused silica, single-crystal silicon and LiF substrates at various temperatures. Results showed that some of the same optical absorption and emission bands observed in X- or UV-irradiated, additively colored or mechanically deformed MgO crystals were observed in evaporated MgO films. The peak positions and the relative peak intensities of the optical absorption and emission bands depended on the substrate temperature during film deposition as well as on the structure of the film. The effect of heating the films in air and vacuum on the optical absorption and emission bands is also discussed.

  11. and three-dimensional models for analysis of optical absorption in ...

    Unknown

    The optical energy gaps of WS2 single crystal were determined from the analysis of the absorption spectrum near ... Optical band gap; two- and three-dimensional; optical absorption. 1. ..... ssion, New Delhi, in the form of a research project is.

  12. Optical absorption properties of Ag/SiO sub 2 composite films induced by gamma irradiation

    Pan, A L; Yang, Z P; Liu, F X; Ding, Z J; Qian, Y T

    2003-01-01

    Mesoporous SiO sub 2 composite films with small Ag particles or clusters dispersed in them were prepared by a new method: first the matrix SiO sub 2 films were prepared by the sol-gel process combined with the dip-coating technique; then they were soaked in AgNO sub 3 solutions; this was followed by irradiation with gamma-rays at room temperature and ambient pressure. The structure of these films was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and their optical absorption spectra were examined. It has been shown that the Ag particles grown within the porous SiO sub 2 films are very small and are highly dispersed. On increasing the soaking concentration and subjecting the samples to an additional annealing, a different peak-shift effect for the surface plasmon resonance was observed in the optical absorption measurement. Possible mechanisms of this behaviour are discussed in this paper.

  13. Optical performance and metallic absorption in nanoplasmonic systems.

    Arnold, Matthew D; Blaber, Martin G

    2009-03-02

    Optical metrics relating to metallic absorption in representative plasmonic systems are surveyed, with a view to developing heuristics for optimizing performance over a range of applications. We use the real part of the permittivity as the independent variable; consider strengths of particle resonances, resolving power of planar lenses, and guiding lengths of planar waveguides; and compare nearly-free-electron metals including Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Li, Na, and K. Whilst the imaginary part of metal permittivity has a strong damping effect, field distribution is equally important and thus factors including geometry, real permittivity and frequency must be considered when selecting a metal. Al performs well at low permittivities (e.g. sphere resonances, superlenses) whereas Au & Ag only perform well at very negative permittivities (shell and rod resonances, LRSPP). The alkali metals perform well overall but present engineering challenges.

  14. Absorption of optical power in an S-20 photocathode

    Harmer, S W

    2003-01-01

    By considering a monochromatic plane wave obliquely incident upon a planar layer of S-20 photocathode material, deposited upon a non-absorbing glass substrate, the distribution of optical power absorbed within the layer can be resolved. This is important to the question of photocathode efficiency, as the absorbed light excites photoelectrons within the photocathode which then may pass from the photocathode into the vacuum of the photomultiplier tube and be collected and multiplied. The calculation uses the measured complex permittivity of an extended red S-20 photocathode in the wavelength range, 375-900 nm. The results show that thin film effects are important within the photocathode, as they give rise to interesting power absorption profiles. This information is invaluable in predicting optimum photocathode thickness for wavelength selective applications. Electromagnetic waves that are obliquely incident upon the photocathode are also considered in both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizati...

  15. The application of UV LEDs for differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.

    2018-04-01

    Modern UV LEDs represent a potentially very advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular xenon arc lamps, which are the most common light sources in trace gas-analyzers. So, the light-emitting diodes are very attractive for use of as light sources for Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes have now allowed us to construct a portable, long path DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. First of all, we are talking about the measurement of sulphur dioxide, carbon disulphide and, oxides of chlorine and bromine. The parallel measurements of sulfur dioxide using a certified gas analyzer, were conducted and showed good correlation.

  16. Strong crystal field effect in ? - optical absorption study

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J. C.

    1998-12-01

    =-1 Results of optical absorption measurements in polarized light on tetravalent neptunium diluted in a 0953-8984/10/50/021/img6 single crystal are reported. The recorded spectra are complex, pointing to the presence of an 0953-8984/10/50/021/img7 impurity. The electronic transitions assigned to the 0953-8984/10/50/021/img8 ion are interpreted in terms of the usual model, following the actual understanding of the neptunium electronic structure and independent theoretical predictions. R.m.s. deviations of the order of 0953-8984/10/50/021/img9 have been obtained for 42 levels fitted with 11 free parameters. The crystal field effect resulting from the fitting is considerably larger than that observed for the uranium ion in the same host.

  17. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Leen, J. Brian, E-mail: b.leen@lgrinc.com; O’Keefe, Anthony [Los Gatos Research, 67 E. Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup −1}/√(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  18. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors

    Otanicar Todd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm. A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power increase.

  19. Effects of two-photon absorption on all optical logic operation based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Zhang, Xiang; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate all-optical logic operation in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) based Mach-Zehnder interferometer considering the effects of two-photon absorption (TPA). TPA occurs during the propagation of sub-picosecond pulses in QD-SOA, which leads to a change in carrier recovery dynamics in quantum-dots. We utilize a rate equation model to take into account carrier refill through TPA and nonlinear dynamics including carrier heating and spectral hole burning in the QD-SOA. The simulation results show the TPA-induced pumping in the QD-SOA can reduce the pattern effect and increase the output quality of the all-optical logic operation. With TPA, this scheme is suitable for high-speed Boolean logic operation at 320 Gb/s.

  20. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  1. Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions.

    Qu, Zhechao; Steinvall, Erik; Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M

    2016-04-05

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer-Lambert's law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950-1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor.

  2. Optical absorptions of an exciton in a quantum ring: Effect of the repulsive core

    Xie, Wenfang

    2013-01-01

    We study the optical absorptions of an exciton in a quantum ring. The quantum ring is described as a circular quantum dot with a repulsive core. The advantage of our methodology is that one can investigate the influence of the repulsive core by varying two parameters in the confinement potential. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients have been examined with the change of the confinement potential. The results show that the optical absorptions are strongly affected by the repulsive core. Moreover, the repulsive core can influence the oscillation in the resonant peak of the absorption coefficients.

  3. Optical absorption enhancement by inserting ZnO optical spacer in plasmonic organic solar cells

    N'Konou, Kekeli; Torchio, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Optical absorption enhancement (AE) using coupled optical spacer and plasmonic effects in standard and inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) are demonstrated using the finite-difference time-domain numerical method. The influence of an added zinc oxide (ZnO) optical spacer layer inserted below the active layer in standard architecture is first theoretically investigated while the influence of varying the ZnO cathodic buffer layer thickness in inverted design is studied on AE. Then, the embedding of a square periodic array of core-shell silver-silica nanospheres (Ag@SiO2 NSs) at different positions in standard and inverted OSCs is performed while AE and short-circuit current density (Jsc) are calculated. As a result of previous combined effects, the optimized standard plasmonic OSCs present 15% and 79.45% enhancement in J over the reference with and without ZnO optical spacer layer, respectively, and a 16% increase of AE when Ag@SiO2 NSs are placed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Compared to the inverted OSC reference, the plasmonic OSCs present 26% and 27% enhancement in J and AE, respectively, when the Ag@SiO2 NSs are located on top of the ZnO layer. Furthermore, the spatial position of these NSs in such OSCs is a key parameter for increasing light absorption via enhanced electromagnetic field distribution.

  4. Study of thermal treatments and irradiation on natural amethyst by optical absorption

    Dotto, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal treatment effects on the samples of amethyst from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, through optical absorption measurements, are studied. The effects of cobalt 60 gama ray radiation on the amethyst from Minas Gerais through optical absorption measurements, are studied. The optical absorption spectra shows a basic line and bands in 10,500 cm -1 (k), in 18,300 cm -1 (θ) and in 28,000 cm -1 (ζ). The correlation between thermal treatment effects and radiation effects shows that the θ and ζ bands belongs to a same center and the k band to another center. The basic line vanishes by thermal treatments at 270 0 C. The analyses of the isothermal treatment decay and dose-curve reveal a complex kinetics, suggesting that the kinetic mechanisms involve the electron (s) and hole (s) migration in the lattice. The amethyst from Minas Gerais after being discolored at 470 0 C and irradiated again shows that the optical absorption bands don't recover the original absorbance, suggesting the existence of iron diffusion mechanisms in the lattice. After being isothermally annealed the amethyst from Rio Grande do Sul above 400 0 C temperature yield a yellow-brown color, probably due to the formation of Fe 2 O 3 precipitate. We suggest the this formation is due to iron diffusion and pre-existent oxygen vacancies. This model is reinforced through the observation the amethyst from Minas Gerais, isothermally treated at 470 0 C in highly reducing, also gets a yellow-brown color. (author) [pt

  5. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  6. Investigating the sensitivity of PMMA optical fibres for use as an evanescent field absorption sensor in aqueous solutions

    Lye, P G; Boerkamp, M; Ernest, A; Lamb, D W

    2005-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) optical fibres are low-cost polymer fibres that are generally more physically robust than silica fibres, are more flexible, yet like silica fibres have the potential to be used for practical evanescent field absorption sensors in aqueous solutions. However, evanescent field absorption in aqueous solutions is influenced by more than just the specific absorptivity of the solution in question. The physical configuration of the optical fibre itself, as well as surface charge interactions between the fibre and the chromophore in the solution also significantly affects the sensitivity of the fibre to evanescent field absorption. This paper reports on an investigation of numerous physical phenomena that influence evanescent field absorption for PMMA fibres using an aqueous solution of the dye Amidoblack. Parameters investigated included fibre coiling configuration and bend radius, fibre interaction length, and effect of solution pH. Coiled fibres were found to be more sensitive to evanescent field absorption than straight (uncoiled) lengths, and sensitivity was found to increase with a further reduction in bend radius. At high solution pH, the absorption versus solution concentration proved to be linear whereas at low pH the absorption versus concentration relationship exhibited a clear deviation from linearity. The observed nonlinearity at low pH points to the importance of accounting for electrostatic interactions between chromophore and fibre surface when designing a PMMA sensor for evanescent field absorption measurements in aqueous solutions

  7. Comparative study of five varieties of spodumene through optical absorption

    Fujii, A.T.; Isotani, S.

    1983-11-01

    A comparative study of five varieties of spodumene crystals from Brazil through optical absorption spectroscopy, classified according to the colours lylac, colourless I, colourless II, yellow and green is reported. This series shows a consistent increase of the [Fe]/[Mn] ratio. The principal bands in the yellow sample are at 7,000 and 9,000 cm -1 , and in the green sample besides these bands a band at 16,000 cm -1 is observed. In lylac, colourless I and colourless II samples, the principal bands are at 18,000 cm -1 and when irradiated two new bands appears at 15,700 cm -1 (E perpendicular to c) and 11,000 cm -1 (K perpendicular to c). It is suggested that in green and yellow samples the bands are due to Fe 2+ (at 7,000 cm -1 and 9,000 cm -1 ) and due to Fe 2+ - Fe 3+ charge transfer (at 16,000 cm -1 ). In lylac and colourless I samples the model for Mn 3+ at two different sites is applied. The colourless II corresponds to the case in which Mn 3+ is at one site alone, being prohibited from occupying the second site due to higher Fe concentration. (Author) [pt

  8. Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectrometry Modelling Under Saturated Absorption

    Dupré, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) is a modern technique renowned for its ultimate sensitivity, because it combines long equivalent absorption length provided by a high finesse cavity, and a detection theoretically limited by the sole photon-shot-noise. One fallout of the high finesse is the possibility to accumulating strong intracavity electromagnetic fields (EMF). Under this condition, molecular transitions can be easy saturated giving rise to the usual Lamb dips (or hole burning). However, the unusual shape of the basically trichromatic EMF (due to the RF lateral sidebands) induces nonlinear couplings, i.e., new crossover transitions. An analytical methodology will be presented to calculate spectra provided by NICE-OHMS experiments. It is based on the solutions of the equations of motion of an open two-blocked-level system performed in the frequency-domain (optically thin medium). Knowing the transition dipole moment, the NICE-OHMS signals (``absorption-like'' and ``dispersion-like'') can be simulated by integration over the Doppler shifts and by paying attention to the molecular Zeeman sublevels and to the EMF polarization The approach has been validated by discussion experimental data obtained on two transitions of {C2H2} in the near-infrared under moderated saturation. One of the applications of the saturated absorption is to be able to simultaneously determine the transition intensity and the density number while only one these 2 quantities can only be assessed in nonlinear absorption. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 838 (2015) Optics Express 16, 14689 (2008)

  9. Block matching 3D random noise filtering for absorption optical projection tomography

    Fumene Feruglio, P; Vinegoni, C; Weissleder, R; Gros, J; Sbarbati, A

    2010-01-01

    Absorption and emission optical projection tomography (OPT), alternatively referred to as optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT), are recently developed three-dimensional imaging techniques with value for developmental biology and ex vivo gene expression studies. The techniques' principles are similar to the ones used for x-ray computed tomography and are based on the approximation of negligible light scattering in optically cleared samples. The optical clearing is achieved by a chemical procedure which aims at substituting the cellular fluids within the sample with a cell membranes' index matching solution. Once cleared the sample presents very low scattering and is then illuminated with a light collimated beam whose intensity is captured in transillumination mode by a CCD camera. Different projection images of the sample are subsequently obtained over a 360 0 full rotation, and a standard backprojection algorithm can be used in a similar fashion as for x-ray tomography in order to obtain absorption maps. Because not all biological samples present significant absorption contrast, it is not always possible to obtain projections with a good signal-to-noise ratio, a condition necessary to achieve high-quality tomographic reconstructions. Such is the case for example, for early stage's embryos. In this work we demonstrate how, through the use of a random noise removal algorithm, the image quality of the reconstructions can be considerably improved even when the noise is strongly present in the acquired projections. Specifically, we implemented a block matching 3D (BM3D) filter applying it separately on each acquired transillumination projection before performing a complete three-dimensional tomographical reconstruction. To test the efficiency of the adopted filtering scheme, a phantom and a real biological sample were processed. In both cases, the BM3D filter led to a signal-to-noise ratio increment of over 30 d

  10. Multiphoton Absorption Order of CsPbBr3 As Determined by Wavelength-Dependent Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    Saouma, Felix O; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Kim, Yong Soo; Jang, Joon I

    2017-10-05

    CsPbBr 3 is a direct-gap semiconductor where optical absorption takes place across the fundamental bandgap, but this all-inorganic halide perovskite typically exhibits above-bandgap emission when excited over an energy level, lying above the conduction-band minimum. We probe this bandgap anomaly using wavelength-dependent multiphoton absorption spectroscopy and find that the fundamental gap is strictly two-photon forbidden, rendering it three-photon absorption (3PA) active. Instead, two-photon absorption (2PA) commences when the two-photon energy is resonant with the optical gap, associated with the level causing the anomaly. We determine absolute nonlinear optical dispersion over this 3PA-2PA region, which can be explained by two-band models in terms of the optical gap. The polarization dependence of 3PA and 2PA is also measured and explained by the relevant selection rules. CsPbBr 3 is highly luminescent under multiphoton absorption at room temperature with marked polarization and wavelength dependence at the 3PA-2PA crossover and therefore has potential for nonlinear optical applications.

  11. DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) urban pollution measurements

    Stevens, Robert K.; Vossler, T. L.

    1991-05-01

    During July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc. was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 (1099 m) and path 2 (1824 m), ozone (03), sulfur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HNO2) formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRN) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of 03, NO2, and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for 03 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRN's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o- xylene. However, the correlation coefficient between the DOAS and GC measurements of toluene averaged only 0.15 for the two DOAS measurement paths. The lack of correlation and other factors indicate the possibility of a localized source of toluene near the GC. In general, disagreements between the two measurement methods could be caused by atmospheric inhomogeneities or interferences in the DOAS and other methods.

  12. Optical absorption of dilute solutions of metals in molten salts

    Senatore, G.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura dell material del CNR, Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1978-12-23

    The theory of liquid structure for fluids of charged hard spheres is applied to an evaluation of the F-centre model for valence electrons in metal-molten salt solutions at high dilution. Minimization of the free energy yields the groundstate radius of the elctron bubble and hence the optical excitation energy in a Franck-Condon transition, the shift and broadening of the transition due to fluctuations in the bubble radius, the volume of mixing, and the activity of the salt in the solution.

  13. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  14. Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells

    Goris, L.; Poruba, A.; Hod'akova, L.; Vanecek, M.; Haenen, K.; Nesladek, M.; Wagner, P.; Vanderzande, D.; Schepper, L. de; Manca, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports on highly sensitive optical absorption measurements on organic donor-acceptor solar cells, using Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy (FTPS). The spectra cover an unprecedented dynamic range of eight to nine orders of magnitude making it possible to detect defect and disorder related sub-band gap transitions. Direct measurements on fully encapsulated solar cells with an active layer of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3 ' ,7 ' -dimethyl-octyloxy)]-p-phenylene-vinylene: (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid (1:4 weight ratio) enabled a study of the intrinsic defect generation due to UV illumination. Solar cell temperature annealing effects in poly(3-hexylthiophene):PCBM (1:2 weight ratio) cells and the induced morphological changes are related to the changes in the absorption spectrum, as determined with FTPS

  15. Diode-Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of an Optically Thick Plasma in Combination with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    S. Nomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion of laser-induced fluorescence profiles attributable to optical absorption and saturation broadening was corrected in combination with laser absorption spectroscopy in argon plasma flow. At high probe-laser intensity, saturated absorption profiles were measured to correct probe-laser absorption. At low laser intensity, nonsaturated absorption profiles were measured to correct fluorescence reabsorption. Saturation broadening at the measurement point was corrected using a ratio of saturated to non-saturated broadening. Observed LIF broadening and corresponding translational temperature without correction were, respectively, 2.20±0.05 GHz and 2510±100 K and corrected broadening and temperature were, respectively, 1.96±0.07 GHz and 1990±150 K. Although this correction is applicable only at the center of symmetry, the deduced temperature agreed well with that obtained by LAS with Abel inversion.

  16. SiNx layers on nanostructured Si solar cells: Effective for optical absorption and carrier collection

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2015-01-01

    We compared nanopatterned Si solar cells with and without SiN x layers. The SiN x layer coating significantly improved the internal quantum efficiency of the nanopatterned cells at long wavelengths as well as short wavelengths, whereas the surface passivation helped carrier collection of flat cells mainly at short wavelengths. The surface nanostructured array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range. Resulting high density of the photo-excited carriers near the surface could lead to significant recombination loss and the SiN x layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured solar cells

  17. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthik@nitt.edu; Hariharan, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Udayabhaskar, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Advanced Ceramics and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386 (Chile)

    2016-07-11

    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO through hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.

  18. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    Karthikeyan, B.; Hariharan, S.; Udayabhaskar, R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO through hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.

  19. Optical absorption of charged excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine the absorption coefficient of charged excitons in carbon nanotubes. We investigate the temperature and damping dependence of the absorption spectra. We show that the trion peak in the spectrum is asymmetric for temperatures greater than approximately 1 K whereas...

  20. Optical absorption study of radiation and thermal effects in Brazilian samples of spodumene

    Isotani, S.; Fujii, A.T.; Antonini, R.; Furtado, W.

    1988-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical absorption spectra of five varieties of Brazilian spodumene is presented. The samples were submitted to heat treatments and irradiated with gamma rays, x radiation, electrons and ultraviolet light. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Studies on the optical absorption of copper-dopped myoglobin: conformational changes

    Lamy, M.T.M.

    1976-03-01

    Optical absorption changes in the visible and near U.V. spectrum of myoglobin molecules are observed when copper ions are added to the macromolecule. The heme optical transitions are investigated through a theoretical simulation of the optical absorption spectrum. A study of the absorption band in the region of 700 nm associated with the copper - myoglobin complexes indicated the existence of two kinds of metal-protein complexes: one associated with the six or eitht first added copper ions and the other related with the higher concentrations. Conformational changes caused by thermal treatment are studied in myoglobin water solutions and solutions containing copper ions. The phenomenon named pre-denaturation is observed through the optical absorption at 245 nm. It is shown that interactions between myoglobin molecules occur in the pre-denaturation phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  2. Multi-spectral optical absorption in substrate-free nanowire arrays

    Zhang, Junpeng; Chia, Andrew; Boulanger, Jonathan; LaPierre, Ray, E-mail: lapierr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Dhindsa, Navneet; Khodadad, Iman; Saini, Simarjeet [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-09-22

    A method is presented of fabricating gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire arrays of controlled diameter and period by reactive ion etching of a GaAs substrate containing an indium gallium arsenide (InGaP) etch stop layer, allowing the precise nanowire length to be controlled. The substrate is subsequently removed by selective etching, using the same InGaP etch stop layer, to create a substrate-free GaAs nanowire array. The optical absorptance of the nanowire array was then directly measured without absorption from a substrate. We directly observe absorptance spectra that can be tuned by the nanowire diameter, as explained with rigorous coupled wave analysis. These results illustrate strong optical absorption suitable for nanowire-based solar cells and multi-spectral absorption for wavelength discriminating photodetectors. The solar-weighted absorptance above the bandgap of GaAs was 94% for a nanowire surface coverage of only 15%.

  3. Correction to the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law for optical absorption.

    Abitan, Haim; Bohr, Henrik; Buchhave, Preben

    2008-10-10

    The Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption law, known as Beer's law for absorption in an optical medium, is precise only at power densities lower than a few kW. At higher power densities this law fails because it neglects the processes of stimulated emission and spontaneous emission. In previous models that considered those processes, an analytical expression for the absorption law could not be obtained. We show here that by utilizing the Lambert W-function, the two-level energy rate equation model is solved analytically, and this leads into a general absorption law that is exact because it accounts for absorption as well as stimulated and spontaneous emission. The general absorption law reduces to Beer's law at low power densities. A criterion for its application is given along with experimental examples. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  4. Characterization of ion-assisted induced absorption in A-Si thin-films used for multivariate optical computing

    Nayak, Aditya B.; Price, James M.; Dai, Bin; Perkins, David; Chen, Ding Ding; Jones, Christopher M.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate optical computing (MOC), an optical sensing technique for analog calculation, allows direct and robust measurement of chemical and physical properties of complex fluid samples in high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) downhole environments. The core of this MOC technology is the integrated computational element (ICE), an optical element with a wavelength-dependent transmission spectrum designed to allow the detector to respond sensitively and specifically to the analytes of interest. A key differentiator of this technology is it uses all of the information present in the broadband optical spectrum to determine the proportion of the analyte present in a complex fluid mixture. The detection methodology is photometric in nature; therefore, this technology does not require a spectrometer to measure and record a spectrum or a computer to perform calculations on the recorded optical spectrum. The integrated computational element is a thin-film optical element with a specific optical response function designed for each analyte. The optical response function is achieved by fabricating alternating layers of high-index (a-Si) and low-index (SiO2) thin films onto a transparent substrate (BK7 glass) using traditional thin-film manufacturing processes (e.g., ion-assisted e-beam vacuum deposition). A proprietary software and process are used to control the thickness and material properties, including the optical constants of the materials during deposition to achieve the desired optical response function. The ion-assisted deposition is useful for controlling the densification of the film, stoichiometry, and material optical constants as well as to achieve high deposition growth rates and moisture-stable films. However, the ion-source can induce undesirable absorption in the film; and subsequently, modify the optical constants of the material during the ramp-up and stabilization period of the e-gun and ion-source, respectively. This paper characterizes the unwanted

  5. Electronic structure and optical absorption spectra of Y2 and Zr2 dimers

    Gutsev, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The electron structure, ionization potentials from valent levels and energies of optic transitions of Y 2 and Zr 2 dimers are calculated within the framework of discrete-variatin X α -method. It is shown that the symmetry state 1 Σ g + is the main state of Y 2 and Zr 2 dimers, and the atoms in dimers have high-spin 4d n+1 5s 1 configuration. The chemical binding in Y 2 has the dominating 5s-5s nature which is revealed in a considerable interatomic distance; binding of 4d-electrons brings about a significant decrease in the bond length in Zr 2 dimer. The theoretical spectrum of optical absorption of Zr 2 agrees well with the obtained experimental spectrum of this molecule isolated in the organ matrix

  6. Spectral dependence of nonlinear optical absorption of silica glass with copper nanoparticles

    Golubev, A N; Nikitin, S I; Smirnov, M A; Stepanov, A L

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of silica glass with copper nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation were investigated by z-scan method in nanosecond time scale. The reverse saturation absorption (RSA) at the wavelength range of 450–540 nm and saturation absorption (SA) at 550–585 nm were observed. It was supposed that the two-photon electron absorption from bound of d-states determined the RSA effect and the SA is due to saturation of plasmon excitation.

  7. All-optical femtosecond switch using two-photon absorption

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing a two-photon absorption scheme in an alkali-metal vapor cell, we suggest a technique where a strong laser beam switches off another laser beam of different wavelength in femtosecond time scales

  8. New techniques for optical absorption measurement of implanted nanoparticles in float glass

    Okur, I.; Townsend, P.D.; Chandler, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    New techniques are reported for optical absorption and waveguide loss measurement of copper, gold and silver implanted float glass. Implantations were carried out on the tin face of the float glass since this face is an optical waveguide. Specially made triangle shape masks were used during implantation to study the optical loss-implant length relation. Absorption coefficients were extracted as 2.4 and 1 cm -1 for the gold and silver implants at 633 nm, respectively. These values were found to be implant condition dependent. To analyse the shape of nanoparticles a sandwiched structure was used in an optical absorption measurement set-up in which two guiding faces were put in contact. The sandwiched structure places the colloids at the centre of the optical field distribution rather than on the boundary zone. These experiments have revealed that the copper and the gold particles may have non-spherical shapes, whereas for silver, the formation of spherical nanoparticles is more likely

  9. Optical absorption of neutron-irradiated silica fibers

    Cooke, D.W.; Farnum, E.H.; Bennett, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Induced-loss spectra of silica-based optical fibers exposed to high (10 23 n-m -2 ) and low (10 21 n-m -2 ) fluences of neutrons at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) have been measured. Two types of fibers consisting of a pure fused silica core with fluorine-doped (∼4 mole %) cladding were obtained from Fiberguide Industries and used in the as-received condition. Anhydroguide trademark and superguide trademark fibers contained less than 1 ppm, and 600 to 800 ppm of OH, respectively. The data suggest that presently available silica fibers can be used in plasma diagnostics, but the choice and suitability depends upon the spectral region of interest. Low-OH content fibers can be used for diagnostic purposes in the interval ∼800 to 1400 mn if the exposure is to high-fluence neutrons. For low-fluence neutron exposures, the low-OH content fibers are best suited for use in the interval ∼800 to 2000 nm, and the high-OH content fibers are the choice for the interval ∼400 to 800 nm

  10. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  11. Spectral studies of ocean water with space-borne sensor SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS

    M. Vountas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods enabling the retrieval of oceanic parameter from the space borne instrumentation Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS are presented. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT measures back scattered solar radiation at a spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm. The DOAS method was used for the first time to fit modelled Vibrational Raman Scattering (VRS in liquid water and in situ measured phytoplankton absorption reference spectra to optical depths measured by SCIAMACHY. Spectral structures of VRS and phytoplankton absorption were clearly found in these optical depths. Both fitting approaches lead to consistent results. DOAS fits correlate with estimates of chlorophyll concentrations: low fit factors for VRS retrievals correspond to large chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa; large fit factors for phytoplankton absorption correspond with high chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa. From these results a simple retrieval technique taking advantage of both measurements is shown. First maps of global chlorophyll concentrations were compared to the corresponding MODIS measurements with very promising results. In addition, results from this study will be used to improve atmospheric trace gas DOAS-retrievals from visible wavelengths by including these oceanographic signatures.

  12. Ultraviolet optical absorption of alkali cyanides and alkali halide cyanides

    Souza Camargo Junior, S.A. de.

    1982-09-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra of alkali cyanide and mixed alkali halide cyanide crystals were measured at temperatures ranging from 300K down to 4.2K. A set of small absorption peaks was observed at energies near 6 eV and assigned to parity forbidden X 1 Σ + →a' 3 Σ + transitions of the CN - molecular ions. It was observed that the peak position depends on the alkali atom while the absorption cross section strongly depends on the halogen and on the CN - concentration of the mixed crystals. These effects are explained in terms of an interaction between the triplet molecular excitons and charge transfer excitons. The experimental data were fit with a coupling energy of a few meV. The coupling mechanism is discussed and it is found to be due to the overlap between the wave functions of the two excitations. (Author) [pt

  13. Force-detected nanoscale absorption spectroscopy in water at room temperature using an optical trap

    Parobek, Alexander; Black, Jacob W.; Kamenetska, Maria; Ganim, Ziad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring absorption spectra of single molecules presents a fundamental challenge for standard transmission-based instruments because of the inherently low signal relative to the large background of the excitation source. Here we demonstrate a new approach for performing absorption spectroscopy in solution using a force measurement to read out optical excitation at the nanoscale. The photoinduced force between model chromophores and an optically trapped gold nanoshell has been measured in water at room temperature. This photoinduced force is characterized as a function of wavelength to yield the force spectrum, which is shown to be correlated to the absorption spectrum for four model systems. The instrument constructed for these measurements combines an optical tweezer with frequency domain absorption spectroscopy over the 400-800 nm range. These measurements provide proof-of-principle experiments for force-detected nanoscale spectroscopies that operate under ambient chemical conditions.

  14. Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of chromium in different host glasses

    Lachheb, R., E-mail: raouialach66@gmail.com [LaboratoireGéoressources, Matériaux, Environnement et Changements Globaux, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Herrmann, A. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstraße 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Damak, K. [LaboratoireGéoressources, Matériaux, Environnement et Changements Globaux, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Rüssel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstraße 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Maâlej, R. [LaboratoireGéoressources, Matériaux, Environnement et Changements Globaux, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax University, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2017-06-15

    The optical absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra, and emission lifetimes of chromium (III) were investigated in a wide variety of oxide glasses (aluminosilicate, aluminate and phosphate). For all glasses, weak crystal field strengths were deduced from the absorption spectra. The effect of the glass matrix and the Cr{sup 3+} concentration on the fluorescence properties of Cr{sup 3+} ions were investigated. An increased fluorescence intensity of Cr{sup 3+}was found for glasses of low optical basicity, the spectral position of the Cr{sup 3+} absorption and emission, however, was hardly influenced by the glass composition. The optical absorption spectra of the chromium doped aluminosilicate and aluminate glasses showed the presence of Cr{sup VI}, while in phosphate glasses most chromium occurred as Cr{sup 3+} ions. Furthermore, for the glass with the lowest basicity, the Cr{sup 3+}concentration was optimized in order to achieve maximum fluorescence emission intensity.

  15. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  16. Optical absorptions in ZnO/a-Si distributed Bragg reflectors

    Chen, Aqing, E-mail: aqchen@hdu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhian [Hangzhou Dianzi University, College of Materials & Environmental Engineering (China); Zhu, Kaigui [Beihang University, Department of physics (China); Ji, Zhenguo [Hangzhou Dianzi University, College of Materials & Environmental Engineering (China)

    2017-01-15

    The distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) consisting of alternating layers of ZnO and heavy doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) have been fabricated by magnetron sputtering. It is novel to find that the optical absorptions exist in the stopband of the DBRs, and that many discrete strong optical absorption peaks exist in the wavelength range of visible to near-infrared. The calculated results by FDTD show that the absorptions in the stopband mainly exist in the first a-Si layer, and that the light absorbed by other a-Si layers inside contributes to the two absorption peaks in near-infrared range. The strong absorptions ranged from visible to infrared open new possibilities to the enhancement of the performance of amorphous silicon solar cells.

  17. Ellipsometric analysis and optical absorption characterization of gallium phosphide nanoparticulate thin film

    Zhang Qi-Xian; Ruan Fang-Ping; Wei Wen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) nanoparticulate thin films were easily fabricated by colloidal suspension deposition via GaP nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide. The microstructure of the film was performed by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The film was further investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the model GaP+void|SiO 2 was built and an effective medium approximation was adopted, the values of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were calculated for the energy range of 0.75 eV–4.0 eV using the dispersion formula in DeltaPsi2 software. The absorption coefficient of the film was calculated from its k and its energy gaps were further estimated according to the Tauc equation, which were further verified by its fluorescence spectrum measurement. The structure and optical absorption properties of the nanoparticulate films are promising for their potential applications in hybrid solar cells. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Au-rich filamentary behavior and associated subband gap optical absorption in hyperdoped Si

    Yang, W.; Akey, A. J.; Smillie, L. A.; Mailoa, J. P.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.; Macdonald, D.; Buonassisi, T.; Aziz, M. J.; Williams, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Au-hyperdoped Si, synthesized by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting, is known to exhibit a strong sub-band gap photoresponse that scales monotonically with the Au concentration. However, there is thought to be a limit to this behavior since ultrahigh Au concentrations (>1 ×1020c m-3 ) are expected to induce cellular breakdown during the rapid resolidification of Si, a process that is associated with significant lateral impurity precipitation. This work shows that the cellular morphology observed in Au-hyperdoped Si differs from that in conventional, steady-state cellular breakdown. In particular, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry combined with channeling and transmission electron microscopy revealed an inhomogeneous Au distribution and a subsurface network of Au-rich filaments, within which the Au impurities largely reside on substitutional positions in the crystalline Si lattice, at concentrations as high as ˜3 at. %. The measured substitutional Au dose, regardless of the presence of Au-rich filaments, correlates strongly with the sub-band gap optical absorptance. Upon subsequent thermal treatment, the supersaturated Au forms precipitates, while the Au substitutionality and the sub-band gap optical absorption both decrease. These results offer insight into a metastable filamentary regime in Au-hyperdoped Si that has important implications for Si-based infrared optoelectronics.

  19. Functionally graded poly(dimethylsiloxane)/silver nanocomposites with tailored broadband optical absorption

    Nikolaou, P.; Mina, C.; Constantinou, M.; Koutsokeras, L.E.; Constantinides, G. [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 50329, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus); Lidorikis, E.; Avgeropoulos, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kelires, P.C. [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 50329, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus); Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we produce functionally graded nanocomposites consisting of silver (Ag) plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) supported in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. PDMS was selected due to its high optical transparency, nontoxicity and ease of use. The Ag PNPs were formed by annealing sputtered Ag ultra-thin films and were subsequently capped by a spin-coated PDMS layer. We investigate the factors that affect their plasmonic behavior, such as the PNP size, the annealing conditions and the surrounding environment. In order to achieve broadband absorption, we developed PDMS/Ag(PNPs) multilayers with graded PNP size. Thus, we demonstrate the significance of the stacking sequence of various plasmonic layers sandwiched between PDMS layers and its potential for tailoring the plasmonic response of multilayer structure. As a demonstration of this approach, we deposited a specially designed multilayer structure, whose optical extinction resembles the solar emission spectrum. - Highlights: • Elastomers are combined with plasmonic nanoparticles. • The plasmonic effects in stratified media are identified. • Broadband absorption similar to solar emission is achieved.

  20. In situ measurements of the optical absorption of dioxythiophene-based conjugated polymers

    Hwang, J.; Schwendeman, I.; Ihas, B. C.; Clark, R. J.; Cornick, M.; Nikolou, M.; Argun, A.; Reynolds, J. R.; Tanner, D. B.

    2011-05-01

    Conjugated polymers can be reversibly doped by electrochemical means. This doping introduces new subband-gap optical absorption bands in the polymer while decreasing the band-gap absorption. To study this behavior, we have prepared an electrochemical cell allowing in situ measurements of the optical properties of the polymer. The cell consists of a thin polymer film deposited on gold-coated Mylar behind which is another polymer that serves as a counterelectrode. An infrared transparent window protects the upper polymer from ambient air. By adding a gel electrolyte and making electrical connections to the polymer-on-gold films, one may study electrochromism in a wide spectral range. As the cell voltage (the potential difference between the two electrodes) changes, the doping level of the conjugated polymer films is changed reversibly. Our experiments address electrochromism in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly(3,4-dimethylpropylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT-Me2). This closed electrochemical cell allows the study of the doping induced subband-gap features (polaronic and bipolaronic modes) in these easily oxidized and highly redox switchable polymers. We also study the changes in cell spectra as a function of polymer thickness and investigate strategies to obtain cleaner spectra, minimizing the contributions of water and gel electrolyte features.

  1. Simultaneous Absorptance and Thermal-Diffusivity Determination of Optical Components with Laser Calorimetry Technique

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Bincheng

    2012-11-01

    The laser calorimetry (LCA) technique is used to determine simultaneously the absorptances and thermal diffusivities of optical components. An accurate temperature model, in which both the finite thermal conductivity and the finite sample size are taken into account, is employed to fit the experimental temperature data measured with an LCA apparatus for a precise determination of the absorptance and thermal diffusivity via a multiparameter fitting procedure. The uniqueness issue of the multiparameter fitting is discussed in detail. Experimentally, highly reflective (HR) samples prepared with electron-beam evaporation on different substrates (BK7, fused silica, and Ge) are measured with LCA. For the HR-coated sample on a fused silica substrate, the absorptance is determined to be 15.4 ppm, which is close to the value of 17.6 ppm, determined with a simplified temperature model recommended in the international standard ISO11551. The thermal diffusivity is simultaneously determined via multiparameter fitting to be approximately 6.63 × 10-7 m2 · s-1 with a corresponding square variance of 4.8 × 10-4. The fitted thermal diffusivity is in reasonably good agreement with the literature value (7.5 × 10-7 m2 · s -1). Good agreement is also obtained for samples with BK7 and Ge substrates.

  2. Anomalous optical surface absorption in nominally pure silicon samples at 1550 nm

    Bell, Angus S.; Steinlechner, Jessica; Martin, Iain W.; Craig, Kieran; Cunningham, William; Rowan, Sheila; Hough, Jim; Schnabel, Roman; Khalaidovski, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    The announcement of the direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by the LIGO and Virgo collaboration in February 2016 has removed any uncertainty around the possibility of GW astronomy. It has demonstrated that future detectors with sensitivities ten times greater than the Advanced LIGO detectors would see thousands of events per year. Many proposals for such future interferometric GW detectors assume the use of silicon test masses. Silicon has low mechanical loss at low temperatures, which leads to low displacement noise for a suspended interferometer mirror. In addition to the low mechanical loss, it is a requirement that the test masses have a low optical loss. Measurements at 1550 nm have indicated that material with a low enough bulk absorption is available; however there have been suggestions that this low absorption material has a surface absorption of  >100 ppm which could preclude its use in future cryogenic detectors. We show in this paper that this surface loss is not intrinsic but is likely to be a result of particular polishing techniques and can be removed or avoided by the correct polishing procedure. This is an important step towards high gravitational wave detection rates in silicon based instruments.

  3. Anomalous optical surface absorption in nominally pure silicon samples at 1550 nm

    Bell, Angus S; Steinlechner, Jessica; Martin, Iain W; Craig, Kieran; Cunningham, William; Rowan, Sheila; Hough, Jim; Schnabel, Roman; Khalaidovski, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by the LIGO and Virgo collaboration in February 2016 has removed any uncertainty around the possibility of GW astronomy. It has demonstrated that future detectors with sensitivities ten times greater than the Advanced LIGO detectors would see thousands of events per year. Many proposals for such future interferometric GW detectors assume the use of silicon test masses. Silicon has low mechanical loss at low temperatures, which leads to low displacement noise for a suspended interferometer mirror. In addition to the low mechanical loss, it is a requirement that the test masses have a low optical loss. Measurements at 1550 nm have indicated that material with a low enough bulk absorption is available; however there have been suggestions that this low absorption material has a surface absorption of  >100 ppm which could preclude its use in future cryogenic detectors. We show in this paper that this surface loss is not intrinsic but is likely to be a result of particular polishing techniques and can be removed or avoided by the correct polishing procedure. This is an important step towards high gravitational wave detection rates in silicon based instruments. (paper)

  4. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71 0 C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized

  5. Effects of polarization and absorption on laser induced optical breakdown threshold for skin rejuvenation

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Turco, Simona; Verhagen, Rieko

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a non-linear absorption process leading to plasma formation at locations where the threshold irradiance for breakdown is surpassed. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the influence of polarization and absorption on laser induced breakdown threshold in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms made from water suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. We demonstrate that radially polarized light yields a lower irradiance threshold for creating optical breakdown compared to linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that the thermal initiation pathway used for generating seed electrons results in a lower irradiance threshold compared to multiphoton initiation pathway used for optical breakdown.

  6. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  7. Absorption optical density as a diagnostic tool for indicating the ...

    Nanotechnology has recently emerged as a promising approach for treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood absorption spectra to assess bioaccumulation and toxic effects of 100 μl of 10 and 50 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) upon intraperitoneal administration in rats ...

  8. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  9. Double tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    Jora, M.Z.; Nóbrega, J.A.; Rohwedder, J.J.R.; Pasquini, C.

    2015-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometer based on a quartz acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) monochromator operating in the 271–453 nm range, is described. The instrument was tailored to study the formation and evolution of electrothermal atomic cloud induced either by one or two tungsten coils. The spectrometer also includes a fast response programmable photomultiplier module for data acquisition, and a power supply capable of driving two parallel tungsten coils independently. The atomization cell herein described was manufactured in PTFE and presents a new design with reduced size. Synchronization between the instant of power delivering to start the atomization process and the detection was achieved, allowing for monitoring the atomization and thermal events synchronously and in real time. Absorption signals can be sampled at a rate of a few milliseconds, compatible with the fast phenomena that occur with electrothermal metallic atomizers. The instrument performance was preliminarily evaluated by monitoring the absorption of radiation of atomic clouds produced by standard solutions containing chromium or lead. Its quantitative performance was evaluated by using Cr aqueous solutions, resulting in detection limits as low as 0.24 μg L −1 , and a relative standard deviation of 3%. - Highlights: • The use of an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) as monochromator element in WC AAS is presented for the first time. • The system includes the possibility of using one or two parallel coils. • We propose a new atomization cell design, manufactured on PTFE with reduced size. • The temperature of the coils and the atomic clouds of Pb and Cr were observed synchronously with high temporal resolution

  10. Broadband and high absorption in Fibonacci photonic crystal including MoS2 monolayer in the visible range

    Ansari, Narges; Mohebbi, Ensiyeh

    2018-03-01

    2D molybdenum disulfide MoS2, has represented potential applications in optoelectronic devices based on their promising optical absorption responses. However, for practical applications, absorption should increase furthermore in a wide wavelength window. In this paper, we design Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs) based on Si, SiO2 and MoS2 monolayer and we calculate their absorption responses based on the transfer matrix method. The optical refractive index of the MoS2 monolayer was determined based on the Lorentz-Drude-Gauss model. Effects of Fibonacci order, periodicity, incident light angle and polarization are included in our calculations. Finally, an absorption as large as 90% in a wide optical wavelength range is achieved for both polarizations and incident angle down to 60°. Our results are useful for designing photonic devices with high absorption efficiency.

  11. Intense laser effects on nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification in single quantum wells under applied electric and magnetic field

    Duque, C.A.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the effects of intense laser on the electron-related nonlinear optical absorption and nonlinear optical rectification in GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied under, applied electric and magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the growth direction of the quantum well whereas the magnetic field has been considered to be in-plane. The calculations were performed within the density matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The intense laser effects are included through the Floquet method, by modifying the confining potential associated to the heterostructure. Results are presented for the nonlinear optical absorption, the nonlinear optical rectification and the resonant peak of these two optical processes. Several configurations of the dimensions of the quantum well, the applied electric and magnetic fields, and the incident intense laser radiation have been considered. The outcome of the calculation suggests that the nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification are non-monotonic functions of the dimensions of the heterostructure and of the external perturbations considered in this work.

  12. SHARDS: Survey for High-z Absorption Red & Dead Sources

    Pérez-González, P. G.; Cava, A.

    2013-05-01

    SHARDS, an ESO/GTC Large Program, is an ultra-deep (26.5 mag) spectro-photometric survey with GTC/OSIRIS designed to select and study massive passively evolving galaxies at z=1.0-2.3 in the GOODS-N field using a set of 24 medium-band filters (FWHM~17 nm) covering the 500-950 nm spectral range. Our observing strategy has been planned to detect, for z>1 sources, the prominent Mg absorption feature (at rest-frame ~280 nm), a distinctive, necessary, and sufficient feature of evolved stellar populations (older than 0.5 Gyr). These observations are being used to: (1) derive for the first time an unbiased sample of high-z quiescent galaxies, which extends to fainter magnitudes the samples selected with color techniques and spectroscopic surveys; (2) derive accurate ages and stellar masses based on robust measurements of spectral features such as the Mg_UV or D(4000) indices; (3) measure their redshift with an accuracy Δz/(1+z)<0.02; and (4) study emission-line galaxies (starbursts and AGN) up to very high redshifts. The well-sampled optical SEDs provided by SHARDS for all sources in the GOODS-N field are a valuable complement for current and future surveys carried out with other telescopes (e.g., Spitzer, HST, and Herschel).

  13. Laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen confined in highly porous hollow sphere xerogel.

    Yang, Lin; Somesfalean, Gabriel; He, Sailing

    2014-02-10

    An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6 µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material's gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied.

  14. Radiation-induced transient absorption in single mode optical fibers

    Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the measurements conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of these NATO efforts wherein radiation-induced transient absorption was measured over time ranges from a few ns to several μs for two single mode fibers. Experimental conditions were varied to provide data for future development of standarized test conditions for single mode fibers. 8 refs., 11 figs

  15. Modeling of optical absorption of silver prolate nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel glasses

    Renteria, V.M.; Garcia-Macedo, J.

    2005-01-01

    Silver prolate nanoparticles were obtained in silica gels prepared by the sol-gel process. Heating them at 900 deg. C for few minutes, the samples showed a yellow-orange color. A strong optical absorption with an asymmetric peak centred at 425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles was observed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed silver prolate particles (average axial ratio AR = 0.76) randomly oriented with broad size distribution. The size changed from 9 to 3 nm and the prolate form changed to almost spherical (AR = 0.92) when the samples were heated longer time at 900 deg. C. In these samples, the absorption peak was shifted from 425 up to 460 nm. After heat treatment, the absorption spectrum did not change any more in some months, indicating that the particles obtained through this method are stable at room temperature. The Gans theory was used to fit the experimental spectra. The fit was not good until we assumed in the calculations all the physical features come from the system such as the volume fraction, shape and size of the metallic particles, and refractive index of the silica matrix. It was necessary to consider also a refractive index that come from oxidation on the surface of the metallic particles. With these considerations the fit with the Gans theory was good enough, and the difference between the calculated and experimental spectra was very small, factor 20 better than when oxidation is ignored. So then, the oxidation from the metallic particles must be taken in account to explain the experimental absorption spectra. These results are discussed

  16. Modeling of optical absorption of silver prolate nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel glasses

    Renteria, V.M. [Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Garcia-Macedo, J. [Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)]. E-mail: gamaj@fisica.unam.mx

    2005-05-15

    Silver prolate nanoparticles were obtained in silica gels prepared by the sol-gel process. Heating them at 900 deg. C for few minutes, the samples showed a yellow-orange color. A strong optical absorption with an asymmetric peak centred at 425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles was observed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed silver prolate particles (average axial ratio AR = 0.76) randomly oriented with broad size distribution. The size changed from 9 to 3 nm and the prolate form changed to almost spherical (AR = 0.92) when the samples were heated longer time at 900 deg. C. In these samples, the absorption peak was shifted from 425 up to 460 nm. After heat treatment, the absorption spectrum did not change any more in some months, indicating that the particles obtained through this method are stable at room temperature. The Gans theory was used to fit the experimental spectra. The fit was not good until we assumed in the calculations all the physical features come from the system such as the volume fraction, shape and size of the metallic particles, and refractive index of the silica matrix. It was necessary to consider also a refractive index that come from oxidation on the surface of the metallic particles. With these considerations the fit with the Gans theory was good enough, and the difference between the calculated and experimental spectra was very small, factor 20 better than when oxidation is ignored. So then, the oxidation from the metallic particles must be taken in account to explain the experimental absorption spectra. These results are discussed.

  17. Black carbon's contribution to aerosol absorption optical depth over S. Korea

    Lamb, K.; Perring, A. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Redemann, J.; Holben, B. N.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) monitored by ground-based sites (AERONET, SKYNET, etc.) is used to constrain climate radiative forcing from black carbon (BC) and other absorbing aerosols in global models, but few validation studies between in situ aerosol measurements and ground-based AAOD exist. AAOD is affected by aerosol size distributions, composition, mixing state, and morphology. Megacities provide appealing test cases for this type of study due to their association with very high concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols. During the KORUS-AQ campaign in S. Korea, which took place in late spring and early summer of 2016, in situ aircraft measurements over the Seoul Metropolitan Area and Taehwa Research Forest (downwind of Seoul) were repeated three times per flight over a 6 week period, providing significant temporal coverage of vertically resolved aerosol properties influenced by different meteorological conditions and sources. Measurements aboard the NASA DC-8 by the NOAA Humidified Dual Single Particle Soot Photometers (HD-SP2) quantified BC mass, size distributions, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of BC containing aerosols. The in situ BC mass vertical profiles are combined with estimated absorption enhancement calculated from observed optical size and hygroscopicity using Mie theory, and then integrated over the depth of the profile to calculate BC's contribution to AAOD. Along with bulk aerosol size distributions and hygroscopicity, bulk absorbing aerosol optical properties, and on-board sky radiance measurements, these measurements are compared with ground-based AERONET site measurements of AAOD to evaluate closure between in situ vertical profiles of BC and AAOD measurements. This study will provide constraints on the relative importance of BC (including lensing and hygroscopicity effects) and non-BC components to AAOD over S. Korea.

  18. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  19. Optical absorption in planar graphene superlattice: The role of structural parameters

    Azadi, L.; Shojaei, S.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically studied the optically driven interband transitions in a planar graphene superlattices (PGSL) formed by patterning graphene sheet on laterally hetrostructured substrate as Sio2/hBN. A tunable optical transitions between minibands is observed based on engineering structural parameters. We derive analytically expression for optical absorption from two-band model. Considerable optical absorption is obtained for different ratios between widths of heterostructured substrate and is explained analytically from the view point of wavefunction engineering and miniband dispersion, in details. The role of different statuses of polarization as circular and linear are considered. Our study paves a way toward the control of optical properties of PGSLs to be implemented in optoelectronics devices.

  20. Customized three-dimensional printed optical phantoms with user defined absorption and scattering

    Pannem, Sanjana; Sweer, Jordan; Diep, Phuong; Lo, Justine; Snyder, Michael; Stueber, Gabriella; Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Istfan, Raeef; Wu, Junjie; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Roblyer, Darren M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of reliable tissue-simulating phantoms spans multiple applications in spectroscopic imaging including device calibration and testing of new imaging procedures. Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows for the possibility of optical phantoms with arbitrary geometries and spatially varying optical properties. We recently demonstrated the ability to 3D print tissue-simulating phantoms with customized absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs`) by incorporating nigrosin, an absorbing dye, and titanium dioxide (TiO2), a scattering agent, to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) during filament extrusion. A physiologically relevant range of μa and μs` was demonstrated with high repeatability. We expand our prior work here by evaluating the effect of two important 3D-printing parameters, percent infill and layer height, on both μa and μs`. 2 cm3 cubes were printed with percent infill ranging from 10% to 100% and layer height ranging from 0.15 to 0.40 mm. The range in μa and μs` was 27.3% and 19.5% respectively for different percent infills at 471 nm. For varying layer height, the range in μa and μs` was 27.8% and 15.4% respectively at 471 nm. These results indicate that percent infill and layer height substantially alter optical properties and should be carefully controlled during phantom fabrication. Through the use of inexpensive hobby-level printers, the fabrication of optical phantoms may advance the complexity and availability of fully customizable phantoms over multiple spatial scales. This technique exhibits a wider range of adaptability than other common methods of fabricating optical phantoms and may lead to improved instrument characterization and calibration.

  1. Optical properties of high-Tc superconductors

    Aspnes, D.E.; Kelly, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors summarize the present status of optical spectroscopy of high-T c superconductors. The optical properties of these materials resemble those of the more common transition metal oxides except for being highly anisotropic in the infrared (IR). This large IR anisotrophy and a need to rely solely on reflectance techniques has hindered progress in obtaining accurate IR data and interpreting these data in terms of microscopic mechanisms. However, experimental consistency is now being approached with single-crystal samples, although interpretations of these data remain controversial and an unequivocal demonstration of a superconducting gap structure has not yet been achieved. The mid IR exhibits an absorption band whose systematics are neither well established nor understood. The situation in the visible-near-ultraviolet (V-NUV) is better, partly because of greatly reduced optical anisotropy and the availability of alternative measurement techniques that are not strongly affected by the lower optical quality of sintered material. As polycrystalline, sintered samples can be prepared relatively easily over wide ranges of composition, doping, and chemical substitution, most work on studying the chemical systematics of these materials has been done in this spectral range and some of the structure that appears here has been positively identified

  2. Optical absorption in SrC4H4O6·3H2O crystals

    Arora, S.K.; Patel, Vipul; Kothari, Anjana; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2004-01-01

    Study of optical absorption in the gel-grown strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) single crystals measured in UV-vis range at room temperature reveals transitions involving absorption and emission of phonons. Based on the theory of interband optical absorptions, the electronic transition near the fundamental absorption edge is analysed. Some feeble disorder in the crystal is conceived to be present. The analysis carried out hereunder leads to estimation of energy of the lattice phonons involved

  3. Interpretation of the optical absorption spectrum of uranium germanate

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Visible and infrared absorption spectra of U 4+ in UGeO 4 are described and interpreted in terms of the standard parametrization scheme. One of the two models considered is consistent with available interpretations of other uranium germanates and silicates. The second one originating from theoretical estimation of the crystal-field effect permits exceptional properties of the compound under consideration, in particular, an untypical assignation of the electronic energy levels and values of the crystal-field parameters in comparison with other tetragonal oxides. (author)

  4. Interpretation of the optical absorption spectrum of uranium germanate

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J.C. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire); Zolnierek, Z. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych); Antic-Fidancev, E.; Lamaitre-Blaise, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France))

    1993-12-06

    Visible and infrared absorption spectra of U[sup 4+] in UGeO[sub 4] are described and interpreted in terms of the standard parametrization scheme. One of the two models considered is consistent with available interpretations of other uranium germanates and silicates. The second one originating from theoretical estimation of the crystal-field effect permits exceptional properties of the compound under consideration, in particular, an untypical assignation of the electronic energy levels and values of the crystal-field parameters in comparison with other tetragonal oxides. (author).

  5. [Seasonal changes of optical absorption properties of river and lake in East Liaohe River basin, Northeast China].

    Song, Yan Yan; Su, Dong Hui; Shao, Tian Tian

    2017-06-18

    The absorption characteristics of optically active constituents (OACs) in water column are important optical properties and basic parameters of establishing the inverse analysis model. Comparative analyses about seasonal variability of the optical absorption characteristics (phytoplankton, non-algal particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics) and water quality status of East Liaohe River basin were conducted based on the water samples in Erlong-hu Reservoir collected in June, September and October of 2011 and samples in East Liaohe River in October of 2012. The results demonstrated that the eutrophication status of Erlonghu Reservoir was lower in June, eutrophic in September and moderately eutrophic in October. Some of the sampling points of the East Liaohe River belonged to the middle trophic level and the other part belonged to the eutrophic level. The absorption coefficient of each component of water increased with increasing nutrient level. Besides, the absorption spectra of total suspended particulate of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and October were similar to that of non-algal particles, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed most to the total absorption of water. The absorption spectra of total suspended particulate matter in September were similar to that of phytoplankton and phytoplankton was the dominant contributor to the total absorption. For samples of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and September, a ph (440) and total phosphorus (TP) were correlated closely with each other. Significant correlation between a ph (440) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of Erlonghu Reservoir in June was observed, while a d (440) was only correlated with Chla. There were positive correlations between a ph (675) and Chla, Carlson index (TLI) in Erlonghu Reservoir (September) and East Liaohe River. Obvious differences of water optical properties were found between river and lake located in the East Liaohe River basin as

  6. Optical absorption analysis on diamond crystals modified by H2+ implantation and subsequent annealing

    Ma, Z.Q.; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Goppelt-Langer, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The optical absorption analysis on synthetic diamond irradiated by molecular hydrogen ions (H 2 + ) with 40 keV, 10 15 -10 17 H/cm 2 , at 100 K, showed that the absorption coefficient (α) of modified layer in UV-VIS range was increased with the implanted dose and decreased with thermal annealing. While its relative optical band gap (E r,opt ) was decreased with ion fluence and proportional to the annealing temperature. The possible microstructure of atomic coordination for as-implanted and subsequent annealing samples was discussed tentatively. In addition the optical inhomogeneity of the type Ib diamond has been revealed by absorption topograph at λ=430 nm. (author)

  7. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  8. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Whyte, C.; Leigh, R. J.; Lobb, D.; Williams, T.; Remedios, J. J.; Cutter, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  9. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    C. Whyte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  10. Sunlight absorption engineering for thermophotovoltaics: contributions from the optical design.

    Míguez, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High heat load synchrotron optics

    Mills, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density. These high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development

  12. Harnessing Multiple Internal Reflections to Design Highly Absorptive Acoustic Metasurfaces

    Shen, Chen; Cummer, Steven A.

    2018-05-01

    The rapid development of metasurfaces has enabled numerous intriguing applications with acoustically thin sheets. Here we report the theory and experimental realization of a nonresonant sound-absorbing strategy using metasurfaces by harnessing multiple internal reflections. We theoretically and numerically show that the higher-order diffraction of thin gradient-index metasurfaces is tied to multiple internal reflections inside the unit cells. Highly absorbing acoustic metasurfaces can be realized by enforcing multiple internal reflections together with a small amount of loss. A reflective gradient-index acoustic metasurface is designed based on the theory, and we further experimentally verify the performance using a three-dimensional printed prototype. Measurements show over 99% energy absorption at the peak frequency and a 95% energy absorption bandwidth of around 600 Hz. The proposed mechanism provides an alternative route for sound absorption without the necessity of high absorption of the individual unit cells.

  13. Tailoring defect structure and optical absorption of porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes

    Yan Hongdan; Lemmens, Peter; Wulferding, Dirk; Shi, Jianmin; Becker, Klaus Dieter; Lin, Chengtian; Lak, Aidin; Schilling, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Defects influence the optical and electronic properties of nanostructured materials that may be relevant for applications. In self-organized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates we have investigated the effect of annealing, doping and nanoscale metal deposition. Optical absorption spectroscopy has been used as a sensitive probe for the defect density in AAO templates. The electronic spectra are found to be dominated by bands which originate from oxygen-deficient color centers (F + , F and F 2 ). In annealing studies, the integrated absorption of the bands changes non-monotonically with annealing temperature and annealing time. This demonstrates that the concentration of defects can be optimized to tailor the optical properties of the AAO. Metallic Au wires are deposited in the template to establish a plasmonic template or array. The investigations provide an interesting insight into the interplay of reactivity and diffusivity on nanoscales. - Highlights: ► Preparation of metal wire arrays in oxide templates with tailored plasmonic properties. ► Oxygen defects are characterized using optical absorption and fluorescence. ► Optical absorption spectra are assigned to energy levels of oxygen vacancies (color centers). ► Annealing and electrodeposition of Au wires minimize defects maintaining the morphology.

  14. Inspection method of optical fiber preforms by x-ray absorption measurements

    Takahashi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Shibuya, S.; Kuroha, T.

    1980-01-01

    A method for measuring the refractive index distribution of optical fiber preforms has been developed by application of the theory of X-ray radiography. The composition of quartz optical fiber materials is, in most cases, limited to the group of five elements - Ge, P, Si, O and B. Of them, Ge is an essential element to determine the structure of refractive index of an optical fiber and the distribution of its density can be regarded approximately as the distribution of refractive index. On the other hand, the coefficient of low-energy X-ray absorption by the elements depends markedly on their atomic numbers, and Ge has a far larger absorption coefficient than the other four elements. Therefore, analysis of the intensity of X-ray absorbed by optical fiber preforms makes it possible to determine the distribution of Ge density and consequently the distribution of refractive index. (author)

  15. Hybrid Microfluidic Platform for Multifactorial Analysis Based on Electrical Impedance, Refractometry, Optical Absorption and Fluorescence

    Fábio M. Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a novel microfluidic platform for multifactorial analysis integrating four label-free detection methods: electrical impedance, refractometry, optical absorption and fluorescence. We present the rationale for the design and the details of the microfabrication of this multifactorial hybrid microfluidic chip. The structure of the platform consists of a three-dimensionally patterned polydimethylsiloxane top part attached to a bottom SU-8 epoxy-based negative photoresist part, where microelectrodes and optical fibers are incorporated to enable impedance and optical analysis. As a proof of concept, the chip functions have been tested and explored, enabling a diversity of applications: (i impedance-based identification of the size of micro beads, as well as counting and distinguishing of erythrocytes by their volume or membrane properties; (ii simultaneous determination of the refractive index and optical absorption properties of solutions; and (iii fluorescence-based bead counting.

  16. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    Heera, Pawan, E-mail: sramanb70@mailcity.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, INDIA, 171005 (India); Govt. College Amb, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA,177203 (India); Kumar, Anup, E-mail: kumar.anup.sml@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, INDIA, 171005 (India); Physics Department, Govt. College, Kullu, H. P., INDIA, 175101 (India); Sharma, Raman, E-mail: pawanheera@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, INDIA, 171005 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm–4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc’s model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  17. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    Lee, Jung-Yong

    2010-04-29

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  18. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  19. Optical resonance-enhanced absorption-based near-field immunochip biosensor for allergen detection.

    Maier, Irene; Morgan, Michael R A; Lindner, Wolfgang; Pittner, Fritz

    2008-04-15

    An optical immunochip biosensor has been developed as a rapid method for allergen detection in complex food matrixes, and its application evaluated for the detection of the egg white allergens, ovalbumin and ovomucoid. The optical near-field phenomenon underlying the basic principle of the sensor design is called resonance-enhanced absorption (REA), which utilizes gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as signal transducers in a highly sensitive interferometric setup. Using this approach, a novel, simple, and rapid colorimetric solid-phase immunoassay on a planar chip substrate was realized in direct and sandwich assay formats, with a detection system that does not require any instrumentation for readout. Semiquantitative immunochemical responses are directly visible to the naked eye of the analyst. The biosensor shows concentration-dependent color development by capturing antibody-functionalized Au NPs on allergen-coated chips and has a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. To establish a rapid method, we took advantage of the physicochemical microenvironment of the Au NP-antibody bioconjugate to be bound directly over an interacting poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) interlayer by an immobilized antigen. In the direct assay format, a coating time with allergen of only 5 min under "soft" nondenaturing conditions was sufficient for accurate reproducibility and sensitivity. In conclusion, the REA-based immunochip sensor is easy to fabricate, is reproducible and selective in its performance, has minimal technical requirements, and will enable high-throughput screening of affinity binding interactions in technological and medical applications.

  20. Electronic structure and optical properties of AIN under high pressure

    Li Zetao; Dang Suihu; Li Chunxia

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and optical properties of Wurtzite structure AIN under different high pressure with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in this paper. The total energy, density of state, energy band structure and optical absorption and reflection properties under high pressure are calculated. By comparing the changes of the energy band structure, we obtained AIN phase transition pressure for 16.7 GPa, which is a direct band structure transforming to an indirect band structure. Meanwhile, according to the density of states distribution and energy band structure, we analyzed the optical properties of AIN under high-pressure, the results showed that the absorption spectra moved from low-energy to high-energy. (authors)

  1. Ellipsometric analysis and optical absorption characterization of gallium phosphide nanoparticulate thin film

    Zhang, Qi-Xian; Wei, Wen-Sheng; Ruan, Fang-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) nanoparticulate thin films were easily fabricated by colloidal suspension deposition via GaP nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide. The microstructure of the film was performed by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The film was further investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the model GaP+void|SiO2 was built and an effective medium approximation was adopted, the values of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were calculated for the energy range of 0.75 eV-4.0 eV using the dispersion formula in DeltaPsi2 software. The absorption coefficient of the film was calculated from its k and its energy gaps were further estimated according to the Tauc equation, which were further verified by its fluorescence spectrum measurement. The structure and optical absorption properties of the nanoparticulate films are promising for their potential applications in hybrid solar cells.

  2. Water absorption and biodegradation kinetics of highly filled EOC-FS biocomposites

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Platov, Yu. T.; Bobojonova, G. A.; Ramos, C. Chaverri; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyzes the water absorption and biodegradation kinetics in highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) and oil flax straw (FS). It is shown that adding the filler to EOC increases the water absorption from 0 to 22%. The tendency can be explained both by the low interfacial adhesion of EOC to FS and by the hydrophilic nature of the filler. According to biodegradation tests (10 months), the mass of pure EOC remains unchanged, suggesting that it fails to biodegrade in the environment. Increasing the filler content increases the weight loss of the composites and the degree of microbiological contamination (fungi filaments, bacteria) as evidenced by optical microscopy.

  3. Development of absorption fiber optic sensor for distributed measurement of ammonia gas

    Aubrecht, J.; Kalvoda, L.

    2013-05-01

    Polymer-clad silica optical fibers are employed for development of different absorption optic fiber sensors of gaseous analytes. In our case, the physical principles of the detection are combined with a chemical reaction between analyte and suitable opto-chemical absorption reagents. Selected organometallic complex reagents with different lengths of lateral aliphatic chains are studied with respect to the type of central ions and their coordinative conditions to surrounding ligands. The effect of solvent type on solubility and the long-term stability of the prepared reagents in solid matrix are presented and discussed. Various methods are also tested in order to achieve an effective reagent immobilization into the polymer matrix, which creates optical fiber cladding. The chemical reaction of the reagents with ammonia based on ligand exchange process is accompanied by changes of visible-near-infrared optical absorption influencing via evanescent field on the guided light intensity. Experimental results suggest that the selected reagents provide optical properties suitable for practical sensing applications and that the sensitized PCS optical fibers could be used for detection of ammonia gas.

  4. Absorptive form factors for high-energy electron diffraction

    Bird, D.M.; King, Q.A.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal diffuse scattering contribution to the absorptive potential in high-energy electron diffraction is calculated in the form of an absorptive contribution to the atomic form factor. To do this, the Einstein model of lattice vibrations is used, with isotropic Debye-Waller factors. The absorptive form factors are calculated as a function of scattering vector s and temperature factor M on a grid which enables polynomial interpolation of the results to be accurate to better than 2% for much of the ranges 0≤Ms 2 ≤6 and 0≤M≤2 A 2 . The computed values, together with an interpolation routine, have been incorporated into a Fortran subroutine which calculates both the real and absorptive form factors for 54 atomic species. (orig.)

  5. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors.

    Taylor, Robert A; Phelan, Patrick E; Otanicar, Todd P; Adrian, Ronald; Prasher, Ravi

    2011-03-15

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm). A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm) with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power) increase.

  6. High speed all-silicon optical modulator

    Marris-Morini, Delphine; Le Roux, Xavier; Pascal, Daniel; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Damlencourt, Jean Francois; Bouville, David; Palomo, Jose; Laval, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Electrorefractive effect is experimentally demonstrated in an all-silicon optical structure. A highly doped Si P + layer is embedded in the intrinsic region of a PIN diode integrated in a SOI waveguide. Holes are confined at equilibrium around the P + layer. By applying a reverse bias to the diode, electrical field sweeps the carriers out of the active region. Free carrier concentration variations are responsible for local refractive index variations leading to an effective index variation of the waveguide optical mode and to an optical absorption variation. As a figure of merit, the product V π L π , determined from the measured effective index variation, is equal to 3.1 V cm. Furthermore, the device performances have theoretically been investigated. Estimations show that V π L π as small as 1 V cm are feasible using optimized structures. Response times lower than 2 ps are predicted, which gives the possibility to achieve very high-speed modulation. Furthermore, a temperature increases from 300 to 400 K does not change the index variation amplitude, and despite the carrier mobility reduction, response times are still lower than 2 ps

  7. Photosynthetic antennae systems: energy transport and optical absorption

    Reineker, P.; Supritz, Ch.; Warns, Ch.; Barvik, I.

    2004-01-01

    The energy transport and the optical line shape of molecular aggregates, modeling bacteria photosynthetic light-harvesting systems (chlorosomes in the case of Chlorobium tepidum or Chloroflexus aurantiacus and LH2 in the case of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) is investigated theoretically. The molecular units are described by two-level systems with an average excitation energy ε and interacting with each other through nearest-neighbor interactions. For LH2 an elliptical deformation of the ring is also allowed. Furthermore, dynamic and in the case of LH2 also quasi-static fluctuations of the local excitation energies are taken into account, simulating fast molecular vibrations and slow motions of the protein backbone, respectively. The fluctuations are described by Gaussian Markov processes in the case of the chlorosomes and by colored dichotomic Markov processes, with exponentially decaying correlation functions, with small (λ s ) and large (λ) decay constants, in the case of LH2

  8. Photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy of single optically trapped aerosol droplets

    Covert, Paul A.; Cremer, Johannes W.; Signorell, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Photoacoustics have been widely used for the study of aerosol optical properties. To date, these studies have been performed on particle ensembles, with minimal ability to control for particle size. Here, we present our singleparticle photoacoustic spectrometer. The sensitivity and stability of the instrument is discussed, along with results from two experiments that illustrate the unique capabilities of this instrument. In the first experiment, we present a measurement of the particle size-dependence of the photoacoustic response. Our results confirm previous models of aerosol photoacoustics that had yet to be experimentally tested. The second set of results reveals a size-dependence of photochemical processes within aerosols that results from the nanofocusing of light within individual droplets.

  9. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption of reduced graphene oxide by chemical reduction.

    Shi, Hongfei; Wang, Can; Sun, Zhipei; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Redfern, Simon A T; Yang, Guozhen

    2014-08-11

    Reduced graphene oxides with varying degrees of reduction have been produced by hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of both graphene oxide as well as the reduced graphene oxides have been measured by single beam Z-scan measurement in the picosecond region. The results reveal both saturable absorption and two-photon absorption, strongly dependent on the intensity of the pump pulse: saturable absorption occurs at lower pump pulse intensity (~1.5 GW/cm2 saturation intensity) whereas two-photon absorption dominates at higher intensities (≥5.7 GW/cm2). Intriguingly, we find that the two-photon absorption coefficient (from 1.5 cm/GW to 4.5cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (from 1 GW/cm2 to 2 GW/cm2) vary with chemical reduction, which is ascribed to the varying concentrations of sp2 domains and sp2 clusters in the reduced graphene oxides. Our results not only provide an insight into the evolution of the nonlinear optical coefficient in reduced graphene oxide, but also suggest that chemical engineering techniques may usefully be applied to tune the nonlinear optical properties of various nano-materials, including atomically thick graphene sheets.

  10. Aerosol absorption measurement with a sinusoidal phase modulating fiber optic photo thermal interferometer

    Li, Shuwang; Shao, Shiyong; Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol light absorption plays an important role in the earth's atmosphere direct and semi-direct radiate forcing, simultaneously, it also has a huge influence on the visibility impairment and laser engineering application. Although various methods have been developed for measuring aerosol light absorption, huge challenge still remains in precision, accuracy and temporal resolution. The main reason is that, as a part of aerosol light extinction, aerosol light absorption always generates synchronously with aerosol light scattering, and unfortunately aerosol light scattering is much stronger in most cases. Here, a novel photo-thermal interferometry is proposed only for aerosol absorption measurement without disturbance from aerosol scattering. The photo-thermal interferometry consists of a sinusoidal phase-modulating single mode fiber-optic interferometer. The thermal dissipation, caused by aerosol energy from photo-thermal conversion when irritated by pump laser through interferometer, is detected. This approach is completely insensitive to aerosol scattering, and the single mode fiber-optic interferometer is compact, low-cost and insensitive to the polarization shading. The theory of this technique is illustrated, followed by the basic structure of the sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer and demodulation algorithms. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results show that the new photo-thermal interference is a potential approach for aerosol absorption detection and environmental pollution detection.

  11. Semi-analytical Model for Estimating Absorption Coefficients of Optically Active Constituents in Coastal Waters

    Wang, D.; Cui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to validate the applicability of a multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) in retrieval absorption coefficients of optically active constituents in turbid coastal waters, and to further improve the model using a proposed semi-analytical model (SAA). The ap(531) and ag(531) semi-analytically derived using SAA model are quite different from the retrievals procedures of QAA model that ap(531) and ag(531) are semi-analytically derived from the empirical retrievals results of a(531) and a(551). The two models are calibrated and evaluated against datasets taken from 19 independent cruises in West Florida Shelf in 1999-2003, provided by SeaBASS. The results indicate that the SAA model produces a superior performance to QAA model in absorption retrieval. Using of the SAA model in retrieving absorption coefficients of optically active constituents from West Florida Shelf decreases the random uncertainty of estimation by >23.05% from the QAA model. This study demonstrates the potential of the SAA model in absorption coefficients of optically active constituents estimating even in turbid coastal waters. Keywords: Remote sensing; Coastal Water; Absorption Coefficient; Semi-analytical Model

  12. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  13. Iota-dependent resonance absorption in the optical model description of alpha particle elastic scattering

    Chyla, K.; Jarczyk, L.; Maciuk, B.; Zipper, W.

    1976-01-01

    Alpha particle scattering from 28 Si has been studied at five bombarding energies from 23.5 to 28.5 MeV. iota-dependent resonance absorption has been introduced to the optical model analysis of 28 Si (α,β) 28 Si reaction. (author)

  14. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance studies of Cu 2 in ...

    B2O3–As2O3 glasses. N Srinivasa Rao Shashidhar ... K Siva Kumar Syed Rahman. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 28 Issue 6 October 2005 pp 589-592 ... Keywords. Glass transition temperature; ESR; optical absorption; bonding parameters.

  15. Measurement of uranium concentration by molecular absorption spectrophotometry by means optical fibers

    Gauna, Alberto C.; Pascale, Ariel A.

    1996-01-01

    An on-line method for measuring the concentration of uranium in uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous solutions is described. The method is based on molecular absorption spectrophotometry with transmission of light by means of optical fibers. It is ideally suited for control and processes development applications. (author)

  16. Optical absorption and energy transport in compact dendrimers with unsymmetrical branching

    Supritz, C.; Gounaris, V.; Reineker, P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the linear optical absorption and the energy transport in compact dendrimers with unsymmetrical branching, using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner

  17. Enhancement of optical absorption of Si (100) surfaces by low energy N+ ion beam irradiation

    Bhowmik, Dipak; Karmakar, Prasanta

    2018-05-01

    The increase of optical absorption efficiency of Si (100) surface by 7 keV and 8 keV N+ ions bombardment has been reported here. A periodic ripple pattern on surface has been observed as well as silicon nitride is formed at the ion impact zones by these low energy N+ ion bombardment [P. Karmakar et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 025301 (2016)]. The light absorption efficiency increases due to the presence of silicon nitride compound as well as surface nanopatterns. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study shows the formation of periodic ripple pattern and increase of surface roughness with N+ ion energy. The enhancement of optical absorption by the ion bombarded Si, compared to the bare Si have been measured by UV - visible spectrophotometer.

  18. Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications.

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, we use the transfer matrix method to calculate the optical absorptance of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. For fixed filling ratio, significant optical absorption enhancement occurs when the lattice constant is increased from 100 nm to 600 nm. The enhancement arises from an increase in field concentration within the nanowire as well as excitation of guided resonance modes. We quantify the absorption enhancement in terms of ultimate efficiency. Results show that an optimized SiNW array with lattice constant of 600 nm and wire diameter of 540 nm has a 72.4% higher ultimate efficiency than a Si thin film of equal thickness. The enhancement effect can be maintained over a large range of incidence angles.

  19. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    Hannukainen, A.; Harhanen, Lauri Oskari; Hyvönen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged...... measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments...

  20. A neural network based approach for determination of optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue

    Warncke, D; Lewis, E; Leahy, M; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of light in biological tissue depends on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The aim of this project is the determination of these two optical properties using spatially resolved reflectance measurements. The sensor system consists of five laser sources at different wavelengths, an optical fibre probe and five photodiodes. For these kinds of measurements it has been shown that an often used solution of the diffusion equation can not be applied. Therefore a neural network is being developed to extract the needed optical properties out of the reflectance data. Data sets for the training, validation and testing process are provided by Monte Carlo Simulations.

  1. Alkali-Responsive Absorption Spectra and Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Imino Squaramides

    Li Zhong-Yu; Xu Song; Zhou Xin-Yu; Zhang Fu-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities and dynamic responses of two imino squaramides under neutral and base conditions were studied using the femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing technique at 800 nm. Ultrafast optical responses have been observed and the magnitude of the second-order hyperpolarizabilities of the squaramides has been measured to be as large as 10 −31 esu. The absorption spectra, color of solution, and third-order optical nonlinearities of two imino squaramides change with the addition of sodium hydroxide. The γ value under the base condition for each dye is approximately 1.25 times larger than that under neutral conditions. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  2. High Availability in Optical Networks

    Grover, Wayne D.; Wosinska, Lena; Fumagalli, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: High Availability in Optical Networks Submission Deadline: 1 January 2006 The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a feature Issue pertaining to all aspects of reliable components and systems for optical networks and concepts, techniques, and experience leading to high availability of services provided by optical networks. Most nations now recognize that telecommunications in all its forms -- including voice, Internet, video, and so on -- are "critical infrastructure" for the society, commerce, government, and education. Yet all these services and applications are almost completely dependent on optical networks for their realization. "Always on" or apparently unbreakable communications connectivity is the expectation from most users and for some services is the actual requirement as well. Achieving the desired level of availability of services, and doing so with some elegance and efficiency, is a meritorious goal for current researchers. This requires development and use of high-reliability components and subsystems, but also concepts for active reconfiguration and capacity planning leading to high availability of service through unseen fast-acting survivability mechanisms. The feature issue is also intended to reflect some of the most important current directions and objectives in optical networking research, which include the aspects of integrated design and operation of multilevel survivability and realization of multiple Quality-of-Protection service classes. Dynamic survivable service provisioning, or batch re-provisioning is an important current theme, as well as methods that achieve high availability at far less investment in spare capacity than required by brute force service path duplication or 100% redundant rings, which is still the surprisingly prevalent practice. Papers of several types are envisioned in the feature issue, including outlook and forecasting types of treatments, optimization and analysis, new

  3. Media effects on the optical absorption spectra of silver clusters embedded in rara gas matrices

    Fedrigo, S.; Harbich, W.; Buttet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The optical absorption of small mass selected Ag n -clusters (n=7, 11, 15, 21) embedded in solid Ar, Kr and Xe has been measured. The absorption spectra show 1 to 3 major peaks between 3 and 4.5 eV, depending on the cluster size. Changing the matrix gas Ar→Kr→Xe induces a redshift which is comparable for all sizes studied and does not affect the main structure of the absorption spectra. We propose a scheme to estimate the gas phase value of the absorption energies which is in fair agreement with an estimation obtained by a simple model based on a Drude metal. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  4. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy studies of Artepillin C, the major component of green propolis

    Camuri, Isamara Julia; Costa, Adriano Batista; Ito, Amando Siuiti; Pazin, Wallance Moreira

    2018-06-01

    The bioactivity of propolis against several pathogens is well established, leading to the extensive consumption of that bee product to prevent diseases. Brazilian green propolis, collected by the species Apis mellifera, is one of the most consumed in the world. The chemical composition of green propolis is complex and it has been shown that it displays antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, especially due to the high content of Artepillin C. The molecule is a derivative of cinnamic acid with two prenylated groups, responsible for the improvement of the affinity of the compound for lipophilic environment. A carboxylic group (COOH) is also present in the molecule, making it a pH-sensitive compound and the pH-dependent structure of Artepillin C, may modulate its biological activity related to interactions with the cellular membrane of organisms and tissues. Molecular properties of Artepillin C on aqueous solution were examined by optical absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Acid-base titration based on the spectral position of the near UV absorption band, resulted in the pKa value of 4.65 for the carboxylic group in Artepillin C. In acidic pH, below the pKa value, an absorption band raised around 350 nm at Artepillin C concentration above 50 μM, due to aggregation of the molecule. In neutral pH, with excitation at 310 nm, Artepillin C presents dual emission at 400 and 450 nm. In pH close to the pKa, the optical spectra show contribution from both protonated and deprotonated species. A three-exponential function was necessary to fit the intensity decays at the different pHs, dominated by a very short lifetime component, around 0.060 ns. The fast decay resulted in emission before fluorescence depolarization, and in values of fluorescence anisotropy higher than could be expected for monomeric forms of the compound. The results give fundamental knowledge about the protonation-deprotonation state of the

  5. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    Hannukainen, A; Hyvönen, N; Majander, H; Harhanen, L

    2016-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged object is composed of an approximately homogeneous background with clearly distinguishable embedded inhomogeneities. An algorithm for finding the maximum a posteriori estimate for the absorption and diffusion coefficients is introduced assuming an edge-preferring prior and an additive Gaussian measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments with simulated data. (paper)

  6. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd2O3 and NiO nanoparticles

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f-metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  7. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd2O3 and NiO nanoparticles

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f–metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  8. Effect of optical pumping on absorption spectra for the doppler broadened rubidium

    Shin, Seo Ro; Noh, Heung Ryoul

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of a laser beam in the Doppler broadened atomic vapor cell is one of the simplest problems in atomic physics. Although many reports on theoretical and experimental studies of linear absorption have been reported, the effect of optical pumping on the absorption coefficient has not been studied in detail. In this presentation, we present a theoretical and experimental study on linear absorption for the Doppler broadened rubidium vapor cell. The absorption coefficient of a σ"+"(or π)polarized laser beam was calculated as a function of the laser frequency for the various laser intensities. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results. Figure 1(a) shows the calculated absorption coefficient of the π polarized laser beam for the transition F"g"=1→F"e"=0,1,2 of the "87"Rb atom. The diameter of the laser beam was 3mm and the intensity was I=0 and I=0.1I"8"(I"8"=16.2W/m"2"). The peak values for various intensities are shown in Fig. 1(b). We found that the absorption coefficient for the transition from the lower hyperfine state decreased with the increased laser intensity, whereas that for the transition from the upper hyperfine state increased(decreased)for the σ"+"(π)polarized laser beam

  9. Modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters: Implications for underwater optical applications

    Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2018-05-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.

  10. Temperature and isotope effects on the shape of the optical absorption spectrum of solvated electrons in water

    Jou, F.Y.; Freeman, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of solvated electrons in H 2 O and D 2 O have been measured at 274, 298, 340, and 380 K. All the spectra were fitted very well with the Gaussian and Lorentzian shape functions at the low- and high-energy sides of the absorption maximum, respectively, excluding the high-energy tail. The spectrum does not shift uniformly with temperature. The temperature coefficient of absorption decreases rapidly with increasing energy on the low-energy side of the absorption maximum, while it changes only slightly on the high-energy side. When the temperature increases the Lorentzian width remains constant, the Gaussian width varies proportionally to T/sup 1/2/, and the spectrum becomes more symmetrical. On going from H 2 O to D 2 O we found that the spectrum at a given A/A/sub max/ shows a shift of +0.05 eV in the low-energy wing. The shift decreases with increasing energy, reaching 0.03 eV at the absorption maximum. On the high-energy side of the band the shift becomes negative at hν > 2.2 eV. The shift on the low-energy side seems to be related to the difference of the zero-point energies of the inter- and intramolecular vibrations. The wavelength dependence of the temperature and isotope effects is consistent with the model that different types of excitation occur on the low- and high-energy sides of the absorption band. The temperature and isotopic dependence of the low-energy side are consistent with its width being due to phonon interactions

  11. Ultrafast two-photon absorption optical thresholding of spectrally coded pulses

    Zheng, Z.; Shen, S.; Sardesai, H.; Chang, C.-C.; Marsh, J. H.; Karkhanehchi, M. M.; Weiner, A. M.

    1999-08-01

    We report studies on two-photon absorption (TPA) GaAs p-i-n waveguide photodetectors as optical thresholders for proposed ultrashort pulse optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. For either chirped optical pulses or spectrally phase coded pseudonoise bursts, the TPA photocurrent response reveals a strong pulseshape dependence and shows good agreement with theoretical predictions and results from conventional SHG measurements. The performance limits of the TPA optical thresholders set by the encoded bandwidth in the spectral encoding-decoding process are also discussed based on numerical simulations. Our results show the feasibility of applying such devices as nonlinear intensity discriminators in ultrahigh-speed optical network applications.

  12. Annealed silver-islands for enhanced optical absorption in organic solar cell

    Otieno, Francis, E-mail: frankotienoo@gmail.com [Material Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050Johannesburg (South Africa); Materials for Energy Research Group, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Airo, Mildred [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Ranganathan, Kamalakannan [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); DST-NRF Centre of Strong Materials and the Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, 2193 Johannesburg (South Africa); Wamwangi, Daniel [Material Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050Johannesburg (South Africa); Materials for Energy Research Group, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    Silver nano-islands are explored for enhancing optical absorption and photo-conversion efficiency in organic solar cells (OSCs) based on the surface plasmon resonance effect under diverse annealing conditions. Ag nano-islands have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at 15 W for 10 s and subsequently annealed between 100 °C–250 °C in air and Argon ambient. The optical properties of the reconstructed Ag islands demonstrate an increase and a blue shift in the absorption bands with increasing annealing temperature. This is the localized surface plasmon effect due to the Ag islands of diverse sizes, shapes and coverages. The increase in optical absorption with temperature is attributed to changes in island shape and density as collaborated by atomic force microscopy and TEM. As a proof of concept, an organic solar cell was characterized for current–voltage (I–V) measurements under dark and under solar simulated white light. Incorporation of annealed Ag islands has yielded an efficiency increment of between 4–24%. - Highlights: • RF Sputtering can be used to produce Ag NPs at low power. • Annealing enhances size, shape reconstruction as well as inter-particle separation. • Annealing in Argon ambient is more suitable than in air. • Ag NPs annealed at 250 °C enhances device absorption and PCE by up to 24%.

  13. Electronic properties and optical absorption of graphene-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: A theoretical study

    Chopra, Siddheshwar, E-mail: schopra1@amity.edu

    2017-01-15

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (graphene/PVDF) nanocomposites were studied using Density functional theory (DFT)/Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Five nanocomposite configurations were constructed. Electronic properties like binding energy, electronic gap and work function were calculated. The most stable structure was determined. The electronic gap of graphene shifts from semiconducting to conducting, on nanocomposite formation. Workfunction of the most stable nanocomposite was 4.34eV ± 0.05eV, close to that of the pristine graphene (4.33eV ± 0.05eV). Thermochemical analysis showed that the adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. TDDFT calculations were performed for B3LYP, LSDA, BHHLYP and PBE0 functionals. B3LYP and PBE0 are suitable in describing optical absorption. Optical gap of graphene shrinks, and light absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation. - Highlights: • Various properties of graphene-PVDF nanocomposites were studied theoretically. • Electronic gap of graphene shifts to conducting nature, on composite formation. • Adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. • B3LYP and PBE0 functionals are suitable in describing absorption. • Optical absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation.

  14. Electronic properties and optical absorption of graphene-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: A theoretical study

    Chopra, Siddheshwar

    2017-01-01

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (graphene/PVDF) nanocomposites were studied using Density functional theory (DFT)/Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Five nanocomposite configurations were constructed. Electronic properties like binding energy, electronic gap and work function were calculated. The most stable structure was determined. The electronic gap of graphene shifts from semiconducting to conducting, on nanocomposite formation. Workfunction of the most stable nanocomposite was 4.34eV ± 0.05eV, close to that of the pristine graphene (4.33eV ± 0.05eV). Thermochemical analysis showed that the adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. TDDFT calculations were performed for B3LYP, LSDA, BHHLYP and PBE0 functionals. B3LYP and PBE0 are suitable in describing optical absorption. Optical gap of graphene shrinks, and light absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation. - Highlights: • Various properties of graphene-PVDF nanocomposites were studied theoretically. • Electronic gap of graphene shifts to conducting nature, on composite formation. • Adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. • B3LYP and PBE0 functionals are suitable in describing absorption. • Optical absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation.

  15. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Abstract. We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sen- sitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms.

  16. Optical absorption and refractive index near the band gap for InGaAsP

    Kowalsky, W.; Wehmann, H.H.; Fiedler, F.; Schlachetzki, A.

    1983-01-01

    The optical absorption coefficient α and the refractive index n were measured for a quaternary alloy with bandgap-equivalent wavelength of 1.17 μm and for the ternary alloy, both lattice-matched to InP. α in dependence on the wavelength is characteristic of a direct semiconductor, but with a relative maximum on the order of 50 meV away from the bandgap in the small-absorption range. This peak is tentatively assigned to an acceptor impurity

  17. Effects of {gamma} and neutron irradiation on the optical absorption of pure silica core single-mode optical fibres from Nufern

    Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: Antonio.Ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Valdivieso, P. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Particle Physics, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Fenyvesi, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research, ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Molnar, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research, ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2006-09-15

    A measurement of the optical absorption, induced by photon irradiation up to a dose of 0.9 MGy, in Nufern silica core single-mode optical fibres is presented. In addition, the fibres were irradiated with neutrons, up to a total fluence of 2x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and the induced optical absorption was evaluated for four different wavelengths: 630, 670, 681 and 785 nm.

  18. Effects of γ and neutron irradiation on the optical absorption of pure silica core single-mode optical fibres from Nufern

    Calderon, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Valdivieso, P.; Yuste, C.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement of the optical absorption, induced by photon irradiation up to a dose of 0.9 MGy, in Nufern silica core single-mode optical fibres is presented. In addition, the fibres were irradiated with neutrons, up to a total fluence of 2x10 14 cm -2 and the induced optical absorption was evaluated for four different wavelengths: 630, 670, 681 and 785 nm

  19. NO2 trace measurements by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Ventrillard-Courtillot, I.; Foldes, T.; Romanini, D.

    2009-04-01

    In order to reach the sub-ppb NO2 detection level required for environmental applications in remote areas, we are developing a spectrometer that exploits a technique that we introduced several years ago, named Optical-Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) [1]. It allows very sensitive and selective measurements, together with the realization of compact and robust set-ups as was subsequently demonstrated during measurements campaigns in harsh environments [2,3]. OF-CEAS benefits from the optical feedback (OF) to efficiently inject a cw-laser in a high finesse cavity (typically F >10 000). Absorption spectra are acquired on a small spectral region (~1 cm-1) that enables selective and quantitative measurements at a fast acquisition rate (~10 Hz) with a detection limit of several 10-10 cm-1 as reported in this paper. Spectra are obtained with high spectral resolution (~150 MHz) and are self calibrated by cavity rind-down measurements regularly performed (typically every second). Therefore, OF-CEAS appears very attractive for NO2 trace detection. This work is performed in the blue spectral region where NO2 has intense electronic transitions. Our setup involves a commercial extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) working at room temperature around 411nm. A first setup was developed [4] to demonstrate that OF sensitivity of ECDL is fully consistent with this technique, initially introduced with distributed feedback diode lasers in the near infrared region. In this paper we will report on a new set-up developed for in-situ measurements with proper mechanical, acoustic and thermal insulation. Additionally, new data processing was implemented allowing real time concentration measurements. It is based on a reference spectra recorded under controlled conditions by OF-CEAS and used later to fit the observed spectra. We will present measurements performed with calibrated NO2 reference samples demonstrating a good linearity of the apparatus. The minimum detectable

  20. Localized modes in optics of photonic liquid crystals with local anisotropy of absorption

    Belyakov, V. A., E-mail: bel1937@mail.ru, E-mail: bel@landau.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Semenov, S. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    The localized optical modes in spiral photonic liquid crystals are theoretically studied for the certainty at the example of chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) for the case of CLC with an anisotropic local absorption. The model adopted here (absence of dielectric interfaces in the structures under investigation) makes it possible to get rid of mixing of polarizations on the surfaces of the CLC layer and of the defect structure and to reduce the corresponding equations to only the equations for light with polarization diffracting in the CLC. The dispersion equations determining connection of the edge mode (EM) and defect mode (DM) frequencies with the CLC layer parameters (anisotropy of local absorption, CLC order parameter) and other parameters of the DMS are obtained. Analytic expressions for the transmission and reflection coefficients of CLC layer and DMS for the case of CLC with an anisotropic local absorption are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the CLC layers with locally anisotropic absorption reduce the EM and DM lifetimes (and increase the lasing threshold) in the way different from the case of CLC with an isotropic local absorption. Due to the Borrmann effect revealing of which is different at the opposite stop-band edges in the case of CLC layers with an anisotropic local absorption the EM life-times for the EM frequencies at the opposite stop-bands edges may be significantly different. The options of experimental observations of the theoretically revealed phenomena are briefly discussed.

  1. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  2. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  3. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman, E-mail: anis@eee.buet.ac.bd [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-21

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  4. Tuning of few-electron states and optical absorption anisotropy in GaAs quantum rings.

    Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Jian; Li, Jun; Yin, Huaxiang; Liu, Yu

    2017-11-15

    The electronic and optical properties of a GaAs quantum ring (QR) with few electrons in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) have been investigated theoretically. The configuration interaction (CI) method is employed to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the multiple-electron QR accurately. Our numerical results demonstrate that the symmetry breaking induced by the RSOI and DSOI leads to an anisotropic distribution of multi-electron states. The Coulomb interaction offers additional modulation of the electron distribution and thus the optical absorption indices in the quantum rings. By tuning the magnetic/electric fields and/or electron numbers in a quantum ring, one can change its optical properties significantly. Our theory provides a new way to control the multi-electron states and optical properties of a QR by hybrid modulations or by electrical means only.

  5. Robust indirect band gap and anisotropy of optical absorption in B-doped phosphorene.

    Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Guo, Lei; Kang, Jun; Fang, Dang-Qi; Zhang, Yang; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2017-12-06

    A traditional doping technique plays an important role in the band structure engineering of two-dimensional nanostructures. Since electron interaction is changed by doping, the optical and electrochemical properties could also be significantly tuned. In this study, density functional theory calculations have been employed to explore the structural stability, and electronic and optical properties of B-doped phosphorene. The results show that all B-doped phosphorenes are stable with a relatively low binding energy. Of particular interest is that these B-doped systems exhibit an indirect band gap, which is distinct from the direct one of pure phosphorene. Despite the different concentrations and configurations of B dopants, such indirect band gaps are robust. The screened hybrid density functional HSE06 predicts that the band gap of B-doped phosphorene is slightly smaller than that of pure phosphorene. Spatial charge distributions at the valence band maximum (VBM) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) are analyzed to understand the features of an indirect band gap. By comparison with pure phosphorene, B-doped phosphorenes exhibit strong anisotropy and intensity of optical absorption. Moreover, B dopants could enhance the stability of Li adsorption on phosphorene with less sacrifice of the Li diffusion rate. Our results suggest that B-doping is an effective way of tuning the band gap, enhancing the intensity of optical absorption and improving the performances of Li adsorption, which could promote potential applications in novel optical devices and lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Band gap opening and optical absorption enhancement in graphene using ZnO nanocluster

    Monshi, M. M.; Aghaei, S. M.; Calizo, I.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic, optical and transport properties of the graphene/ZnO heterostructure have been explored using first-principles density functional theory. The results show that Zn12O12 can open a band gap of 14.5 meV in graphene, increase its optical absorption by 1.67 times covering the visible spectrum which extends to the infra-red (IR) range, and exhibits a slight non-linear I-V characteristic depending on the applied bias. These findings envisage that a graphene/Zn12O12 heterostructure can be appropriate for energy harvesting, photodetection, and photochemical devices.

  7. Short optical pulse generation at 40 GHz with a bulk electro-absorption modulator packaged device

    Langlois, Patrick; Moore, Ronald; Prosyk, Kelvin; O'Keefe, Sean; Oosterom, Jill A.; Betty, Ian; Foster, Robert; Greenspan, Jonathan; Singh, Priti

    2003-12-01

    Short optical pulse generation at 40GHz and 1540nm wavelength is achieved using fully packaged bulk quaternary electro-absorption modulator modules. Experimental results obtained with broadband and narrowband optimized packaged modules are presented and compared against empirical model predictions. Pulse duty cycle, extinction ratio and chirp are studied as a function of sinusoidal drive voltage and detuning between operating wavelength and modulator absorption band edge. Design rules and performance trade-offs are discussed. Low-chirp pulses with a FWHM of ~12ps and sub-4ps at a rate of 40GHz are demonstrated. Optical time-domain demultiplexing of a 40GHz to a 10GHz pulse train is also demonstrated with better than 20dB extinction ratio.

  8. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption spectra of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Savchenko, S. S.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2017-03-01

    The optical-absorption spectra of InP/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots have been studied in a broad temperature range of T = 6.5-296 K. Using the second-order derivative spectrophotometry technique, the energies of optical transitions at room temperature were found to be E 1 = 2.60 ± 0.02 eV (for the first peak of excitonic absorption in the InP core) and E 2 = 4.70 ± 0.02 eV (for processes in the ZnS shell). The experimental curve of E 1( T) has been approximated for the first time in the framework of a linear model and in terms of the Fan's formula. It is established that the temperature dependence of E 1 is determined by the interaction of excitons and longitudinal acoustic phonons with hω = 15 meV.

  9. Rashba induced spin multistability of the intersubband optical absorption in asymmetric coupled quantum wells

    Aceituno, P.; Hernández-Cabrera, A.

    2017-11-01

    We study the multistable behavior of the intersubband optical absorption for InSb-based tunnel-coupled quantum wells. We consider four sublevels coming from the splitting of the two deepest levels due to the inversion asymmetry of the structure (Rashba effect), and a weak external in-plane magnetic field (Zeeman effect). Photoexcitation with an intense terahertz pump produces the redistribution of nonequilibrium electrons among the four spin sublevels. The redistribution produces a photoinduced self-consistent potential, giving rise to the renormalization of energy distance between sublevels. Depending on total electron concentration, magnetic field intensity, and pumping efficiency, we find different multistable behaviors in the intersubband optical absorption spectrum. Based on the matrix density, we describe the electron redistribution by means of a system of balance equations for electron concentrations.

  10. Optical Absorption and Electric Resistivity of an l-Cysteine Film

    Kamada, Masao; Hideshima, Takuya; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Imamura, Masaki; Takahashi, Kazutoshi

    2016-12-01

    The optical and electric properties of an l-cysteine film have been investigated to understand its applicability to bioelectronics. The fundamental absorption is the allowed transition having the threshold at 5.8 eV and the absorption is due to the charge-transfer type transition from sulfur-3sp to oxygen-2p and/or carbon-2p states, while absorptions more than 9 eV can be explained with intra-atomic transitions in the functional groups. The electric resistivity is 2.0 × 104 Ω m at room temperature and increases as the sample temperature decreases. The results indicate that the l-cysteine film is a p-type semiconductor showing the hole conduction caused by the sulfur-3sp occupied states and unknown impurity or defect states as acceptors. The electron affinity of the l-cysteine film is derived as ≦-0.3 eV.

  11. High speed all optical networks

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ganz, Aura

    1990-01-01

    An inherent problem of conventional point-to-point wide area network (WAN) architectures is that they cannot translate optical transmission bandwidth into comparable user available throughput due to the limiting electronic processing speed of the switching nodes. The first solution to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) based WAN networks that overcomes this limitation is presented. The proposed Lightnet architecture takes into account the idiosyncrasies of WDM switching/transmission leading to an efficient and pragmatic solution. The Lightnet architecture trades the ample WDM bandwidth for a reduction in the number of processing stages and a simplification of each switching stage, leading to drastically increased effective network throughputs. The principle of the Lightnet architecture is the construction and use of virtual topology networks, embedded in the original network in the wavelength domain. For this construction Lightnets utilize the new concept of lightpaths which constitute the links of the virtual topology. Lightpaths are all-optical, multihop, paths in the network that allow data to be switched through intermediate nodes using high throughput passive optical switches. The use of the virtual topologies and the associated switching design introduce a number of new ideas, which are discussed in detail.

  12. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  13. Self-absorption influence on the optical spectroscopy of zinc oxide laser produced plasma

    De Posada, E; Arronte, M A; Ponce, L; Rodriguez, E; Flores, T [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-Unidad Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Lunney, J G, E-mail: edeposada@ipn.mx [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy is used to study the laser ablation process of ZnO targets. It is demonstrated that even if Partial Local Thermal Equilibrium is present, self absorption process leads to a decrease of recorded lines emission intensities and have to be taken into account to obtain correct values of such parameters. It is presented a method that combines results of both Langmuir probe technique and Anisimov model to obtain correct values of plasma parameters.

  14. Color centers in KCN: ferro-elastic alignment and free optical absorption of phonons

    Grillo, M.L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Some color centers in KCN pure and KCL or KOH doped are studied. The used tecniques for detection of these color centers were optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). To obtain this color centers crystals were always exposed to X-rays. With an optical absorption technique, one color center was analysed after X-ray irradiation followed by a suitable photochemical process. Throught the EPR technique the F center and three other centers produced by radiation damage were observed through several KCN solid phases. As in the orthorhombic and ferroelastic phase (temperatures between 168K and 83K), the crystals of KCN present one multidomain structure responsable for strong light scattering on the optical absorption spectra and EPR spectra that does not present the resolved lines formed above 168K, one system of aligned domains was obtained through mechanical stress built specifically to be capable of reducing the number of distinct domain, and this allowed us to observe of partially resolved EPR lines. (Auhtor) [pt

  15. X-ray optical analyses with X-Ray Absorption Package (XRAP)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Dejus, R.; Grace, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an X-Ray Absorption Package (XRAP) and the theoretical background for this program. XRAP is a computer code developed for analysis of optical elements in synchrotron radiation facilities. Two main issues are to be addressed: (1) generating BM (bending magnet) and ID (insertion device) spectrum and calculating their absorption in media, especially in such structural forms as variable thickness windows/filters and crystals; and (2) providing a finite difference engine for fast but sophisticated thermal and stress analyses for optical elements, such as windows and filters. Radiation cooling, temperature-dependent material properties (such as thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient) etc. are taken into account in the analyses. For very complex geometry, an interface is provided directly to finite element codes such as ANSYS. Some of the present features built into XRAP include: (1) generation of BM and ID spectra; (2) photon absorption analysis of optical elements including filters, windows and mirrors, etc.; (3) heat transfer and thermal stress analyses of windows and filters and their buckling check; (4) user-friendly graphical-interface that is based on the state-of-the-art technology of GUI and X-window systems, which can be easily ported to other computer platforms; (5) postscript file output of either black/white or colored graphics for total/absorbed power, temperature, stress, spectra, etc

  16. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  17. Donor-related optical absorption spectra in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells: hydrostatic pressure effects

    Lopez, S.Y.; Duque, C.A.; Porras-Montenegro, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Donor-related optical-absorption spectra for GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells under hydrostatic pressure are investigated. A variational procedure in the e effective-mass approximation is used in order to obtain binding energies and wave functions. As a general feature, we observe that the binding energy increases with the pressure and with the decreasing of the width of the well. The pressure-related Γ-X crossover has been taken into account in the whole calculation. For the low-pressure regime we observe a linear binding energy behavior, whereas for high pressure the main effect associated with the height of the barrier is the bending of the binding energy curves towards smaller values. Two special structures in the density of impurity states and in the donor-related optical-absorption spectra are observed: an edge associated with transitions involving impurities at the center of the well and a peak associated with transitions related to impurities at the edges of the quantum well. Also, we observe shifts to higher energies of the density of impurity states as a function of the binding energy, as well as changes in the intensity with a red shift of the absorption effect with the hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  18. Ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectrometry: quantitative analysis of the CS2 produced by SF6 decomposition

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Hong; Cui, Zhaolun; Xiao, Song; Tang, Ju; Chen, Chuan; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of partial discharge or partial overthermal fault in sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 )-insulated electrical equipment frequently causes SF 6 and solid insulation materials to decompose into various products. One of the most characteristic products of this process is carbon disulfide (CS 2 ). The internal fault type and severity of the fault in the insulation equipment can be detected through the accurate quantitative detection of CS 2 . A device for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous CS 2 via ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectrometry is developed in this study. A Sym14 wavelet transform and fast Fourier transform (FFT) are applied to process the spectral data of the feature regions, namely 190 nm to 210 nm. The concentration of CS 2 is determined, and the detection limit of the developed device is identified. A good linear relationship is observed between the characteristic peaks of FFT and the concentration of CS 2 after the operational parameters are optimized. Along the light path at 600 mm, the average detection limit for CS 2 is 8.65 ppb based on three times the standard deviation of the system noises. The proposed device, which exhibits high sensitivity and effective cost, addresses the urgent demand for the monitoring and diagnosis of SF 6 -insulated electrical equipment via online detection of trace CS 2 . (paper)

  19. Ionic thermocurrent and optical-absorption measurements in KCl: Sr under reactor irradiation

    Sordi, G.M.; Watanabe, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation damage in KCl crystals doped with Sr ++ using thermionic-current techniques (ITC) and optical-absorption measurements is studied. Analysing the radiation damage due to three different gamma ray exposures, namely the gamma irradiation, creates F-type or V-type colour centres and destroys a fraction of impurity-vacancy dipoles. Fast neutron irradiation added to the gamma irradiation increases the efficiency of destruction of dipoles and also provoke the appearence of a second ITC peak at temperatures neat 123 0 K, which is unstable and disappears in a few days. On the other hand, thermal neutrons bombarding the samples together with fast neutrons and gamma-rays leave unchanged the impurity-vacancy dipole concentration obtained after the gamma plus fast neutron irradiation. With thermal neutrons there is a high background current, and the peak resolution is only possible when thermally and electrostatically polarizable electrical carriers have largely disappeared. For this reason it is impossible to compare the 123 0 K peak obtained with and without thermal neutrons

  20. Random polyfluorene co-polymers designed for a better optical absorption coverage of the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum

    D. A. Gedefaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two alternating polyfluorenes (APFO15-F8BT and APFO3-F8BT with full absorption of the visible region of the electromagnetic radiation were designed and synthesized for bulk-heterojunction solar cell devices. The optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers were studied. The two polymers exhibited strong absorption in the visible region with no significant valley over the visible region extending up to 650 nm. Deep HOMO and ideally situated LUMO energy levels were the characteristics of the two polymers as revealed from the square wave voltammogram study: desired properties for extracting high open circuit voltage and for a facile charge transfer to the acceptor component in devices to take place, respectively. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated by blending the two polymers with PCBM[70] and up to ~2% power conversion efficiency were obtained. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.14

  1. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  2. All-Optical Wavelength Conversion by Picosecond Burst Absorption in Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots.

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-26

    All-optical approaches to change the wavelength of a data signal are considered more energy- and cost-effective than current wavelength conversion schemes that rely on back and forth switching between the electrical and optical domains. However, the lack of cost-effective materials with sufficiently adequate optoelectronic properties hampers the development of this so-called all-optical wavelength conversion. Here, we show that the interplay between intraband and band gap absorption in colloidal quantum dots leads to a very strong and ultrafast modulation of the light absorption after photoexcitation in which slow components linked to exciton recombination are eliminated. This approach enables all-optical wavelength conversion at rates matching state-of-the-art convertors in speed, yet with cost-effective solution-processable materials. Moreover, the stronger light-matter interaction allows for implementation in small-footprint devices with low switching energies. Being a generic property, the demonstrated effect opens a pathway toward low-power integrated photonics based on colloidal quantum dots as the enabling material.

  3. Optical band-edge absorption of oxide compound SnO2

    Roman, L.S.; Valaski, R.; Canestraro, C.D.; Magalhaes, E.C.S.; Persson, C.; Ahuja, R.; Silva, E.F. da; Pepe, I.; Silva, A. Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Tin oxide (SnO 2 ) is an important oxide for efficient dielectrics, catalysis, sensor devices, electrodes and transparent conducting coating oxide technologies. SnO 2 thin film is widely used in glass applications due to its low infra-red heat emissivity. In this work, the SnO 2 electronic band-edge structure and optical properties are studied employing a first-principle and fully relativistic full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The optical band-edge absorption α(ω) of intrinsic SnO 2 is investigated experimentally by transmission spectroscopy measurements and their roughness in the light of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sample films were prepared by spray pyrolysis deposition method onto glass substrate considering different thickness layers. We found for SnO 2 qualitatively good agreement of the calculated optical band-gap energy as well as the optical absorption with the experimental results

  4. Changing of optical absorption and scattering coefficients in nonlinear-optical crystal lithium triborate before and after interaction with UV-radiation

    Demkin, Artem S.; Nikitin, Dmitriy G.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.

    2016-04-01

    In current work optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with ultraviolet (UV) (λ= 266 nm) induced volume macroscopic defect (track) are investigated using novel piezoelectric resonance laser calorimetry technique. Pulsed laser radiation of 10 W average power at 532 nm wavelength, is consecutively focused into spatial regions with and without optical defect. For these cases exponential fitting of crystal temperature kinetics measured during its irradiation gives different optical absorption coefficients α1 = 8.1 • 10-4 cm-1 (region with defect) and α =3.9ṡ10-4 cm-1 (non-defected region). Optical scattering coefficient is determined as the difference between optical absorption coefficients measured for opaque and transparent lateral facets of the crystal respectively. Measurements reveal that scattering coefficient of LBO in the region with defect is three times higher than the optical absorption coefficient.

  5. Ge/Si core/shell quantum dots in alumina: tuning the optical absorption by the core and shell size

    Nekić Nikolina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ge/Si core/shell quantum dots (QDs recently received extensive attention due to their specific properties induced by the confinement effects of the core and shell structure. They have a type II confinement resulting in spatially separated charge carriers, the electronic structure strongly dependent on the core and shell size. Herein, the experimental realization of Ge/Si core/shell QDs with strongly tunable optical properties is demonstrated. QDs embedded in an amorphous alumina glass matrix are produced by simple magnetron sputtering deposition. In addition, they are regularly arranged within the matrix due to their self-assembled growth regime. QDs with different Ge core and Si shell sizes are made. These core/shell structures have a significantly stronger absorption compared to pure Ge QDs and a highly tunable absorption peak dependent on the size of the core and shell. The optical properties are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions showing the dramatic influence of the shell size on optical gap, resulting in 0.7 eV blue shift for only 0.4 nm decrease at the shell thickness. Therefore, these materials are very promising for light-harvesting applications.

  6. Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis of Calcium-Phosphate Glasses Highly Doped with Monovalent Copper.

    Jiménez, José A

    2016-06-03

    CaO-P2 O5 glasses with high concentrations of monovalent copper ions were prepared by a simple melt-quench method through CuO and SnO co-doping. Spectroscopic characterization was carried out by optical absorption with the aim of analyzing the effects of Cu(+) ions on the optical band-gap energies, which were estimated on the basis of indirect-allowed transitions. The copper(I) content is estimated in the CuO/SnO-containing glasses after the assessment of the concentration dependence of Cu(2+) absorption in the visible region for CuO singly doped glasses. An exponential dependence of the change in optical band gaps (relative to the host) with Cu(+) concentration is inferred up to about 10 mol %. However, the entire range is divided into two distinct linear regions that are characterized by different rates of change with respect to concentration: 1) below 5 mol %, where the linear dependence presents a relatively high magnitude of the slope; and 2) from 5-10 mol %, where a lower magnitude of the slope is manifested. With increasing concentration, the mean Cu(+) -Cu(+) interionic distance decreases, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of monovalent copper for light absorption. The decrease in optical band-gap energies is ultimately shown to follow a linear dependence with the interionic distance, suggesting the potential of the approach to gauge the concentration of monovalent copper straightforwardly in amorphous hosts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solitonic guide and multiphoton absorption processes in photopolymerizable materials for optical integrated circuits

    Klein, Stephane; Barsella, Alberto; Acker, D.; Sutter, C.; Beyer, N.; Andraud, Chantal; Fort, Alain F.; Dorkenoo, Kokou D.

    2004-09-01

    Up to now, most of the optical integrated devices are realized on glass or III-V substrates and the waveguides are usually obtained by photolithography techniques. We present here a new approach based on the use of photopolymerizable compounds. The conditions of self-written channel creation by solitonic propagation inside the bulk of these photopolymerizable formulations are analyzed. Both experimental and theoretical results of the various stages of self-written guide propagation are presented. A further step has been achieved by using a two-photon absorption process for the polymerization via a confocal microscopy technique. Combined with the solitonic guide creation, this technique allows to draw 3D optical circuits. Finally, by doping the photopolymerizable mixtures with push-pull chromophores having a controlled orientation, it will be possible to create active optical integrated devices.

  8. Absorptive and dispersive optical profiles in fluctuating environments: A stochastic model

    Paz, J.L.; Mendoza-Garcia, A.; Mastrodomenico, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the absorptive and dispersive optical profiles of a molecular system coupled with a thermal bath. Solvent effects were explicitly considered by modelling the non-radiative interaction with the solute as a random variable. The optical stochastical Bloch equations (OSBE) were solved using a time-ordered cumulant expansion with white noise as a correlation function. We found a solution for the Fourier component of coherence at the third order of perturbation for the nonlinear Four-wave mixing signal and produced analytical expressions for the optical responses of the system. Finally, we examined the behaviour of these properties with respect to the noise parameter, frequency detuning of the dynamic perturbation, and relaxation times.

  9. Photo-induced changes of silicate glasses optical parameters at multi-photon laser radiation absorption

    Efimov, O.M.; Glebov, L.B.; Mekryukov, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigations of the mechanisms of photo-induced changes of alkali-silicate (crown) and lead-silicate (flint) glasses optical parameters upon the exposure to the intense laser radiation, and the basic regularities of these processes are reported. These investigations were performed in Research Center open-quotes S. I. Vavilov State Optical Instituteclose quotes during last 15 years. The kinetics of stable and unstable CC formation and decay, the effect of widely spread impurity ions on these processes, the characteristics of fundamental and impure luminescence, the kinetics of refractive index change under conditions of multi-photon glass matrix excitation, and other properties are considered. On the basis of analysis of received regularities it was shown that the nonlinear coloration of alkali-silicate glasses (the fundamental absorption edge is nearly 6 eV) takes place only as a result of two-photon absorption. Important efforts were aimed at the detection of three- or more photon matrix ionization of these glasses, but they were failed. However it was established that in the lead silicate glasses the long-wave carriers mobility boundary (> 5.6 eV) is placed considerably higher the fundamental absorption edge (∼ 3.5 eV) of material matrix. This results in that the linear color centers formation in the lead silicate glasses is not observed. The coloration of these glasses arises only from the two- or three-photon matrix ionization, and the excitation occurs through virtual states that are placed in the fundamental absorption region. In the report the available mechanisms of photo-induced changes of glasses optical parameters, and some applied aspects of this problem are discussed

  10. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  11. Field Measurements of Water Continuum and Water Dimer Absorption by Active Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)

    Lotter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in Earth's radiative budget since water molecules strongly absorb the incoming solar shortwave and the outgoing thermal infrared radiation. Superimposed on the water monomer absorption, a water continuum absorption has long been recognized, but its true nature still remains controversial. On the one hand, this absorption is explained by a deformation of the line shape of the water monomer absorption lines as a consequence of a molecular collision. One the o...

  12. Optical Control of Intersubband Absorption in a Multiple Quantum Well-Embedded Semiconductor Microcravity

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Optical intersubband response of a multiple quantum well (MQW)-embedded microcavity driven by a coherent pump field is studied theoretically. The n-type doped MQW structure with three subbands in the conduction band is sandwiched between a semi-infinite medium and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A strong pump field couples the two upper subbands and a weak field probes the two lower subbands. To describe the optical response of the MQW-embedded microcavity, we adopt a semi-classical nonlocal response theory. Taking into account the pump-probe interaction, we derive the probe-induced current density associated with intersubband transitions from the single-particle density-matrix formalism. By incorporating the current density into the Maxwell equation, we solve the probe local field exactly by means of Green's function technique and the transfer-matrix method. We obtain an exact expression for the probe absorption coefficient of the microcavity. For a GaAs/Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As MQW structure sandwiched between a GaAs/AlAs DBR and vacuum, we performed numerical calculations of the probe absorption spectra for different parameters such as pump intensity, pump detuning, and cavity length. We find that the probe spectrum is strongly dependent on these parameters. In particular, we find that the combination of the cavity effect and the Autler-Townes effect results in a triplet in the optical spectrum of the MQW system. The optical absorption peak value and its location can be feasibly controlled by varying the pump intensity and detuning.

  13. Optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot in the presence of an impurity

    Mikhail, I.F.I., E-mail: ifi_mikhail@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Shafee, A.M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Girls, Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    The linear and third order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients have been calculated in a two dimensional disk quantum dot. The confinement potential has been taken to be a combination of a parabolic and inverse squared part. The study has been performed in the presence of a perpendicular static magnetic field and a central or off-central impurity. The resulting Schrödinger equation has been solved by applying the variational method. It has been found that the presence of impurity causes a huge increase in the square of the transition matrix and in the absorption coefficients, in particular in the third order coefficient. Moreover, the asymmetry which results in the case of off-central impurity has been dealt with carefully by taking into consideration the transition matrices which vanish in other cases. - Highlights: • The optical absorption in a two dimensional disk-shaped quantum dot is investigated. • A static magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the disk. • The study is performed in the presence of central or off- central impurity. • The variational approach has been applied to find the energies and wave functions. • The presence and location of impurity play effective roles.

  14. Optical absorption and fluorescence studies of praseodymium ion in chloroborophosphate glasses

    Sharma, Y.K.; Tandon, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The interest in optical absorption and fluorescence studies of rare earth ions in glassy materials is increasing continuously in connection with laser research and related application. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of praseodymium ion in chloroborophosphate glasses have been recorded at room temperature. The chloroborophosphate glass specimens having composition in mob.% Na 2 0 (26.08), B 2 0 3 (14.57), P 2 0 5 (44.85), ZnCl 2 (14.50), Pr 6 0 11 (R) [R= 0.0,0.1 and 0.2 moi.%] have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The spectra consists of seven absorption bands and three fluorescence bands. The observed optical spectra are discussed in terms of energy state and the intensity of the transitions. The various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon, Lande', Racah and bonding parameters have been computed. Judd-Ofeit intensity parameters and laser parameters have also been computed. These results shows that praseodymium doped chloroborophosphate glass specimen can be considered as good hosts for laser applications

  15. Optical absorption and electron spin resonance in natural, irradiated and heated spodumene

    Ito, A.S.; Isotani, S.

    1983-09-01

    Heat treatment and X and γ-Rays irradiation of lylac and colorless natural spodumene, LiAlSi 2 O 6 , have been studied. Irradiation produces a color change, from lylac or colorless to green. Irradiated samples heated at 200 0 C turn lylac and bleach at 400 0 C. Optical absorption spectra were decomposed into gaussian line shape bands and it is observed that green and lylac centers are simultaneously created by irradiation. These centers are independent from each other. Optical absorption, EPR and X-Ray fluorescence results show the spectra of impurities, responsible by the presence of the created centers and indicated Mn participation in the process of centers creation and destruction. Decay Kinetics of green and lylac centers have been studied and it is observed that simple Kinetic models do not apply to these cases. An empirical fit allowed the calculation of activation energies of the lylac and green centers decays. Discussions about the present results led us to propose a new model where the green and lylac centers are due to Mn 3+ ions in two different Al 3+ sites, whose absorption are intensified by the interaction with an electron trapped in a neighbour oxygen. (Author) [pt

  16. The development of fluorides for high power laser optics

    Ready, J. F.; Vora, H.

    1980-07-01

    The laser assisted thermonuclear fusion program has need for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride possesses a combination of optical properties which are of use. Single crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. The technique of press forging to increase the mechanical strength is investigated. LiF single crystals were press forged over the temperature range 300 - 600 deg C to produce fine grained polycrystalline material. Optical homogenity at 633, stress birefringence, scattering at 633, residual absorption over the spectral range 339 - 3800 nm, and laser damage thresholds for 1 ns, 1064 nm and 700 ps, 266 nm laser pulses are evaluated. Single crystals can be press forged without seriously degrading their optical properties. Yield strength in compression, proportional limit and fracture strength in 3 and 4 point bending, fracture energy, and threshold for microyield are discussed.

  17. Effect of ladder diagrams on optical absorption spectra in a quasiparticle self-consistent GW framework

    Cunningham, Brian; Grüning, Myrta; Azarhoosh, Pooya; Pashov, Dimitar; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to calculate the optical absorption spectra that combines the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method [Phys. Rev. B 76, 165106 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.165106] for the electronic structure with the solution of the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the macroscopic dielectric function. The solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been implemented within an all-electron framework, using a linear muffin-tin orbital basis set, with the contribution from the nonlocal self-energy to the transition dipole moments (in the optical limit) evaluated explicitly. This approach addresses those systems whose electronic structure is poorly described within the standard perturbative GW approaches with density-functional theory calculations as a starting point. The merits of this approach have been exemplified by calculating optical absorption spectra of a strongly correlated transition metal oxide, NiO, and a narrow gap semiconductor, Ge. In both cases, the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experiment. It is also shown that for systems whose electronic structure is well-described within the standard perturbative GW , such as Si, LiF, and h -BN , the performance of the present approach is in general comparable to the standard GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is argued that both vertex corrections to the electronic screening and the electron-phonon interaction are responsible for the observed systematic overestimation of the fundamental band gap and spectrum onset.

  18. Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.

    Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E

    2014-04-11

    The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.

  19. Strongly correlated quasi-one-dimensional bands: Ground states, optical absorption, and phonons

    Campbell, D.K.; Gammel, J.T.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Using the Lanczos method for exact diagonalization on systems up to 14 sites, combined with a novel ''phase randomization'' technique for extracting more information from these small systems, we investigate several aspects of the one-dimensional Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian, in the context of trans-polyacetylene: the dependence of the ground state dimerization on the strength of the electron-electron interactions, including the effects of ''off-diagonal'' Coulomb terms generally ignored in the Hubbard model; the phonon vibrational frequencies and dispersion relations, and the optical absorption properties, including the spectrum of absorptions as a function of photon energy. These three different observables provide considerable insight into the effects of electron-electron interactions on the properties of real materials and thus into the nature of strongly correlated electron systems. 29 refs., 11 figs

  20. Optical Absorption and Electron Injection of 4-(Cyanomethylbenzoic Acid Based Dyes: A DFT Study

    Yuehua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT calculations were carried out to study the ground state geometries, electronic structures, and absorption spectra of 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes (AG1 and AG2 used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The excited states properties and the thermodynamical parameters of electron injection were studied. The results showed that (a two dyes have uncoplanar structures along the donor unit and conjugated bridge space, (b two sensitizers exhibited intense absorption in the UV-Vis region, and (c the excited state oxidation potential was higher than the conduction band edge of TiO2 photoanode. As a result, a solar cell based on the 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes exhibited well photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, nine dyes were designed on the basis of AG1 and AG2 to improve optical response and electron injection.

  1. Optical engineering for high power laser applications

    Novaro, M.

    1993-01-01

    Laser facilities for Inertial Confinement Fusion (I.C.F.) experiments require laser and X ray optics able to withstand short pulse conditions. After a brief recall of high power laser system arrangements and of the characteristics of their optics, the authors will present some X ray optical developments

  2. Optical absorption of CdSe quantum dots on electrodes with different morphology

    Witoon Yindeesuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the optical absorption of CdSe quantum dots (QDs adsorbed on inverse opal TiO2 (IO-TiO2 and nanoparticulate TiO2 (NP-TiO2 electrodes using photoacoustic (PA measurements. The CdSe QDs were grown directly on IO-TiO2 and NP-TiO2 electrodes by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method with different numbers of cycles. The average diameter of the QDs was estimated by applying an effective mass approximation to the PA spectra. The increasing size of the QDs with increasing number of cycles was confirmed by a redshift in the optical absorption spectrum. The average diameter of the CdSe QDs on the IO-TiO2 electrodes was similar to that on the NP-TiO2 ones, indicating that growth is independent of morphology. However, there were more CdSe QDs on the NP-TiO2 electrodes than on the IO-TiO2 ones, indicating that there were different amounts of active sites on each type of electrode. In addition, the Urbach parameter of the exponential optical absorption tail was also estimated from the PA spectrum. The Urbach parameter of CdSe QDs on IO-TiO2 electrodes was higher than that on NP-TiO2 ones, indicating that CdSe QDs on IO-TiO2 electrodes are more disordered states than those on NP-TiO2 electrodes. The Urbach parameter decreases in both cases with the increase of SILAR cycles, and it tended to move toward a constant value.

  3. Optical absorption spectra of semiconductors and insulators: ab initio calculation of many-body effects

    Albrecht, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    A method for the inclusion of self-energy and excitonic effects in first-principle calculations of absorption spectra, within the state-of-the-art plane wave pseudopotential approach, is presented. Starting from a ground state calculation, using density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA), we correct the exchange-correlation potential of DFT-LDA with the self-energy applying Hedin's GW approximation to obtain the physical quasiparticles states. The electron-hole interaction is treated solving an effective two-particle equation, which we derive from Hedin's coupled integral equations, leading to the fundamental Bethe-Salpeter equation in an intermediate step. The interaction kernel contains the screened electron-hole Coulomb interaction and the electron-hole exchange effects, which reflect the microscopic structure of the system and are thus also called local-field effects. We obtain the excitonic eigenstates through diagonalization. This allows us a detailed analysis of the optical properties. The application of symmetry properties enables us to reduce the size of the two-particle Hamiltonian matrix, thus minimizing the computational effort. We apply our method to silicon, diamond, lithium oxide and the sodium tetramer. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the absorption spectra of Si and diamond, the static dielectric constant of diamond, and for the onset of optical absorption of Li 2 O due to discrete bound excitons. We discuss various approximations of our method and show the strong mixing of independent particle transitions to a bound excitonic state in the Na 4 cluster. The influence of ground state calculations on optical spectra is investigated under particular consideration of the pseudopotential generation and we discuss the use of different Brillouin zone point sampling schemes for spectral calculations. (author) [fr

  4. Temperature-Induced Large Broadening and Blue Shift in the Electronic Band Structure and Optical Absorption of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite.

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Hu, Ming

    2017-08-17

    The power conversion efficiency of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells is profoundly influenced by the operating temperature. Here we investigate the temperature influence on the electronic band structure and optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 from first-principles by accounting for both the electron-phonon interaction and thermal expansion. Within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, the electron-phonon coupling induces slightly enlarged band gap and strongly broadened electronic relaxation time as temperature increases. The large broadening effect is mainly due to the presence of cation organic atoms. Consequently, the temperature-dependent absorption peak exhibits blue-shift position, decreased amplitude, and broadened width. This work uncovers the atomistic origin of temperature influence on the optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and can provide guidance to design high-performance hybrid halide perovskite solar cells at different operating temperatures.

  5. Laboratory-based recording of holographic fine structure in X-ray absorption anisotropy using polycapillary optics

    Dabrowski, K.M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korecki, P., E-mail: pawel.korecki@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holographic fine structures in X-ray absorption recorded using a tabletop setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Setup based on polycapillary collimating optics and an HOPG crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of element sensitivity by detection of X-ray fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential of laboratory-based experiments for heavily doped crystals and thin films. - Abstract: A tabletop setup composed of a collimating polycapillary optics and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator (HOPG) was characterized and used for recording two-dimensional maps of X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA). XAA originates from interference of X-rays directly inside the sample. Depending on experimental conditions, fine structures in XAA can be interpreted in terms of X-ray holograms or X-ray standing waves and can be used for an element selective atomic-resolved structural analysis. The implementation of polycapillary optics resulted in a two-order of magnitude gain in the radiant intensity (photons/s/solid angle) as compared to a system without optics and enabled efficient recording of XAA with a resolution of 0.15 Degree-Sign for Mo K{alpha} radiation. Element sensitivity was demonstrated by acquisition of distinct XAA signals for Ga and As atoms in a GaAs (1 1 1) wafer by using X-ray fluorescence as a secondary signal. These results indicate the possibility of performing laboratory-based XAA experiments for heavily doped single crystals or thin films. So far, because of the weak holographic modulation of XAA, such experiments could be only performed using synchrotron radiation.

  6. A furnace and temperature controller for optical absorption studies with a spectrophotometer

    Mariani Rogat, F.

    1975-01-01

    The design and main features of a furnace with a temperature controller and programmer are shown. This system allows to measure the optical absorption spectrum of a sample from room temperature to 400 deg C, in a double beam spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer 350. The sample temperature can be linearly increased at different heating rates between 4 and 38 deg C/min. The temperature ramp can be stopped at any desired point and the sample temperature shall be stabilized in less than one minute. This temperature shall be kept constant within 0.5 deg C for hours. The sample is heated in vacuum. (author)

  7. Optical absorption studies on biodegradable PVA/PVP blend polymer electrolyte system

    Basha, S. K. Shahenoor; Reddy, K. Veera Bhadra; Rao, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable blend polymer electrolytes of PVA/PVP with different wt% ratios of MgCl2.6H2O have been prepared using solution cast technique. Optical absorption studies were carried-out on to the prepared films at room temperature using JASCO V-670 Spectrophotometer in the wavelength region 200-600 nm. Due to the clusters between the vibrations of molecules a broad peak is obtained due to п-п* transition in the wavelength region 310-340 nm.

  8. Optical absorption and thermal transport of individual suspended carbon nanotube bundles.

    Hsu, I-Kai; Pettes, Michael T; Bushmaker, Adam; Aykol, Mehmet; Shi, Li; Cronin, Stephen B

    2009-02-01

    A focused laser beam is used to heat individual single-walled carbon nanotube bundles bridging two suspended microthermometers. By measurement of the temperature rise of the two thermometers, the optical absorption of 7.4-10.3 nm diameter bundles is found to be between 0.03 and 0.44% of the incident photons in the 0.4 microm diameter laser spot. The thermal conductance of the bundle is obtained with the additional measurement of the temperature rise of the nanotubes in the laser spot from shifts in the Raman G band frequency. According to the nanotube bundle diameter determined by transmission electron microscopy, the thermal conductivity is obtained.

  9. Optical Absorption in Molecular Crystals from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    2017-04-23

    Our approach represents a full solid-state calculation, allowing for polarization ef- fects while still capable of capturing inter-molecular dis...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0030 Optical absorption in molecular crystals from time-dependent density functional theory Leeor Kronik WEIZMANN INSTITUTE OF...from time-dependent density functional theory 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0290 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S

  10. A structure preserving Lanczos algorithm for computing the optical absorption spectrum

    Shao, Meiyue [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Div.; Jornada, Felipe H. da [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Div.; Lin, Lin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Div.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Yang, Chao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Div.; Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Louie, Steven G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

    2016-11-16

    We present a new structure preserving Lanczos algorithm for approximating the optical absorption spectrum in the context of solving full Bethe-Salpeter equation without Tamm-Dancoff approximation. The new algorithm is based on a structure preserving Lanczos procedure, which exploits the special block structure of Bethe-Salpeter Hamiltonian matrices. A recently developed technique of generalized averaged Gauss quadrature is incorporated to accelerate the convergence. We also establish the connection between our structure preserving Lanczos procedure with several existing Lanczos procedures developed in different contexts. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Lanczos algorithm.

  11. Simulation of heating by optical absorption in nanoparticle dispersions (Conference Presentation)

    Olbricht, Benjamin C.

    2017-02-01

    With the proliferation of highly confined, nanophotonic waveguides and laser sources with increasing intensity, the effects of laser heating will begin to greatly impact the materials used in optical applications. In order to better understand the mechanism of laser heating, its timescales, and the dispersion of heat into the material, simulations of nanoparticles in various media are presented. A generic model to describe a variety of nanoparticle shapes and sizes is desirable to describe complex phenomenon. These particles are dispersed into various solids, liquids, or gases depending on the application. To simulate nanoparticles and their interaction with their host material, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used. Heat transfer following an absorption event is also described by a parabolic partial differential equation, and transient solutions are generated in response to continuous, pulsed, or modulated laser radiation. The simplest physical system described by FEM is that of a broadly-absorbing round-shaped nanoparticle dispersed in viscous host fluid or solid. Many experimental and theoretical studies conveniently describe a very similar system: a carbon "black" nanoparticle suspended in water. This material is well-known to exhibit nonlinear behavior when a laser pulse carrying 0.7 J/cm2 is incident on the material. For this process the FEM simulations agree with experimental results to show that a pulse of this fluence is capable of heating the solvent elements adjacent to the nanoparticle to their boiling point. This creates nonlinear scattering which is empirically observed as a nonlinear decrease in the transmitted power at this input fluence.

  12. Porous Graphene Microflowers for High-Performance Microwave Absorption

    Chen, Chen; Xi, Jiabin; Zhou, Erzhen; Peng, Li; Chen, Zichen; Gao, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Graphene has shown great potential in microwave absorption (MA) owing to its high surface area, low density, tunable electrical conductivity and good chemical stability. To fully realize graphene's MA ability, the microstructure of graphene should be carefully addressed. Here we prepared graphene microflowers (Gmfs) with highly porous structure for high-performance MA filler material. The efficient absorption bandwidth (reflection loss ≤ -10 dB) reaches 5.59 GHz and the minimum reflection loss is up to -42.9 dB, showing significant increment compared with stacked graphene. Such performance is higher than most graphene-based materials in the literature. Besides, the low filling content (10 wt%) and low density (40-50 mg cm-3) are beneficial for the practical applications. Without compounding with magnetic materials or conductive polymers, Gmfs show outstanding MA performance with the aid of rational microstructure design. Furthermore, Gmfs exhibit advantages in facile processibility and large-scale production compared with other porous graphene materials including aerogels and foams.

  13. Damping effect of the inner band electrons on the optical absorption and bandwidth of metal nanoparticles

    Ochoo, Lawrence, E-mail: lawijapuonj@yahoo.com; Migwi, Charles; Okumu, John [Kenyatta University, Physics Department (Kenya)

    2012-12-15

    Conflicts and discrepancies around nanoparticle (NP) size effect on the optical properties of metal NPs of sizes below the mean free path of electron can be traced to the internal damping effect of the hybrid resonance of the inner band (IB) and the conduction band (CB) electrons of the noble metals. We present a scheme to show how alternative mathematical formulation of the physics of interaction between the CB and the IB electrons of NP sizes <50 nm justifies this and resolves the conflicts. While a number of controversies exist between classical and quantum theories over the phenomenological factors to attribute to the NP size effect on the absorption bandwidth, this article shows that the bandwidth behavior can be well predicted from a different treatment of the IB damping effect, without invoking any of the controversial phenomenological factors. It finds that the IB damping effect is mainly frequency dependent and only partly size dependent and shows how its influence on the surface plasmon resonance can be modeled to show the influence of NP size on the absorption properties. Through the model, it is revealed that strong coupling of IB and CB electrons drastically alters the absorption spectra, splitting it into distinctive dipole and quadrupole modes and even introduce a behavioral switch. It finds a strong overlap between the IB and the CB absorptions for Au and Cu but not Ag, which is sensitive to the NP environment. The CB modes shift with the changing refractive index of the medium in a way that can allow their independent excitation, free of influence of the IB electrons. Through a hybrid of parameters, the model further finds that metal NP sizes can be established not only by their spectral absorption peak locations but also from a proper correlation of the peak location and the bandwidth (FWHM).

  14. Optical Kerr effect and two-photon absorption in monolayer black phosphorus

    Margulis, Vl A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical treatment of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption is presented for a novel two-dimensional material, monolayer black phosphorus (or phosphorene), irradiated by a normally incident and linearly polarized coherent laser beam of frequency ω. It is found that both the nonlinear refractive index n 2(ω) and the two-photon absorption coefficient α 2(ω) of phosphorene depend upon the polarization of the radiation field relative to phosphorene’s crystallographic axes. For the two principal polarization directions considered—viz, the armchair ({ \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C }) and zigzag ({ \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z }), the calculated values of n 2 and α 2 are distinguished by the order of their magnitude, with the n 2 and α 2 values being greater for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } direction. Furthermore, for almost all the incident photon energies below the fundamental absorption edge, except its neighborhood, the signs of n 2 as well as α 2 for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } and { \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z } polarization directions are opposed to each other. Also, for both the directions, the change of sign of n 2 is predicted to occur in the way between the two-photon absorption edge and the fundamental absorption edge, as well as in the near vicinity of the latter, where the Kerr nonlinearity has a pronounced resonant character and the magnitude of n 2 for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } and { \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z } polarization directions reaches its largest positive values of the order of 10‑9 and 10‑10 cm2 W‑1, respectively. The implications of the findings for practical all-optical switching applications are discussed.

  15. Experimental study of neutron-optical potential with absorption using Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator

    Hino, M.; Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Kawai, T.; Achiwa, N.; Yamazaki, D.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently spin precession angles of neutrons tunneling and non-tunneling through [Permalloy45(PA)-germanium(Ge)]-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator have been observed [1]. The spin precession angle is well reproduced by the theoretical phase difference of up and down spin neutron wave function based on one-dimensional Schroedinger equation using optical potential model [2]. Spin precession angle and transmission probability of neutron through PA-(Ge/Gd)-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator are presented, where the gap(Ge/Gd) layer consists of germanium and gadolinium atoms, and the optical potential model for magnetic multilayer system with absorption is discussed. (author) [1] M. Hino, et al., Physica B 241-243, 1083 (1998).; [2] S. Yamada, et al., Annu. Rep. Res. Reactor Inst. Kyoto Univ. 11, 8 (1978)

  16. Structural control of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in dense metal nanoparticle arrays.

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2009-08-17

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a composite containing interacting spherical silver nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host are studied as a function of interparticle separation using three dimensional frequency domain simulations. It is shown that for a fixed amount of metal, the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the composite chi((3))(omega) can be significantly enhanced with respect to the linear optical properties, due to a combination of resonant surface plasmon excitation and local field redistribution. It is shown that this geometry-dependent susceptibility enhancement can lead to an improved figure of merit for nonlinear absorption. Enhancement factors for the nonlinear susceptibility of the composite are calculated, and the complex nature of the enhancement factors is discussed.

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigation of optical absorption anisotropy in β-Ga2O3.

    Ricci, F; Boschi, F; Baraldi, A; Filippetti, A; Higashiwaki, M; Kuramata, A; Fiorentini, V; Fornari, R

    2016-06-08

    The question of optical bandgap anisotropy in the monoclinic semiconductor β-Ga2O3 was revisited by combining accurate optical absorption measurements with theoretical analysis, performed using different advanced computation methods. As expected, the bandgap edge of bulk β-Ga2O3 was found to be a function of light polarization and crystal orientation, with the lowest onset occurring at polarization in the ac crystal plane around 4.5-4.6 eV; polarization along b unambiguously shifts the onset up by 0.2 eV. The theoretical analysis clearly indicates that the shift in the b onset is due to a suppression of the transition matrix elements of the three top valence bands at Γ point.

  18. Extending differential optical absorption spectroscopy for limb measurements in the UV

    J. Puķīte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy to determine the constituents in the Earth's atmosphere from measurements of scattered light are often based on the Beer-Lambert law, like e.g. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS. While the Beer-Lambert law is strictly valid for a single light path only, the relation between the optical depth and the concentration of any absorber can be approximated as linear also for scattered light observations at a single wavelength if the absorption is weak. If the light path distribution is approximated not to vary with wavelength, also linearity between the optical depth and the product of the cross-section and the concentration of an absorber can be assumed. These assumptions are widely made for DOAS applications for scattered light observations.

    For medium and strong absorption of scattered light (e.g. along very long light-paths like in limb geometry the relation between the optical depth and the concentration of an absorber is no longer linear. In addition, for broad wavelength intervals the differences in the travelled light-paths at different wavelengths become important, especially in the UV, where the probability for scattering increases strongly with decreasing wavelength.

    However, the DOAS method can be extended to cases with medium to strong absorptions and for broader wavelength intervals by the so called air mass factor modified (or extended DOAS and the weighting function modified DOAS. These approaches take into account the wavelength dependency of the slant column densities (SCDs, but also require a priori knowledge for the air mass factor or the weighting function from radiative transfer modelling.

    We describe an approach that considers the fitting results obtained from DOAS, the SCDs, as a function of wavelength and vertical optical depth and expands this function into a Taylor series of both quantities. The Taylor coefficients are then applied as

  19. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  20. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cr3+ ions in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate

    Kripal, Ram; Singh, Pragya; Shukla, Santwana

    2011-01-01

    EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are recorded at 77 K. The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured from the resonance lines obtained at various rotations of the magnetic field. The values obtained are: g x =1.9257±0.0002, g y =1.9720±0.0002, g z =2.0102±0.0002, |D|=313±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 and |E|=101±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 . From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied. From the observed band positions, the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) and the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) are evaluated. The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. -- Research Highlights: → EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are done at 77 K. → The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured. From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. → The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied and the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) as well as the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) is evaluated. → The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

  1. First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction

    Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV)

  2. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides. [Pulsed electrons and x-rays

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71/sup 0/C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized.

  3. First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction

    Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-03-20

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV).

  4. The CO_2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 µm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (II) Self-absorption continuum

    Mondelain, D.; Vasilchenko, S.; Čermák, P.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The CO_2 absorption continuum near 2.3 µm is determined for a series of sub atmospheric pressures (250–750 Torr) by high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. An experimental procedure consisting in injecting successively a gas flow of CO_2 and synthetic air, keeping constant the gas pressure in the CRDS cell, has been developed. This procedure insures a high stability of the spectra baseline by avoiding changes of the optical alignment due to pressure changes. The CO_2 continuum was obtained as the difference between the CO_2 absorption coefficient and a local lines simulation using a Voigt profile truncated at ±25 cm"−"1. Following the results of the preceding analysis of the CO_2 rovibrational lines (Vasilchenko S et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer (10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.002), a CO_2 line list with intensities obtained by variational calculations and empirical line positions was preferred to the HITRAN line list. A quadratic pressure dependence of the absorption continuum is observed, with an average binary absorption coefficient increasing from 2 to 4×10"−"8 cm"−"1 amagat"−"2 between 4320 and 4380 cm"−"1. The obtained continuum is found in good agreement with a previous measurement using much higher densities (20 amagat) and a low resolution grating spectrograph and is consistent with values currently used in the analysis of Venus spectra. - Highlights: • The CO_2 absorption continuum is measured by CRDS in the 2.3 µm window. • The achieved sensitivity and stability allow measurements at sub-atmospheric pressure. • The absorption coefficient is on the order of 3×10"−"8 cm"−"1 amagat"−"2 near 4350 cm"−"1. • A good agreement is obtained with previous results at much higher density (20 amagat).

  5. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe_2O_4 were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe_2O_4 upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe_2O_4-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe_2O_4-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe_2O_4 decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe_2O_4. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10"−"1"0 m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe_2O_4-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp"3) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe_2O_4 upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe_2O_4 along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable properties which are exceedingly required in both optoelectronics and photothermal therapy

  6. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C., E-mail: sabarigirisun@bdu.ac.in

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10{sup −10} m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp{sup 3}) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable

  7. The CO2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 μm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (II) Self-absorption continuum

    Mondelain, D.; Vasilchenko, S.; Čermák, P.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The CO2 absorption continuum near 2.3 μm is determined for a series of sub atmospheric pressures (250-750 Torr) by high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. An experimental procedure consisting in injecting successively a gas flow of CO2 and synthetic air, keeping constant the gas pressure in the CRDS cell, has been developed. This procedure insures a high stability of the spectra baseline by avoiding changes of the optical alignment due to pressure changes. The CO2 continuum was obtained as the difference between the CO2 absorption coefficient and a local lines simulation using a Voigt profile truncated at ±25 cm-1. Following the results of the preceding analysis of the CO2 rovibrational lines (Vasilchenko S et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.002, a CO2 line list with intensities obtained by variational calculations and empirical line positions was preferred to the HITRAN line list. A quadratic pressure dependence of the absorption continuum is observed, with an average binary absorption coefficient increasing from 2 to 4×10-8 cm-1 amagat-2 between 4320 and 4380 cm-1. The obtained continuum is found in good agreement with a previous measurement using much higher densities (20 amagat) and a low resolution grating spectrograph and is consistent with values currently used in the analysis of Venus spectra.

  8. An Optical Biosensing Strategy Based on Selective Light Absorption and Wavelength Filtering from Chromogenic Reaction

    Hyeong Jin Chun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the time and space constraints in disease diagnosis via the biosensing approach, we developed a new signal-transducing strategy that can be applied to colorimetric optical biosensors. Our study is focused on implementation of a signal transduction technology that can directly translate the color intensity signals—that require complicated optical equipment for the analysis—into signals that can be easily counted with the naked eye. Based on the selective light absorption and wavelength-filtering principles, our new optical signaling transducer was built from a common computer monitor and a smartphone. In this signal transducer, the liquid crystal display (LCD panel of the computer monitor served as a light source and a signal guide generator. In addition, the smartphone was used as an optical receiver and signal display. As a biorecognition layer, a transparent and soft material-based biosensing channel was employed generating blue output via a target-specific bienzymatic chromogenic reaction. Using graphics editor software, we displayed the optical signal guide patterns containing multiple polygons (a triangle, circle, pentagon, heptagon, and 3/4 circle, each associated with a specified color ratio on the LCD monitor panel. During observation of signal guide patterns displayed on the LCD monitor panel using a smartphone camera via the target analyte-loaded biosensing channel as a color-filtering layer, the number of observed polygons changed according to the concentration of the target analyte via the spectral correlation between absorbance changes in a solution of the biosensing channel and color emission properties of each type of polygon. By simple counting of the changes in the number of polygons registered by the smartphone camera, we could efficiently measure the concentration of a target analyte in a sample without complicated and expensive optical instruments. In a demonstration test on glucose as a model analyte, we

  9. An Optical Biosensing Strategy Based on Selective Light Absorption and Wavelength Filtering from Chromogenic Reaction.

    Chun, Hyeong Jin; Han, Yong Duk; Park, Yoo Min; Kim, Ka Ram; Lee, Seok Jae; Yoon, Hyun C

    2018-03-06

    To overcome the time and space constraints in disease diagnosis via the biosensing approach, we developed a new signal-transducing strategy that can be applied to colorimetric optical biosensors. Our study is focused on implementation of a signal transduction technology that can directly translate the color intensity signals-that require complicated optical equipment for the analysis-into signals that can be easily counted with the naked eye. Based on the selective light absorption and wavelength-filtering principles, our new optical signaling transducer was built from a common computer monitor and a smartphone. In this signal transducer, the liquid crystal display (LCD) panel of the computer monitor served as a light source and a signal guide generator. In addition, the smartphone was used as an optical receiver and signal display. As a biorecognition layer, a transparent and soft material-based biosensing channel was employed generating blue output via a target-specific bienzymatic chromogenic reaction. Using graphics editor software, we displayed the optical signal guide patterns containing multiple polygons (a triangle, circle, pentagon, heptagon, and 3/4 circle, each associated with a specified color ratio) on the LCD monitor panel. During observation of signal guide patterns displayed on the LCD monitor panel using a smartphone camera via the target analyte-loaded biosensing channel as a color-filtering layer, the number of observed polygons changed according to the concentration of the target analyte via the spectral correlation between absorbance changes in a solution of the biosensing channel and color emission properties of each type of polygon. By simple counting of the changes in the number of polygons registered by the smartphone camera, we could efficiently measure the concentration of a target analyte in a sample without complicated and expensive optical instruments. In a demonstration test on glucose as a model analyte, we could easily measure the

  10. Synthesis, XRD, TEM, EPR, and Optical Absorption Spectral Studies of CuZnO2 Nanocompound

    T. Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano CuZnO2 compound is carried out by thermal decomposition method. The crystalline phase of the material is characterized by XRD. The calculated unit cell constants are a=3.1 Å and c=3.4786 Å and are of tetragonal structure. The unit cell constants are different from wurtzite (hexagonal which indicate that a nanocompound is formed. Further TEM images reveal that the metal ion is in tetragonal structure with oxygen ligands. The prepared CuZnO2 is then characterized for crystallite size analysis by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size is found to be 100 nm. Uniform bright rings are noticed in the TEM picture suggesting that the nanocrystals have preferential instead of random orientations. The selected-area electron diffraction (SAED pattern clearly indicates the formation of CuO-ZnO nanocompound. The nature of bonding is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The covalency character is about 0.74 and thus the compound is electrically less conductive. Optical absorption spectral studies suggest that Cu(II is placed in tetragonal elongation crystal field. The spin-orbit coupling constant, λ, is calculated using the EPR and optical absorption spectral results suggest some covalent bond between metal and ligand. Near infrared (NIR spectra are due to hydroxyl and water fundamentals.

  11. Anisotropic optical absorption induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling in monolayer phosphorene

    Li, Yuan; Li, Xin; Wan, Qi; Bai, R.; Wen, Z. C.

    2018-04-01

    We obtain the effective Hamiltonian of the phosphorene including the effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the frame work of the low-energy theory. The spin-splitting energy bands show an anisotropy feature for the wave vectors along kx and ky directions, where kx orients to ΓX direction in the k space. We numerically study the optical absorption of the electrons for different wave vectors with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-flip transition from the valence band to the conduction band induced by the circular polarized light closes to zero with increasing the x-component wave vector when ky equals to zero, while it can be significantly increased to a large value when ky gets a small value. When the wave vector varies along the ky direction, the spin-flip transition can also increase to a large value, however, which shows an anisotropy feature for the optical absorption. Especially, the spin-conserved transitions keep unchanged and have similar varying trends for different wave vectors. This phenomenon provides a novel route for the manipulation of the spin-dependent property of the fermions in the monolayer phosphorene.

  12. Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers are useful building blocks for all-optical gates as wavelength converters and OTDM demultiplexers. The paper reviews the progress from simple gates using cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing to the integrated interferometric gates using cross-phase modulation....... These gates are very efficient for high-speed signal processing and open up interesting new areas, such as all-optical regeneration and high-speed all-optical logic functions...

  13. Optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements as a means of monitoring corrosion layers on copper.

    Dowsett, Mark G; Adriaens, Annemie; Jones, Gareth K C; Poolton, Nigel; Fiddy, Steven; Nikitenko, Sergé

    2008-11-15

    XANES and EXAFS information is conventionally measured in transmission through the energy-dependent absorption of X-rays or by observing X-ray fluorescence, but secondary fluorescence processes, such as the emission of electrons and optical photons (e.g., 200-1000 nm), can also be used as a carrier of the XAS signatures, providing complementary information such as improved surface specificity. Where the near-visible photons have a shorter range in a material, the data will be more surface specific. Moreover, optical radiation may escape more readily than X-rays through liquid in an environmental cell. Here, we describe a first test of optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ODXAS) for monitoring electrochemical treatments on copper-based alloys, for example, heritage metals. Artificially made corrosion products deposited on a copper substrate were analyzed in air and in a 1% (w/v) sodium sesquicarbonate solution to simulate typical conservation methods for copper-based objects recovered from marine environments. The measurements were made on stations 7.1 and 9.2 MF (SRS Daresbury, UK) using the mobile luminescence end station (MoLES), supplemented by XAS measurements taken on DUBBLE (BM26 A) at the ESRF. The ODXAS spectra usually contain fine structure similar to that of XAS spectra measured in X-ray fluorescence. Importantly, for the compounds examined, the ODXAS is significantly more surface specific, and >98% characteristic of thin surface layers of 0.5-1.5-microm thickness in cases where X-ray measurements are dominated by the substrate. However, EXAFS and XANES from broadband optical measurements are superimposed on a high background due to other optical emission modes. This produces statistical fluctuations up to double what would be expected from normal counting statistics because the data retain the absolute statistical fluctuation in the original raw count, while losing up to 70% of their magnitude when background is removed. The problem may be

  14. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  15. L-Asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations.

    Zanatta, G; Gottfried, C; Silva, A M; Caetano, E W S; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p-carboxyl, C 2p-side chain, and C 2p-carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  16. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Silva, A. M. [Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri-Pi (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S., E-mail: ewcaetano@gmail.com [Instituto de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  17. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    Kawa M. Kaky

    Full Text Available In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 − xTeO2. (10ZnO. (10WO3. (5Na2O. (5TiO2. (xBi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol% have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65–150 cm−1, R2 (280–550 cm−1, R3 (880–950 cm−1 and R4 (916–926 cm−1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV–Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF, and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched. Keywords: Tellurite glasses, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, TGA/DSC

  18. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 - x)TeO2. (10)ZnO. (10)WO3. (5)Na2O. (5)TiO2. (x)Bi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65-150) cm-1, R2 (280-550) cm-1, R3 (880-950) cm-1 and R4 (916-926) cm-1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV-Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF), and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched.

  19. Broad absorption line symbiotic stars: highly ionized species in the fast outflow from MWC 560

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Knigge, Christian; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    In symbiotic binaries, jets and disk winds may be integral to the physics of accretion onto white dwarfs from cool giants. The persistent outflow from symbiotic star MWC 560 (≡V694 Mon) is known to manifest as broad absorption lines (BALs), most prominently at the Balmer transitions. We report the detection of high-ionization BALs from C IV, Si IV, N V, and He II in International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra obtained on 1990 April 29 - 30, when an optical outburst temporarily erased the obscuring `iron curtain' of absorption troughs from Fe II and similar ions. The C IV and Si IV BALs reached maximum radial velocities at least 1000 km s-1 higher than contemporaneous Mg II and He II BALs; the same behaviors occur in the winds of quasars and cataclysmic variables. An iron curtain lifts to unveil high-ionization BALs during the P Cygni phase observed in some novae, suggesting by analogy a temporary switch in MWC 560 from persistent outflow to discrete mass ejection. At least three more symbiotic stars exhibit broad absorption with blue edges faster than 1500 km s-1; high-ionization BALs have been reported in AS 304 (≡V4018 Sgr), while transient Balmer BALs have been reported in Z And and CH Cyg. These BAL-producing fast outflows can have wider opening angles than has been previously supposed. BAL symbiotics are short-timescale laboratories for their giga-scale analogs, broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs), which display a similarly wide range of ionization states in their winds.

  20. Ultrathin metasurface with high absorptance for waterborne sound

    Mei, Jun

    2018-01-12

    We present a design for an acoustic metasurface which can efficiently absorb low-frequency sound energy in water. The metasurface has a simple structure and consists of only two common materials: i.e., water and silicone rubber. The optimized material and geometrical parameters of the designed metasurface are determined by an analytic formula in conjunction with an iterative process based on the retrieval method. Although the metasurface is as thin as 0.15 of the wavelength, it can absorb 99.7% of the normally incident sound wave energy. Furthermore, the metasurface maintains a substantially high absorptance over a relatively broad bandwidth, and also works well for oblique incidence with an incident angle of up to 50°. Potential applications in the field of underwater sound isolation are expected.

  1. Durability Indicators in High Absorption Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Luis F. Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled aggregates in structural concrete production has the inconvenience of increasing the fluid transport properties, such as porosity, sorptivity, and permeability, which reduces the resistance against penetration of environmental loads such as carbon dioxide and chloride ion. In this paper, behavior of ten concrete mixtures with different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement was studied. The recycled material was recovered by crushing of concrete rubble and had high absorption values. The results showed that it is possible to achieve good resistance to carbonation and chloride penetration with up to 50% replacement of recycled coarse aggregate for 0.5 water/cement ratio. Finally, new indexes for porosity and sorptivity were proposed to assess the quality of concrete.

  2. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee; Saikia, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications. (paper)

  3. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    Devi, Jutika; Saikia, Rashmi; Datta, Pranayee

    2016-10-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications.

  4. EPR and optical absorption studies of VO2+ doped L-alanine (C3H7NO2) single crystals

    Biyik, Recep

    2009-01-01

    VO 2+ doped L-alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) single crystals and powders are examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectroscopy. Three magnetically different sites are resolved from angular variations of L-alanine single crystal EPR spectra. In some specific orientations each VO 2+ line splits into three superhyperfine lines with intensities of 1:2:1 and maximum splitting value of 2.23 mT. The local symmetries of VO 2+ complex sites are nearly axial. The optical absorption spectra show three bands. Spin Hamiltonian parameters are measured and molecular orbital coefficients are calculated by correlating EPR and optical absorption data for the central vanadyl ion.

  5. Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode

    Yongbing Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate optical performance of organic solar cells with Ag grating electrode. It is demonstrated that optical absorption for both transverse-electric (TE polarized and transverse-magnetic(TM polarized light is simultaneously improved when compared with that for the device without the Ag grating. The improvement is respectively attributed to the resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons within the device. After an additional WO3 layer is capped on the Ag grating, absorption of TE-polarized light is further improved due to resonance of double microcavities within the device, and absorption of TM-polarized light is improved by the combined effects of the microcavity resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons. Correspondingly, the short current density for randomly polarized light is improved by 18.1% from that of the device without the Ag grating. Finally, it is demonstrated that high transmission may not be an essential prerequisite for metallic gratings when they are used as transparent electrode since absorption loss caused by low transmission can be compensated by using a capping layer to optimize optical resonance of the WMC structure within the device.

  6. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  7. Optical absorption and gamma-radiation-shielding parameter studies of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Sayyed, M. I.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Dong, M. G.; Kaky, Kawa M.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations (0.1‒2.0 mol%) of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses with 10 mol% Li2O (alkali) or MgO (alkaline) have been synthesized and their optical absorption and radiation shielding features were studied. For both Li2O and MgO series 0.5 mol% Tm3+-doped glass samples, the evaluated Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4, and 6) Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from experimental oscillator strengths were used in estimating the radiative transition probabilities ( A R), branching ratios ( β R), and radiative lifetimes ( τ R) for several emission transitions. Using the XCOM software, the mass attenuation coefficients ( µ/ ρ) for all the fabricated glasses were evaluated within the 0.015‒10 MeV energy range. Also, the ( µ/ ρ) values were calculated at 0.356, 0.662, 1.173, and 1.33 MeV photon energies by MCNP5 simulation code and the results were compared with those obtained by XCOM. The ( µ/ ρ) values for Li2O, as well as MgO series glasses, increase with the addition of Tm2O3 and these values for MgO series glasses are slightly higher with respect to Li2O series glasses. From the ( µ/ ρ) values, effective atomic number ( Z eff), half-value layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) were calculated and the HVL and MFP results revealed that high-energy photons have more penetration into a glass sample compared to low-energy photons. Further, geometric progression (GP) fitting method was utilized to calculate the exposure buildup factor (EBF) within the 0.015‒15 MeV energy range. The 2.0 mol% Tm2O3-doped glasses show a better ability to attenuate gamma-rays in comparison to other glass samples, so the addition of Tm2O3 content leads to improvement of the shielding efficiency of the prepared glasses.

  8. Confocal absorption spectral imaging of MoS2: optical transitions depending on the atomic thickness of intrinsic and chemically doped MoS2.

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Jubok; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Minsu; Kan, Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-11-07

    We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a high-energy background (BG) peak at 2.84 eV displayed a gradual redshift as the MoS2 film thickness increased from the monolayer, to the bilayer, to the bulk MoS2 and this shift was attributed to the reduction of the gap energy in the Brillouin zone at the K-point as the atomic thickness increased. We also performed n-type chemical doping of MoS2 films using reduced benzyl viologen (BV) and the confocal absorption spectra modified by the doping showed a strong dependence on the atomic thickness: A and B exciton peaks were greatly quenched in the monolayer MoS2 while much less effect was shown in larger thickness and the BG peak either showed very small quenching for 1 L MoS2 or remained constant for larger thicknesses. Our results indicate that confocal absorption spectral imaging can provide comprehensive information on optical transitions of microscopic size intrinsic and doped two-dimensional layered materials.

  9. Long-term changes in the radiation-induced optical absorption bands of LiF:Mg,Ti

    Kelemen, A.

    1996-01-01

    Optical absorption spectroscopy plays an exceptional role in the identification of charge traps responsible for the different TL peaks of the TL phosphors. Experiments carried out under different conditions, e.g. with different types of ionising radiation and/or different dose rates, applying different annealing procedures and/or different storage times after the irradiation, may lead to contradictory results. Therefore, a systematic investigation was conducted of the build-up and decay characteristics of the optical absorption bands of different LiF:Mg,Ti single crystal samples. Important changes were found in the long (hours and days) time scale. For example, the 350 nm optical absorption increases continuously in the Mg free LiF:Ti sample, while the intensities of the 310 nm and 380 nm absorption bands decrease in the sample containing Mg even several hours after irradiation with ∼ 5 μs, 4 MeV linear accelerator electron pulses. These experimental results may have serious consequences for the interpretation of optical absorption data and for the understanding of defect and energy storage mechanisms of thermoluminescence in LiF:Mg,Ti. (author)

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND NIR SPECTRA OF HBC 722

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak [National Youth Space Center, 200 Deokheungyangjjok-gil, Dongil-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do 548-951 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyun-Il, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: sunkyung@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wskang@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: sanggak@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: hisung@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s{sup −1} while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s{sup −1}. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R{sub ⊙}, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models.

  11. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  12. Generation of ultra-wide and flat optical frequency comb based on electro absorption modulator

    Ujjwal; Thangaraj, Jaisingh

    2018-05-01

    A novel technique is proposed for the generation of ultra-wide and flat optical frequency comb (OFC) based on serially cascading three stages of electro absorption modulators (EAMs) through sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signals by setting frequencies at f GHz, f/2 GHz and f/4 GHz. Here, the first stage acts as subcarrier generator, the second stage acts as subcarrier doubler, and the third stage acts as subcarrier quadrupler. In addition, a higher number of subcarriers can easily be generated by adjusting the driving sinusoidal RF signal. In this paper, cascading three stages of EAMs driven by 50 GHz, 25 GHz and 12.5 GHz clock sources, we obtain 272 subcarriers with spacing of 2.5 GHz and power deviation within 1 dB. Theoretical analysis of serially cascaded EAMs for subcarrier generation is also investigated. Principal analysis and simulation of this technique are demonstrated.

  13. Total CMB analysis of streaker aerosol samples by PIXE, PIGE, beta- and optical-absorption analyses

    Annegarn, H.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multielemental analyses of aerosol samples are widely used in air pollution receptor modelling. Specifically, the chemical mass balance (CMB) model has become a powerful tool in urban air quality studies. Input data required for the CMB includes not only the traditional X-ray fluorescence (and hence PIXE) detected elements, but also total mass, organic and inorganic carbon, and other light elements including Mg, Na and F. The circular streaker sampler, in combination with PIXE analysis, has developed into a powerful tool for obtaining time-resolved, multielemental aerosol data. However, application in CMB modelling has been limited by the absence of total mass and complementary light element data. This study reports on progress in using techniques complementary to PIXE to obtain additional data from circular streaker samples, maintaining the nondestructive, instrumental approach inherent in PIXE: Beta-gauging using a 147 Pm source for total mass; optical absorption for inorganic carbon; and PIGE to measure the lighter elements. (orig.)

  14. Accelerated two-wave mixing response in erbium-doped fibers with saturable optical absorption

    Hernandez, Eliseo; Stepanov, Serguei; Plata Sanchez, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of the spatially uniform variation of average optical absorption to the dynamics of the transient two-wave mixing (TWM) response is considered. It is shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that this transient effect, via dynamic population gratings in erbium-doped fibers (EDFs) can ensure a response nearly two times faster in such gratings as compared to the growth rate of fluorescence uniformly excited under similar conditions, and can also result in an additional overshot in the tail of the TWM response. This additional ‘accelerating’ contribution is of even type, and does not influence the odd transient TWM response for the refractive index component of such gratings in the EDFs reported earlier. It is also shown that this effect can be utilized to monitor the formation of the dynamic grating with an auxiliary probe wave of the essentially different non-Bragg wavelength.

  15. Impact of absorptivity and wavelength on the optical properties of aggregates with sintering necks

    Bao, Yujia; Huang, Yong; He, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we constructed sintered aggregates based on the particle superposition model and apply the ball-necking factor η to characterize the sintering degree. The impact of the absorptivity characterized by the complex refractive index m and the wavelength of the incident light λ on the optical properties of aggregates with different η were compared and investigated. The results indicate that for different m and λ, the light scattering characteristics exhibit regular changes in the values, the peak locations and the size trends. Further, the deviation of 1 - S22/S11 caused by various η is noteworthy and considerable so that it can be used as a probe sensor parameter in the detection of the sintered aggregates configuration.

  16. Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition

    Govorov, A.O.

    1993-08-01

    Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder in the presence of the electron-LO-phonon resonance is investigated theoretically. The electron-LO-phonon resonance occurs when the energy spacing between adjacent Stark-ladder levels coincides with the LO-phonon energy. We propose a model describing the polaron effect in a superlattice. Calculations show that the absorption line shape is strongly modified due to the polaron effect under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition. We consider optical phenomena in a normal magnetic field that leads to enhancement of polaron effects. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs

  17. Parameterization of light absorption by components of seawater in optically complex coastal waters of the Crimea Peninsula (Black Sea).

    Dmitriev, Egor V; Khomenko, Georges; Chami, Malik; Sokolov, Anton A; Churilova, Tatyana Y; Korotaev, Gennady K

    2009-03-01

    The absorption of sunlight by oceanic constituents significantly contributes to the spectral distribution of the water-leaving radiance. Here it is shown that current parameterizations of absorption coefficients do not apply to the optically complex waters of the Crimea Peninsula. Based on in situ measurements, parameterizations of phytoplankton, nonalgal, and total particulate absorption coefficients are proposed. Their performance is evaluated using a log-log regression combined with a low-pass filter and the nonlinear least-square method. Statistical significance of the estimated parameters is verified using the bootstrap method. The parameterizations are relevant for chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.45 up to 2 mg/m(3).

  18. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  19. Continuous optical measurement system of hemolysis during a photosensitization reaction using absorption spectrum

    Hamada, R.; Ogawa, E.; Arai, T.

    2018-02-01

    To investigate hemolysis phenomena during a photosensitization reaction with the reaction condition continuously and simultaneously for a safety assessment of hemolysis side effect, we constructed an optical system to measure blood sample absorption spectrum during the reaction. Hemolysis degree might be under estimated in general evaluation methods because there is a constant oxygen pressure assumption in spite of oxygen depression take place. By investigating hemoglobin oxidation and oxygen desorption dynamics obtained from the contribution of the visible absorption spectrum and multiple regression analysis, both the hemolysis phenomena and its oxygen environment might be obtained with time. A 664 nm wavelength laser beam for the reaction excitation and 475-650 nm light beam for measuring the absorbance spectrum were arranged perpendicularly crossing. A quartz glass cuvette with 1×10 mm in dimensions for the spectrum measurement was located at this crossing point. A red blood cells suspension medium was arranged with low hematocrit containing 30 μg/ml talaporfin sodium. This medium was irradiated up to 40 J/cm2 . The met-hemoglobin, oxygenatedhemoglobin, and deoxygenated-hemoglobin concentrations were calculated by a multiple regression analysis from the measured spectra. We confirmed the met-hemoglobin concentration increased and oxygen saturation decreased with the irradiation time, which seems to indicate the hemolysis progression and oxygen consumption, respectively. By using our measuring system, the hemolysis progression seems to be obtained with oxygen environment information.

  20. Properties of the 4.45 eV optical absorption band in LiF:Mg, Ti

    Nail, I.; Oster, L.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Biderman, S.; Belaish, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of dosimetric LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) as well as nominally pure LiF single crystal have been studied as a function of irradiation dose, thermal and optical bleaching in order to investigate the role of the 4.45 eV OA band in low temperature TL. Computerised deconvolution was used to resolve the absorption spectrum into individual gaussian bands and the TL glow curve into glow peaks. Although the 4.45 eV OA band shows thermal decay characteristics similar to the 4.0 eV band its dose filling constant and optical bleaching properties suggest that it cannot be associated with the TL of composite peaks 4 or 5. Its presence in optical grade single crystal LiF further suggests that it is an intrinsic defect or possibly associated with chance impurities other than Mg, Ti. (authors)

  1. Valley- and spin-polarized oscillatory magneto-optical absorption in monolayer MoS2 quantum rings

    Oliveira, D.; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Soler, M. A. G.; Qu, Fanyao

    2018-03-01

    Besides optical valley selectivity, strong spin-orbit interaction along with Berry curvature effects also leads to unconventional valley- and spin-polarized Landau levels in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) under a perpendicular magnetic field. We find that these unique properties are inherited to the magneto-optical absorption spectrum of the TMDC quantum rings (QRs). In addition, it is robust against variation of the magnetic flux and of the QR geometry. In stark contrast to the monolayer bulk material, the MoS2 QRs manifest themselves in both the optical valley selectivity and unprecedented size tunability of the frequency of the light absorbed. We also find that when the magnetic field setup is changed, the phase transition from Aharonov-Bohm (AB) quantum interference to aperiodic oscillation of magneto-optical absorption spectrum takes place. The exciton spectrum in a realistic finite thickness MoS2 QR is also discussed.

  2. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  3. Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Ventrillard-Courtillot, Irene; Gonthiez, Thierry; Clerici, Christine; Romanini, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a first application, of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) to breath analysis in a medical environment. Noninvasive monitoring of trace species in exhaled air was performed simultaneous to spirometric measurements on patients at Bichat Hospital (Paris). The high selectivity of the OF-CEAS spectrometer and a time response of 0.3 s (limited by sample flow rate) allowed following the evolution of carbon monoxide and methane concentrations during individual respiratory cycles, and resolving variations among different ventilatory patterns. The minimum detectable absorption on this time scale is about 3×10-10 cm-1. At the working wavelength of the instrument (2.326 μm), this translates to concentration detection limits of ~1 ppbv (45 picomolar, or ~1.25 μg/m3) for CO and 25 ppbv for CH4, well below concentration values found in exhaled air. This same instrument is also able to provide measurement of NH3 concentrations with a detection limit of ~10 ppbv however, at present, memory effects do not allow its measurement on fast time scales.

  4. High-resolution continuum-source atomic absorption spectrometry: what can we expect?

    Welz Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new instrumental concept has been developed for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, using a high-intensity xenon short-arc lamp as continuum radiation source, a high-resolution double-echelle monochromator and a CCD array detector, providing a resolution of ~2 pm per pixel. Among the major advantages of the system are: i an improved signal-to-noise ratio because of the high intensity of the radiation source, resulting in improved photometric precision and detection limits; ii for the same reason, there are no more 'weak' lines, i.e. secondary lines can be used without compromises; iii new elements might be determined, for which no radiation source has been available; iv the entire spectral environment around the analytical line becomes 'visible', giving a lot more information than current AAS instruments; v the CCD array detector allows a truly simultaneous background correction close to the analytical line; vi the software is capable of storing reference spectra, e.g. of a molecular absorption with rotational fine structure, and of subtracting such spectra from the spectra recorded for a sample, using a least squares algorithm; vii although not yet realized, the system makes possible a truly simultaneous multi-element AAS measurement when an appropriate two-dimensional detector is used, as is already common practice in optical emission spectrometry; vii preliminary experiments have indicated that the instrumental concept could result in a more rugged analytical performance in the determination of trace elements in complex matrices.

  5. Solid tissue simulating phantoms having absorption at 970 nm for diffuse optics

    Kennedy, Gordon T.; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Trieu, Brandon; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-07-01

    Tissue simulating phantoms can provide a valuable platform for quantitative evaluation of the performance of diffuse optical devices. While solid phantoms have been developed for applications related to characterizing exogenous fluorescence and intrinsic chromophores such as hemoglobin and melanin, we report the development of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) tissue phantom that mimics the spectral characteristics of tissue water. We have developed these phantoms to mimic different water fractions in tissue, with the purpose of testing new devices within the context of clinical applications such as burn wound triage. Compared to liquid phantoms, cured PDMS phantoms are easier to transport and use and have a longer usable life than gelatin-based phantoms. As silicone is hydrophobic, 9606 dye was used to mimic the optical absorption feature of water in the vicinity of 970 nm. Scattering properties are determined by adding titanium dioxide, which yields a wavelength-dependent scattering coefficient similar to that observed in tissue in the near-infrared. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using the techniques of inverse adding-doubling and spatial frequency domain imaging. Results presented here demonstrate that we can fabricate solid phantoms that can be used to simulate different water fractions.

  6. Optical Absorption and Emission Mechanisms of Single Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Jungwirth, Nicholas R.; Fuchs, Gregory D.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the polarization selection rules of sharp zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) from isolated defects in hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) and compare our findings with the predictions of a Huang-Rhys model involving two electronic states. Our survey, which spans the spectral range ˜550 - 740 nm , reveals that, in disagreement with a two-level model, the absorption and emission dipoles are often misaligned. We relate the dipole misalignment angle (Δ θ ) of a ZPL to its energy shift from the excitation energy (Δ E ) and find that Δ θ ≈0 ° when Δ E corresponds to an allowed HBN phonon frequency and that 0 ° ≤Δ θ ≤90 ° when Δ E exceeds the maximum allowed HBN phonon frequency. Consequently, a two-level Huang-Rhys model succeeds at describing excitations mediated by the creation of one optical phonon but fails at describing excitations that require the creation of multiple phonons. We propose that direct excitations requiring the creation of multiple phonons are inefficient due to the low Huang-Rhys factors in HBN and that these ZPLs are instead excited indirectly via an intermediate electronic state. This hypothesis is corroborated by polarization measurements of an individual ZPL excited with two distinct wavelengths that indicate a single ZPL may be excited by multiple mechanisms. These findings provide new insight on the nature of the optical cycle of novel defect-based single-photon sources in HBN.

  7. High accuracy ion optics computing

    Amos, R.J.; Evans, G.A.; Smith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulation of focused ion beams for surface analysis of materials by SIMS, or for microfabrication by ion beam lithography plays an important role in the design of low energy ion beam transport and optical systems. Many computer packages currently available, are limited in their applications, being inaccurate or inappropriate for a number of practical purposes. This work describes an efficient and accurate computer programme which has been developed and tested for use on medium sized machines. The programme is written in Algol 68 and models the behaviour of a beam of charged particles through an electrostatic system. A variable grid finite difference method is used with a unique data structure, to calculate the electric potential in an axially symmetric region, for arbitrary shaped boundaries. Emphasis has been placed upon finding an economic method of solving the resulting set of sparse linear equations in the calculation of the electric field and several of these are described. Applications include individual ion lenses, extraction optics for ions in surface analytical instruments and the design of columns for ion beam lithography. Computational results have been compared with analytical calculations and with some data obtained from individual einzel lenses. (author)

  8. Retrieval interval mapping, a tool to optimize the spectral retrieval range in differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Vogel, L.; Sihler, H.; Lampel, J.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-06-01

    Remote sensing via differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a standard technique to identify and quantify trace gases in the atmosphere. The technique is applied in a variety of configurations, commonly classified into active and passive instruments using artificial and natural light sources, respectively. Platforms range from ground based to satellite instruments and trace-gases are studied in all kinds of different environments. Due to the wide range of measurement conditions, atmospheric compositions and instruments used, a specific challenge of a DOAS retrieval is to optimize the parameters for each specific case and particular trace gas of interest. This becomes especially important when measuring close to the detection limit. A well chosen evaluation wavelength range is crucial to the DOAS technique. It should encompass strong absorption bands of the trace gas of interest in order to maximize the sensitivity of the retrieval, while at the same time minimizing absorption structures of other trace gases and thus potential interferences. Also, instrumental limitations and wavelength depending sources of errors (e.g. insufficient corrections for the Ring effect and cross correlations between trace gas cross sections) need to be taken into account. Most often, not all of these requirements can be fulfilled simultaneously and a compromise needs to be found depending on the conditions at hand. Although for many trace gases the overall dependence of common DOAS retrieval on the evaluation wavelength interval is known, a systematic approach to find the optimal retrieval wavelength range and qualitative assessment is missing. Here we present a novel tool to determine the optimal evaluation wavelength range. It is based on mapping retrieved values in the retrieval wavelength space and thus visualize the consequence of different choices of retrieval spectral ranges, e.g. caused by slightly erroneous absorption cross sections, cross correlations and

  9. Gingin High Optical Power Test Facility

    Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Barrigo, P

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Consortium for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (ACIGA) in collaboration with LIGO is developing a high optical power research facility at the AIGO site, Gingin, Western Australia. Research at the facility will provide solutions to the problems that advanced gravitational wave detectors will encounter with extremely high optical power. The problems include thermal lensing and parametric instabilities. This article will present the status of the facility and the plan for the future experiments

  10. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    Taylor, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  11. High intersubband absorption in long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector based on waveguide resonance

    Zheng, Yuanliao; Chen, Pingping; Ding, Jiayi; Yang, Heming; Nie, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xiaohao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    A hybrid structure consisting of periodic gold stripes and an overlaying gold film has been proposed as the optical coupler of a long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector. Absorption spectra and field distributions of the structure at back-side normal incidence are calculated by the finite difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the intersubband absorption can be greatly enhanced based on the waveguide resonance as well as the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode. With the optimized structural parameters of the periodic gold stripes, the maximal intersubband absorption can exceed 80%, which is much higher than the SPP-enhanced intersubband absorption (the one of the standard device. The relationship between the structural parameters and the waveguide resonant wavelength is derived. Other advantages of the efficient optical coupling based on waveguide resonance are also discussed.

  12. Advanced Functionalities for Highly Reliable Optical Networks

    An, Yi

    This thesis covers two research topics concerning optical solutions for networks e.g. avionic systems. One is to identify the applications for silicon photonic devices for cost-effective solutions in short-range optical networks. The other one is to realise advanced functionalities in order...... to increase the availability of highly reliable optical networks. A cost-effective transmitter based on a directly modulated laser (DML) using a silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance its modulation speed is proposed, analysed and experimentally demonstrated. A modulation speed enhancement from 10 Gbit...... interconnects and network-on-chips. A novel concept of all-optical protection switching scheme is proposed, where fault detection and protection trigger are all implemented in the optical domain. This scheme can provide ultra-fast establishment of the protection path resulting in a minimum loss of data...

  13. Absorption by Spinning Dust: A Contaminant for High-redshift 21 cm Observations

    Draine, B. T.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2018-05-01

    Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high-redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) has reported 21 cm absorption at z≈ 17, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii a≈ 50 \\mathringA in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), with rotational temperature T ≈ 50 K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

  14. Understanding the shrinkage of optical absorption edges of nanostructured Cd-Zn sulphide films for photothermal applications

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); Kabir, Humayun [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rahman, M. Mahbubur, E-mail: M.Rahman@Murdoch.edu.au [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Hasan, Kamrul [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Bashar, Muhammad Shahriar; Rahman, Mashudur [Institute of Fuel and Research Development, Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Gafur, Md. Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Center, Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Islam, Shariful [Department of Physics, Comilla University, Comilla (Bangladesh); Amri, Amun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Jiang, Zhong-Tao [Surface Analysis and Materials Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150 (Australia); Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z. [School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Cd-Zn sulphide films synthesized via chemical bath deposition technique. • Nanocrystalline phase of Cd-Zn sulphide films were seen in XRD studies. • Nanocrystalline structures of the films were also confirmed by the SEM. • The band gap of these films is a combination of composition and size. • E{sub U} and σ studies ascribed the shrinkage of absorption edges around the optical band-gaps. - Abstract: In this article Cd-Zn sulphide thin films deposited onto soda lime glass substrates via chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique were investigated for photovoltaic applications. The synthesized films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopic methodologies. A higher degree of crystallinity of the films was attained with the increase of film thicknesses. SEM micrographs exhibited a partial crystalline structure with a particulate appearance surrounded by the amorphous grain boundaries. The optical absorbance and absorption coefficient of the films were also enhanced significantly with the increase in film thicknesses. Optical band-gap analysis indicated a monotonic decrease in direct and indirect band-gaps with the increase of thicknesses of the films. The presence of direct and indirect transitional energies due to the exponential falling edges of the absorption curves may either be due to the lack of long-range order or to the existence of defects in the films. The declination of the optical absorption edges was also confirmed via Urbach energy and steepness parameters studies.

  15. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  16. Highly efficient absorption of visible and near infrared light in convex gold and nickel grooves

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Beermann, Jonas; Søndergaard, Thomas

    The realization of nonresonant light absorption with nanostructured metal surfaces by making practical use of nanofocusing optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides, is of one of the most fascinating and fundamental phenomena in plasmonics [1,2]. We recently realized broadband light absorption...... in gold via adiabatic nanofocusing of gap surface plasmon modes in well-defined geometries of ultra-sharp convex grooves and being excited by scattering off subwavelength-sized wedges [3]....

  17. Photodefinable electro-optic polymer for high-speed modulators

    Balakrishnan, M.; Faccini, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Verboom, Willem; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Direct waveguide definition of a negative photoresist (SU8) containing tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) as electro-optic (EO) chromophore, has been demonstrated for the first time. This was possible by utilising the chromophore low absorption window in the UV region allowing

  18. 2nd-order optical model of the isotopic dependence of heavy ion absorption cross sections for radiation transport studies

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Yan, Congchong; Saganti, Premkumar B.

    2018-01-01

    Heavy ion absorption cross sections play an important role in radiation transport codes used in risk assessment and for shielding studies of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures. Due to the GCR primary nuclei composition and nuclear fragmentation leading to secondary nuclei heavy ions of charge number, Z with 3 ≤ Z ≥ 28 and mass numbers, A with 6 ≤ A ≥ 60 representing about 190 isotopes occur in GCR transport calculations. In this report we describe methods for developing a data-base of isotopic dependent heavy ion absorption cross sections for interactions. Calculations of a 2nd-order optical model solution to coupled-channel solutions to the Eikonal form of the nucleus-nucleus scattering amplitude are compared to 1st-order optical model solutions. The 2nd-order model takes into account two-body correlations in the projectile and target ground-states, which are ignored in the 1st-order optical model. Parameter free predictions are described using one-body and two-body ground state form factors for the isotopes considered and the free nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude. Root mean square (RMS) matter radii for protons and neutrons are taken from electron and muon scattering data and nuclear structure models. We report on extensive comparisons to experimental data for energy-dependent absorption cross sections for over 100 isotopes of elements from Li to Fe interacting with carbon and aluminum targets. Agreement between model and experiments are generally within 10% for the 1st-order optical model and improved to less than 5% in the 2nd-order optical model in the majority of comparisons. Overall the 2nd-order optical model leads to a reduction in absorption compared to the 1st-order optical model for heavy ion interactions, which influences estimates of nuclear matter radii.

  19. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  20. Comparison of Key Absorption and Optical Properties Between Pure and Transported Anthropogenic Dust over East and Central Asia

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent N.; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(440) > or = 0.4) and a low Angstrom wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (alpha or = 0.4 and 0.2 < alpha < 0.6 are designated as Transported Anthropogenic Dust (TDU), which is mainly dominated by dust aerosol and might mix with other anthropogenic aerosol types. Our results reveal that the primary components of high AOD days are predominantly dust over East and Central Asian regions, even if their variations rely on different sources, distance from the source, emission mechanisms, and meteorological characteristics. The overall mean and standard deviation of single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, real part and imaginary part of complex refractive index at 550 nm for Asian PDU are 0.935 +/- 0.014, 0.742 +/- 0.008, 1.526 +/- 0.029, and 0.00226 +/- 0.00056, respectively, while corresponding values are 0.921 +/- 0.021, 0.723 +/- 0.009, 1.521 +/- 0.025, and 0.00364 +/- 0.0014 for Asian TDU. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (alpha < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < alpha < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and

  1. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  2. DETECTION OF CA II ABSORPTION BY A HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD IN THE DIRECTION OF THE QUASAR PKS 0837-120

    ROBERTSON, JG; SCHWARZ, UJ; VANWOERDEN, H; MURRAY, JD; MORTON, DC; HULSBOSCH, ANM

    1991-01-01

    We present optical absorption spectroscopy of the Ca II K and H lines along the sight line to the quasar PKS 0837-120, which lies in the direction of a high-velocity cloud (HVC) detected in H I 21-cm emission at V(LSR) = + 105 km s-1. Our data show Ca II absorption due to the HVC as well as a lower

  3. Optical absorption, TL and IRSL of basic plagioclase megacrysts from the Pinacate (Sonora (Mexico)) quaternary alkalic volcanics

    Chernov, V.; Paz-Moreno, F.; Piters, T. M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of an investigation on optical absorption (OA), thermally and infrared stimulated luminescence (TL and IRSL) of the Pinacate plagioclase (labradorite). The OA spectra reveal two bands with maxima at 1.0 and 3.2 eV connected with absorption of the Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ and IR absorption at wavelengths longer than 2700 nm. The ultraviolet absorption varies exponentially with the photon energy following the 'vitreous' empirical Urbach rule indicating exponential distribution of localised states in the forbidden band. The natural TL is peaked at 700 K. Laboratory beta irradiation creates a very broad TL peak with maximum at 430 K. The change of the 430 K TL peak shape under the thermal cleaning procedure and dark storage after irradiation reveals a monotonous increasing of the activation energy that can be explained by the exponential distribution of traps. The IRSL response is weak and exhibits a typical decay behaviour. (authors)

  4. Optical absorption, TL and IRSL of basic plagioclase megacrysts from the pinacate (Sonora, Mexico) quaternary alkalic volcanics.

    Chernov, V; Paz-Moreno, F; Piters, T M; Barboza-Flores, M

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of an investigation on optical absorption (OA), thermally and infrared stimulated luminescence (TL and IRSL) of the Pinacate plagioclase (labradorite). The OA spectra reveal two bands with maxima at 1.0 and 3.2 eV connected with absorption of the Fe3+ and Fe2+ and IR absorption at wavelengths longer than 2700 nm. The ultraviolet absorption varies exponentially with the photon energy following the 'vitreous' empirical Urbach rule indicating exponential distribution of localised states in the forbidden band. The natural TL is peaked at 700 K. Laboratory beta irradiation creates a very broad TL peak with maximum at 430 K. The change of the 430 K TL peak shape under the thermal cleaning procedure and dark storage after irradiation reveals a monotonous increasing of the activation energy that can be explained by the exponential distribution of traps. The IRSL response is weak and exhibits a typical decay behaviour.

  5. Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: Solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method

    Bi Lei; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Hu Yongxiang; Baum, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    A new physical-geometric optics hybrid (PGOH) method is developed to compute the scattering and absorption properties of ice particles. This method is suitable for studying the optical properties of ice particles with arbitrary orientations, complex refractive indices (i.e., particles with significant absorption), and size parameters (proportional to the ratio of particle size to incident wavelength) larger than ∼20, and includes consideration of the edge effects necessary for accurate determination of the extinction and absorption efficiencies. Light beams with polygon-shaped cross sections propagate within a particle and are traced by using a beam-splitting technique. The electric field associated with a beam is calculated using a beam-tracing process in which the amplitude and phase variations over the wavefront of the localized wave associated with the beam are considered analytically. The geometric-optics near field for each ray is obtained, and the single-scattering properties of particles are calculated from electromagnetic integral equations. The present method does not assume additional physical simplifications and approximations, except for geometric optics principles, and may be regarded as a 'benchmark' within the framework of the geometric optics approach. The computational time is on the order of seconds for a single-orientation simulation and is essentially independent of the size parameter. The single-scattering properties of oriented hexagonal ice particles (ice plates and hexagons) are presented. The numerical results are compared with those computed from the discrete-dipole-approximation (DDA) method.

  6. A novel fiber-optic temperature sensor based on high temperature-dependent optical properties of ZnO film on sapphire fiber-ending

    Cai Pinggen; Zhen Dong; Xu Xiaojun; Liu Yulin; Chen Naibo; Wei Gaorao; Sui Chenghua

    2010-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality thin films of ZnO via an electron-beam evaporation technique. Studies of the transmittance spectra have revealed a sharp optical absorption edge and a significant redshift. After annealing at 673 K, the ZnO films again demonstrated a sharp absorption edge in a manner similar to the as-deposited samples. This illustrates the excellent thermal stability of the thin films and, as such, demonstrates their potential as fiber-optic temperature sensors. Utilizing the influence of optical absorption spectra at different temperatures, a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor based on this material has been designed and tested. This technique could offer a simple, robust and cost-effective method to be used in high temperature sensing applications.

  7. ACIGA's high optical power test facility

    Ju, L; Aoun, M; Barriga, P

    2004-01-01

    Advanced laser interferometer detectors utilizing more than 100 W of laser power and with ∼10 6 W circulating laser power present many technological problems. The Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) is developing a high power research facility in Gingin, north of Perth, Western Australia, which will test techniques for the next generation interferometers. In particular it will test thermal lensing compensation and control strategies for optical cavities in which optical spring effects and parametric instabilities may present major difficulties

  8. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO nanoparticles

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A., E-mail: iu.a.kuznetsova@urfu.ru; Rychkov, V. N. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation); Sokolov, V. I. [Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Metal Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f–metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  9. Enhancement of the nonlinear optical absorption of the E7 liquid crystal at the nematic-isotropic transition

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M.; Bechtold, I.H.; Figueiredo Neto, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the nonlinear optical absorption of the eutectic mixture E7 at the nematic-isotropic phase transition by the Z-scan technique, under continuous-wave excitation at 532 nm. In the nematic region, the effective nonlinear optical coefficient P, which vanishes in the isotropic phase, is negative for the extraordinary beam and positive for an ordinary beam. The parameter SNL, whose definition in terms of the nonlinear absorption coefficient follows the definition of the optical-order parameter in terms of the linear dichroic ratio, behaves like an order parameter with critical exponent 0.22 ± 0.05, in good agreement with the tricritical hypothesis for the nematic isotropic transition. (author)

  10. Built-in electric field effect on optical absorption spectra of strained (In,Ga)N–GaN nanostructures

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat, Rabat (Morocco); John Peter, A. [Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Science College, Melur, 625106 Madurai (India)

    2015-08-15

    Based on the effective-mass and the one band parabolic approximations, first order linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical properties related to 1s–1p intra-conduction band transition in wurtzite strained (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QDs are calculated. The built-in electric field effect, due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric components, is investigated variationally under finite confinement potential. The results reveal that size and internal composition of the dot have a great influence on in-built electric field which affects strongly the optical absorption spectra. It is also found that the modulation of the absorption coefficient, which is suitable for the better performance of optical device applications, can be easily obtained by adjusting geometrical size and internal composition.

  11. Metastable argon atom density in complex argon/acetylene plasmas determined by means of optical absorption and emission spectroscopy

    Sushkov, Vladimir; Herrendorf, Ann-Pierra; Hippler, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Optical emission and absorption spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the instability of acetylene-containing dusty plasmas induced by growing nano-particles. The density of Ar(1s 5 ) metastable atoms was derived by two methods: tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and with the help of the branching ratio method of emitted spectral lines. Results of the two techniques agree well with each other. The density of Ar(1s 3 ) metastable atoms was also measured by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The observed growth instability leads to pronounced temporal variations of the metastable and other excited state densities. An analysis of optical line ratios provides evidence for a depletion of free electrons during the growth cycle but no indication for electron temperature variations. (paper)

  12. Magnetic and solar effects on ionospheric absorption at high latitude

    M. Pietrella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Some periods of intense solar events and of strong magnetic storms have been selected and their effects on the ionospheric D region have been investigated on the basis of ionospheric absorption data derived from riometer measurements made at the Italian Antarctic Base of Terra Nova Bay (geographic coordinates: 74.69 S, 164.12 E; geomagnetic coordinates: 77.34 S, 279.41 E. It was found that sharp increases in ionospheric absorption are mainly due to solar protons emission with an energy greater than 10 MeV. Moreover, the day to night ratios of the ionospheric absorption are greater than 2 in the case of strong events of energetic protons emitted by the Sun, while during magnetic storms, these ratios range between 1 and 2.

  13. Optical Measurement of Radiocarbon below Unity Fraction Modern by Linear Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Liu, Qingnan; Gameson, Lyn; Hodges, Joseph T

    2017-09-21

    High-precision measurements of radiocarbon ( 14 C) near or below a fraction modern 14 C of 1 (F 14 C ≤ 1) are challenging and costly. An accurate, ultrasensitive linear absorption approach to detecting 14 C would provide a simple and robust benchtop alternative to off-site accelerator mass spectrometry facilities. Here we report the quantitative measurement of 14 C in gas-phase samples of CO 2 with F 14 C radiocarbon measurement science including the study of biofuels and bioplastics, illicitly traded specimens, bomb dating, and atmospheric transport.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption due to optical and ground-state coherences in 6Li

    Fuchs, J; Duffy, G J; Rowlands, W J; Lezama, A; Hannaford, P; Akulshin, A M

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of sub-natural width resonances in fluorescence from a collimated beam of 6 Li atoms excited on the D 1 and D 2 lines by a bichromatic laser field. We show that in addition to ground-state Zeeman coherence, coherent population oscillations between ground and excited states contribute to the sub-natural resonances. High-contrast resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption due to both effects, i.e., ground-state Zeeman coherence and coherent population oscillations, are observed

  15. Low voltage operation of electro-absorption modulator promising for high-definition 3D imaging application using a three step asymmetric coupled quantum well structure

    Na, Byung Hoon; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Yong Chul; Lee, Yong Tak; Choi, Hee Ju; Jeon, Jin Myeong; Lee, Soo Kyung; Park, Yong Hwa; Park, Chang Young

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a transmission type electro-absorption modulator (EAM) operating at 850 nm having low operating voltage and high absorption change with low insertion loss using a novel three step asymmetric coupled quantum well (3 ACQW) structure which can be used as an optical image shutter for high-definition (HD) three dimensional (3D) imaging. Theoretical calculations show that the exciton red shift of 3 ACQW structure is more than two times larger than that of rectangular quantum well (RQW) structure while maintaining high absorption change. The EAM having coupled cavities with 3 ACQW structure shows a wide spectral bandwidth and high amplitude modulation at a bias voltage of only -8V, which is 41% lower in operating voltage than that of RQW, making the proposed EAM highly attractive as an optical image shutter for HD 3D imaging applications

  16. Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with applied magnetic field

    Wu Qingjie; Guo Kangxian; Liu Guanghui; Wu Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with the radial parabolic potential and the z-direction linear potential with applied magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are presented by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Numerical calculations are presented for GaAs/AlGaAs. It is found that taking into account the electron-LO-phonon interaction, not only are the linear, the nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes enhanced, but also the total optical absorption coefficients are more sensitive to the incident optical intensity. It is also found that no matter whether the electron-LO-phonon interaction is considered or not, the absorption coefficients and refractive index changes above are strongly dependent on the radial frequency, the magnetic field and the linear potential coefficient.

  17. New organic materials for optics: optical storage and nonlinear optics

    Gan, F.

    1996-01-01

    New organic materials have received considerable attention recently, due to their easy preparation and different variety. The most application fields in optics are optical storage and nonlinear optics. In optical storage the organic dyes have been used for example, in record able and erasable compact disks (CD-R, CD-E) nonlinear optical effects, such as nonlinear optical absorption, second and third order optical absorption, second and third order optical nonlinearities, can be applied for making optical limiters, optical modulators, as well as laser second and third harmonic generations. Due to high value of optical absorption and optical nonlinearity organic materials are always used as thin films in optical integration. In this paper the new experimental results have been presented, and future development has been also discussed. (author)

  18. Optical absorption and electrical properties of MPc (M =Fe, Cu, Zn)-TCNQ interfaces for optoelectronic applications

    Sánchez Vergara, M. E.; Medrano Gallardo, D.; Vera Estrada, I. L.; Jiménez Sandoval, O.

    2018-04-01

    This research is related to the growth and characterization of doped molecular semiconductor metallophthalocyanine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (MPc-TCNQ) films, with M = Fe, Zn, Cu. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies were employed to study the chemical interactions taking place in the MPc-TCNQ films. XRD was carried out to determine the crystalline structure present in the samples, due to the facility of the MPcs to be in alpha and/or beta phases. The thin films were analized by SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy in order to study their morphological and optical properties. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-Vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The absorption coefficient (α) and photon energy (hν) were calculated from the UV-vis spectra, to in turn determine the optic activation energy in each film and its semiconductor behavior. The values obtained for direct transitions due to the crystallinity of the films were: 1.2, 1.4 and 2 eV for FePc-TCNQ (MMFe), ZnPc-TCNQ (MMZn) and CuPc-TCNQ (MMCu), respectively. Additionally, I-V characteristics have been obtained from fabricated glass/ITO/MM/Ag devices using ohmic contacts both after annealing. The electrical properties of the devices, e.g. carrier mobility and concentration of thermally generated holes, were extracted from the J-V characteristics. The results show that the conduction process is ohmic for the MMZn and MMCu devices, at low voltages, while at high voltages, a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) is present. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also measured in these samples and the lower thermal activation energy calculated was 0.37 eV for MMZn. Moreover, it was found that the temperature-dependent electric current is always higher for the MMZn device and suggests a semiconductor-like behavior with an important conductivity of the order of 103 S cm-1. Anyhow, in terms not only of electric properties, but also of optic behavior, the results suggest that

  19. Laser Thomson Scattering, Raman Scattering and laser-absorption diagnostics of high pressure microdischarges

    Donnelly, Vincent M; Belostotskiy, Sergey G; Economou, Demetre J; Sadeghi, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Laser scattering experiments were performed in high pressure (100s of Torr) parallel-plate, slot-type DC microdischarges operating in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (n e ) and electron temperature (T e ). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300 - 700 Torr, LTS yielded T e = 0.9 ± 0.3 eV and n e = (6 ± 3)·10 13 cm -3 , in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (T g ) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with T g values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  20. Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation.

    Neufeld, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2018-03-30

    Optical chirality (OC)-one of the fundamental quantities of electromagnetic fields-corresponds to the instantaneous chirality of light. It has been utilized for exploring chiral light-matter interactions in linear optics, but has not yet been applied to nonlinear processes. Motivated to explore the role of OC in the generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, we first separate the OC of transversal and paraxial beams to polarization and orbital terms. We find that the polarization-associated OC of attosecond pulses corresponds approximately to that of the pump in the quasimonochromatic case, but not in the multichromatic pump cases. We associate this discrepancy with the fact that the polarization OC of multichromatic pumps vary rapidly in time along the optical cycle. Thus, we propose new quantities, noninstantaneous polarization-associated OC, and time-scale-weighted polarization-associated OC, and show that these quantities link the chirality of multichromatic pumps and their generated attosecond pulses. The presented extension to OC theory should be useful for exploring various nonlinear chiral light-matter interactions. For example, it stimulates us to propose a tricircular pump for generation of highly elliptical attosecond pulses with a tunable ellipticity.

  1. Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation

    Neufeld, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2018-03-01

    Optical chirality (OC)—one of the fundamental quantities of electromagnetic fields—corresponds to the instantaneous chirality of light. It has been utilized for exploring chiral light-matter interactions in linear optics, but has not yet been applied to nonlinear processes. Motivated to explore the role of OC in the generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, we first separate the OC of transversal and paraxial beams to polarization and orbital terms. We find that the polarization-associated OC of attosecond pulses corresponds approximately to that of the pump in the quasimonochromatic case, but not in the multichromatic pump cases. We associate this discrepancy with the fact that the polarization OC of multichromatic pumps vary rapidly in time along the optical cycle. Thus, we propose new quantities, noninstantaneous polarization-associated OC, and time-scale-weighted polarization-associated OC, and show that these quantities link the chirality of multichromatic pumps and their generated attosecond pulses. The presented extension to OC theory should be useful for exploring various nonlinear chiral light-matter interactions. For example, it stimulates us to propose a tricircular pump for generation of highly elliptical attosecond pulses with a tunable ellipticity.

  2. Next-generation fabrication technologies for optical pickup devices in high-density optical disk storage systems

    Hosoe, Shigeru

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows a direction of friction technologies to make aspherical plastic objective lens with higher optical performance for high density optical disk storage systems. Specifically, a low birefringence and low water absorption (less than 0.1%) optical resin, low tool abrasion mold material, high circularity diamond tool which nose circularity is less than 30 nm, and 1 nm axis resolution precision lathe which tool position is stabilized against drift by environmental change are referred. Cut optical surface of a mold sample was constantly attained in less than 5 nmRtm surface roughness. Using these new technologies, aspherical plastic objective lens (NA0.6) for DVD which wave aberration is less than 35 m (lambda) rms was realized.

  3. Environmental samples analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Popescu, I.V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Busuioc, G.; Dima, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Vlaicu, Gh.; Marian, R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological samples are interesting from many aspects of environmental monitoring. By analyzing tree leaves conclusions can be drown regarding the metal loading in the growth medium. So that, starting from assumption that the pollution factors from environmental medium can modify the normal concentration of elements, we decided to control the presence of toxic elements and the deviation from normal state of elements in leaves of different trees from areas situated at different distances of pollution source. The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. Using AAS spectrophotometer SHIMADZU we identified and determined the concentration of: Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Fe, Se, Pb with an instrumental error less than 1% for most of the elements analyzed. The same samples were analyzed by ICP-OES spectrometer, BAIRD ICP2070-Sequential Plasma spectrometer. We identified and determined in leaves of different trees the concentration of Mg, Ca, and Sr with a precision less than 6%. (authors)

  4. First principles electron-correlated calculations of optical absorption in magnesium clusters★

    Shinde, Ravindra; Shukla, Alok

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report large-scale configuration interaction (CI) calculations of linear optical absorption spectra of various isomers of magnesium clusters Mgn (n = 2-5), corresponding to valence transitions. Geometry optimization of several low-lying isomers of each cluster was carried out using coupled-cluster singles doubles (CCSD) approach, and these geometries were subsequently employed to perform ground and excited state calculations using either the full-CI (FCI) or the multi-reference singles-doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) approach, within the frozen-core approximation. Our calculated photoabsorption spectrum of magnesium dimer (Mg2) is in excellent agreement with the experiments both for peak positions, and intensities. Owing to the sufficiently inclusive electron-correlation effects, these results can serve as benchmarks against which future experiments, as well as calculations performed using other theoretical approaches, can be tested. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf fille available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80356-6.

  5. Detection of gastrointestinal cancer by elastic scattering and absorption spectroscopies with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Mourant, J.R.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Bigio, I.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Mellow, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma Medical School, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1995-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. In proceedings of earlier SPIE conferences we reported on clinical measurements in the bladder, and we report here on recent results of clinical tests in the gastrointestinal tract. With the OBS, tissue pathologies are detected/diagnosed using spectral measurements of the elastic optical transport properties (scattering and absorption) of the tissue over a wide range of wavelengths. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, exhibit significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes m an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. Additionally, the optical geometry of the OBS beneficially enhances its sensitivity for measuring absorption bands. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination, as well as interstitial needle insertion. Data acquistion/display time is <1 second.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of highly oriented nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide

    Bahgat, A.A.; Ibrahim, F.A.; El-Desoky, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Highly oriented nanocrystalline hydrated vanadium pentoxide, V 2 O 5 .nH 2 O, were grown epitaxially on a glass substrate along the c-axis to form a film of 200 nm thick. The films were prepared by dissolving V 2 O 5 powder in hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 , solution. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron micrograph and electron diffraction were used to identify the structure of the obtained nanocrystals. Homogenous nanocrystals of 7.0 ± 1.0 nm in size were obtained and were closed packed and are distributed evenly. Electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in the temperature range 300-480 K for the as prepared films parallel to the substrate surface; i.e. normal to the c-axis. The obtained results showed an n-type semiconducting behavior within the whole temperature range. It is also clear to see that a reversible abnormality at about 340 K is realized during the cooling electrical conductivity measurements. On the other hand, optical transmission and reflection were used to evaluate different optical parameters such as; optical band gap, nature of donor levels and different absorption bands parameters. Both the electrical and optical data are correlated and accordingly the conduction mechanism is verified. Electronic parameters such as effective mass, carriers' type and concentration and drift mobility were evaluated

  7. Inversion of In Situ Light Absorption and Attenuation Measurements to Estimate Constituent Concentrations in Optically Complex Shelf Seas

    Ramírez-Pérez, M.; Twardowski, M.; Trees, C.; Piera, J.; McKee, D.

    2018-01-01

    A deconvolution approach is presented to use spectral light absorption and attenuation data to estimate the concentration of the major nonwater compounds in complex shelf sea waters. The inversion procedure requires knowledge of local material-specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) which are determined from natural samples using a bio-optical model that differentiates between Case I and Case II waters and uses least squares linear regression analysis to provide optimal SIOP values. A synthetic data set is used to demonstrate that the approach is fundamentally consistent and to test the sensitivity to injection of controlled levels of artificial noise into the input data. Self-consistency of the approach is further demonstrated by application to field data collected in the Ligurian Sea, with chlorophyll (Chl), the nonbiogenic component of total suspended solids (TSSnd), and colored dissolved organic material (CDOM) retrieved with RMSE of 0.61 mg m-3, 0.35 g m-3, and 0.02 m-1, respectively. The utility of the approach is finally demonstrated by application to depth profiles of in situ absorption and attenuation data resulting in profiles of optically significant constituents with associated error bar estimates. The advantages of this procedure lie in the simple input requirements, the avoidance of error amplification, full exploitation of the available spectral information from both absorption and attenuation channels, and the reasonably successful retrieval of constituent concentrations in an optically complex shelf sea.

  8. High Optical Access Trap 2.0.

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The High Optical Access (HOA) trap was designed in collaboration with the Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer (MUSIQC) team, funded along with Sandia National Laboratories through IARPA's Multi Qubit Coherent Operations (MQCO) program. The design of version 1 of the HOA trap was completed in September 2012 and initial devices were completed and packaged in February 2013. The second version of the High Optical Access Trap (HOA-2) was completed in September 2014 and is available at IARPA's disposal.

  9. Optical imaging of absorption and distribution of RITC-SiO2 nanoparticles after oral administration

    Lee CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Moon Lee,1 Tai Kyoung Lee,2–5 Dae-Ik Kim,1,6 Yu-Ri Kim,7 Meyoung-Kon Kim,7 Hwan-Jeong Jeong,2–5 Myung-Hee Sohn,2–5 Seok Tae Lim2–5 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 3Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 5Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 6School of Electrical, Electronic Communication, and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-Do, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seounbuk-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: In this study, we investigated the absorption and distribution of rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC-incorporated silica oxide nanoparticles(SiNPs (RITC-SiNPs after oral exposure, by conducting optical imaging, with a focus on tracking the movement of RITC-SiNPs of different particle size and surface charge. Methods: RITC-SiNPs (20 or 100 nm; positively or negatively charged were used to avoid the dissociation of a fluorescent dye from nanoparticles via spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed reactions in vivo. The changes in the nanoparticle sizes and shapes were investigated in an HCl solution for 6 hours. RITC-SiNPs were orally administered to healthy nude mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Optical imaging studies were performed at 2, 4, and 6 hours after oral administration. The mice were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, and 10 hours post-administration, and ex vivo imaging studies were performed

  10. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  11. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Kenji Kurokawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  12. Optical absorption and oxygen passivation of surface states in III-nitride photonic devices

    Rousseau, Ian; Callsen, Gordon; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    III-nitride surface states are expected to impact high surface-to-volume ratio devices, such as nano- and micro-wire light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photonic integrated circuits. In this work, reversible photoinduced oxygen desorption from III-nitride microdisk resonator surfaces is shown to increase optical attenuation of whispering gallery modes by 100 cm-1 at λ = 450 nm. Comparison of photoinduced oxygen desorption in unintentionally and n+-doped microdisks suggests that the spectral changes originate from the unpinning of the surface Fermi level, likely taking place at etched nonpolar III-nitride sidewalls. An oxygen-rich surface prepared by thermal annealing results in a broadband Q improvement to state-of-the-art values exceeding 1 × 104 at 2.6 eV. Such findings emphasize the importance of optically active surface states and their passivation for future nanoscale III-nitride optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  13. Comparison between ray-tracing and physical optics for the computation of light absorption in capillaries--the influence of diffraction and interference.

    Qin, Yuan; Michalowski, Andreas; Weber, Rudolf; Yang, Sen; Graf, Thomas; Ni, Xiaowu

    2012-11-19

    Ray-tracing is the commonly used technique to calculate the absorption of light in laser deep-penetration welding or drilling. Since new lasers with high brilliance enable small capillaries with high aspect ratios, diffraction might become important. To examine the applicability of the ray-tracing method, we studied the total absorptance and the absorbed intensity of polarized beams in several capillary geometries. The ray-tracing results are compared with more sophisticated simulations based on physical optics. The comparison shows that the simple ray-tracing is applicable to calculate the total absorptance in triangular grooves and in conical capillaries but not in rectangular grooves. To calculate the distribution of the absorbed intensity ray-tracing fails due to the neglected interference, diffraction, and the effects of beam propagation in the capillaries with sub-wavelength diameter. If diffraction is avoided e.g. with beams smaller than the entrance pupil of the capillary or with very shallow capillaries, the distribution of the absorbed intensity calculated by ray-tracing corresponds to the local average of the interference pattern found by physical optics.

  14. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  15. Ultra-broadband nonlinear saturable absorption of high-yield MoS2 nanosheets

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Hu, Zhongliang; Qiao, Tian; He, Xin; Guo, Qiangbing; Tian, Xiangling; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-07-01

    High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with strong nonlinear optical (NLO) responses in a broad near-infrared range were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The observation of saturable absorption, which was excited by the light with photon energy smaller than the gap energy of MoS2, can be attributed to the enhancement of the hybridization between the Mo d-orbital and S p-orbital by the oxygen incorporation into MoS2. High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with high modulation depth and large saturable intensity generated a stable, passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.56 μm. The high output power of 1.08 mW can be attained under a very low pump power of 30.87 mW. Compared to recently reported passively Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, the efficiency of the laser for our passive Q-switching operation is larger and reaches 3.50%. This research may extend the understanding on the NLO properties of MoS2 and indicate the feasibility of the high-yield MoS2 nanosheets to passively Q-switched fiber laser effectively at low pump strengths.

  16. Large-area and highly crystalline MoSe2 for optical modulator

    Yin, Jinde; Chen, Hao; Lu, Wei; Liu, Mengli; Li, Irene Ling; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Wenfei; Wang, Jinzhang; Xu, Zihan; Yan, Peiguang; Liu, Wenjun; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2017-12-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been successfully used as broadband optical modulator materials for pulsed fiber laser systems. However, the nonlinear optical absorptions of exfoliated TMDs are strongly limited by their nanoflakes morphology with uncontrollable lateral size and thickness. In this work, we provide an effective method to fully explore the nonlinear optical properties of MoSe2. Large-area and high quality lattice MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition method was adopted as an optical modulator for the first time. The large-area MoSe2 shows excellent nonlinear optical absorption with a large modulation depth of 21.7% and small saturable intensity of 9.4 MW cm-2. After incorporating the MoSe2 optical modulator into fiber laser cavity as a saturable absorber, a highly stable Q-switching operation with single pulse energy of 224 nJ is achieved. The large-area MoSe2 possessing superior nonlinear optical properties compared to exfoliated nanoflakes affords possibility for the larger-area two-dimensional materials family as high performance optical devices.

  17. Indirect optical crosstalk reduction by highly-doped backside layer in PureB single-photon avalanche diode arrays

    Osrečki, Željko; Knežević, Tihomir; Nanver, Lis K.; Suligoj, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    A method of reducing indirect optical crosstalk in a PureB single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array is investigated by TCAD simulations. The reduction is accomplished by taking advantage of the enhanced optical absorption of a highly-doped Si layer (p-type, 3×1020 cm-3) on the backside of the

  18. Indirect optical crosstalk reduction by highly-doped backside layer in single-photon avalanche diode arrays

    Osrečki, Željko; Knežević, Tihomir; Nanver, Lis K.; Suligoj, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    A method of reducing indirect optical crosstalk in single-photon avalanche diode arrays is investigated by TCAD simulations. The reduction is accomplished by taking advantage of an enhanced optical absorption in a highly-doped Si layer on the backside of the wafer. A simulation environment was

  19. Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere

    Volten, H.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Haaima, M.; Lolkema, D. E.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Potma, C. J. M.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; van Pul, W. A. J.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2012-02-01

    We present two Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments built at RIVM: the RIVM DOAS and the miniDOAS. Both instruments provide virtually interference-free measurements of NH3 concentrations in the atmosphere, since they measure over an open path, without suffering from inlet problems or interference problems by ammonium aerosols dissociating on tubes or filters. They measure concentrations up to at least 200 μg m-3, have a fast response, low maintenance demands, and a high up-time. The RIVM DOAS has a high accuracy of typically 0.15 μg m-3 for ammonia for 5-min averages and over a total light path of 100 m. The miniDOAS has been developed for application in measurement networks such as the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML). Compared to the RIVM DOAS it has a similar accuracy, but is significantly reduced in size, costs, and handling complexity. The RIVM DOAS and miniDOAS results showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.996) during a field measurement campaign in Vredepeel, the Netherlands. This measurement site is located in an agricultural area and is characterized by highly variable, but on average high ammonia concentrations in the air. The RIVM-DOAS and miniDOAS results were compared to the results of the AMOR instrument, a continuous-flow wet denuder system, which is currently used in the LML. Averaged over longer time spans of typically a day, the (mini)DOAS and AMOR results agree reasonably well, although an offset of the AMOR values compared to the (mini)DOAS results exists. On short time scales, the (mini)DOAS shows a faster response and does not show the memory effects due to inlet tubing and transport of absorption fluids encountered by the AMOR. Due to its high accuracy, high uptime, low maintenance and its open path, the (mini)DOAS shows a good potential for flux measurements by using two (or more) systems in a gradient set-up and applying the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  20. Progress in high index contrast integrated optics

    Baets, R.G.F.; Bienstman, P.; Bogaerts, W.; Brouckaert, J.; De Backere, P.; Dumon, P.; Roelkens, G.; Scheerlinck, S.; Smit, M.K.; Taillaert, D.; Van Campenhout, J.; Van Laere, F.; Thourhout, Van D.

    2007-01-01

    A large fraction of the recent innovation in integrated optics is enabled by the use of high index contrast structures and devices. The strong confinement achievable in such devices allows for dramatic performance benefits and downscaling. In this paper the progress in this field is reviewed.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  2. Effects of heat treatment on optical absorption properties of Ni-P/AAO nano-array composite structure

    Liu, Yi-Fan; Wang, Feng-Hua; Guo, Dong-Lai; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xian-Wu [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China); Sang, Jian-Ping [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China); Jianghan University, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Ni-P/AAO nano-array composite structure assemblies with Ni and P grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were prepared by electroless deposition. The results of SEM, TEM and SAED show that as-deposited Ni-P nanowires have an amorphous structure and a few nanocrystallites form after annealing. The optical absorption spectra reveal that, as the annealing temperature increases, the absorption band edge of the Ni-P/AAO composite structure is obviously blue shifted, which is attributed to a decrease of the internal pressure after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the annealed Ni-P/AAO nano-array composite structure exhibits the absorption behavior of a direct band gap semiconductor. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications. (orig.)

  3. Optical-absorption spectra associated with shallow donor impurities in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-dots

    Silva Valencia, J.

    1995-08-01

    The binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity and the optical-absorption spectra associated with transitions between the n=1 valence level and the donor-impurity band were calculated for infinite barrier-well spherical GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-dots of different radii, using the effective mass approximation within a variational scheme. An absorption peak associated with transitions involving impurities at the center of the well and a peak related with impurities at the edge of the dot were the main features observed for the different radii of the dots considered in the calculations. Also as a result of the higher electronic confinement in a quantum- dot, we found a much wider energy range of the absorption spectra when compared to infinite GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-wells and quantum-well wires of width and diameter comparable to the diameter of the quantum dot. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  4. Optical high-performance computing: introduction to the JOSA A and Applied Optics feature.

    Caulfield, H John; Dolev, Shlomi; Green, William M J

    2009-08-01

    The feature issues in both Applied Optics and the Journal of the Optical Society of America A focus on topics of immediate relevance to the community working in the area of optical high-performance computing.

  5. Analysis of the red and green optical absorption spectrum of gas phase ammonia

    Zobov, Nikolai F.; Coles, Phillip A.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg L.

    2018-04-01

    Room temperature NH3 absorption spectra recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory in 1980 are analyzed. The spectra cover two regions in the visible: 15,200 - 15,700 cm-1 and 17,950 - 18,250 cm-1. These high overtone rotation-vibration spectra are analyzed using both combination differences and variational line lists. Two variational line lists were computed using the TROVE nuclear motion program: one is based on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) while the other used a semi-empirical PES. Ab initio dipole moment surfaces are used in both cases. 95 energy levels with J = 1 - 7 are determined from analysis of the experimental spectrum in the 5νNH (red) region and 46 for 6νNH (green) region. These levels span four vibrational bands in each of the two regions, associated with stretching overtones.

  6. The determination of kinetic parameters of LiF : Mg,Ti from thermal decaying curves of optical absorption bands

    Yazici, A N

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal bleaching curves (TBCs) of specific optical absorption bands of LiF : Mg,Ti were measured as a function of temperature. The TBCs obtained were analysed to extract the kinetic parameters (the thermal activation energy (E) and the frequency factor (s)) of some TL glow peaks of LiF : Mg,Ti on the basis of the developed first-order kinetic model over a specified temperature region.

  7. Transverse UV-laser irradiation-induced defects and absorption in a single-mode erbium-doped optical fiber

    Tortech, B.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J. P.; Girard, S.; Van Uffelen, M.; Berghmans, F.; Regnier, E.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.

    2009-01-01

    Near UV-visible absorption coefficients of an erbium-doped optical fiber were investigated through an original technique based on a transverse cw UV-laser irradiation operating at 244 nm. Such irradiation leads to the generation of a quite intense guided luminescence signal in near UV spectral range. This photoluminescence probe source combined with a longitudinal translation of the fiber sample (at a constant velocity) along the UV-laser irradiation, presents several major advantages: (i) we bypass and avoid the procedures classically used to study the radiation induced attenuation which are not adapted to our case mainly because the samples present a very strong absorption with significant difficulties due to the injection of adequate UV-light levels in a small fiber diameter: (ii) the influence of the laser irradiation on the host matrix of the optical fiber is directly correlated to the evolution of the generated photoluminescence signal and (iii) in our experimental conditions, short fiber sample lengths (typically 20-30 cm) suffice to determine the associated absorption coefficients over the entire studied spectral domain. The generated photoluminescence signal is also used to characterize the absorption of the erbium ions in the same wavelength range with no cut-back method needed. (authors)

  8. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  9. Method and apparatus of highly linear optical modulation

    DeRose, Christopher; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-05-03

    In a new optical intensity modulator, a nonlinear change in refractive index is used to balance the nonlinearities in the optical transfer function in a way that leads to highly linear optical intensity modulation.

  10. Fiber optics in high dose radiation fields

    Partin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of state-of-the-art optical fiber waveguides in high dose (greater than or equal to 10 5 rad), steady state radiation fields is presented. The influence on radiation-induced transmission loss due to experimental parameters such as dose rate, total dose, irradiation history, temperature, wavelength, and light intensity, for future work in high dose environments are given

  11. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  12. The origin of luminescence from di[4-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)phenyl]sulfone (DAPSF), a blue light emitter: an X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study.

    Zhang, Duo; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaohong; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Xuhui

    2016-03-07

    The electronic structure and optical properties of di[4-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)phenyl]sulfone (denoted as DAPSF), a highly efficient fluorophor, have been investigated using X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at excitation energies across the C, N, O K-edges and the sulfur K-edge. The results indicate that the blue luminescence is mainly related to the sulfur functional group.

  13. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    Pal'-Val', P.P.; Kaufmann, Kh.-J.

    1983-01-01

    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples sub ected to microplastic deformation (epsilon 0 approximately 10 -4 , during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples

  14. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  15. First Simultaneous Visualization of SO2 and NO2 Plume Dispersions using Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Lee, Hanlim; Hong, Hyunkee; Han, Kyungsoo; Noh, Youngmin; Kwon, Soonchul

    2014-01-01

    Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Imaging-DOAS) has been utilized in recent years to provide slant column density (SCD) distributions of several trace gas species in the plume. The present study introduces a new method using Imaging-DOAS data to determine two-dimensional plume structure from the plume emissions of power plant in conditions of negligible aerosol effects on radiative transfer within the plume. We demonstrates for the first time that two-dimensional distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in power plant emissions can be determined simultaneously in terms of SCD distribution. The SO 2 SCD values generally decreased with increasing distance from the stack and with distance from the center of the plume. Meanwhile, high NO 2 SCD was observed at locations several hundred meters away from the first stack due to the ratio change of NO to NO 2 in NOx concentration, attributed to the NO oxidation by O 3 . The results of this study show the capability of the Imaging-DOAS technique as a tool to estimate plume dimensions in power plant emissions

  16. Influence of the ``second gap'' on the optical absorption of transparent conducting oxides

    Ha, Viet-Anh; Waroquiers, David; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Hautier, Geoffroy

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are critical to many technologies (e.g., thin-film solar cells, flat-panel displays or organic light-emitting diodes). TCOs are heavily doped (n or p-type) oxides that satisfy many design criteria such as high transparency to visible light (i.e., a band gap > 3 eV), high concentration and mobility of carriers (leading to high conductivity), ... In such (highly doped) systems, optical transitions from the conduction band minimum to higher energy bands in n-type or from lower energy bands to the valence band maximum in p-type are possible and can degrade transparency. In fact, it has been claimed that a high energy (> 3eV) for any of these transitions made possible by doping, commonly referred as a high ``second gap'', is a necessary design criterion for high performance TCOs. Here, we study the influence of this second gap on the transparency of doped TCOs by using ab initio calculations within the random phase approximation (RPA) for several well-known p-type and n-type TCOs. Our work highlights how the second gap affects the transparency of doped TCOs, shining light on more accurate design criteria for high performance TCOs.

  17. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  18. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  19. Determination of self-absorption in emission lines from some optically thick plasmas

    Pianarosa, P.; Gagne, J.M.; Larin, G.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We present a relatively simple method by which the amount of self-absorption in laboratory-produced plasmas can be evaluated. As an illustration we apply it here to the evaluation of self-absorption of a U I resonance transition from a hollow-cathode-generated plasma. The method can be generalized to include more-complex situations

  20. An organic dye-polymer (phenol red-poly (vinyl alcohol)) composite architecture towards tunable -optical and -saturable absorption characteristics

    Sreedhar, Sreeja, E-mail: sreejasreedhar83@gmail.com; Muneera, C. I., E-mail: drcimuneera@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Illyaskutty, Navas [Institute for Sensorics and Information Systems (ISIS), Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sreedhanya, S. [School of Chemical Sciences, M. G. University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2016-05-21

    Herein, we demonstrate that blending an organic dye (guest/filler), with a vinyl polymer (host template), is an inexpensive and simple approach for the fabrication of multifunctional photonic materials which could display an enhancement in the desirable properties of the constituent materials and, at the same time provide novel synergistic properties for the guest-host system. A new guest-host nanocomposite system comprising Phenol Red dye and poly (vinyl alcohol) as guest and host template, respectively, which exhibits tunable optical characteristics and saturable absorption behavior, is introduced. The dependence of local electronic environment provided by the polymer template and the interactions of the polymer molecules with the encapsulated guest molecules on the observed optical/nonlinear absorption behavior is discussed. An understanding of the tunability of the optical/ photophysical processes, with respect to the filler content, as discussed herein could help in the design of improved optical materials for several photonic device applications like organic light emitting diodes and saturable absorbers.

  1. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    Pal' -Val' , P.P.; Kaufmann, Kh.J.

    1983-03-01

    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples sub ected to microplastic deformation (epsilon<=0.45%) were used. Unstrained samples displayed at T<30 K a rapid increase in the absorption with lowering temperature which is interpreted as an indication of electron viscosity due to electron-phonon collisions. After deformation this part of absorption disappeared. This seems to suggest that microplastic deformation brings about in the crystal a sufficiently large number of defects that can compete with phonons in restricting the electron mean free path. A low temperature dynamic annealing has been revealed in strained samples, that is almost complete recovery of the absorption nature under irradiation with high amplitude sound, epsilon/sub 0/ approximately 10/sup -4/, during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples.

  2. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell.

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-12-05

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200-300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  3. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell

    Takuro Iwata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200–300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  4. Commercializing potassium terbium fluoride, KTF (KTb3F10) faraday crystals for high laser power optical isolator applications

    Schlichting, Wolfgang; Stevens, Kevin; Foundos, Greg; Payne, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    Many scientific lasers and increasingly industrial laser systems operate in manufacture. However, for high-power laser applications TGG is limited by its absorption at 1064nm and its thermo-optic coefficient, dn/dT. Specifically, thermal lensing and depolarization effects become a limiting factor at high laser powers. While TGG absorption has improved significantly over the past few years, there is an intrinsic limit. Now, SYNOPTICS is commercializing the enhanced new crystal Potassium Terbium Fluoride KTF (KTb3F10) that exhibits much smaller nonlinear refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients, and still exhibits a Verdet constant near that of TGG. This cubic crystal has relatively low absorption and thermo-optic coefficients. It is now fully characterized and available for select production orders. At OPTIFAB in October 2017 we present recent results comparing the performance of KTF to TGG in optical isolators and show SYNOPTICS advances in large volume crystal growth and the production ramp up.

  5. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2011-09-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  6. High power VCSELs for miniature optical sensors

    Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; MacDougal, Michael; Stahl, Ron; Follman, David; Garrett, Henry; Meyrath, Todd; Snyder, Don; Golden, Eric; Wagener, Jeff; Foley, Jason

    2010-02-01

    Recent advances in Vertical-cavity Surface-emitting Laser (VCSEL) efficiency and packaging have opened up alternative applications for VCSELs that leverage their inherent advantages over light emitting diodes and edge-emitting lasers (EELs), such as low-divergence symmetric emission, wavelength stability, and inherent 2-D array fabrication. Improvements in reproducible highly efficient VCSELs have allowed VCSELs to be considered for high power and high brightness applications. In this talk, Aerius will discuss recent advances with Aerius' VCSELs and application of these VCSELs to miniature optical sensors such as rangefinders and illuminators.

  7. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  8. Direction dependence of the magneto-optical absorption in nanowires with Rashba interaction

    Sakr, M.R., E-mail: msakr@alexu.edu.eg

    2016-09-16

    We study the directional dependence of the absorption spectrum of ballistic nanowires in the presence of gate-controlled Rashba spin–orbit interaction and an in-plane magnetic field. In the weak Rashba regime, our analytical and numerical results show that the absorption peaks associated with the first and third intersubband transitions exhibit frequency shifts and strong amplitude modulations as the direction of the magnetic field changes. If the field is parallel to the nanowire axis, these peaks disappear and the resonance frequencies of the whole absorption spectrum are given merely in terms of the Zeeman splitting and the energy scale characterizing the confinement potential. The second transition has an absorption peak that suffers an opposite frequency shift with amplitude that is largely direction independent. The amplitude modulation and frequency shift of the absorption spectrum is periodic in the angle that the magnetic field makes with the nanowire axis. - Highlights: • Absorption spectrum of the nanowire is calculated in the weak Rashba regime. • First and third absorption peaks show amplitude and frequency modulation. • They disappear if the magnetic field is along the wire axis, forbidden transitions. • The second transition peak shows frequency shift with minor amplitude modulation. • The frequency and amplitude modulations are periodic in the direction of the field.

  9. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO2-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of three lines [P(20), 944.2 cm -1 ; P(14), 949.2 cm -1 ; and R(24), 978.5 cm -1 ] of the pulsed CO 2 laser (00 0 1--10 0 0 transition) by SiH 4 was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO 2 laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials

  10. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors

  11. Two-channel cryostat for investigation of optical absorption on the UR-20 spectrophotometer

    Zhdanovich, N.S.; Kozlov, Yu.I.; Rodkin, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    A construction of two-channel cryostat for analysing absorption spectra in solids at 300 and 77 K is described. Measurements are made by the differential method. A specimen to be studied is placed in one of the channels and a reference specimen of the same thickness in the other. A spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient of Si alloyed with S has been obtained. Changes in the absorption are due to phototransitions of electrons from various levels of sulphur to the conduction band as the temperature is lowered from 300 to 77 K

  12. Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui

    2015-01-01

    Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of the Fermi level enables electro-optical modula......Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of the Fermi level enables electro...... with an extinction ratio of 3.8 dB is successfully demonstrated by applying a square-waveform with a 4 V peak-to-peak voltage....

  13. Solvated electron: criticism of a suggested correlation of chemical potential with optical absorption energy

    Farhataziz, M.

    1984-01-01

    A recent theoretical treatment of the absorption spectrum of the solvated electron, e - sub(s), maintains that rigorously μ 0 >= -0.75 Esub(av), which gives empirical relationship, μ 0 >= -(0.93 +- 0.02)Esub(max). For e - sub(s) in a particular solvent at a temperature and pressure, μ 0 , Esub(av) and Esub(max) are standard chemical potential, average energy of the absorption spectrum and the energy at the absorption maximum respectively. The temperature and pressure effects on the absorption spectrum of e - sub(s) in water and liquid ammonia do not support the equality sign in the above cited relationships. The implications of inequality expressed above are discussed for e - sub(s) in water and liquid ammonia. (author)

  14. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra

  15. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Kushwaha, Manvir S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  16. Thermal properties of borate crystals for high power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification.

    Riedel, R; Rothhardt, J; Beil, K; Gronloh, B; Klenke, A; Höppner, H; Schulz, M; Teubner, U; Kränkel, C; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Prandolini, M J; Tavella, F

    2014-07-28

    The potential of borate crystals, BBO, LBO and BiBO, for high average power scaling of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers is investigated. Up-to-date measurements of the absorption coefficients at 515 nm and the thermal conductivities are presented. The measured absorption coefficients are a factor of 10-100 lower than reported by the literature for BBO and LBO. For BBO, a large variation of the absorption coefficients was found between crystals from different manufacturers. The linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients at 515 nm as well as thermal conductivities were determined for the first time for BiBO. Further, different crystal cooling methods are presented. In addition, the limits to power scaling of OPCPAs are discussed.

  17. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  18. Low absorption InP/InGaAs-MQW phase shifters for optical switching

    Vreeburg, C.G.M.; Smit, M.K.; Bachmann, M.; Kyburz, R.; Krähenbühl, R.; Gini, E.; Melchior, H.; Shi, L.; Spiekman, L.H.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    InP/InGaAs-MQW phase shifters with low absorption loss and low electroabsorption loss have been realized. Phase shift efficiency for TE-polarized light at lambda =1.55 mu m was 6.8 degrees V/sup -1/ mm/sup -1/ with negligible absorption loss and at lambda =1.51 mu m the efficiency was 8.9 degrees

  19. High-definition optical coherence tomography

    Boone, Marc; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    to those described for reflectance confocal microscopy but with the advantages not only to visualize individual cells up to a depth of 570 μm but also in both slice and en face mode. An adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis of common inflammatory skin diseases could be proposed. This new......High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive technique for morphological investigation of tissue with cellular resolution filling the imaging gap between reflectance confocal microscopy and conventional optical coherence tomography. The aim of this study is first...... dermatitis. Additional studies to test the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed algorithm for pattern analysis are essential. The other categories of Ackerman's pattern recognition need to be evaluated. This study provides a set of morphological features generated by HD-OCT imaging very similar...

  20. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range

    T. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

  1. Chiral monolithic absorbent constructed by optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide: preparation and chiral absorption capacity.

    Li, Weifei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    Chiral monolithic absorbent is successfully constructed for the first time by using optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide (GO). The preparative strategy is facile and straightforward, in which chiral-substituted acetylene monomer (Ma), cross-linker (Mb), and alkynylated GO (Mc) undergo copolymerization to form the desired monolithic absorbent in quantitative yield. The resulting monoliths are characterized by circular dichroism, UV-vis absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, Raman, energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), XPS, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The polymer chains derived from Ma form chiral helical structures and thus provide optical activity to the monoliths, while GO sheets contribute to the formation of porous structures. The porous structure enables the monolithic absorbents to demonstrate a large swelling ratio in organic solvents, and more remarkably, the helical polymer chains provide optical activity and further enantio-differentiating absorption ability. The present study establishes an efficient and versatile methodology for preparing novel functional materials, in particular monolithic chiral materials based on substituted polyacetylene and GO. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anisotropy of the optical absorption in layered single crystals of MoRe0.001Se1.999

    Vora, Mihir M.; Vora, Aditya M.

    2007-01-01

    Energy gap of MoRe 0.001 Se 1.999 single crystal has been determined by fundamental absorption methods. The incident light was polarized along c-axis of the crystals. The interpretion of the data is given within frameworks of two and three dimensional models. Both direct and indirect transitions are involved in the absorption process. The indirect transition was found to be allowed with two phonons participating in the process. The three dimensional model could be used to describe the optical properties of the single crystal. The energy gaps depend upon the amount of the intercalating Re material, which show the anisotropy of the chemical bonds. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. The UHV Experimental Chamber For Optical Measurements (Reflectivity and Absorption) and Angle Resolved Photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA

    Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S.; De Luisa, A.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental station of the BEAR (Bending magnet for Emission, Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is an UHV chamber conceived to fully exploit the spectroscopic possibilities offered by the light spot produced by the beamline. Spectroscopies include reflectivity (θ-2θ and diffuse), optical absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission. The chamber can be rotated around the beam axis to select the s (TE) or p (TM) incidence conditions and/or the position of the ellipse of polarization with respect to the sample. Photon detectors (e.g. photodiodes) and electron detector (hemispherical analyzer - 1 deg. angular resolution, 20 meV energy resolution) cover about completely the full 2π solid angle above the sample surface in any light incidence condition

  4. Optical absorption of carbon nanotube diodes: Strength of the electronic transitions and sensitivity to the electric field polarization

    Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Rozzi, Tullio

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this work is to model electrostatically doped carbon nanotubes (CNT), which have recently proved to perform as ideal PN diodes, also showing photovoltaic properties. The new model is able to predict the optical absorption of semiconducting CNT as function of size and chirality. We justify theoretically, for the first time, the experimentally observed capability of CNTs to detect and select not only a well defined set of frequencies, as resulting from their discrete band structure, but also the polarization of the incident radiation. The analysis develops from an approach proposed in a recent contribution. The periodic structure of CNTs is formally modeled as a photonic crystal, that is characterized by means of numerical simulators. Longitudinal and transverse components of the electric field are shown to excite distinct interband transitions between well defined energy levels. Equivalently, for a given energy of the incident radiation, absorption may show polarization ratios strongly exceeding unity.

  5. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  6. Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation

    Alloatti, L.; Lauermann, M.; Koos, C.; Freude, W.; Sürgers, C.; Leuthold, J.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the optical losses in gate-induced charge accumulation/inversion layers at a Si/SiO 2 interface. Comparison between gate-induced charge layers and ion-implanted thin silicon films having an identical sheet resistance shows that optical losses can be significantly lower for gate-induced layers. For a given sheet resistance, holes produce higher optical loss than electrons. Measurements have been performed at λ = 1550 nm

  7. Electric-dipole absorption resonating with longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon system and its effect on dispersion relations of interface phonon polariton modes in metal/semiconductor-stripe structures

    Sakamoto, Hironori; Takeuchi, Eito; Yoshida, Kouki; Morita, Ken; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Interface phonon polaritons (IPhPs) in nano-structures excluding metal components are thoroughly investigated because they have lower loss in optical emission or absorption and higher quality factors than surface plasmon polaritons. In previous reports, it is found that strong infrared (IR) absorption is based on the interaction of p-polarized light and materials, and the resonance photon energy highly depends on the structure size and angle of incidence. We report the optical absorption by metal/semiconductor (bulk-GaAs and thin film-AlN)-stripe structures in THz to mid-IR region for the electric field of light perpendicular to the stripes, where both of s- and p-polarized light are absorbed. The absorption resonates with longitudinal optical (LO) phonon or LO phonon-plasmon coupling (LOPC) modes, and thus is independent of the angle of incidence or structure size. This absorption is attributed to the electric dipoles by the optically induced polarization charges at the metal/semiconductor, heterointerfaces, or interfaces of high electron density layers and depression ones. The electric permittivity is modified by the formation of these dipoles. It is found to be indispensable to utilize our form of altered permittivity to explain the experimental dispersion relations of metal/semiconductor-IPhP and SPhP in these samples. This analysis reveals that the IPhPs in the stripe structures of metal/AlN-film on a SiC substrate are highly confined in the AlN film, while the permittivity of the structures of metal/bulk-GaAs is partially affected by the electric-dipoles. The quality factors of the electric-dipole absorption are found to be 42-54 for undoped samples, and the value of 62 is obtained for Al/AlN-IPhP. It is thought that metal-contained structures are not obstacles to mode energy selectivity in phonon energy region of semiconductors.

  8. Dose and absorption spectra response of EBT2 Gafchromic film to high energy X-rays

    Butson, M.J.; Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Alnawaf, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: With new advancements in radiochromic film designs and sensitivity to suit different niche applications, EBT2 is the latest offering for the megavoltage radiotherapy market. New construction specifications including different physical construction and the use of a yellow coloured dye has provided the next generation radiochromic film for therapy applications. The film utilises the same active chemical for radiation measurement as its predecessor, EBT Gafchromic. Measurements have been performed using photo spectrometers to analyse the absorption spectra properties of this new EBT2 Gafchromic, radiochromic film. Results have shown that whilst the physical coloration or absorption spectra of the film, which turns yellow to green as compared to EBT film, (clear to blue) is significantly different due to the added yellow dye, the net change in absorption spectra properties for EBT2 are similar to the original EBT film. Absorption peaks are still located at 636 n m and 585 n m positions. A net optical density change of 0.590 ± 0.020 (2SD) for a 1 Gy radiation absorbed dose using 6 MV x-rays when measured at the 636 n m absorption peak was found. This is compared to 0.602 ± 0.025 (2SD) for the original EBT film (2005 Batch) and 0.557 ± 0.027 (2009 Batch) at the same absorption peak. The yellow dye and the new coating material produce a significantly different visible absorption spectra results for the EBT2 film compared to EBT at wavelengths especially below approximately 550 n m. At wavelengths above 550 n m differences in absolute OD are seen however, when dose analysis is performed at wavelengths above 550 n m using net optical density changes, no significant variations are seen. If comparing results of the late production EBT to new production EBT2 film, net optical density variations of approximately 10 % to 15 % are seen. As all new film batches should be calibrated for sensitivity upon arrival this should not be of concern.

  9. Optical self-injection mode-locking of semiconductor optical amplifier fiber ring with electro-absorption modulation—fundamentals and applications

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    The optical self-injection mode-locking of a semiconductor optical amplifier incorporated fiber ring laser (SOAFL) with spectrally sliced multi-channel carriers is demonstrated for applications. The synthesizer-free SOAFL pulse-train is delivered by optical injection mode-locking with a 10 GHz self-pulsed electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Such a coupled optical and electronic resonator architecture facilitates a self-feedback oscillation with a higher Q-factor and lower phase/intensity noises when compared with conventional approaches. The theoretical model of such an injection-mode-locking SOAFL is derived to improve the self-pulsating performance of the optical return-to-zero (RZ) carrier, thus providing optimized pulsewidth, pulse extinction ratio, effective Q-factor, frequency variation and timing jitter of 11.4 ps, 9.1 dB, 4 × 10 5 , −1 bi-directional WDM transmission network with down-stream RZ binary phase-shift keying (RZ-BPSK) and up-stream re-modulated RZ on–off-keying (RZ-OOK) formats. Under BPSK/OOK bi-directional data transmission, the self-pulsed harmonic mode-locking SOAFL simultaneously provides four to six WDM channels for down-stream RZ-BPSK and up-stream RZ-OOK formats with receiving sensitivities of −17 and −15.2 dBm at a bit error rate of 10 −9 , respectively. (paper)

  10. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  11. High-order beam optics - an overview

    Heighway, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Beam-transport codes have been around for as long as thirty years and high order codes, second-order at least, for close to twenty years. Before this period of design-code development, there was considerable high-order treatment, but it was almost entirely analytical. History has a way of repeating itself, and the current excitement in the field of high-order optics is based on the application of Lie algebra and the so-called differential algebra to beam-transport codes, both of which are highly analytical in foundation. The author will describe some of the main design tools available today, giving a little of their history, and will conclude by trying to convey some of the excitement in the field through a brief description of Lie and differential algebra. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  13. In-situ growth of AuNPs on WS2@U-bent optical fiber for evanescent wave absorption sensor

    Zhang, Suzhen; Zhao, Yuefeng; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yang, Cheng; Xiu, Xianwu; Li, Chonghui; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Xiaofei; Man, Baoyuan

    2018-05-01

    The sensitivity of the evanescent wave absorption sensor is always a hot topic which has been attracted researchers' discussion. It is still a challenge for developing the effective sensor to sensitively detect some biochemical molecules solution in a simple and low-cost way. In this paper, an evanescent wave absorption (EWA) sensor has been presented based on the U-bent multimode fiber coated with tungsten disulfide (WS2) film and in-situ growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the detection of ethanol solution and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Benefitted from the effective light coupling produced between U-bent probe and AuNPs, we attained the optimal size of the AuNPs by changing the reaction time between WS2 and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4). With the AuNPs/WS2@U-bent optical fiber, we discussed the behaviors of EWA sensor, such as sensitivity, reproducibility, fast response-recovery time and stability. The sensitivity (△A/△C) of the proposed AuNPs/WS2@U-bent optical fiber EWA sensor is 0.65 for the detection of the ethanol solution. Besides, the AuNPs/WS2@U-bent optical fiber EWA sensor exhibits high sensitivity in detection of the sodium chloride (NaCl), which can reach 1.5 when the proposed sensor was immersed into NaCl solution. Our work demonstrates that the U-bent optical fiber EWA sensor may have promising applications in testing the solution of concentration.

  14. EPR and optical absorption study of Cu{sup 2+} doped lithium sulphate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subramanian, P., E-mail: psubramaniangri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram, Dindigul-624302, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi-63006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    EPR study of Cu{sup 2+} doped NLO active Lithium Sulphate monohydrate (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4.}H{sub 2}O) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The principal values of g and A tensors indicate existence of orthorhombic symmetry around the Cu{sup 2+} ion. From the direction cosines of g and A tensors, the locations of Cu{sup 2+} in the lattice have been identified as interstitial site. Optical absorption confirms the rhombic symmetry and ground state wave function of the Cu{sup 2+} ion in a lattice as d{sub x2-y2}.

  15. Determination of water pH using absorption-based optical sensors: evaluation of different calculation methods

    Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Baohua; Ding, Zhongjun; Wang, Xiangxin

    2017-02-01

    Absorption-based optical sensors have been developed for the determination of water pH. In this paper, based on the preparation of a transparent sol-gel thin film with a phenol red (PR) indicator, several calculation methods, including simple linear regression analysis, quadratic regression analysis and dual-wavelength absorbance ratio analysis, were used to calculate water pH. Results of MSSRR show that dual-wavelength absorbance ratio analysis can improve the calculation accuracy of water pH in long-term measurement.

  16. All-optical wavelength conversion by picosecond burst absorption in colloidal PbS quantum dots

    Geiregat, P.A.; Houtepen, A.J.; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    All-optical approaches to change the wavelength of a data signal are considered more energy-and cost-effective than current wavelength conversion schemes that rely on back and forth switching between the electrical and optical domains. However, the lack of cost-effective materials with

  17. Wide-area remote-sensing system of pollution and gas dispersal by near-infrared absorption based on low-loss optical fiber network

    Inaba, H.

    1986-01-01

    An all optical remote sensing system utilizing long distance, ultralow loss optical fiber networks is studied and discussed for near infrared absorption measurements of combustible and/or explosive gases such as CH4 and C3H8 in our environment, including experimental results achieved in a diameter more than 20 km. The use of a near infrared wavelength range is emphasized.

  18. Below band-gap optical absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy at room temperature in low-defect-density bulk GaN:Fe

    Gladkov, Petar; Hulicius, Eduard; Paskova, T.; Preble, E.; Evans, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2012), "031908-1"-"031908-3" ISSN 0003-6951 Grant - others:US Missile Defense Agency(US) HQ 0147-09-C-0005 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : GaN * spectroscopy * optical absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012

  19. Effects of the gamma-ray irradiation on the optical absorption of pure silica core single-mode fibres in the visible and NIR range

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2005-01-01

    Optical absorption induced by photon radiation was evaluated for several commercial pure silica core, single mode, optical fibres. The study was performed for three different wavelengths: 630, 670 and 785 nm. We have identified a fibre whose induced transmission loss stays below 1 dB/m after 300 kGy gamma-ray irradiation

  20. Continuous registration of optical absorption spectra of periodically produced solvated electrons

    Krebs, P.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption spectra of unstable intermediates, such as solvated electrons, were usually taken point by point, recording the time-dependent light absorption after their production by a flash. The experimental arrangement for continuous recording of the spectra consists of a conventional one beam spectral photometer with a stabilized white light source, a monochromator, and a light detector. By periodic production of light absorbing intermediates such as solvated electrons, e.g., by ac uv light, a small ac signal is modulated on the light detector output which after amplification can be continuously recorded as a function of wavelength. This method allows the detection of absorption spectra when disturbances from the outside provide a signal-to-noise ratio smaller than 1

  1. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  2. Photoluminescence and optical absorption spectra of {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixed crystals

    Kranjcec, M. [Department of Geotechnics, University of Zagreb, 7 Hallerova Aleja, Varazdin, 42000 (Croatia); Ruder Boskovic Institute, 54 Bijenicka Cesta, Zagreb, 10000 (Croatia); Studenyak, I.P. [Uzhhorod National University, 46 Pidhirna Str., Uzhhorod, 88000 (Ukraine); Azhniuk, Yu. M. [Institute of Electron Physics, Ukr. Nat. Acad. Sci., 21 Universytetska Str., Uzhhorod, 88000 (Ukraine)

    2005-08-01

    Temperature and compositional studies of photoluminescence and optical absorption edge spectra of {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixed crystals with x=0.1-0.4 are performed. Exciton and impurity-related photoluminescence bands are revealed at low temperatures and Urbach shape of the absorption edge is observed in the temperature range 77-300 K. Temperature and compositional dependences of the photoluminescence band spectral positions and halfwidths as well as optical pseudogap and absorption edge energy width are investigated. Mechanisms of radiative recombination and optical absorption as well as crystal lattice disordering processes in {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} solid solutions are studied. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot

    Jbara, Ahmed S; Othaman, Zulkafli; Saeed, M A

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. (paper)

  4. Femtosecond all-optical parallel logic gates based on tunable saturable to reverse saturable absorption in graphene-oxide thin films

    Roy, Sukhdev; Yadav, Chandresh

    2013-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis of ultrafast transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) has been presented in graphene-oxide thin films with femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. Increase in pulse intensity leads to switching from SA to RSA with increased contrast due to two-photon absorption induced excited-state absorption. Theoretical results are in good agreement with reported experimental results. Interestingly, it is also shown that increase in concentration results in RSA to SA transition. The switching has been optimized to design parallel all-optical femtosecond NOT, AND, OR, XOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates

  5. Pulse radiolysis of LiBr-KBr melts. Optical transient absorption spectra

    Sawamura, S.; Gebicki, J.L.; Mayer, J.; Kroh, J.

    1990-01-01

    Absorption spectra of the irradiated melts of LiBr and LiBr-KBr mixtures were investigated in the temperature range 673-873 K by nanosecond pulse radiolysis. The visible band ascribed to e s - shows the apparent shift towards longer wavelengths with increasing temperature and increasing content of KBr in the mixture. The UV transient absorption was attributed to superimposed Br 2 - and Br 3 - bands. The relation between the transition energy of visible band and the inverse mean ion distance is given for alkali bromide and chloride systems. (author)

  6. Measurement of small light absorption in microparticles by means of optically induced rotation

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters of the pa......The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters...

  7. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    Wei, Ji Feng, E-mail: wjfcom2000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chang, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, Li Qun [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  8. Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot with a parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in a static magnetic field

    Liu Guanghui [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo Kangxian, E-mail: axguo@sohu.com [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Chao [Institute of Public Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot (DSQD) with parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in the presence of a static magnetic field are theoretically investigated within the framework of the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The energy levels and the wave functions of an electron in the DSQD are obtained by using the effective mass approximation. Numerical calculations are presented for typical GaAs/AlAs DSQD. It is found that the optical absorption coefficients are strongly affected not only by a static magnetic field, but also by the strength of external field, the confinement frequency and the incident optical intensity.

  9. Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot with a parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in a static magnetic field

    Liu Guanghui; Guo Kangxian; Wang Chao

    2012-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption in a disk-shaped quantum dot (DSQD) with parabolic potential plus an inverse squared potential in the presence of a static magnetic field are theoretically investigated within the framework of the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The energy levels and the wave functions of an electron in the DSQD are obtained by using the effective mass approximation. Numerical calculations are presented for typical GaAs/AlAs DSQD. It is found that the optical absorption coefficients are strongly affected not only by a static magnetic field, but also by the strength of external field, the confinement frequency and the incident optical intensity.

  10. Optical absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra of thiouracils: a quantum mechanical study in solution

    Martínez-Fernández, L.; Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The excited electronic states of 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil and 2,4-dithiouracil, the analogues of uracil where the carbonyl oxygens are substituted by sulphur atoms, have been investigated by computing the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra at the time-depe...

  11. Optical absorption spectra of linear and cyclic thiophenes--selection rules manifestation

    Bednarz, Mariusz; Reineker, Peter; Mena-Osteritz, Elena; Baeuerle, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We theoretically study the size-dependent relation between absorption spectra of thiophene-based oligomers and the corresponding cyclothiophenes. In our approach based on a Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the geometry and selection rules determine the observed relations between the spectra

  12. Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in live cells using transient absorption microscopy.

    Chen, Tao; Lu, Feng; Streets, Aaron M; Fei, Peng; Quan, Junmin; Huang, Yanyi

    2013-06-07

    We directly observe non-fluorescent nanodiamonds in living cells using transient absorption microscopy. This label-free technology provides a novel modality to study the dynamic behavior of nanodiamonds inside the cells with intrinsic three-dimensional imaging capability. We apply this method to capture the cellular uptake of nanodiamonds under various conditions, confirming the endocytosis mechanism.

  13. E-beam deposited Ag-nanoparticles plasmonic organic solar cell and its absorption enhancement analysis using FDTD-based cylindrical nano-particle optical model.

    Kim, Richard S; Zhu, Jinfeng; Park, Jeung Hun; Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Shen, Huajun; Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L; Park, Gyechoon; Anderson, Timothy J; Pei, Qibing

    2012-06-04

    We report the plasmon-assisted photocurrent enhancement in Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells, and systematically investigate the causes of the improved optical absorption based on a cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model which is simulated with a 3-Dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model is able to explain the optical absorption enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. A significant increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the plasmonic solar cell was experimentally observed and compared with that of the solar cells without Ag-NPs. Finally, our conclusion was made after briefly discussing the electrical effects of the fabricated plasmonic organic solar cells.

  14. Light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities based on hybrid simplified spherical harmonics with radiosity model.

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Xiaorui; Ripoll, Jorge; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling light propagation in the whole body is essential and necessary for optical imaging. However, non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption regions commonly exist in biological tissues, which lead to inaccuracy of the existing light transport models. In this paper, a novel hybrid light transport model that couples the simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN) with the radiosity theory (HSRM) was presented, to accurately describe light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities. In the model, the radiosity theory was used to characterize the light transport in non-scattering regions and the SPN was employed to handle the scattering problems, including subsets of low-scattering and high absorption. A Neumann source constructed by the light transport in the non-scattering region and formed at the interface between the non-scattering and scattering regions was superposed into the original light source, to couple the SPN with the radiosity theory. The accuracy and effectiveness of the HSRM was first verified with both regular and digital mouse model based simulations and a physical phantom based experiment. The feasibility and applicability of the HSRM was then investigated by a broad range of optical properties. Lastly, the influence of depth of the light source on the model was also discussed. Primary results showed that the proposed model provided high performance for light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities.

  15. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  16. Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption

    Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong

    2011-01-01

    A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  17. High colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in surface waters of the central-eastern Arctic Ocean: Implications for biogeochemistry and ocean color algorithms.

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Rabe, Benjamin; Peeken, Ilka; Bracher, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    As consequences of global warming sea-ice shrinking, permafrost thawing and changes in fresh water and terrestrial material export have already been reported in the Arctic environment. These processes impact light penetration and primary production. To reach a better understanding of the current status and to provide accurate forecasts Arctic biogeochemical and physical parameters need to be extensively monitored. In this sense, bio-optical properties are useful to be measured due to the applicability of optical instrumentation to autonomous platforms, including satellites. This study characterizes the non-water absorbers and their coupling to hydrographic conditions in the poorly sampled surface waters of the central and eastern Arctic Ocean. Over the entire sampled area colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominates the light absorption in surface waters. The distribution of CDOM, phytoplankton and non-algal particles absorption reproduces the hydrographic variability in this region of the Arctic Ocean which suggests a subdivision into five major bio-optical provinces: Laptev Sea Shelf, Laptev Sea, Central Arctic/Transpolar Drift, Beaufort Gyre and Eurasian/Nansen Basin. Evaluating ocean color algorithms commonly applied in the Arctic Ocean shows that global and regionally tuned empirical algorithms provide poor chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates. The semi-analytical algorithms Generalized Inherent Optical Property model (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), on the other hand, provide robust estimates of Chl-a and absorption of colored matter. Applying GSM with modifications proposed for the western Arctic Ocean produced reliable information on the absorption by colored matter, and specifically by CDOM. These findings highlight that only semi-analytical ocean color algorithms are able to identify with low uncertainty the distribution of the different optical water constituents in these high CDOM absorbing waters. In addition, a clustering of the Arctic Ocean

  18. PROBING X-RAY ABSORPTION AND OPTICAL EXTINCTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM USING CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Foight, Dillon R.; Slane, Patrick O. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Güver, Tolga [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Beyazıt, 34119, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, Feryal [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present a comprehensive study of interstellar X-ray extinction using the extensive Chandra supernova remnant (SNR) archive and use our results to refine the empirical relation between the hydrogen column density and optical extinction. In our analysis, we make use of the large, uniform data sample to assess various systematic uncertainties in the measurement of the interstellar X-ray absorption. Specifically, we address systematic uncertainties that originate from (i) the emission models used to fit SNR spectra; (ii) the spatial variations within individual remnants; (iii) the physical conditions of the remnant such as composition, temperature, and non-equilibrium regions; and (iv) the model used for the absorption of X-rays in the interstellar medium. Using a Bayesian framework to quantify these systematic uncertainties, and combining the resulting hydrogen column density measurements with the measurements of optical extinction toward the same remnants, we find the empirical relation N {sub H} = (2.87 ± 0.12) × 10{sup 21} A {sub V} cm{sup 2}, which is significantly higher than the previous measurements.

  19. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  20. Optical absorption and photoconductivity in iodine-excess ionic liquids: the case of 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium iodides.

    Aono, Masami; Miyazaki, Hisashi; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Abe, Hiroshi

    2018-02-21

    We investigated the optical absorption and photoconductivity of iodine-excess ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium iodide ([C n mim][I]; n = 3, 4, and 6). The iodide concentration m was 2 ≦ m ≦ 8, which was determined by the molar fraction [C n mim] +  : [I m ] - = 1 : m. By adding iodine, an absorption edge shifted from 282 nm in the UV region to around 600 nm in the visible-light region. The optical bandgaps E o decreased gradually from 2.3 eV to 1.9 eV with increasing m from 2 to 8. The alkyl-side chain lengths of the cations have little effect on the E o . This experimental result was confirmed by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The effects were reflected in the photoconductivity of the ILs, as expected. [C 4 mim][I m ] exhibited greater photo-induced electron generation compared with [C 3 mim][I m ] and [C 6 mim][I m ]. The photoconductivity in both [C 3 mim][I m ] and [C 6 mim][I m ] increased slightly with increasing m. The trend of photoconductivity in [C 4 mim][I m ] exhibited an N-shaped form. The highest photoconductivity 1.6 was observed in [C 4 mim][I 8 ].

  1. Optical beam induced current measurements based on two-photon absorption process in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes

    Hamad, H.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.; Tournier, D.; Planson, D. [Ampère Laboratory - UMR 5005, 21, Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vergne, B. [Franco-Allemand Institute of Saint-Louis ISL, 5, Rue du Général Cassagnou, 68300 Saint-Louis (France)

    2014-02-24

    Using a pulsed green laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, a duration pulse of ∼1 ns, and a mean power varying between 1 and 100 mW, induced photocurrents have been measured in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes. Considering the photon energy (2.33 eV) and the bandgap of 4H-SiC (3.2 eV), the generation of electron-hole pair by the conventional single photon absorption process should be negligible. The intensity of the measured photocurrents depends quadratically on the power beam intensity. This clearly shows that they are generated using two-photon absorption process. As in conventional OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current), the measurements give an image of the electric field distribution in the structure under test, and the minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the decrease of the photocurrent at the edge of the structure. The extracted minority carrier lifetime of 210 ns is consistent with results obtained in case of single photon absorption.

  2. Optical beam induced current measurements based on two-photon absorption process in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes

    Hamad, H.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.; Tournier, D.; Planson, D.; Vergne, B.

    2014-01-01

    Using a pulsed green laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, a duration pulse of ∼1 ns, and a mean power varying between 1 and 100 mW, induced photocurrents have been measured in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes. Considering the photon energy (2.33 eV) and the bandgap of 4H-SiC (3.2 eV), the generation of electron-hole pair by the conventional single photon absorption process should be negligible. The intensity of the measured photocurrents depends quadratically on the power beam intensity. This clearly shows that they are generated using two-photon absorption process. As in conventional OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current), the measurements give an image of the electric field distribution in the structure under test, and the minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the decrease of the photocurrent at the edge of the structure. The extracted minority carrier lifetime of 210 ns is consistent with results obtained in case of single photon absorption

  3. Design guidelines for high dimensional stability of CFRP optical bench

    Desnoyers, Nichola; Boucher, Marc-André; Goyette, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    In carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) optomechanical structures, particularly when embodying reflective optics, angular stability is critical. Angular stability or warping stability is greatly affected by moisture absorption and thermal gradients. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve the perfect laminate and there will always be manufacturing errors in trying to reach a quasi-iso laminate. Some errors, such as those related to the angular position of each ply and the facesheet parallelism (for a bench) can be easily monitored in order to control the stability more adequately. This paper presents warping experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA) obtained from typical optomechanical sandwich structures. Experiments were done using a thermal vacuum chamber to cycle the structures from -40°C to 50°C. Moisture desorption tests were also performed for a number of specific configurations. The selected composite material for the study is the unidirectional prepreg from Tencate M55J/TC410. M55J is a high modulus fiber and TC410 is a new-generation cyanate ester designed for dimensionally stable optical benches. In the studied cases, the main contributors were found to be: the ply angular errors, laminate in-plane parallelism (between 0° ply direction of both facesheets), fiber volume fraction tolerance and joints. Final results show that some tested configurations demonstrated good warping stability. FEA and measurements are in good agreement despite the fact that some defects or fabrication errors remain unpredictable. Design guidelines to maximize the warping stability by taking into account the main dimensional stability contributors, the bench geometry and the optical mount interface are then proposed.

  4. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: ► Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. ► Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  5. Ultrafast self-modulation of the optical absorption spectrum under conditions of both the ultrashort optical pumping and superluminescence in GaAs

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L.; Krivonosov, A. N.; Stegantsov, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    Self-modulation of the optical absorption spectrum is observed during the picosecond photogeneration of charge carriers and intense superluminescence in GaAs. As the picosecond delay τ of the probing pulse with respect to the pump pulse is varied in the region of τ < 0, the local points of the absorption intensification (juts) shift along the spectrum (the modulation resembles a running wave). As the value of τ is varied in the vicinity of τ = 0, the juts in the spectrum arise and disappear at approximately fixed photon energies (the modulation resembles a standing wave). At certain photon energies, the dependence of the rate of variation in the absorption coefficient dα/dτ on τ is found to be modulated by pulsations, similarly to the previously observed modulation of the picosecond stimulated emission from GaAs. Presumably, the spectrum self-modulation represents (and, thus, reveals) the modulation of the electron distribution in the conduction band. This modulation is caused by the fact that the evolution of the electron-population depletion at the bottom of the conduction band during superluminescence reflects (due to the electron-phonon interaction) on the population of the upper energy levels in the band

  6. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  7. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  8. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  9. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material

  10. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  11. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS and lidar

    Galtier Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  12. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS) and lidar

    Galtier, Sandrine; Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Sivignon, Jean-François; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  13. Attempt at interpreting some optical absorption bands in X-ray irradiated fluorine

    Allain, Yves

    1959-01-01

    According to the results of one of our experiments, the 575 mμ absorption band of fluorine irradiated with X-Rays seams due to F - ion vacancies. Our goal has been to find a color centers model in fluorine colored in various conditions. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 248, p. 2318-2320, sitting of Aril 20, 1959 [fr

  14. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  15. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    El Mel, A.A. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 3 44322 (France); Ershov, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Britun, N., E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Ricard, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Konstantinidis, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons B-7000 (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O{sub 2} content, etc. The absolute number density of the Ar{sup m} is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Ar{sup m} is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime. - Highlights: • Optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy are employed to study Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges. • The density of argon metastables is found to decrease exponentially when increasing the target-to-substrate distance. • The collision-quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents is demonstrated. • The deposition rates of cerium and cerium oxide thin films decrease sharply during the transition from the metallic to the poisoned sputtering regime.

  16. Toward high throughput optical metamaterial assemblies.

    Fontana, Jake; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2015-11-01

    Optical metamaterials have unique engineered optical properties. These properties arise from the careful organization of plasmonic elements. Transitioning these properties from laboratory experiments to functional materials may lead to disruptive technologies for controlling light. A significant issue impeding the realization of optical metamaterial devices is the need for robust and efficient assembly strategies to govern the order of the nanometer-sized elements while enabling macroscopic throughput. This mini-review critically highlights recent approaches and challenges in creating these artificial materials. As the ability to assemble optical metamaterials improves, new unforeseen opportunities may arise for revolutionary optical devices.

  17. Absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic energy in a high-temperature plasma

    Sagdeyev, R S; Shafranov, V D

    1958-07-01

    In this paper an analysis of the cyclotron and Cherenkov mechanisms is given. These are two fundamental mechanisms for noncollisional absorption of electromagnetic radiation by plasma in a magnetic field. The expressions for the dielectric permeability tensor, for plasma with a nonisotropic temperature distribution in a magnetic field, are obtained by integrating the kinetic equation with Lagrangian particle co-ordinates in a form suitable to allow a comprehensive physical interpretation of the absorption mechanisms. The oscillations of a plasma column stabilized by a longitudinal field have been analyzed. For uniform plasma, the frequency spectrum has been obtained together with the direction of electromagnetic wave propagation when both the cyclotron and Cherenkov absorption mechanisms take place. The influence of nonlinear effects on the electromagnetic wave absorption and the part which cyclotron and Cherenkov absorption play in plasma heating have also been investigated.

  18. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  19. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs

  20. Methylmercury determination using a hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet cold vapor multipath atomic absorption spectrometry system

    Campos, Reinaldo C.; Goncalves, Rodrigo A.; Brandao, Geisamanda P.; Azevedo, Marlo S.; Oliveira, Fabiana; Wasserman, Julio

    2009-01-01

    The present work investigates the use of a multipath cell atomic absorption mercury detector for mercury speciation analysis in a hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography assembly. The multipath absorption cell multiplies the optical path while energy losses are compensated by a very intense primary source. Zeeman-effect background correction compensates for non-specific absorption. For the separation step, the mobile phase consisted in a 0.010% m/v mercaptoethanol solution in 5% methanol (pH = 5), a C 18 column was used as stationary phase, and post column treatment was performed by UV irradiation (60 deg. C, 13 W). The eluate was then merged with 3 mol L -1 HCl, reduction was performed by a NaBH 4 solution, and the Hg vapor formed was separated at the gas-liquid separator and carried through a desiccant membrane to the detector. The detector was easily attached to the system, since an external gas flow to the gas-liquid separator was provided. A multivariate approach was used to optimize the procedure and peak area was used for measurement. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.05 μg L -1 were obtained for ionic (Hg 2+ ) and HgCH 3 + , for an injection volume of 200 μL. The multipath atomic absorption spectrometer proved to be a competitive mercury detector in hyphenated systems in relation to the most commonly used atomic fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detectors. Preliminary application studies were performed for the determination of methyl mercury in sediments.

  1. Methylmercury determination using a hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet cold vapor multipath atomic absorption spectrometry system

    Campos, Reinaldo C. [Department of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de S Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: rccampos@puc-rio.br; Goncalves, Rodrigo A.; Brandao, Geisamanda P.; Azevedo, Marlo S. [Department of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de S Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Fabiana; Wasserman, Julio [Institut of Geosciences, Fluminense Federal University, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n, 24.210-340, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    The present work investigates the use of a multipath cell atomic absorption mercury detector for mercury speciation analysis in a hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography assembly. The multipath absorption cell multiplies the optical path while energy losses are compensated by a very intense primary source. Zeeman-effect background correction compensates for non-specific absorption. For the separation step, the mobile phase consisted in a 0.010% m/v mercaptoethanol solution in 5% methanol (pH = 5), a C{sub 18} column was used as stationary phase, and post column treatment was performed by UV irradiation (60 deg. C, 13 W). The eluate was then merged with 3 mol L{sup -1} HCl, reduction was performed by a NaBH{sub 4} solution, and the Hg vapor formed was separated at the gas-liquid separator and carried through a desiccant membrane to the detector. The detector was easily attached to the system, since an external gas flow to the gas-liquid separator was provided. A multivariate approach was used to optimize the procedure and peak area was used for measurement. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.05 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained for ionic (Hg{sup 2+}) and HgCH{sub 3}{sup +}, for an injection volume of 200 {mu}L. The multipath atomic absorption spectrometer proved to be a competitive mercury detector in hyphenated systems in relation to the most commonly used atomic fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detectors. Preliminary application studies were performed for the determination of methyl mercury in sedi0011men.

  2. Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized magnetized plasma

    Guo Bin; Wang Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a uniformly magnetized plasma layer covering a highly conducting surface is studied under atmosphere conditions. It is assumed that the system consists of not only electrons and positive ions but negative ions as well. By a general formula derived in our previous work [B. Guo and X. G. Wang, Plasma Sci. Tech. 7, 2645 (2005)], the total power absorption in the plasma layer with multiple reflections between an air-plasma interface and the conducting surface is computed. The results show that although the existence of negative ions greatly reduces the total power absorption, the magnetization of the plasma can, however, partially enhance it. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed

  3. High-efficient light absorption of monolayer graphene via cylindrical dielectric arrays and the sensing application

    Zhou, Peng; Zheng, Gaige

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of graphene-based optoelectronic devices is typically limited by the poor absolute absorption of light. A hybrid structure of monolayer graphene with cylindrical titanium dioxide (TiO2) array and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) spacer layer on aluminum (Al) substrate has been proposed to enhance the absorption for two-dimensional (2D) materials. By combining dielectric array with metal substrate, the structure achieves multiple absorption peaks with near unity absorbance at near-infrared wavelengths due to the resonant effect of dielectric array. Completed monolayer graphene is utilized in the design without any demand of manufacture process to form the periodic patterns. Further analysis indicates that the near-field enhancement induced by surface modes gives rise to the high absorption. This favorable field enhancement and tunability of absorption not only open up new approaches to accelerate the light-graphene interaction, but also show great potential for practical applications in high-performance optoelectronic devices, such as modulators and sensors.

  4. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    Pal' -Val' , P.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur); Kaufmann, Kh.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin)

    1983-03-01

    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples subjected to microplastic deformation (epsilon<=0.45%) were used. Unstrained samples displayed at T<30 K a rapid increase in the absorption with lowering temperature which is interpreted as an indication of electron viscosity due to electron-phonon collisions. After deformation this part of absorption disappeared. This seems to suggest that microplastic deformation brings about in the crystal a sufficiently large number of defects that can compete with phonons in restricting the electron mean free path. A low temperature ''dynamic annealing'' has been revealed in strained samples, that is, almost complete recovery of the absorption nature under irradiation with high amplitude sound, epsilon/sub 0/ approximately 10/sup -4/, during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples.

  5. Optical Absorption, Stability and Structure of NpO2+ Complexes with Dicarboxylic Acids

    Guoxin Tian; Linfeng Rao

    2006-01-01

    Complexation of NpO2+ with oxalic acid (OX),2,2'-oxydiacetic acid (ODA), 2,2'-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and 2,2'-thiodiacetic acid (TDA), has been studied using spectrophotometry in1 M NaClO4. Both the position and the intensity of the absorption band of NpO2+ at 980 nm are affected by the formation of NpO2+/dicarboxylate complexes, providing useful information on the complexation strength, the coordination mode and the structure of the complexes

  6. Effect of Molar Concentration on Optical Absorption Spectra of ZnS:Mn Nanoparticles

    Ravi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of luminescent nanocrystals of manganese doped zinc sulphide. Nanocrystals of zinc sulphide were prepared by chemical precipitation method using the solution of zinc chloride, sodium sulphide, manganese chloride and mercaptoethanol was used as the capping agent. It was found that change in the molar concentration changes the particle size. The particle size of such nanocrystals was measured using XRD pattern and it is found to be in between 3 nm – 5 nm. The blue-shift in absorption spectra was found with reducing size of the nanoparticles

  7. High resolution and high precision absorption spectroscopy using high finesse cavities: application to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest; Cavites de haute finesse pour la spectroscopie d'absorption haute sensibilite et haute precision: application a l'etude de molecules d'interet atmospherique

    Motto-Ros, V.

    2005-12-15

    High finesse cavities are used to measure very weak absorption features. Two different methodologies are investigated and applied to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest. First, Continuous Wave - Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) is used to study the atmospheric spectra of water vapour in the near infrared range. These measurements are performed for temperature and pressure of atmospheric relevance for DIAL applications (Differential Absorption Lidar). This study, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA), goes with the WALES mission (Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space). The experimental setup was conceived in order to control pressure, temperature and relative humidity conditions. A particular attention is done to characterize and describe the spectrometer. Then, measurements of red Oxygen B band are performed to demonstrate the huge performance of Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS). The desired optical feedback is obtained by light injection into the high finesse cavity through a glass plate placed inside the cavity and closed to the Brewster angle. We show a measurement dynamical range of 5 orders of magnitude (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10} /cm) and a sensitivity of 10{sup -10} /cm/{radical} Hz. Also, sampling absorption spectra by the super linear cavity frequency comb allows very precise frequency measurements. This is demonstrated by the determination of Oxygen pressure shifts with an absolute accuracy of around 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -1}/atm. To our knowledge, we provide the highest accuracy ever reported for this parameter. (author)

  8. High resolution and high precision absorption spectroscopy using high finesse cavities: application to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest; Cavites de haute finesse pour la spectroscopie d'absorption haute sensibilite et haute precision: application a l'etude de molecules d'interet atmospherique

    Motto-Ros, V

    2005-12-15

    High finesse cavities are used to measure very weak absorption features. Two different methodologies are investigated and applied to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest. First, Continuous Wave - Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) is used to study the atmospheric spectra of water vapour in the near infrared range. These measurements are performed for temperature and pressure of atmospheric relevance for DIAL applications (Differential Absorption Lidar). This study, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA), goes with the WALES mission (Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space). The experimental setup was conceived in order to control pressure, temperature and relative humidity conditions. A particular attention is done to characterize and describe the spectrometer. Then, measurements of red Oxygen B band are performed to demonstrate the huge performance of Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS). The desired optical feedback is obtained by light injection into the high finesse cavity through a glass plate placed inside the cavity and closed to the Brewster angle. We show a measurement dynamical range of 5 orders of magnitude (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10} /cm) and a sensitivity of 10{sup -10} /cm/{radical} Hz. Also, sampling absorption spectra by the super linear cavity frequency comb allows very precise frequency measurements. This is demonstrated by the determination of Oxygen pressure shifts with an absolute accuracy of around 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -1}/atm. To our knowledge, we provide the highest accuracy ever reported for this parameter. (author)

  9. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    Murphy, M. W. [DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), FS-PEX, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yiu, Y. M., E-mail: yyiu@uwo.ca; Sham, T. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5B7 (Canada); Ward, M. J. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Liu, L. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Soochow University-Western University Center for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123 (China); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N2V3 (Canada); Zapien, J. A. [Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yingkai [Institute of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China)

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  10. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described

  11. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  12. Optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in lead doped lithium fluoride crystals

    Somma, F; Aloe, P; D' Acapito, F; Montereali, R M; Polosan, S; Secu, M; Vincenti, M A, E-mail: somma@fis.uniroma3.it

    2010-11-15

    LiF:Pb doped crystals were successfully grown by Kyropoulos method, starting with drying powders. The presence of Pb{sup 2+} ions in the LiF crystals were evidenced by the absorption band at 278 nm and by 375 nm photoluminescence. The presence of some other Pb structures with oxygen compounds in the as made samples was evidenced, decreasing after some annealing procedures. The local environment and valence state of Pb in LiF were studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Pb L{sub III} and L{sub I} edges. XANES data reveal that Pb is present as Pb{sup 2+} whereas EXAFS data show that it is incorporated in the crystal and not forming PbF{sub 2} precipitates. Identical spectra are obtained for samples as prepared and after thermal annealing up to 650 deg. C demonstrating the stability of the incorporation site. Also the concentration of Pb in the crystal has no effect on the location site of the metal as the same spectrum is obtained for specimens with different dopant concentrations.

  13. Optical absorption of zigzag single walled boron nitride nanotubes in axial magnetic field

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of axial magnetic field on the band structure, dipole matrix elements and absorption spectrum in different energy ranges, using tight binding approximation. It is found that magnetic field breaks the degeneracy in the band structure and creates new allowed transitions in the dipole matrix which leads to creation of new peaks in the absorption spectrum. It is found that, unlike to CNTs which show metallic-semiconductor transition, the BNNTs remain semiconductor in any magnetic field strength. By calculation the diameter dependence of peak positions, we found that the positions of three first peaks in the lower energy region (E <5.3 eV) are proportional to n-2. In the middle energy region (7 < E < 7.5 eV) all (n, 0) zigzag BNNTs, with even and odd nanotube index, have two distinct peaks in the absence of magnetic field which these peaks may be used to identify zigzag BNNTs from other tube chiralities. For odd (even) tubes, in the middle energy region, applying the magnetic field leads to splitting of these two peaks into three (five) distinct peaks.

  14. Study of nonlinear optical absorption properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime

    Molli, Muralikrishna; Bhat Kademane, Abhijit; Pradhan, Prabin; Sai Muthukumar, V. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Department of Physics, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles were synthesized through solution combustion technique. The as-synthesized samples were further characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDAX, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies showed the size of the nanoparticles to be ∝200 nm. Open-aperture z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical absorption behavior of the synthesized samples using a 100-fs laser pulses at 800 nm from a regeneratively amplified Ti: sapphire laser. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption was found to be a three-photon absorption process which was explained using the density of states of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} obtained using density functional theory. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity-dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered for optical-power-limiting applications. (orig.)

  15. Shape-controlled synthesis of organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals and their tunable optical absorption

    Chen, Zhenhua; Tang, Yongbing; Huang, Xing; Lee, Chun-Sing; Li, Hui; Ho, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid organolead halide perovskites (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) with polymorphic structures have been successfully synthesized by controlling their solubility in solvents with different polarities. Crystal formation stages of the perovskites have been demonstrated for the first time. Shape changes of such perovskites are accompanied by transition in their crystal structures and variation of optical properties. Herein, a new trigonal phase for CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 has been observed with a rod-like morphology. Photoemission study indicates a significant red shift in the perovskite nanoparticles, compared to that of the rod-like nanocrystals. This solvent-controlled formation of polymorphic phases provide an additional approach for controlling the optical properties of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 for various optoelectronic applications. (papers)

  16. The optical absorption of metal nanoparticles deposited on ZnO films

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kromka, Alexander; Vaněček, Milan; Babchenko, Oleg; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Červenka, Jiří; Hruška, Karel; Trung, T. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 7 (2010), s. 1722-1725 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 19670 - ATHLET Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : metal nanoparticles * morphology * optical properties * plasmons * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2010

  17. Monolayer alignment on azobenzene surfaces during UV light irradiation: Analysis of optical polarized absorption measurement results and theoretical treatment

    Zakharov, A.V.; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the charge separation during the trans-cis conformational change on the surface of azobenzene 6Az10PVA monolayer on the polar liquid-crystal monolayer film, such as 4-n-pentyl-4 ' -cyanobiphenyl(5CB), is investigated. The effective anchoring energy (in the Rapini-Papolar form) is phenomenologically described in the framework of the molecular model, which takes into account the interaction between the surface polarization and surface electric field, for number of conformational states of the boundary surface. It is shown, using the experimental data for the voltage across the 6Az10PVA+5CB film, provided by the surface-potential technique, that the charge separation during the conformational changing, caused by the UV irradiation, may lead to changing of the surface alignment of liquid-crystalline molecules. The influence of the photoisomerization process on the orientational order parameter S 2 (t) using the optical polarized absorption measurement is also investigated

  18. Two-crystal mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator for absorption and dispersion dual-comb spectroscopy.

    Jin, Yuwei; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; Mandon, Julien

    2014-06-01

    We present a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) containing two magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystals in a singly resonant ring cavity, pumped by two mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers. As such, the OPO generates two idler combs (up to 220 mW), covering a wavelength range from 2.7 to 4.2 μm, from which a mid-infrared dual-comb Fourier transform spectrometer is constructed. By detecting the heterodyning signal between the two idler beams a full broadband spectrum of a molecular gas can be observed over 250  cm(-1) within 70 μs with a spectral resolution of 15 GHz. The absorption and dispersion spectra of acetylene and methane have been measured around 3000  cm(-1), indicating that this OPO represents an ideal broadband mid-infrared source for fast chemical sensing.

  19. Strong crystal field effect in Np{sup 4+}:ThCl{sub 4} - optical absorption study

    Gajek, Z. [Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych, Polska Akademia Nauk, 50-950 Wroclaw 2, Skr. Poczt. 1410 (Poland); Krupa, J.C. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, BP 1, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1998-12-21

    Results of optical absorption measurements in polarized light on tetravalent neptunium diluted in a ThCl{sub 4} single crystal are reported. The recorded spectra are complex, pointing to the presence of an Np{sup 3+} impurity. The electronic transitions assigned to the Np{sup 4+} ion are interpreted in terms of the usual model, following the actual understanding of the neptunium electronic structure and independent theoretical predictions. R.m.s. deviations of the order of 36 cm{sup -1} have been obtained for 42 levels fitted with 11 free parameters. The crystal field effect resulting from the fitting is considerably larger than that observed for the uranium ion in the same host. (author)

  20. Effect of optical fiber type and absorption medium on the endovenous laser ablation mechanism

    Ignatieva, N. Yu; Zakharkina, O. L.; Mazayshvili, C. V.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Our experimental investigation was aimed at revealing the mechanism behind the action of laser radiation on venous wall under endovenous laser ablation conditions. We determined the critical laser power P cr at which the objective effect of complete denaturation of the vascular tissue collagen was attained for two types of optical fiber in the presence and absence of blood cells. We demonstrated that for the radial optical fiber the presence of blood cells had no effect on the magnitude of P cr, which came to 4.3  ±  0.1 and 5.6  ±  01 W for 1.56 and 1.47 µm lasers, respectively. For the bare fiber and 1.56 µm laser, P cr increased up to 5.2  ±  0.2 W in a blood-filled vessel and up to 7.1  ±  0.2 W when the blood was replaced by a sodium chloride solution. Our data show that the heating and degradation of insufficient veins go on more effectively when the tissue is heated by laser radiation directly absorbed therein, rather than the red-hot carbonized optical fiber tip.