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Sample records for high nitrogen stainless

  1. High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel Precipitation During Isothermal Annealing

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    Maria Domankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time-temperature-precipitation in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel was investigated using light optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The isothermal precipitation kinetics curves and the corresponding precipitation activation energy were obtained. The diffusion activation energy of M2N precipitation is 129 kJ/mol. The results show that critical temperature for M2N precipitation is about 825°C with the corresponding incubation period 2.5 min.

  2. STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF HIGH NITROGEN AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

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    Jana Bakajová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the structural stability of an austenitic stainless steel with high nitrogen content. The investigated steel was heat treated at 800°C using different annealing times. Investigation was carried out using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermodynamic calculations. Three phases were identified by electron diffraction: Cr2N, sigma – phase and M23C6. The thermodynamic prediction is in good agreement with the experimental result. The only is the M23C6 carbide phase which is not thermodynamically predicted. Cr2N is the majority secondary phase and occurs in the form of discrete particles or cells (lamellas of Cr2N and austenite.

  3. Study of biocompatibility of medical grade high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Yazhou; Du, Feifei; Zou, Xingzheng; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2014-10-01

    Adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the living organism have resulted in development of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also improves steel properties. The cell cytocompatibility, blood compatibility and cell response of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel were studied in vitro. The mechanical properties and microstructure of this stainless steel were compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel. It was shown that the new steel material had comparable basic mechanical properties to 316L stainless steel and preserved the single austenite organization. The cell toxicity test showed no significant toxic side effects for MC3T3-E1 cells compared to nitinol alloy. Cell adhesion testing showed that the number of MC3T3-E1 cells was more than that on nitinol alloy and the cells grew in good condition. The hemolysis rate was lower than the national standard of 5% without influence on platelets. The total intracellular protein content and ALP activity and quantification of mineralization showed good cell response. We conclude that the high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel is a promising new biomedical material for coronary stent development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Joint Performance on High Nitrogen Stainless Steel Which is Expected to Have Higher Allergy Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kouichi

    Austenitic stainless steel, which includes nickel for stabilizing austenitic structure, is used for various purposes, for example, for structural material, corrosion-resistant material, biomaterial etc. Nickel is set as one of the rare metals and economizing on nickel as the natural resources is required. On the other hand, nickel is one of the metals that cause metallic allergy frequently. Therefore, high nitrogen stainless steel, where nitrogen stabilizes austenitic structure instead of nickel, has been developed in Japan and some of the foreign countries for the above reason. When high nitrogen stainless steel is fused and bonded, dissolved nitrogen is released to the atmospheric area, and some of the material properties will change. In this study, we bonded high nitrogen stainless steel by stud welding process, which is able to bond at short time, and we evaluate joint performance. We have got some interesting results from the other tests and examinations.

  5. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

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    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  6. High corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel alloyed with nitrogen in an acid solution

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    Metikos-Hukovic, M., E-mail: mmetik@fkit.h [Department of Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Savska 16, P.O. Box 177, 100000 Zagreb (Croatia); Babic, R. [Department of Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Savska 16, P.O. Box 177, 100000 Zagreb (Croatia); Grubac, Z. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, 21000 Split (Croatia); Petrovic, Z. [Department of Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Savska 16, P.O. Box 177, 100000 Zagreb (Croatia); Lajci, N. [Faculty of Mine and Metallurgy, University of Prishtina, 10000 Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} ASS alloyed with nitrogen treated at 1150 {sup o}C exhibits microstructure homogeneity. {yields} Passivation peak of ASS corresponds to oxidation of metal and absorbed hydrogen. {yields} Transfer phenomena and conductivity depend on the film formation potential. {yields} Electronic structure of the passive film and its corrosion resistance correlate well. {yields} Passive film on ASS with nitrogen is low disordered and high corrosion resistant. - Abstract: Passivity of austenitic stainless steel containing nitrogen (ASS N25) was investigated in comparison with AISI 316L in deareated acid solution, pH 0.4. A peculiar nature of the passivation peak in a potentiodynamic curve and the kinetic parameters of formation and growth of the oxide film have been discussed. The electronic-semiconducting properties of the passive films have been correlated with their corrosion resistance. Alloying austenitic stainless steel with nitrogen increases its microstructure homogeneity and decreases the concentration of charge carriers, which beneficially affects the protecting and electronic properties of the passive oxide film.

  7. Processing nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels through conventional electroslag remelting process

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    Balanchandran, G.

    2000-05-01

    Nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels, made through air-induction melting were processed using conventional electroslag remelting (ESR) process without application of nitrogen gas pressure over the melt. It was found possible to retain the high nitrogen contents of the original steel. The loss in nitrogen content during ESR was found to increase with increasing melt rate. Electroslag remelting was carted out on eleven steels with a base composition at around 18wt%Cr-18wt%Mn- 0.1 to 0.6wt%C-0.53 to 0.9wt%N. While the air-induction melted steel had extensive porosity, the ESR ingots were all sound and free from porosity. Thus, steels made in any other process route can be successfully remelted using conventional ESR. The cast structure analysis in a typical medium carbon high nitrogen steel showed that Cr and Mn has a tendency for microsegregation. The presence of microsegregation and residual carbides affect the ductility of the cast steel. (author)

  8. Welding of nickel free high nitrogen stainless steel: Microstructure and mechanical properties

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    Raffi Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen stainless steel (HNS is a nickel free austenitic stainless steel that is used as a structural component in defence applications for manufacturing battle tanks as a replacement of the existing armour grade steel owing to its low cost, excellent mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance. Conventional fusion welding causes problems like nitrogen desorption, solidification cracking in weld zone, liquation cracking in heat affected zone, nitrogen induced porosity and poor mechanical properties. The above problems can be overcome by proper selection and procedure of joining process. In the present work, an attempt has been made to correlate the microstructural changes with mechanical properties of fusion and solid state welds of high nitrogen steel. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW, electron beam welding (EBW and friction stir welding (FSW processes were used in the present work. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction were used to characterize microstructural changes. Hardness, tensile and bend tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of welds. The results of the present investigation established that fully austenitic dendritic structure was found in welds of SMAW. Reverted austenite pools in the martensite matrix in weld zone and unmixed zones near the fusion boundary were observed in GTA welds. Discontinuous ferrite network in austenite matrix was observed in electron beam welds. Fine recrystallized austenite grain structure was observed in the nugget zone of friction stir welds. Improved mechanical properties are obtained in friction stir welds when compared to fusion welds. This is attributed to the refined microstructure consisting of equiaxed and homogenous austenite grains.

  9. Hydroxyapatite Coatings on High Nitrogen Stainless Steel by Laser Rapid Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashish; Shukla, Mukul

    2017-11-01

    In this research, the laser rapid manufacturing (LRM) additive manufacturing process was used to deposit multifunctional hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on high nitrogen stainless steel. LRM overcomes the limitations of conventional coating processes by producing coatings with metallurgical bond, osseointegration, and infection inhibition properties. The microstructure, microhardness, antibacterial efficacy, and bioactivity of the coatings were investigated. The microstructure studies established that the coatings consist of austenite dendrites with HAP and some reaction products primarily occurring in the inter-dendritic regions. A Vickers microhardness test confirmed the hardness values of deposited HAP coatings to be higher than those of the bare 254SS samples, while a fluorescence activated cell sorting test confirmed their superior antibacterial properties as compared with pristine samples. The coated samples immersed in simulated body fluid showed rapid apatite forming ability. The results obtained in this research signify the potential application of the LRM process in synthesizing multifunctional orthopaedic coatings.

  10. Passivity and Semiconducting Behavior of a High Nitrogen Stainless Steel in Acidic NaCl Solution

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    Yanxin Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The passivity and semiconducting behaviors of a high nitrogen-containing nickel-free stainless steel (HNSS in 0.05 mol/L H2SO4 + 0.5 mol/L NaCl have been investigated. Results indicated that HNSS offered excellent pitting corrosion resistance in corrosive environments. Three corrosion potential values were observed in potentiodynamic polarization response, indicating the existence of an unstable system. The current transient and Mott-Schottky plots demonstrated that the stability of passive films decreased with the increase of applied potentials. The angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometric results revealed that the primary constituents of passive films formed in 0.05 mol/L H2SO4 + 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution were composed of iron oxides, manganese oxides, Cr2O3, and Cr(OH3. Meanwhile, it indicated that molybdenum oxides did not exist in the oxide layer, but chloride ions were present in the passive films.

  11. Low-Temperature Nitriding of Deformed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Various Nitrogen Contents Obtained by Prior High-Temperature Solution Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, high nitrogen steels (HNS) have been regarded as substitutes for conventional austenitic stainless steels because of their superior mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the main limitation to their wider application is their expensive production process....... As an alternative, high-temperature solution nitriding has been applied to produce HNS from three commercially available stainless steel grades (AISI 304L, AISI 316, and EN 1.4369). The nitrogen content in each steel alloy is varied and its influence on the mechanical properties and the stability of the austenite...

  12. Low-Temperature Nitriding of Deformed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Various Nitrogen Contents Obtained by Prior High-Temperature Solution Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, high nitrogen steels (HNS) have been regarded as substitutes for conventional austenitic stainless steels because of their superior mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the main limitation to their wider application is their expensive production process. As an altern...

  13. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen stainless steel

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    Raffi Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen steel made of Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microscopic studies were carried out using optical microscopy (OM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. Energy back scattered diffraction (EBSD method was used to determine the phase analysis, grain size and orientation image mapping. Potentio-dynamic polarization testing was carried out to study the pitting corrosion resistance in aerated 3.5% NaCl environment using a GillAC electrochemical system. The investigation results showed that the selected Cr–Mn–N type electrode resulted in a maximum reduction in delta-ferrite and improvement in pitting corrosion resistance of the weld zone was attributed to the coarse austenite grains owing to the reduction in active sites of the austenite/delta ferrite interface and the decrease in galvanic interaction between austenite and delta-ferrite.

  14. Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Friction Stir Welding High Nitrogen Martensitic Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N

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    Xin Geng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen martensitic stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N plates were successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW at a tool rotation speed of 300 rpm with a welding speed of 100 mm/min, using W-Re tool. The sound joint with no significant nitrogen loss was successfully produced. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of an FSW joint were investigated. The results suggest that the grain size of the stir zone (SZ is larger than the base metal (BM and is much larger the case in SZ-top. Some carbides and nitrides rich in chromium were found in BM while not observed in SZ. The martensitic phase in SZ could transform to austenite phase during the FSW process and the higher peak temperature, the greater degree of transformation. The hardness of SZ is significantly lower than that of the BM. An abrupt change of hardness defined as hard zone (HZ was found in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ on the advancing side (AS, and the HZ is attributed to a combination result of temperature, deformation, and material flow behavior. The corrosion resistance of SZ is superior to that of BM, which can be attributed to less precipitation and lower angle boundaries (LABs. The corrosion resistance of SZ-bottom is slight higher than that of SZ-top because of the finer grained structure.

  15. Influence of tungsten, carbon and nitrogen on toughness and weldability of low activation austenitic high manganese stainless steels

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    Hosoi, H.; Abraham, M.; Kutsuna, M.; Miyahara, K. (Nagoya Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Chikusa (Japan)); Shimoide, Y. (Daido Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    The effect of alloying elements of tungsten, carbon and nitrogen on high temperature strength, toughness and weldability of Fe-12Cr-15Mn alloy has been investigated. The high temperature strength of Fe-12Cr-15Mn-0.2C-0.1N at 873 K increases with the addition of 2-300W without affecting ductility. The toughness as estimated by Charpy tests, is also not influenced by the addition of 2-3%W, while the increase of carbon content decreases the absorbed energy. The transition temperature shifts to higher temperature by aging at 873 K for 3600 ks, but it is still lower than room temperature. The degradation of toughness after aging is considered to be related to the precipitation of M[sub 23]C[sub 6] on grain boundaries. The weldability evaluated by hot cracking susceptibility is not affected by alloying of tungsten and carbon in this alloy system. It is noted that the alloys studied show less hot cracking susceptibility than commercial AISI 316L stainless steel. (orig.).

  16. Niobium carbo-nitride precipitation behavior in a high nitrogen 15Cr-15Ni heat resistant austenitic stainless steel

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    Ha, Vu The; Jung, Woo Sang

    2011-10-01

    A high nitrogen 15Cr-15Ni niobium-stabilized austenitic alloy has been produced and subjected to a special heat treatment consisting of 5 hours of solution treatment at 1270 °C followed by hot rolling, quenching and subsequent aging at temperatures of 700 °C to 800 °C. It was found that fine dispersion of nano-sized thermally stable primary Nb(C,N) precipitates had already formed in the as-cast condition. The particles were presented at all examined stages of the TMT process (as-homogenized, as-solution treated and as-aged conditions). Secondary precipitates Nb(C,N) were densely formed during subsequent aging; these precipitates had sizes of 4 nm to 5 nm. Both the primary and secondary Nb(C,N) particles showed excellent thermal stability within the temperature range of 700 °C to 800 °C. The creep properties of the studied alloy at 750 °C were superior when compared to those of commercial type 347 stainless steel.

  17. Welding Characteristics of Nitrogen Added Stainless Steels for Nuclear Application

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    Lee, Y. D. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Characteristics of properties and manufacturing process was evaluated in development of high strength and corrosion resistant stainless steel. The continuous cast structure of STS 316L was similar to that of STS 304. The most of residual {delta}-ferrite of STS 316L was vermicular type. The residual {delta}-ferrite content increased from the surface towards the center of the slab and after reaching a maximum value at about 50mm distance from surface and steeply decreased towards the center itself. Hot ductility of STS 304L and STS 316L stainless steels containing below 1000 ppm N was appeared to be reasonably good in the range of hot rolling temperature. In case of the steels containing over 1000 ppm N, the hot ductility was decreased rapidly when sulfur content of the steel was above 20 ppm. Therefore, to achieve good hot ductility of the high nitrogen containing steel, reduction of sulfur contents is required as low as possible. The inter granular corrosion resistance and impact toughness of STS 316L were increased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Yield strength and tensile strength of 304 and 316 stainless steels are increased linearly with increasing the nitrogen contents but their elongations are decreased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Therefore, the mechanical properties of these stainless steels could be controlled with variation of nitrogen. The effects of nitrogen on the resistance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be explained by improvement of the load bearing capacity with increasing tensile strength rather than inhibition of trans granular SCC crack generation and propagation. 101 refs., 17 tabs., 105 figs. (author)

  18. Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen stainless steel in a simulated body fluid

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    Norio Maruyama, Sachiko Hiromoto, Eiji Akiyama and Morihiko Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen steel (HNS with a yield strength of about 800 MPa, which was prepared by nitrogen gas pressurized electroslag remelting, was studied in air and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS(-. For comparison, fretting fatigue behaviour of cold-rolled SUS316L steel (SUS316L(CR with similar yield strength was examined. The plain fatigue limit of HNS was slightly lower than that of SUS316L(CR although the former had a higher tensile strength than the latter. The fretting fatigue limit of HNS was higher than that of SUS316L(CR both in air and in PBS(-. A decrease in fatigue limit of HNS by fretting was significantly smaller than that of SUS316L(CR in both environments, indicating that HNS has better fretting fatigue resistance than SUS316L(CR. The decrease in fatigue limit by fretting is discussed taking into account the effect of friction stress due to fretting and the additional influences of wear, tribocorrosion and plastic deformation in the fretted area.

  19. Effect of cold working on biocompatibility of Ni-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels using Dalton's Lymphoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talha, Mohd [Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kumar, Sanjay [Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Behera, C.K. [Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sinha, O.P., E-mail: opsinha.met@itbhu.ac.in [Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present work are to explore the effect of cold working on in-vitro biocompatibility of indigenized low cost Ni-free nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels (HNSs) and to compare it with conventionally used biomedical grade, i.e. AISI 316L and 316LVM, using Dalton's Lymphoma (DL) cell line. The MTT assay [3-(4,5-dimethythiazol 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] was performed on DL cell line for cytotoxicity evaluation and cell adhesion test. As a result, it was observed that the HNS had higher cell proliferation and cell growth and it increases by increasing nitrogen content and degree of cold working. The surface wettability of the alloys was also investigated by water contact angle measurements. The value of contact angles was found to decrease with increase in nitrogen content and degree of cold working. This indicates that the hydrophilic character increases with increasing nitrogen content and degree of cold working which further attributed to enhance the surface free energy (SFE) which would be conducive to cell adhesion which in turn increases the cell proliferation. - Graphical abstract: Effect of cold working on in-vitro biocompatibility of indigenized Ni-free nitrogen bearing austenitic stainless steels was explored using Dalton's Lymphoma cell line. Cell proliferation and cell adhesion increase by increasing the degree of cold working and nitrogen content in steel indicating that indigenized material is more biocompatible and no negative effect of cold working on these steels. - Highlights: • Effect of cold working on biocompatibility of Ni-free austenitic stainless steels • Cell proliferation and adhesion increase with nitrogen and degree of cold working. • Contact angle values decrease with nitrogen and degree of cold working.

  20. The effect of particle size of iron powder on {alpha} to {gamma} transformation in the nanostructured high nitrogen Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo stainless steel produced by mechanical alloying

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    Tehrani, F.; Abbasi, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golozar, M.A., E-mail: golozar@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panjepour, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High nitrogen austenitic Fe18Cr10Mn4Mo stainless steel can be produced by MA and without annealing. {yields} The initial powder particle size plays an important role on the rate of nitrogen absorption and consequently on phase transformation kinetics. {yields} Nitrogen content in the steel is the most effective parameter for {alpha} to {gamma} kinetic enhancement. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of particle size of iron powder on {alpha} to {gamma} transformation in the nanostructured high nitrogen Fe-18Cr-10Mn-4Mo stainless steel, produced by mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated. For this purpose iron powders with two different particle sizes were used. MA was performed under nitrogen atmosphere, using a high-energy planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and nitrogen analysis revealed that by decreasing the iron mean particle size, a higher transformation rate is obtained due to increase in the rate of nitrogen absorption. Moreover, nitrogen solubility in both milled samples was increased noticeably by increasing the milling time. This is believed to be due to the increase of lattice defects and development of nanostructure through MA. Variations of grain size and internal lattice strain versus milling time, for both iron particle sizes, showed that the critical ferrite grain size for austenite nucleation is less than 10 nm.

  1. Controlled dissolution of colossal quantities of nitrogen in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel was investigated thermogravimetrically by equilibrating thin foils of AISI 304 and AISI 316 in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. Controlled dissolution of colossal amounts of nitrogen under metastable equilibrium conditions was realized, with ...

  2. Crevice Corrosion Behavior of Nitrogen Bearing Austenitic Stainless Steels

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    Ono, A.A.; Shinohara, Tadashi.; Tsujikawa, Shigeo. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-03-15

    The effect of nitrogen alloying on the initiation, propagation and repassivation of crevice corrosion of SUS 304 and SUS 316 austenitic stainless steels was investigated through potentiostatic polarizations, cyclic polarizations and in-situ measurements of depth profiles by the moire method. The results showed that nitrogen alloying in austenitic stainless steels increased to more noble values both the critical potential for steady crevice corrosion, V{sub C,CREV}, and the critical potential for repassivation of crevice corrosion E{sub C,CREV}. Concerning the in-situ measurements results, the disolution rate just above the repassivation potential, V{sub I}I*, decreased with nitrogen alloying for the SUS 304 alloys, and did not change in the SUS 316 alloys. The ratio of repassivating picture elements increased in both SUS 304 and SUS 316 with nitrogen alloying. (author)

  3. Relationship between Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Martensitic High Nitrogen Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N at Different Austenitizing Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhouhua; Feng, Hao; Li, Huabing; Zhu, Hongchun; Zhang, Shucai; Zhang, Binbin; Han, Yu; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Dake

    2017-07-27

    The relationship between microstructure and corrosion behavior of martensitic high nitrogen stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N at different austenitizing temperatures was investigated by microscopy observation, electrochemical measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and immersion testing. The results indicated that finer Cr-rich M₂N dispersed more homogeneously than coarse M 23 C₆, and the fractions of M 23 C₆ and M₂N both decreased with increasing austenitizing temperature. The Cr-depleted zone around M 23 C₆ was wider and its minimum Cr concentration was lower than M₂N. The metastable pits initiated preferentially around coarse M 23 C₆ which induced severer Cr-depletion, and the pit growth followed the power law. The increasing of austenitizing temperature induced fewer metastable pit initiation sites, more uniform element distribution and higher contents of Cr, Mo and N in the matrix. In addition, the passive film thickened and Cr₂O₃, Cr 3+ and CrN enriched with increasing austenitizing temperature, which enhanced the stability of the passive film and repassivation ability of pits. Therefore, as austenitizing temperature increased, the metastable and stable pitting potentials increased and pit growth rate decreased, revealing less susceptible metastable pit initiation, larger repassivation tendency and higher corrosion resistance. The determining factor of pitting potentials could be divided into three stages: dissolution of M 23 C₆ (below 1000 °C), dissolution of M₂N (from 1000 to 1050 °C) and existence of a few undissolved precipitates and non-metallic inclusions (above 1050 °C).

  4. Application of nitrogen-alloyed martensitic stainless steels in the aviation industry

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    Stein, G.; Kirschner, W. [VSG Energie- und Schmiedetechnik, Essen (Germany); Lueg, J. [VSG Energie- und Schmiedetechnik GmbH, Hattingen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Nitrogen in stainless martensitic steels has a beneficial influence on the mechanical as well as on the chemical properties. However the effect of nitrogen is limited due to the rather low solubility of this element. A special alloy development in combination with a pressurized melting technique lead to distinctly higher nitrogen contents. Stainless martensitic steels containing high nitrogen contents are manufactured by VSG today on an industrial scale using the PESR-process (Pressurized Electroslag Remelting). Depending on special applications these steels are available with different chemical analysis under the trademark CRONIDUR. The basic composition of all CRONIDUR-alloys consists of about 15% Chromium, 1% Molybdenum, 0.15 to 0.35% Carbon and 0.20 to 0.40% Nitrogen. The combination of Cr + Mo + N leads to a superior corrosion resistance of these HNS-steels (HNS: High Nitrogen Steels) in comparison to similar carbon based alloys. Focused on applications with a required minimum hardness of 58 HRC, like stainless bearings or screw shafts, the C+N-content is tuned between 0.60 and 0.80% (Brand: CRONIDUR 30). Additions of max. 0.3% Vanadium and 0.1% Niobium qualifies the brand CRONIDUR 20 for enhanced temperature applications like turbine disks or blades.

  5. Determination of nitrogen partitioning coefficients in superduplex stainless steels by NRA using a nuclear microprobe

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    Munoz, C. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, Isla de La Cartuja, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: camulu@us.es; Morilla, Y.; Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, Isla de La Cartuja, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Paul, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de los Materiales ESI, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41092 Sevilla, Av. de los Descubrimientos s/n (Spain); Odriozola, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Universidad de Sevilla - CSIC, E-41092 Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Superduplex stainless steels (SDSSs) combine the good mechanical behavior and the high corrosion resistance of the ferrite ({alpha}-Fe) and austenite ({gamma}-Fe) phases. The SDSSs properties depend strongly on the partitioning of the elements that form the alloy. The ferrite is generally enriched in P, Si, Cr and Mo while the content of Ni, Mn, Cu and N in the austenite phase is higher. Nitrogen is known to be a strong austenite stabilizer and its presence increases the strength and the pitting corrosion resistance of the stainless steels. While the global nitrogen content in SDSSs can be readily determined using elemental analyzers, it cannot be measured at a microscopic scale. In this work, the nuclear microprobe of the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla) was used to obtain the quantitative distribution of nitrogen in SDSSs. A deuteron beam of 1.8 MeV was employed to determine the overall elemental concentration of the matrix by deuteron-induced X-ray emission, whereas the nitrogen partitioning coefficients were obtained by using the {sup 14}N(d, {alpha}{sub 0}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction. Mappings of this element show that the nitrogen ratio between the ferrite and austenite phases ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 in the analyzed samples.

  6. Development of a Nitrogen-Modified Stainless-Steel Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan Thomas

    A 2nd generation hardfacing alloy, Nitromaxx, has been designed though an integrated approach of chemical modification, characterization, and testing. Nitromaxx is a stainless-steel alloy modified with 0.5wt% nitrogen which has improved elevated temperature properties and wear performance. This is achieved by changing both the microstructure phase balance and inherent deformation characteristics of the metal. The alloy is fabricated by a powder metallurgy-hot isostatic pressing (PM-HIP) method, rather than traditional cladding methods. This allows for alloy property modification by equilibrium heat treatment while eliminating significant fabrication defects, so that component life is extended wear and galling performance is improved. The design approach involved extensive characterization of severely worn and galled surfaces of the 1st generation of hardfacing alloys. Observation of samples after galling testing showed highly inhomogeneous deformation in regions of the gall scar, leading to the design hypothesis that strain-localization is a controlling mechanism in severe wear of stainless-steels. Additionally, the presence and subsequent loss was investigated and correlated microstructurally to the transition to poor galling behavior in the existing stainless steel hardfacing NOREM02. This provided new insight and identification of key microstructural and mechanical properties that improve galling performance: 1) increased strain-hardening rate in the metal matrix at elevated temperature, 2) increased yield strength in the matrix leading to higher hardness, and 3) increased volume fraction of hard, non-deforming phases. All of these alloy design goals can be realized by the addition of nitrogen, which 1) at high concentration is shown to lower the stacking fault energy in the stainless steel matrix, 2) increases interstitial matrix strengthening, and 3) increases the volume fraction of nitride phases. These observations have been confirmed qualitatively and

  7. The influence of nickel-nitrogen ratio on the deformation behaviour of austenitic stainless steels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmid, OE

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect that a partial substitution of nickel with nitrogen has on the deformation behaviour of a metastable austenitic stainless steel, AISI 301. The effect on the tensile deformation behaviour is studied in detail...

  8. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  9. Simulation of nitrogen concentration depth profiles in low temperature nitrided stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, which simulates nitrogen concentration-depth profiles as obtained with low temperature gaseous nitriding of stainless steel. The evolution of the calculated nitrogen concentration-depth profiles is compared with experimental nitriding kinetics. It is shown...

  10. Effect of Nitrogen Addition in 304 L Stainless Steel on the IGSCC Crack Growth Rate in Simulated BWR Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Kain, V.; Prasad, R. C.

    Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) in austenitic Stainless Steels (SS) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) operating conditions have been reported worldwide. Nitrogen containing Stainless Steel is used in BWRs and it can affect IGSCC behavior. In this investigation type 304L stainless steel with two different levels of nitrogen was evaluated in the sensitized and non-sensitised strain-hardened condition. Experiments were carried out in high temperature water with controlled dissolved oxygen. In the sensitised condition, the Crack Growth Rate (CGR) reduced and in the non-sensitised strain-hardened condition the CGR increased with increase in nitrogen level in SS. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations of the as-rolled SS and the SS after tensile testing at 288 °C indicated that rolling resulted in higher grain boundary strain which is a possible cause for higher CGR in the SS with higher nitrogen. Nitrogen did not have a noticeable effect on the deformation mechanism, for the SS after tensile testing at 288 °C, and the dislocation structures observed were similar for both the SS.

  11. Analytical modeling of the thermomechanical behavior of ASTM F-1586 high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel used as a biomaterial under multipass deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fabiano R; Rodrigues, Samuel F; Silva, Eden S; Reis, Gedeon S; Silva, Mariana B R; Junior, Alberto M J; Balancin, Oscar

    2015-06-01

    Precipitation-recrystallization interactions in ASTM F-1586 austenitic stainless steel were studied by means of hot torsion tests with multipass deformation under continuous cooling, simulating an industrial laminating process. Samples were deformed at 0.2 and 0.3 at a strain rate of 1.0s(-1), in a temperature range of 900 to 1200°C and interpass times varying from 5 to 80s. The tests indicate that the stress level depends on deformation temperature and the slope of the equivalent mean stress (EMS) vs. 1/T presents two distinct behaviors, with a transition at around 1100°C, the non-recrystallization temperature (Tnr). Below the Tnr, strain-induced precipitation of Z-phase (NbCrN) occurs in short interpass times (tpass<30s), inhibiting recrystallization and promoting stepwise stress build-up with strong recovery, which is responsible for increasing the Tnr. At interpass times longer than 30s, the coalescence and dissolution of precipitates promote a decrease in the Tnr and favor the formation of recrystallized grains. Based on this evidence, the physical simulation of controlled processing allows for a domain refined grain with better mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phases and defects upon the solidification of nitrogen-alloyed stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyazhin, A. G.; Kaputkina, L. M.; Bazhenov, V. E.; Skuza, Z.; Siwka, E.; Kindop, V. E.

    2015-06-01

    One of the technological problems in alloying molten steels with nitrogen is the precipitation of nitrogen into the gas phase upon the solidification of steels and the formation of nitrogen bubbles and porosity in steel ingots with the result that potentials of nitrogen as an alloying element are used incompletely. The formation of bubbles and pores in nitrogen-alloyed stainless steels occurs heterogeneously and is limited by the desorption rate of nitrogen from the molten-metal surface into bubbles. For this reason, it is convenient to determine the critical nitrogen concentration in steels as the concentration at which in the process of equilibrium solidification the content of nitrogen in the residual liquid phase at all temperatures of semisolid state does not exceed its solubility in the residual liquid at a given pressure. Hereafter, this concentration should be refined experimentally for concrete conditions of solidification. To calculate the nitrogen concentration in the arising phases, a Thermo-Calc software can be employed.

  13. Prediction of solidification and phase transformation in weld metals for welding of high performance stainless steels; Kotaishoku kotainetsu stainless koyo yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko hentai no yosoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, T.; Inoue, H.; Morimoto, H.; Okita, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-28

    Prediction technology is introduced on the solidification and transformation of weld metals used for high performance stainless steel. A model has been developed which uses Thermo Calc, a multiple balanced calculation program, as a means to analyze the solidification of multi-component alloys including the polyphase solidification such as eutectic and peritectic. Verification has been in progress concerning the adequacy of this model and the adaptability as a practical steel. The following are the prediction technologies for solidification and transformation which have been derived from experiments and applied to welding techniques: the effects of nitrogen on the solidification mode and residual {gamma}quantity of a welding metal that is required for controlling the welding/solidification of high nitrogen content {gamma}system stainless steel; the structural control of weld metal for high corrosion resistance high Mo stainless steel, in which high Ni and high Mo contents are indispensable for attaining the optimum structure; the structural control of weld metal for two-phase stainless steel containing Mo and N, in which it is essential to secure a high nitrogen content and a {delta}/{gamma}phase balance in a weld metal; and the precipitation prediction of intermetallic compound in a high alloy weld metal for a high alloy stainless steel, for which an explanation is there by Cieslak et al. based on the phase stability theory. 22 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Influence of Vanadium and Cast Temperature on Nitrogen Solubility of Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three stainless steel grades with different vanadium content were produced in open induction furnace. The base chemical composition of investigated stainless steel has contained 18.48–18.75% Cr, 5.17–5.62% Mn, 2.47–2.58% Mo, and 6.39–6.64% Ni. The vanadium contents of the three stainless steel grades were 0.009%, 0.112%, and 0.189%. The proposed stainless steels were casted at temperatures 1753 K and 1833 K. The nitrogen contents were determined for the produced steel grades at every cast temperature. The determined nitrogen contents were compared with those calculated from the developed equation of Grigorenko and Pomarin. The influence of cast temperature and vanadium content on nitrogen solubility was investigated. Interpretation between experimental and calculated nitrogen content was carried out. Increasing vanadium content and decreasing cast temperature were found to have positive significant effect on the nitrogen solubility. There were great deviations between experimental results and those calculated by Grigorenko and Pomarin equation.

  15. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical elements at present. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness of 1400 Hv within its thickness of 40 μm without any formation of nitrides after 14.4 ks plasma nitriding at 693 K. This nitrogen solid-solution treated stainless steel had thermal resistivity even at the mold-stamping conditions up to 900 K.

  16. Diffusion of nitrogen in austenitic phase: Application to nitriding of stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torchane Lazhar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The nitriding treatment of the martensitic stainless steels aims to harden and to introduce compressive stresses on the surface of steel. Hardening is resulting of the martensitic transformation of the austenitic matrix enriched into nitrogen during cooling and of the germination and the nitride growth. In order to preserve the stainless character of the nitrided layer, it is imperative to control precipitation within the zone affected by the treatment. Our task consists in showing that is possible to control the composition of the gas atmosphere containing ammonia and argon and to carry out on the surface of nitrided samples at 1050°C two types of configuration of layers : a single phase layer made up by martensite enriched in nitrogen α’N and or a two phase layer made up by austenite γN and martensite α’N enriched in nitrogen.

  17. Strengthening of stainless steel weldment by high temperature precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior and the strengthening mechanism of stainless steel welded joints at 600 °C have been investigated. The welds were composed of AISI 304 stainless steel, as base metal, and niobium containing AISI 347 stainless steel, as weld metal. The investigation was conducted by means of creep tests. The welded specimens were subjected to both high temperature (600 °C and long periods (up to 2000 h under constant load, and both mechanical properties and microstructural changes in the material were monitored. It was found that the exposure of the material at 600 °C under load contributes to a strengthening effect on the weld. The phenomenon might be correlated with an accelerated process of second phase precipitation hardening. Keywords: Stainless steel, Weld, AISI 304, Precipitation hardening

  18. Intermetallic diffusion coatings for enhanced hot-salt oxidation resistance of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudali, U. Kamachi; Bhuvaneswaran, N.; Shankar, P.; Khatak, H. S.; Raj, B.

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the preparation, characterization, and hot-salt oxidation behavior of nitrogen-containing type 316L stainless steel (SS), surface modified with intermetallic coatings. Three different types of intermetallic coating systems, containing aluminum, titanium, and titanium/aluminum multilayers, were formed by diffusion annealing of type 316L austenitic SS containing 0.015, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.56 pct nitrogen. Analysis by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) confirmed the formation of various intermetallic phases such as AIN, Al13Fe4, FeAl2, FeTi, Ti2N, and Ti3Al in the coatings. Hot salt oxidation behavior of the uncoated and surface-modified stainless steels was assessed by periodic monitoring of the weight changes of NaCl salt-applied alloys kept in an air furnace at 1023 K up to 250 hours. The oxide scales formed were examined by XRD and stereomicroscopy. Among the various surface modifications investigated in the present study, the results indicate that the titanium-modified alloys show the best hot-salt oxidation resistance with the formation of an adherent, protective, thin, and continuous oxide layer. Among the four N-containing alloys investigated, the titanium and Ti/Al multilayer modified 0.56 pct N alloy showed the best hot-salt oxidation resistance as compared to uncoated alloys. The slower corrosion kinetics and adherent scale morphology indicate that the surface-modified titanium intermetallic coatings could provide high-temperature service applications up to 1073 K, particularly in chloride containing atmospheres, for austenitic stainless steels.

  19. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainl...

  20. Nitrogen effect on precipitation and sensitization in cold-worked Type 316L(N) stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2000-02-01

    The precipitation behavior and sensitization resistance of Type 316L(N) stainless steels containing different concentrations of nitrogen have been investigated at the aging condition of 700°C for cold work (CW) levels ranging from 0% (as solution annealed) to 40% reduction in thickness. The precipitation of M 23C 6 carbide and intermetallic compounds ( χ, Laves and σ phase) was accelerated by increasing the CW level. Nitrogen in the deformed alloys retarded the inter- and intra-granular precipitation of the carbides at low and high CW levels respectively, whereas it increased the relative amount of the χ phase. Quantitative assessment of the degree of sensitization (DOS) using the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests indicated that CW levels up to 20% enhanced sensitization while 40% CW suppressed sensitization for all aging times. The increase in nitrogen content accelerated the sensitization at CW levels below 20%. This might be associated with the homogeneous distribution of dislocations and the lower tendency toward recrystallization exhibited in the alloys having higher nitrogen content.

  1. Effect of nitrogen on creep properties of type 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.W.; Lee, Y.K.; Kuk, I.H.; Ryu, W.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The effect of nitrogen on the creep properties of type 316L stainless steels with three different nitrogen contents from 0.04 to 0.15% was investigated. The plate was solution treated for 1 hr at 1100 deg C and then water quenched. Specimens were obtained from the plate parallel to the rolling direction. The geometry of specimen was 4mm diameter and 30mm gauge length. Creep tests were carried out using constant-load single-lever machines in the initial stress range from 120 to 380MPa at 550, 600 and 650 deg C and in air. The temperature deviation along the gauge length of the specimen was strictly controlled less than {+-}2 deg C. The time to rupture increased and the minimum creep strain rate decreased with the addition of nitrogen. On the other hand, the rupture elongation and fracture mode was not strongly influenced by the nitrogen content. The effect of nitrogen content on the creep properties were found to be more pronounced at higher temperatures. The intergranular fracture mode was found in all specimens and increased with decreasing applied stress. (author). 7 refs., 41 figs.

  2. Microstructure and Hardness of High Temperature Gas Nitrided AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nor Nurulhuda Md.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the microstructure and hardness of as-received and nitrided AISI 420 martensitic stainless steels. High temperature gas nitriding was employed to treat the steels at 1200°C for one hour and four hours using nitrogen gas, followed by furnace cooled. Chromium nitride and iron nitride were formed and concentrated at the outmost surface area of the steels since this region contained the highest concentration of nitrogen. The grain size enlarged at the interior region of the nitrided steels due to nitriding at temperature above the recrystallization temperature of the steel and followed by slow cooling. The nitrided steels produced higher surface hardness compared to as-received steel due to the presence of nitrogen and the precipitation of nitrides. Harder steel was produced when nitriding at four hours compared to one hour since more nitrogen permeated into the steel.

  3. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Content on Deformation and Fracture of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Menapace

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of small differences in the content of carbon and nitrogen on the room temperature tensile deformation and fracture behaviour of an AISI 304 stainless steel was studied. In the steel containing the lower amount of carbon and nitrogen, a higher amount of strain induced alfa’ martensite is formed, which increases strain hardening rate and both uniform and total elongation at fracture. The presence of large martensitic areas in the cross section causes strain localization at the austenite/martensite interface, which promotes the nucleation of cracks and their propagation along the interface. This results in a decrease of Ultimate Tensile Strength. Strain induced transformation slightly reduces strain rate sensitivity, as well.

  4. On the constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN at elevated temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available The nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN has been chosen as the material for nuclear main-pipe, which is one of the key parts in 3rd generation nuclear power plants. In this research, a constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel is developed. The true stress-true strain curves obtained from isothermal hot compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (900-1250°C and strain rates (10(-3-10 s(-1, were employed to study the dynamic deformational behavior of and recrystallization in 316LN steels. The constitutive model is developed through multiple linear regressions performed on the experimental data and based on an Arrhenius-type equation and Zener-Hollomon theory. The influence of strain was incorporated in the developed constitutive equation by considering the effect of strain on the various material constants. The reliability and accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of predicted flow stress curves and experimental curves. Possible reasons for deviation are also discussed based on the characteristics of modeling process.

  5. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  6. Comparability and accuracy of nitrogen depth profiling in nitrided austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manova, D. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Díaz, C. [AIN Centro de Ingeniería Avanzada de Superficies, 31191 Cordovilla, Pamplona (Spain); Pichon, L. [Institut P' , UPR3346 CNRS-Université de Poitiers-ISAE-ENSMA, Bat. SP2MI, Téléport 2, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, BP30179, 86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope Cedex (France); Abrasonis, G. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Mändl, S., E-mail: stephan.maendl@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of nitrogen depth profiles in low energy ion implantation nitrided austenitic stainless steel 1.4301 by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is presented. All methods require calibration either from reference samples or known scattering or reaction cross sections for the nitrogen concentration, while the methods producing a sputter crater – SIMS and GDOES – need additional conversion from sputter time to depth. NRA requires an assumption of material density for a correct conversion from the ‘natural’ units inherent to all ion beam analysis methods into ‘conventional’ depth units. It is shown that a reasonable agreement of the absolute concentrations and very good agreement of the layer thickness is obtained. The observed differences in broadening between the nitrogen distribution near the surface and the deeper region of the nitrided layer–steel interface are discussed on the basis of surface contaminations, surface roughening and energy straggling effects.

  7. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  8. Chromium-manganese stainless steels with nitrogen content up to 2.10 wt%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, C.; Rashev, Ts. [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Metaloznanie i Tekhnologiya na Metalite

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the possibilities of existent in the Institute of metal science (Sofia) plants for nitrogen alloying of corrosion resistant steels type CrMnMo21 18 3 with nitrogen content up to 2.10 wt%. The method of producing is with only one melting of the charge without an additional electroslag remelting under pressure (ESRP). It is used the combination method for nitrogen alloying of the melt by solid nitrogen carrier and nitrogen gaseous blowing under high pressure up to 8 MPa. It has been obtained the compact and homogeneous ingots (10 kg of each). It is proved the possibilities for producing of industrial 0.5 and 1.8 t ingots of these grades steels with nitrogen content up to 1.20 wt percentage. All ingots of both nitrogen content levels were plastic deformed by forging and rolling. The industrial ingots were forged on radial forging machine CFM-SH 500 and laboratory ingots were deformed on laboratory rolling mill quarto in IMS. After high temperature quenching (1473-1523 K; water) the high nitrogen steels have shown a very good complex of mechanical properties: yield strength (R{sub 0.2}): 750-1000 MPa, tensile strength (R{sub m}):1250-1500 MPa, relative reduction of area (Z):60-50%, Rockwell hardness : 30-50. (orig.)

  9. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-07-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  10. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of nitrogen-rich surface layers on AISI 304 stainless steel by rapid nitriding in a hollow cathode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Zhang, Shangzhou; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yijie

    2018-01-01

    Nitriding treatments have been successfully applied to austenitic stainless steels to improve their hardness and tribological properties. However, at temperatures above 450 °C, conventional plasma nitriding processes decrease the corrosion resistance due to the formation of CrN phases within the modified layer. In this work, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were efficiently treated by rapid plasma nitriding at a high temperature of 530 °C in a hollow cathode discharge. The enhanced ionization obtained in the hollow cathode configuration provided a high current density and, consequently, a high temperature could be attained in a short time. The nitrided layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the dual-layer structure of the nitrided layer consists of a high-N face-centered cubic structure with a free CrN precipitate outer (top) layer and a nitrogen-expanded austenite S-phase bottom layer. The rapid nitriding-assisted hollow cathode discharge technique permits the use of high temperatures, as high as 530 °C, without promoting degradation in the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

  11. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  12. High specialty stainless steels and nickel alloys for FGD dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herda, W.R.; Rockel, M.B.; Grossmann, G.K. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany); Starke, K. [Mannesmann-Seiffert GmbH, Beckum (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Because of process design and construction, FGD installations normally have bypass ducts, which necessitates use of dampers. Due to corrosion from acid dew resulting from interaction of hot acidic flue gases and colder outside environments, carbon steel cannot be used as construction material under these specific conditions. In the past, commercial stainless steels have suffered by pitting and crevice corrosion and occasionally failed by stress corrosion cracking. Only high alloy specialty super-austenitic stainless steels with 6.5% Mo should be used and considered for this application. Experience in Germany and Europe has shown that with regard to safety and life cycle cost analysis as well as providing a long time warranty, a new specialty stainless steel, alloy 31--UNS N08031--(31 Ni, 27 Cr, 6.5 Mo, 0.2 N) has proven to be the best and most economical choice. Hundreds of tons in forms of sheet, rod and bar, as well as strip (for damper seals) have been used and installed in many FGD installations throughout Europe. Under extremely corrosive conditions, the new advanced Ni-Cr-Mo alloy 59--UNS N06059--(59 Ni, 23 Cr, 16 Mo) should be used. This paper describes qualification and workability of these alloys as pertains to damper applications. Some case histories are also provided.

  13. Effect of nitrogen addition on microstructure and erosion-corrosion behavior of stainless steel in acidic slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ping; Cai Qizhou; Wei Bo kang

    2009-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen content on the microstructure and erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of stainless steel (containing about 25%Cr, 5%–6%Ni, and 1%–2%Mo) was investigated by using optical microscope(OM),potentiodynamic polarization curve and immersion method, a self-made rotating disk apparatus and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and so on. The results show that with the increase of nitrogen content from 0 (no adding) to 0.485 wt.%, the Creq/Nieq ratio of the tested materials decreases from ...

  14. Microhardness tests of stainless steel 52100 implanted with nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Mardanian, M; Taheri, Z

    2003-01-01

    In this research work, samples of stainless steel 52100 disks were implanted with nitrogen and carbon dioxide ions at the energy of 90 keV. Microhardness measurement were performed to determine the hardness of the surface. The N-2 sup + implanted steels at the doses of 1x10 sup 1 8 ions cm sup sub 2 gave the highest hardness of 49.70%, while for the CO sub 2 sup + ions implantation, the hardness of 17% and 5% were obtained at the doses of 3x10 sup 1 8 and 1x10 sup 1 9 ions cm sup - 2, respectively. To support the interpretation of our microhardness results the implanted surface were analyzed by the use of XRD method. Our results indicated that the hardness of the N sub 2 sup + implanted samples are due to formation of beta-Cr N phase in the surface layer, while in the CO sub 2 + implanted samples no observation of carbon as graphite or carbide was made. In addition, the absence of any hump in the XRD spectrum indicating that carbon is not in the amorphous phase either.

  15. Aging and Embrittlement of High Fluence Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, gary; Jiao, Zhijie; der ven, Anton Van; Bruemmer, Stephen; Edwards, Dan

    2012-12-31

    Irradiation of austenitic stainless steels results in the formation of dislocation loops, stacking fault tetrahedral, Ni-Si clusters and radiation-induced segregation (RIS). Of these features, it is the formation of precipitates which is most likely to impact the mechanical integrity at high dose. Unlike dislocation loops and RIS, precipitates exhibit an incubation period that can extend from 10 to 46 dpa, above which the cluster composition changes and a separate phase, (G-phase) forms. Both neutron and heavy ion irradiation showed that these clusters develop slowly and continue to evolve beyond 100 dpa. Overall, this work shows that the irradiated microstructure features produced by heavy ion irradiation are remarkably comparable in nature to those produced by neutron irradiation at much lower dose rates. The use of a temperature shift to account for the higher damage rate in heavy ion irradiation results in a fairly good match in the dislocation loop microstructure and the precipitate microstructure in austenitic stainless steels. Both irradiations also show segregation of the same elements and in the same directions, but to achieve comparable magnitudes, heavy ion irradiation must be conducted at a much higher temperature than that which produces a match with loops and precipitates. First-principles modeling has confirmed that the formation of Ni-Si precipitates under irradiation is likely caused by supersaturation of solute to defect sinks caused by highly correlated diffusion of Ni and Si. Thus, the formation and evolution of Ni-Si precipitates at high dose in austenitic stainless steels containing Si is inevitable.

  16. Effects of Nitrogen Segregation and Solubility on the Formation of Nitrogen Gas Pores in 21.5Cr-1.5Ni Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Chun; Jiang, Zhou-Hua; Li, Hua-Bing; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Shu-Cai; Liu, Guo-Hai; Zhu, Jun-Hui; Wang, Peng-Bo; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Fan, Guang-Wei; Li, Guo-Ping

    2017-10-01

    The nitrogen gas pore-formation mechanism was discussed with regard to the solidification of 21.5Cr-1.5Ni duplex stainless steels (DSSs) by considering nitrogen segregation and solubility. The segregation behavior of nitrogen was investigated with phase transformation using experimental detection methods and Thermo-Calc software calculations. The process associated with the formation of gas pores was illustrated clearly. The factors that influenced the formation of gas pores, including shrinkage, nitrogen content, solidification pressure, and alloying elements (Mn and Cr), were discussed in detail. The formation of nitrogen-rich phases [austenite phase (FCC), AlN, and hexagonal close packed] is beneficial to eliminate nitrogen segregation and suppressing gas pore formation. The nitrogen-depleted phase (ferrite phase (BCC)) exhibits an opposite effect. Regular gas pores are initially formed in locations consisting of the austenite phase. As the gas pores lengthen, ferrite and austenite phases alternately form around the gas pores. Solidification shrinkage can promote the formation of irregular gas pores at the centerline of the ingots. Increasing the nitrogen content is favorable to the formation of gas pores. Increasing solidification pressure is effective with regard to suppressing the formation of gas pore defects in DSSs. Increasing the Mn content can reduce the likelihood of gas pore formation; this can be attributed to the increased nitrogen solubility in the residual liquid surrounding the dendrites and the formation tendency of the nitrogen-rich phase. Increasing the Cr content exhibits a dual effect on gas pore formation, which is caused by the increased nitrogen solubility and segregation in the residual liquid.

  17. Origin of the enhanced hardness of a tempered high-nitrogen martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, M. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa 316-8511, Hitachi (Japan); Ohnuma, M. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: OHNUMA.Masato@nims.go.jp; Suzuki, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Ueta, S.; Narita, S.; Shimizu, T. [Research and Development Center, Daido Steel Co., Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Tomota, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa 316-8511, Hitachi (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    The tempering process of a high-nitrogen martensitic stainless steel has been studied using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. The formation of an extremely fine nitrogen-enriched region has been confirmed for the first time in the tempering stage where the hardness starts to increase. After reaching peak hardness, the size of the N-enriched regions increases and their shape is anisotropic, which is typical for coherent precipitates.

  18. Development of high nitrogen steels at Boehler Edelstahl GmbH Kapfenberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, J.; Lichtenegger, G.; Hochoertler, G.; Lenger, H. [Gebrueder Boehler und Co. AG, Kapfenberg (Austria). Forschungsanstalten

    1999-07-01

    The installation of a new protective gas/pressure electroslag remelting plant at Boehler Edelstahl GmbH Kapfenberg (Austria) has offered new possibilities in the development of nitrogen alloyed steels. Based on experiences of conventional nitrogen alloyed steel grades further activities on alloy development with nitrogen contents above the solubility limit have been done at Boehler Edelstahl, concentrating on three main areas: martensitic corrosion resistant steels, duplex stainless steels and austenitic stainless steels. This paper presents the new protective gas/pressure electroslag remelting plant and its main advantages. Furthermore the current developments of high nitrogen alloyed steels conceived for the manufacture via this plant and the facilities at Boehler Edelstahl are presented as well as practical examples and the transfer to large scale production. (orig.)

  19. submitter Physical Properties of a High-Strength Austenitic Stainless Steel for the Precompression Structure of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Arauzo, Ana; Roussel, Pascal; Libeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ITER central solenoid (CS) consists of six independent coils kept together by a precompression support structure that must react vertical tensile loads and provide sufficient preload to maintain coil-to-coil contact when the solenoid is energized. The CS precompression system includes tie plates, lower and upper key blocks, load distribution and isolation plates and other attachment, support and insulating hardware. The tie plates operating at 4 K are manufactured starting from forgings in a high-strength austenitic stainless steel (FXM-19) with a stringent specification. Moreover, forged components for the lower and upper key blocks have to be provided in the same FXM-19 grade with comparably strict requirements. FXM-19 is a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, featuring high strength and toughness, ready weldability, and forgeability. It features as well higher integral thermal contraction down to 4 K compared with the very high Mn steel grade selected for the CS coil jackets, hence providing an ad...

  20. Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.; Ye, Jianchao; Calta, Nicholas P.; Li, Zan; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Wen; Roehling, Tien Tran; Ott, Ryan T.; Santala, Melissa K.; Depond, Philip J.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Hamza, Alex V.; Zhu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

  1. Electrochemical noise measurements of stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis-Juarez, C.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Km. 36.5, Carretera Federal Mexico-Toluca, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, C.P. 52045, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Malo, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, C.P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: jmmalo@iie.org.mx; Uruchurtu, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    Corrosion in a high purity aqueous environment simulating a boiling water reactor (BWR) is addressed in this work. This condition necessitates autoclave experiments under high pressure and temperature. Long-term electrochemical noise measurements were explored as a mean to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking phenomenon. An experimental set up, designed to insulate the working electrode from external interference, made possible to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking in slow strain rate tests for sensitized and solution annealed 304 stainless steel at 288 {sup o}C. Time-series analysis showed variations in the signature of the current density series due to transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC)

  2. Effects of nitrogen in shielding gas on microstructure evolution and localized corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel welding joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The effects of nitrogen addition in shielding gas on microstructure evolution and localized corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) welds were studied. N2-supplemented shielding gas facilitated the primary austenite formation, suppressed the Cr2N precipitation in weld root, and increased the microhardnesses of weld metal. Furthermore, N2-supplemented shielding gas increased pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of austenite, but which decreased slightly PREN of ferrite. The modified double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation in 2 M H2SO4 + 1 M HCl was an effective method to study the localized corrosion of the different zones in the DSS welds. The adding 2% N2 to pure Ar shielding gas improved the localized corrosion resistance in the DSS welds, which was due to compensation for nitrogen loss and promoting nitrogen further solution in the austenite phases, suppression of the Cr2N precipitation in the weld root, and increase of primary austenite content with higher PREN than the ferrite and secondary austenite. Secondary austenite are prone to selective corrosion because of lower PREN compared with ferrite and primary austenite. Cr2N precipitation in the pure Ar shielding weld root and heat affected zone caused the pitting corrosion within the ferrite and the intergranular corrosion at the ferrite boundary. In addition, sigma and M23C6 precipitation resulted in the intergranular corrosion at the ferrite boundary.

  3. Attenuation capability of low activation-modified high manganese austenitic stainless steel for fusion reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, M.M. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El-kameesy, S.U.; El-Fiki, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ghali, S.N. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El Shazly, R.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Saeed, Aly, E-mail: aly_8h@yahoo.com [Nuclear Power station Department, Faculty of Engineering, Egyptian-Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement stainless steel alloys to be used in fusion reactors. • Structural, mechanical, attenuation properties of investigated alloys were studied. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results has been achieved. • The developed alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactors. - Abstract: Low nickel-high manganese austenitic stainless steel alloys, SSMn9Ni and SSMn10Ni, were developed to use as a shielding material in fusion reactor system. A standard austenitic stainless steel SS316L was prepared and studied as a reference sample. The microstructure properties of the present stainless steel alloys were investigated using Schaeffler diagram, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. Mainly, an austenite phase was observed for the prepared stainless steel alloys. Additionally, a small ferrite phase was observed in SS316L and SSMn10Ni samples. The mechanical properties of the prepared alloys were studied using Vickers hardness and tensile tests at room temperature. The studied manganese stainless steel alloys showed higher hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength than SS316L. On the other hand, the manganese stainless steel elongation had relatively lower values than the standard SS316L. The removal cross section for both slow and total slow (primary and those slowed down in sample) neutrons were carried out using {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. Gamma ray attenuation parameters were carried out for different gamma ray energy lines which emitted from {sup 60}Co and {sup 232}Th radioactive sources. The developed manganese stainless steel alloys had a higher total slow removal cross section than SS316L. While the slow neutron and gamma rays were nearly the same for all studied stainless steel alloys. From the obtained results, the developed manganese stainless steel alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactor system with low activation based on the short life

  4. Liquid Phase Sintering of Highly Alloyed Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels

    1996-01-01

    of boride to AISI 316L type steels have previously been studied, but were found to be sensitive to intergranular corrosion due to formation of intermetallic phases rich in chromium and molybdenum. In order to improve this system further, new investigations have focused on the use of higher alloyed stainless......Liquid phase sintering of stainless steel is usually applied to improve corrosion resistance by obtaining a material without an open pore system. The dense structure normally also give a higher strength when compared to conventional sintered steel. Liquid phase sintrering based on addition...... steel as base material. The stainless base powders were added different amounts and types of boride and sintered in hydrogen at different temperatures and times in a laboratory furnace. During sintering the outlet gas was analyzed and subsequently related to the obtained microstructure. Thermodynamic...

  5. Synergistic Computational and Microstructural Design of Next- Generation High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Ibrahim [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States); Arroyave, Raymundo [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) study deformation twinning, its evolution, thermal stability, and the contribution on mechanical response of the new advanced stainless steels, especially at elevated temperatures; 2) study alumina-scale formation on the surface, as an alternative for conventional chromium oxide, that shows better oxidation resistance, through alloy design; and 3) design new generation of high temperature stainless steels that form alumina scale and have thermally stable nano-twins. The work involved few baseline alloys for investigating the twin formation under tensile loading, thermal stability of these twins, and the role of deformation twins on the mechanical response of the alloys. These baseline alloys included Hadfield Steel (Fe-13Mn-1C), 316, 316L and 316N stainless steels. Another baseline alloy was studied for alumina-scale formation investigations. Hadfield steel showed twinning but undesired second phases formed at higher temperatures. 316N stainless steel did not show signs of deformation twinning. Conventional 316 stainless steel demonstrated extensive deformation twinning at room temperature. Investigations on this alloy, both in single crystalline and polycrystalline forms, showed that deformation twins evolve in a hierarchical manner, consisting of micron–sized bundles of nano-twins. The width of nano-twins stays almost constant as the extent of strain increases, but the width and number of the bundles increase with increasing strain. A systematic thermomechanical cycling study showed that the twins were stable at temperatures as high as 900°C, after the dislocations are annealed out. Using such cycles, volume fraction of the thermally stable deformation twins were increased up to 40% in 316 stainless steel. Using computational thermodynamics and kinetics calculations, we designed two generations of advanced austenitic stainless steels. In the first generation, Alloy 1, which had been proposed as an alumina

  6. Corrosion behaviour of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S FLEGE. Technische Universität Darmstadt, Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany. E-mail: flege@ca.tu-darmstadt.de. Ghoranneviss et al [1] have reported on nitrogen implantation into stainless steel and presented a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement of the N and the CrN.

  7. Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation and Its Initial Microstructure Dependence in a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Lin; Huang, Tian Lin; Wang, Yu Hui

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) usually occurs in metastable austenitic stainless steels. Recent studies have shown that DIMT may occur in the austenite phase of low alloyed duplex stainless steels. The present study demonstrates that DIMT can also take place in a high alloyed...... Fe–23Cr–8.5Ni duplex stainless steel, which exhibits an unexpectedly rapid transformation from γ-austenite into α′-martensite. However, an inhibited martensitic transformation has been observed by varying the initial microstructure from a coarse alternating austenite and ferrite band structure...

  8. Production of dry, high purity nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, O.W.; Prasad, R.; Smolarek, J.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes an improved process for the production of dry, high purity nitrogen from air. It comprises passing a wet, high purity nitrogen from a pressure swing adsorption system or wet feed air stream to a dryer membrane system capable of selectively permeating water from the wet stream; passing relatively dry purge gas to the low pressure permeate side of the dryer membrane system to facilitate the carrying away of water vapor from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of water vapor through the membrane from the high purity nitrogen or feed air stream for enhanced moisture removal therefrom. The relatively dry purge gas comprising waste gas from the pressure swing adsorption system or nitrogen product gas, whereby the provision of the purge gas on the permeate side of the dryer membrane system facilitates the desired moisture removal with minimum loss of product gas.

  9. Effect of nitrogen addition on microstructure and erosion-corrosion behavior of stainless steel in acidic slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of nitrogen content on the microstructure and erosion-corrosion (E-C behavior of stainless steel (containing about 25%Cr, 5%–6%Ni, and 1%–2%Mo was investigated by using optical microscope(OM,potentiodynamic polarization curve and immersion method, a self-made rotating disk apparatus and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and so on. The results show that with the increase of nitrogen content from 0 (no adding to 0.485 wt.%, the Creq/Nieq ratio of the tested materials decreases from 4.14 to 1.23 and the ferrite volume percentage of the steel tested linearly decreases approximately from 90% to 10%. The effect of nitrogen content on polarization behavior of the studied steel was not signifi cant. All the passive current densities ( Ipand pure corrosion rates (Vc of the different N content specimens in the acidic solution (slurry containing 0.1 M H2SO4+0.06%Cl-+0.4%F-, the simplifi ed zinc hydrometallurgy slurry are too low and nearly negligible. Whereas the pure erosion rates (Ve of the four scenarios of the steels tested (N content, wt.%: N1, no adding; N2, 0.143%; N3, 0.289%; N4, 0485%, respectively are much higher than their Vc values. The V e values of the tested steels are in the order of N4 > N1 > N3 > N2, at the same time, the total weight loss rates (V t follow the order of N4 > N1 >N3 > N2, too. N2 steel consisting of pproximately equal volume fractions of ferrite (α and austenite (c exhibits the most excellent E-C resistance and erosion resistance, while the stainless steels possessing the big difference between α phase and c phase, such as N1 steel nearly possessing single ferrite or N4 steel nearly possessing single austenite, show poorer E-C resistance and erosion resistance.

  10. Phenomena Elucidation of High Brightness Fiber Laser Welding of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Mizutani, Masami; Katayama, Seiji

    A high-brigthness fiber laser can produce an ultra-high peak power density of MW/mm2 level corresponding to a focused electron beam, and is promising as one of the desirable heat sources for deep-penetration welding. The objectives of this research are to elucidate the factors affecting weld penetration and defects formation mechanisms, to obtain a fundamental knowledge of interaction between a fiber laser beam and the laser-induced plume, and to assess laser absorption with water-calorimetric method in bead-on-plate welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates with a 10 kW fiber laser beam. Concerning the weldablity and defects, the penetration depth reached 18 mm at the maximum. At 50 mm/s or lower welding speeds, porosity was generated under the conventionally-focused and tightly-focused conditions. X-ray transmission in-site observation images demonstrated that pores were formed not only at the tip of the keyhole but also near the upper part. The keyhole behavior was stabilized by using nitrogen shielding gas, which led to the porosity prevention. As for the interaction under the normal Ar shielding gas conditions, the temperature and ionization degree of the laser-induced plumes were calculated to be 6,000 K and 0.02, respectively, by the Bolzman plots and Saha's equation. It was also found that the attenuation and the refraction between the 10-kW fiber laser beam and the short weakly-ionized plume were too small to exert the reduction in weld penetration. The laser absorption of the stainless steel plate was approximately 85 % high at 10 kW laser power and 50 mm/s welding speed. Compared X-ray transmission observation images of the keyhole with the focusing feature of the fiber laser beam, most of the incident laser passed through the keyhole inlet, and the center part of the beam was delivered directly to the tip of the deep keyhole. Consequently, as far as the adquate welding procedures were utilized on the basis of eclucidation of the welding

  11. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  12. High Power Argon, Nitrogen Plasma Torches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.; Sadikov, K.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes a high power supply for Argon and Nitrogen plasma torches. A high frequency was used in order to drive the pulse width modulation circuit. The average output current consumption (AOCC) was modified from 20A up to 80A by increasing the pulse width from 2μsec up to 3μsec for Argon gas plasma torches. The (AOCC) was reduced from 70A down to 25A by increasing the pulse width from 6μsec up to 8μsec in the case of Nitrogen gas plasma torches.

  13. Preparation of high-performance ultrafine-grained AISI 304L stainless steel under high temperature and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk ultra-fine grained (UFG AISI 304L stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was prepared by a high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP method using nanocrystalline AISI 304L stainless steel powders obtained from ball milling. Samples were sintered in high-pressure conditions using the highest martensite content of AISI 304L stainless steel powders milled for 25 h. Analyses of phase composition and grain size were accomplished by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. By comparing the reverse martensite transformation under vacuum and HTHP treat, we consider that pressure can effectively promote the change in the process of transformation. Compared with the solid-solution-treated 304L, the hardness and yield strength of the samples sintered under HTHP are considerably higher. This method of preparation of UFG bulk stainless steel may be widely popularised and used to obtain UFG metallic materials with good comprehensive performance.

  14. Microstructure influence on fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steels with high molybdenum content; Influencia de la microestructura en el comportamiento a fatiga de aceros inoxidables austeniticos con alto contenido en molibdeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J.; Gamboa, R.; Ranninger, C.

    2006-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels with molybdenum present high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance to aggressive environments. These steels have been used to tank and vessel components for high liquids as phosphoric, nitric and sulphuric acids. These materials with low carbon and nitrogen addition have been proposed candidates as structural materials for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) in-vessel components. Molybdenum addition in austenitic stainless steel improves mechanical and corrosion properties, but with it can produce the presence of nitrogen microstructure modifications by presence or precipitation of second phases. This paper summarises the fatigue and corrosion fatigue behaviour of two 317LN stainless steels with different microstructure. Fully austenitic steel microstructure show better fatigue, corrosion fatigue resistance and better ductility than austenitic steel with delta ferrite microstructure, mainly at low stresses. (Author)

  15. Correlation Between Experimental and Calculated Phase Fractions in Aged 20Cr32Ni1Nb Austenitic Stainless Steels Containing Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Matthew P.; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2013-02-01

    A centrifugally cast 20Cr32Ni1Nb stainless steel manifold in service for 16 years at temperatures ranging from 1073 K to 1123 K (800 °C to 850 °C) has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nb(C,N), M23C6, and the silicide G-phases (Ni16Nb6Si7) were all identified in a conventional SEM, while the nitride Z-phase (CrNbN) was observed only in AES. M23C6, Z-phase and G-phase were characterized in XRD. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using ThermoCalc Version S, with the TCS Steel and Fe-alloys Database (TCFE6), and Thermotech Ni-based Superalloys Database (TTNI8) were validated by comparing experimental phase fraction results obtained from both EPMA and AES. A computational study looking at variations in the chemical composition of the alloy, and how they affect phase equilibria, was investigated. Increasing the nitrogen concentration is shown to decrease G-phase formation, where it is replaced by other intermetallic phases such as Z-phase and π-phase that do not experience liquation during pre-weld annealing treatments. Suppressing G-phase formation was ultimately determined to be a function of minimizing silicon content, and understabilizing the Nb/(C + 6/7N) ratio.

  16. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys to acid fluoride wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Mackey, D.B.; Pool, K.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Schwenk, E.B. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    TRUEX processing of Hanford Site waste will utilize potentially corrosive acid fluoride processing solutions. Appropriate construction materials for such a processing facility need to be identified. Toward this objective, candidate stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated acid fluoride process solutions at 333K. The high Ni-Cr alloys exhibited corrosion rates as low as 0.14 mm/y in a solution with an HF activity of about 1.2 M, much lower than the 19 to 94 mm/y observed for austenitic stainless steels. At a lower HF activity (about 0.008 M), stainless steels display delayed passivation while high Ni-Cr alloys display essentially no reaction.

  17. Effects of W on microstructure and high-temperature oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel weldment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yijie; Xie, Yuye; Zhu, Shuangchun; Yan, Biao

    2017-07-01

    With the promotion of fuel economy policy and automobile lightweight concept, ferritic stainless steels applied in vehicles’ exhaust hot end systems have been developed. This paper simulated the high-temperature environment at which the automobile exhaust system serviced in for high-temperature corrosion. Kinetic curves were conducted in isothermal environments at 1000∘C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer were used to study the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels and the effects of tungsten (W) addition. The results show that, with increasing oxidation time, the rate of weight gains increase and the main failure is spalling of surface oxide layer. The addition of W has a complicated effect on the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel weldment.

  18. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  19. Strain-rate dependent fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jibo; Wu, Xinqiang; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Haitao

    2017-06-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of forged 316LN stainless steel was investigated in high-temperature water. It was found that the fatigue life of 316LN stainless steel decreased with decreasing strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004 %s-1 in 300 °C water. The stress amplitude increased with decreasing strain rate during fatigue tests, which was a typical characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and slip bands. The interactive effect between dynamic strain aging and electrochemical factors on fatigue crack initiation is discussed.

  20. High surface area stainless steel brushes as cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Douglas F; Merrill, Matthew D; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-03-15

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are an efficient technology for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter, but alternatives to precious metals are needed for cathode catalysts. We show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates and efficiencies similar to those achieved with platinum-catalyzed carbon cloth cathodes in single-chamber MECs. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2/m3, hydrogen was produced at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 m3-H2/m3-d (current density of 188 +/- 10 A/m3) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V. The energy efficiency relative to the electrical energy input was 221 +/- 8%, and the overall energy efficiency was 78 +/- 5% based on both electrical energy and substrate utilization. These values compare well to previous results obtained using platinum on flat carbon cathodes in a similar system. Reducing the cathode surface area by 75% decreased performance from 91 +/- 3 A/m3 to 78 +/- 4 A/m3. A brush cathode with graphite instead of stainless steel and a specific surface area of 4600 m2/m3 generated substantially less current (1.7 +/- 0.0 A/m3), and a flat stainless steel cathode (25 m2/m3) produced 64 +/- 1 A/m3, demonstrating that both the stainless steel and the large surface area contributed to high current densities. Linear sweep voltammetry showed that the stainless steel brush cathodes both reduced the overpotential needed for hydrogen evolution and exhibited a decrease in overpotential over time as a result of activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrogen production can be achieved at rates comparable to those with precious metal catalysts in MECs without the need for expensive cathodes.

  1. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  2. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting Microstructure Development During HighTemperature Nitriding of Martensitic Stainless SteelsUsing Thermodynamic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschiptschin André Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of the Fe-Cr-N System in the region of the Gas Phase Equilibria have been compared with experimental results of maximum nitrogen absorption during nitriding of two Martensitic Stainless Steels (a 6 mm thick sheet of AISI 410S steel and green powder compacts of AISI 434L steel under N2 atmospheres. The calculations have been performed combining the Fe-Cr-N System description contained in the SGTE Solid Solution Database and the gas phase for the N System contained in the SGTE Substances Database. Results show a rather good agreement for total nitrogen absorption in the steel and nitrogen solubility in austenite in the range of temperatures between 1273 K and 1473 K and in the range of pressures between 0.1 and 0.36 MPa. Calculations show that an appropriate choice of heat treatment parameters can lead to optimal nitrogen absorption in the alloy. It was observed in the calculations that an increased pressure stabilizes CrN at expenses of Cr2N - type nitrides.

  4. Nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel are highly safe and effective for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyudae; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of antimicrobial ZnO films must be established for general applications. In this study, the antimicrobial activity, skin irritation, elution behavior, and mechanical properties of nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel were evaluated. ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and ZnO nanowall (NW) structures were prepared with different surface roughnesses, wettability, and concentrations using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The thicknesses of ZnO NP and ZnO NW were approximately 300 and 620 nm, respectively, and ZnO NW had two diffraction directions of [0002] and [01-10] based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO NW structure demonstrated 99.9% antimicrobial inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum, and no skin irritation was detected using experimental rabbits. Approximately 27.2 ± 3.0 μg L-1 Zn ions were eluted from the ZnO NW film at 100 °C for 24 h, which satisfies the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZnO NW films on stainless steel were enhanced by 11 and 14% compared to those of the parent stainless steel. Based on these results, ZnO NW films on STS316L sheets are useful for household supplies, such as water pipes, faucets, and stainless steel containers.

  5. A Short review on wrought austenitic stainless steels at high temperatures: processing, microstructure, properties and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Lesley Plaut

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wrought austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high temperature applications. This short review discusses initially the processing of this class of steels, with emphasis on solidification and hot working behavior. Following, a brief summary is made on the precipitation behavior and the numerous phases that may appear in their microstructures. Creep and oxidation resistance are, then, briefly discussed, and finalizing their performance is compared with other high temperature metallic materials.

  6. High-cycle fatigue behavior of type 316 stainless steel at 593/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raske, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The available low- and high-cycle fatigue data on Type 316 stainless steel at 593 to 600/sup 0/C have been combined and analyzed to provide a preliminary strain-life correlation. This correlation was then reduced by the appropriate safety factors to a design curve and compared with the ASME T-1420-1B curve. The comparison indicates that significant increases in allowable fatigue cycles should be realized when the present study is concluded.

  7. The effect of nitrogen in sintered atmosphere of the ferritic stainless steels AISI 430L P/M; Efecto del nitrogeno en la atmosfera de sinterizacion del acero inoxiable ferritico AISI 430L P/M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpas, F. A.; Ruiz-Roman, J. M.; Codina, S.; Iglesias, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we have studied the nitrogen effects different sintering atmospheres (nitrogen-hydrogen, and dissociate ammonia) on ferritic stainless steels (430L), fabricated by powder metallurgy process. We have carried out a study of the physical (density, porosity and dimensional variation) and mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, and lengthening) of the ferritic stainless steels sintered in the afore-mentioned atmospheres, as well as of their behaviour in pitting corrosion. We have studied, also the microstructure of the steels, which depends on the atmosphere used for sintering. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Gradient twinned 304 stainless steels for high strength and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Hongtao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: jianlu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Y. Morris, E-mail: ymwang@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Gradient materials often have attractive mechanical properties that outperform uniform microstructure counterparts. It remains a difficult task to investigate and compare the performance of various gradient microstructures due to the difficulty of fabrication, the wide range of length scales involved, and their respective volume percentage variations. We have investigated four types of gradient microstructures in 304 stainless steels that utilize submicrotwins, nanotwins, nanocrystalline-, ultrafine- and coarse-grains as building blocks. Tensile tests reveal that the gradient microstructure consisting of submicrotwins and nanotwins has a persistent and stable work hardening rate and yields an impressive combination of high strength and high ductility, leading to a toughness that is nearly 50% higher than that of the coarse-grained counterpart. Ex- and in-situ transmission electron microscopy indicates that nanoscale and submicroscale twins help to suppress and limit martensitic phase transformation via the confinement of martensite within the twin lamellar. Twinning and detwinning remain active during tensile deformation and contribute to the work hardening behavior. We discuss the advantageous properties of using submicrotwins as the main load carrier and nanotwins as the strengthening layers over those coarse and nanocrystalline grains. Our work uncovers a new gradient design strategy to help metals and alloys achieve high strength and high ductility.

  9. A novel public health threat - high lead solder in stainless steel rainwater tanks in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodo, Kerryn; Dalgleish, Cameron; Patel, Mahomed; Veitch, Mark

    2018-02-01

    We identified two water tanks in Tasmania with water lead concentrations exceeding the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) limit; they had been constructed with stainless steel and high-lead solder from a single manufacturer. An investigation was initiated to identify all tanks constructed by this manufacturer and prevent further exposure to contaminated water. To identify water tanks we used sales accounts, blood and water lead results from laboratories, and media. We analysed blood and water lead concentration results from laboratories and conducted a nested cohort study of blood lead concentrations in children aged tanks constructed from stainless steel and high lead solder. Median water lead concentrations were significantly higher in the stainless steel tanks (121µg/L) than in the galvanised tanks (1µg/L). Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 26µg/dL (median 5µg/dL); of these, 77% (n=50) were below the then-recommended health-related concentration of 10µg/dL. Concentrations in the 15 people (23%) above this limit ranged from 10-26µg/dL, with a median of 14µg/dL. The median blood lead concentration in the nested cohort of children was initially 8.5µg/dL, dropping to 4.5µg/dL after follow-up. Lead concentrations in the water tanks constructed from stainless steel and high-lead solder were up to 200 times above the recommended ADWG limits. Implications for public health: This investigation highlights the public health risk posed by use of non-compliant materials in constructing water tanks. © 2017 Department of Health and Human Services Tasmania.

  10. Properties of stainless high-strength chrome steels for bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyzin, V. M.; Burkin, V. S.; Doronin, V. M.

    1981-10-01

    Steel 40Kh11M3F-Sh has fairly high resistance to contact fatigue stresses at elevated temperatures and can be recommended for bearings operating in aggressive media at such temperatures, including large bearings.

  11. Cleaning the magnesium oxide contaminated stainless steel system using a high temperature decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mohan, T.V.K.; Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Kumar, P.S.; Veena, S.N.; Chandramohan, P.; Rufus, A.L.; Subramanian, H.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Lab., BARC Facilities, Tamilnadu (India)

    2002-07-01

    A high pressure and high temperature (HTHP) system made of stainless steel-316, that simulates the reactor coolant systems of pressurized water reactors has been constructed for carrying out experimental investigations on power reactor water chemistry. After two months of operation at 280 C, magnesium was observed in the coolant. This was attributed to the failure of some heater pins that contained magnesium oxide as insulator. This magnesium oxide got distributed over the entire system. In order to remove the magnesium that had deposited and reacted over the oxide film formed over the stainless steel surfaces, the system was chemically cleaned using a mixture of nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and N{sub 2}H{sub 4} at high temperature. The chromium containing oxide film formed over the stainless steel surfaces are normally removed using oxidizing pretreatment followed by treatment with reducing formulation. A minimum of three such cycles are required to complete the dissolution of contaminated oxide film. It has been proved elsewhere that chromium-containing oxides can be dissolved by simple chelating agents but at a relatively higher temperature (150-180 C) with NTA. Thus, NTA based process was tested for its capability to remove the magnesium contaminated oxide film formed over stainless steel. In addition to stainless steel, the system has few carbon steel areas. Hence, the compatibility of stainless steel and carbon steel to the NTA-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} mixture was determined. Tests were carried out at different concentrations of NTA and at different pH. It was observed that carbon steel corrosion rates were quite high at low pH. With increasing pH, the corrosion rate decreased. The surface roughening observed at low pH was not observed at pH 8.0. Hence, it was decided to carry out the cleaning at pH 7.0 and with NTA concentration of 5 mM. Visual examination of the test flanges after the cleaning indicated complete removal of the oxide film. Results of chemical

  12. Development of Creep-Resistant and Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are cost-effective materials for high-temperature applications if they have the oxidation and creep resistance to withstand prolonged exposure at such conditions. Since 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed advanced austenitic stainless steels with creep resistance comparable to Ni-based superalloy 617 at 800-900°C based on specially designed "engineered microstructures" utilizing a microstructure/composition database derived from about 20 years of radiation effect data on steels. The wrought high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steels with outstanding creep resistance at 700-800°C were developed for supercritical boiler and superheater tubing for fossil power plants in the early 1990s, the cast CF8C-Plus steels were developed in 1999-2001 for land-based gas turbine casing and diesel engine exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications at 700-900°C, and, in 2015-2017, new Al-modified cast stainless steels with oxidation and creep resistance capabilities up to 950-1000°C were developed for automotive exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications. This article reviews and summarizes their development and their properties and applications.

  13. Development of Creep-Resistant and Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are cost-effective materials for high-temperature applications if they have the oxidation and creep resistance to withstand prolonged exposure at such conditions. Since 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed advanced austenitic stainless steels with creep resistance comparable to Ni-based superalloy 617 at 800-900°C based on specially designed "engineered microstructures" utilizing a microstructure/composition database derived from about 20 years of radiation effect data on steels. The wrought high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steels with outstanding creep resistance at 700-800°C were developed for supercritical boiler and superheater tubing for fossil power plants in the early 1990s, the cast CF8C-Plus steels were developed in 1999-2001 for land-based gas turbine casing and diesel engine exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications at 700-900°C, and, in 2015-2017, new Al-modified cast stainless steels with oxidation and creep resistance capabilities up to 950-1000°C were developed for automotive exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications. This article reviews and summarizes their development and their properties and applications.

  14. Thermally activated formation of martensite in Fe-C alloys and Fe-17%Cr-C stainless steels during heating from boiling nitrogen temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The thermally activated austenite-to-martensite transformation was investigated by magnetometry in three Fe-C alloys and in two 17%Cr stainless steels. After quenching to room temperature, samples were immersed in boiling nitrogen and martensite formation was followed during subsequent (re)heating......-dependent transformation curve. Moreover, magnetometry showed that the heating rate had an influence on the fraction of martensite formed during sub-zero Celsius treatment. The activation energy for thermally activated martensite formation was quantified in the range 11‒21 kJ/mol by a Kissinger-like method....... to room temperature. Different tests were performed applying heating rates from 0.5 K/min to 10 K/min. An additional test consisted in fast (re)heating the samples by immersion in water. Thermally activated martensite formation was demonstrated for all investigated materials by a heating rate...

  15. High cycle torsional fatigue properties of 17-4PH stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yanase

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to small defects under torsional fatigue loading condition is examined in the high cycle fatigue regime. Fatigue crack initiation and small crack growth behaviors were observed during fatigue testing and fractographic investigations were performed. The results are compared to the data obtained in the uniaxial fatigue tests, which allows the effect of biaxial stresses on the surface of material to be discussed. Finally, an approach for predicting the fatigue limit of 17-4PH stainless steel under torsional and tension-compression fatigue loadings is presented.

  16. Ag-In transient liquid phase bonding for high temperature stainless steel micro actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A stainless steel, high temperature, phase change micro actuator has been demonstrated using the solid-liquid phase transition of mannitol at 168°C and In-Ag transient liquid phase diffusion bonding. Joints created with this bonding technique can sustain temperatures up to 695°C, while being bonded at only 180°C, and have thicknesses between 1.4 to 6.0 μm. Physical vapour deposition, inkjet printing and electroplating have been evaluated as deposition methods for bond layers. For actuation, c...

  17. Pyrolytic carbon-coated stainless steel felt as a high-performance anode for bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Hidalgo, Diana; Tommasi, Tonia; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-07-01

    Scale up of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) requires highly conductive, biocompatible and stable electrodes. Here we present pyrolytic carbon-coated stainless steel felt (C-SS felt) as a high-performance and scalable anode. The electrode is created by generating a carbon layer on stainless steel felt (SS felt) via a multi-step deposition process involving α-d-glucose impregnation, caramelization, and pyrolysis. Physicochemical characterizations of the surface elucidate that a thin (20±5μm) and homogenous layer of polycrystalline graphitic carbon was obtained on SS felt surface after modification. The carbon coating significantly increases the biocompatibility, enabling robust electroactive biofilm formation. The C-SS felt electrodes reach current densities (jmax) of 3.65±0.14mA/cm(2) within 7days of operation, which is 11 times higher than plain SS felt electrodes (0.30±0.04mA/cm(2)). The excellent biocompatibility, high specific surface area, high conductivity, good mechanical strength, and low cost make C-SS felt a promising electrode for BESs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High temperature oxidation of stainless steel AISI316L in air plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka [EURATOM-MHEST, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: alenka.vesel@guest.arnes.si; Mozetic, Miran; Drenik, Aleksander [EURATOM-MHEST, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman, Nina [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne [CNRS-PROMES, Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux and Energie Solaire, UPR 8521, 7 rue du four solaire, F-66120 Font Romeu, Odeillo (France)

    2008-12-30

    A study on surface oxidation of AISI316L stainless steel surface was performed. Stainless steel was oxidized in air plasma with a high degree of dissociation of oxygen molecules of about 70%. The resultant flux of oxygen atoms to the surface was about 1 x 10{sup 24} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging up to 1250 K. The oxidation time was 5 min. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including Auger electron depth profiling (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure and composition of the surface were temperature dependent. In all cases high Cr concentration was observed on the surface after oxidation at a temperature above 600 K. With increasing temperature Mn concentration at the surface increased as well. Below 1000 K the oxide film was uniform, while above 1000 K islands with large spinel particles were observed to appear.

  19. Stored energy in ultrafine-grained 316L stainless steel processed by high-pressure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Tahawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy stored in severely deformed ultrafine-grained (UFG 316L stainless steel was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. A sample was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT for N = 10 turns. In the DSC thermogram, two peaks were observed. The first peak was exothermic and related to the annihilation of vacancies and dislocations. During this recovery, the phase composition and the average grain size were practically unchanged. The energy stored in dislocations was calculated and compared with the heat released in the exothermic DSC peak. The difference was related to the annihilation of vacancy-like defects with a concentration of ∼5.2 × 10−4. The second DSC peak was endothermic which was caused by a reversion of α′-martensite into γ-austenite, however in this temperature range dislocation annihilation and a moderate grain growth also occurred. The specific energy of the reverse martensitic phase transformation was determined as about −11.7 J/g. Keywords: High-pressure torsion, Stored energy, Stainless steel, Phase transformation, Thermal stability

  20. Atmospheric pitting corrosion of 304L stainless steel: the role of highly concentrated chloride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Steven R; Mi, Na; Cook, Angus J M C; Mohammed-Ali, Haval B; Guo, Liya; Rayment, Trevor; Davenport, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of atmospheric pitting corrosion in 304L stainless steel plate was analysed using MgCl(2) droplets in relation to changes in relative humidity (RH) and chloride deposition density (CDD). It was found that highly reproducible morphologies occur that are distinct at different RH. Pitting at higher concentrations, i.e. lower RH, resulted in satellite pits forming around the perimeter of wide shallow dish regions. At higher RH, these satellite pits did not form and instead spiral attack into the shallow region was observed. Increasing CDD at saturation resulted in a very broad-mouthed pitting attack within the shallow dish region. Large data sets were used to find trends in pit size and morphology in what is essentially a heterogeneous alloy. Electrochemical experiments on 304 stainless steel wires in highly saturated solutions showed that the passive current density increased significantly above 3 M MgCl(2) and the breakdown pitting potential dropped as the concentration increased. It is proposed that the shallow dish regions grow via enhanced dissolution of the passive film, whereas satellite pits and a spiral attack take place with active dissolution of bare metal surfaces.

  1. Effect of dissolved hydrogen on corrosion of 316NG stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Lijin [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang City 110016 (China); Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang City 110819 (China); Peng, Qunjia, E-mail: qunjiapeng@imr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang City 110016 (China); Zhang, Zhiming [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang City 110016 (China); Shoji, Tetsuo [Frontier Research Initiative, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang City 110016 (China); Wang, Lei [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang City 110819 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Dissolved hydrogen (DH) effect on corrosion of stainless steel in high temperature water. • Increasing DH caused decrease of Cr- but increase of Fe-concentrations in the inner oxide layer. • Concentration gradient of Cr and Fe in the inner oxide layer. • DH effect was attributed to the accelerated diffusion of Fe ion in the inner oxide layer. - Abstract: Characterizations of oxide films formed on 316 stainless steel in high temperature, hydrogenated water were conducted. The results show the oxide film consists of an outer layer with oxide particles of Fe–Ni spinel and hematite, and an inner continuous layer of Fe–Cr–Ni spinel. Increasing dissolved hydrogen (DH) concentrations causes decrease of Cr- and increase of Fe-concentrations in the inner layer. A continuous decrease of Cr- and increase of Fe-concentrations was observed from the surface of the inner layer to the oxide/substrate interface. The DH effect is attributed to the enhanced diffusion of Fe ions in the oxide film by hydrogen.

  2. Influence of nitrogen on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of austenitic stainless steels in chloride environment; Influence de l'azote sur la resistance a la corrosion sous contrainte d'aciers inoxydables austenitiques en milieu chlorure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, S

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of nitrogen additions on the Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC) resistance of austenitic stainless steel in chloride environment. The investigation was carried out in two part: first, an experimental investigation with model industrial steels was carried out and secondly, numerical simulations based on the Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity Model were developed. Both slow strain rate tensile tests and constant load test of the different steels in boiling MgCl{sub 2} (153 deg C) at free potential show that, for a given plastic strain rate, nitrogen addition increases the critical stress for crack initiation without influencing the crack propagation rate. We observed that the creep rate under constant load was affected by the nitrogen content. As a consequence, the SCC behaviour (cracks density and propagation rate) depends on the nitrogen content. We thus confirm that the nitrogen content influences the corrosion - deformation interaction mechanisms via its positive contribution to the flow stress. These experimental results are reproduced semi-quantitatively by means of numerical simulations at the scale of crack. - dislocation interactions. The presence of nitrogen is modelled by an increased lattice friction stress, which in turn affects the dynamics of crack tip shielding by dislocation pile-ups. We conclude that nitrogen addition in austenitic stainless steels increases the SC crack initiation stress in proportion of the increased flow stress, without penalty in terms of SC crack propagation rate. (author)

  3. High-speed fiber laser cutting of thick stainless steel for dismantling tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2017-09-01

    A high-speed fiber laser cutting technology of thick steels for dismantling tasks was achieved using a 6-kW fiber laser system. At first, a new cutting head for efficient cutting of thick steels was developed, which was composed by a collimator with a focal length of 160 mm and mirror-type focusing objects with a long focal length of 600 mm. The long focal length of the focusing object made it possible for the beam size to be small through the thick cutting material and the cutting efficiency was expected to increase compared with the short focal length. In addition, folding the beam facilitated the compact cutting head with a size of 160 mm (width) × 80 mm (height) × 640 mm (length) and a weight of 6.9 kg. In the cutting experiment, the laser beam was delivered to the cutting head by a 25-m long process fiber with a core diameter of 100 μm. The cutting performances were studied against the thicknesses of stainless steel plates. A maximum cutting speed of 72 mm/min was obtained for the 60-mm thick stainless steel plate cutting and the cut specimen showed an excellent kerf shape and a narrow kerf width. To the best of our knowledge, this cutting speed was higher than other previously reported results when cutting with a 6-kW laser power.

  4. In situ electrochemical impedance and noise measurements of corroding stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, Jan [Power Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: macakj@vscht.cz; Sajdl, Petr [Power Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kucera, Pavel [Power Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Novotny, Radek [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Vosta, Jan [Power Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2006-04-25

    An in situ corrosion study of austenitic stainless steel 08CH18N10T in high temperature water was performed. The material under study is used in the construction of steam generator of PWR (pressurized water reactor) nuclear power stations and is similar to AISI 321 stainless steel. In situ 300-h tests were performed under autoclave conditions at 280 deg. C and 8 MPa and consisted of impedance measurements, polarization measurements and electrochemical noise measurements. The experiments were performed in deionised water with the pH adjusted to 9.5, in the presence/absence of chlorides. An additional modification of corrosivity was achieved by changing oxygen concentration. A detailed analysis of the impedance data is presented identifying in the impedance spectra contributions of oxide, corrosion reaction, double layer and diffusion process. A good agreement was found between corrosion data from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and that from electrochemical noise (EN) measurements. It was confirmed that the oxide response cannot be attributed to the overall oxide layer but only to the part corresponding to the space charge layer, thus indicating the semi-conductive character of the oxide.

  5. Crack initiation behavior of neutron irradiated model and commercial stainless steels in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kale J.; Was, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate key factors affecting the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) susceptibility of eleven neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steel alloys. Four commercial purity and seven high purity stainless steels were fabricated with specific changes in composition and microstructure, and irradiated in a fast reactor spectrum at 320 °C to doses between 4.4 and 47.5 dpa. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests were performed in normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or primary water (PW) environments to isolate the effects of environment, elemental solute addition, alloy purity, alloy heat, alloy type, cold work, and irradiation dose. The irradiated alloys showed a wide variation in IASCC susceptibility, as measured by the relative changes in mechanical properties and crack morphology. Cracking susceptibility measured by %IG was enhanced in oxidizing environments, although testing in the lowest potential environment caused an increase in surface crack density. Alloys containing solute addition of Ni or Ni + Cr exhibited no IASCC. Susceptibility was reduced in materials cold worked prior to irradiation, and increased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation-induced hardening was accounted for by the dislocation loop microstructure, however no relation between crack initiation and radiation hardening was found.

  6. High Resolution Temperature Measurement of Liquid Stainless Steel Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Devesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A contactless temperature measurement system is presented based on a hyperspectral line camera that captures the spectra in the visible and near infrared (VNIR region of a large set of closely spaced points. The measured spectra are used in a nonlinear least squares optimization routine to calculate a one-dimensional temperature profile with high spatial resolution. Measurements of a liquid melt pool of AISI 316L stainless steel show that the system is able to determine the absolute temperatures with an accuracy of 10%. The measurements are made with a spatial resolution of 12 µm/pixel, justifying its use in applications where high temperature measurements with high spatial detail are desired, such as in the laser material processing and additive manufacturing fields.

  7. Crack growth behavior of warm-rolled 316L austenitic stainless steel in high-temperature hydrogenated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung-Ha; Kwon, Junhyun; Choi, Min-Jae; Hwang, Seong Sik [Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of warm rolling on the crack growth of 316L austenitic stainless steel, the crack growth rate was measured and the oxide structure was characterized in high-temperature hydrogenated water. The warm-rolled specimens showed a higher crack growth rate compared to the as-received specimens because the slip bands and dislocations produced during warm rolling served as paths for corrosion and cracking. The crack growth rate increased with the dissolved hydrogen concentration. This may be attributed to the decrease in performance and stability of the protective oxide layer formed on the surface of stainless steel in high-temperature water. - Highlights: • 316L Stainless steels were used for the study of crack growth behavior in PWR water. • Warm rolling was applied to simulate the irradiation hardening of stainless steels. • DH concentration was changed to see the effect on crack growth and oxide structure. • Warm-rolled stainless steels showed higher rates of corrosion and crack growth. • Higher DH concentration also promoted the rates of corrosion and crack growth.

  8. Crack growth behavior of warm-rolled 316L austenitic stainless steel in high-temperature hydrogenated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Jin, Hyung-Ha; Kwon, Junhyun; Choi, Min-Jae; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of warm rolling on the crack growth of 316L austenitic stainless steel, the crack growth rate was measured and the oxide structure was characterized in high-temperature hydrogenated water. The warm-rolled specimens showed a higher crack growth rate compared to the as-received specimens because the slip bands and dislocations produced during warm rolling served as paths for corrosion and cracking. The crack growth rate increased with the dissolved hydrogen concentration. This may be attributed to the decrease in performance and stability of the protective oxide layer formed on the surface of stainless steel in high-temperature water.

  9. The effects of surface pretreatment and nitrogen tetroxide purification on the corrosion rate of Type 304L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, G. D.; Moran, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Corrosion rates of 304L stainless steel coupons in MON-1 oxidizer have been measured as a function of cleaning procedures employed, surface layer positions, propellant impurity levels, and short-term exposure durations (14 to 90 days). Of special interest was propellant contamination by buildup of soluble iron, which may cause flow decay. Surface treatments employed were combinations of cleaning, pickling, and passivation procedures. Propellants used were MIL-SPEC MON-1 and several types of purified NTO (i.e., low water, low chloride) which may, at a later time, be specified as spacecraft grade. Pretest coupon surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS-ESCA) has revealed important differences, for the different cleaning procedures, in the make-up of the surface layer, both in composition and state of chemical combination of the elements involved. Comparisons will be made of XPS/ESCA data, for different cleaning procedures, for specimens before and after propellant exposure.

  10. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in a mixed-conifer forest in southern California : controlling factors, fluxes, and nitrogen fertilization response at a high and low nitrogen deposition site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.E.; Poth, M.A.; Terry, J.D.; Blubaugh, T.J. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Riverside, CA (United States). Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station

    2005-06-01

    Human activities and anthropogenic emissions have disturbed the global nitrogen (N) cycle to the point that atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen has increased nearly threefold above preindustrial levels. These increased levels have the potential to cause excessive nitrogen enrichment of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Increased nitrogen levels stimulate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, thereby contributing to mobilization of nitrogen and nitrogen saturation conditions. In this study, net fluxes of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were measured in situ on a monthly basis for 3 years in the San Bernardino Mountains in California. The objective was to quantify the rates of net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in the humus layer and mineral soil under field conditions in fertilized and unfertilized plots at a nitrogen deposition forest site that is highly N saturated as well as a low nitrogen deposition site to determine whether relative nitrification patterns in field assays are similar to laboratory study results. The main factors affecting nitrogen cycling rates in the mineral soil and the forest floor were determined. The study also tested the hypothesis that slow release nitrogen fertilization over 3 years at a low nitrogen site results in net nitrification rates that approach those of high nitrogen sites. The study revealed the relative nitrification rates under different tree canopies. The key factor for predicting the rate of net nitrification is the rate of net nitrogen mineralization. A high nitrogen fertilization had no substantial impact on net nitrification. It was concluded that at low-deposition sites, increased nitrification occurs in the short term due to added nitrogen. However, the accumulation of nitrogen enriched litter and soil organic matter along with chronic throughfall nitrogen deposition causes sustained elevated net nitrification. 67 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. High Temperature Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions Between TRIGA Fuels and 304 Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Emmanuel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Keiser, Jr., Dennis D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Forsmann, Bryan [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Janney, Dawn E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Henley, Jody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Woolstenhulme, Eric C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    High-temperature fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) fuel elements and the 304 stainless steel (304SS) are of interest to develop an understanding of the fuel behavior during transient reactor scenarios. TRIGA fuels are composed of uranium (U) particles dispersed in a zirconium-hydride (Zr-H) matrix. In reactor, the fuel is encased in 304-stainless-steel (304SS) or Incoloy 800 clad tubes. At high temperatures, the fuel can readily interact with the cladding, resulting in FCCI. A number of FCCI can take place in this system. Interactions can be expected between the cladding and the Zr-H matrix, and/or between the cladding and the U-particles. Other interactions may be expected between the Zr-H matrix and the U-particles. Furthermore, the fuel contains erbium-oxide (Er-O) additions. Interactions can also be expected between the Er-O, the cladding, the Zr-H and the U-particles. The overall result is that very complex interactions may take place as a result of fuel and cladding exposures to high temperatures. This report discusses the characterization of the baseline fuel microstructure in the as-received state (prior to exposure to high temperature), characterization of the fuel after annealing at 950C for 24 hours and the results from diffusion couple experiments carries out at 1000C for 5 and 24 hours. Characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with sample preparation via focused ion beam in situ-liftout-technique.

  12. The effect of σ-phase precipitation at 800°C on the corrosion resistance in sea-water of a high alloyed duplex stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, M.E.; Gadgil, V.J.; Krougman, J.M.; Ijsseling, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels are recently developed high alloyed stainless steels that combine good mechanical properties with excellent corrosion resistance. Because of a high content of chromium and molybdenum, these alloys are susceptible to σ-phase precipitation during short exposure to

  13. Influence of Carbide Modifications on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joo-Young; Park, Soo-Keun; Kwon, Hoon; Cho, Ki-Sub

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical properties of ultra-high-strength secondary hardened stainless steels with varying Co, V, and C contents have been studied. A reduced-Co alloy based on the chemical composition of Ferrium S53 was made by increasing the V and C content. This changed the M2C-strengthened microstructure to a MC plus M2C-strengthened microstructure, and no deteriorative effects were observed for peak-aged and over-aged samples despite the large reduction in Co content from 14 to 7 wt pct. The mechanical properties according to alloying modification were associated with carbide precipitation kinetics, which was clearly outlined by combining analytical tools including small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) as well as an analytical TEM with computational simulation.

  14. Adsorptive behavior and solid-phase microextraction of bare stainless steel sample loop in high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Zixin; Meng, Jiawei; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Zilin

    2014-10-24

    In this work, we interestingly happened to observe the adsorption of stainless steel sample loop of HPLC. The adsorptive behaviors of the stainless steel loop toward different kinds of compounds were studied, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), halogeno benzenes, aniline derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, phenols, benzoic acid ethyl ester, benzaldehyde, 1-phenyl-ethanone and phenethyl alcohol. The adsorptive mechanism was probably related to hydrophobic interaction, electron-rich element-metal interaction and hydrogen bond. Universal adsorption of stainless steels was also testified. Inspired by its strong adsorptive capability, bare stainless steel loop was developed as a modification-free in-tube device for solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which served as both the substrate and sorbent and possessed ultra-high strength and stability. Great extraction efficiency toward PAHs was obtained by stainless steel loop without any modification, with enrichment factors of 651-834. By connecting the stainless steel loop onto a six-port valve, an online SPME-HPLC system was set up and an SPME-HPLC method has been validated for determination of PAHs. The method has exceptionally low limits of detection of 0.2-2pg/mL, which is significantly lower than that of reported methods with different kinds of sorbents. Wide linear range (0.5-500 and 2-1000pg/mL), good linearity (R(2)≥0.9987) and good reproducibility (RSD≤2.9%) were also obtained. The proposed method has been applied to determine PAHs in environmental samples. Good recoveries were obtained, ranging from 88.5% to 93.8%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergy between molybdenum and nitrogen on the pitting corrosion and passive film resistance of austenitic stainless steels as a pH-dependent effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loable, Carole, E-mail: carole.loable@lepmi.grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Dep. Eng. Quimica, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 001 Lisbon (Portugal); Viçosa, Isadora N., E-mail: inogueira@poli.ufrj.br [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Mesquita, Thiago J., E-mail: Thiago.mesquita@total.com [CRU Ugitech, Avenue Paul Girod, 73403 Ugine Cedex (France); Mantel, Marc, E-mail: Marc.Mantel@ugitech.com [CRU Ugitech, Avenue Paul Girod, 73403 Ugine Cedex (France); Université Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Nogueira, Ricardo P., E-mail: rnogueira@pi.ac.ae [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Department of Chemical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Berthomé, Gregory, E-mail: gregory.berthome@simap.grenoble-inp.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Chauveau, Eric, E-mail: eric.chauveau@ugitech.fr [Department of Chemical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Roche, Virginie, E-mail: virginie.roche@lepmi.grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2017-01-15

    This paper brings up some insights upon the pH dependence of the synergistic effect of Mo and N on the localized corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels. The objective of this work is to study the synergetic effect of Mo and N additions on corrosion and passive film properties of austenitic grades. A comparison between Mo containing (3 wt% Mo); Mo and N containing (3 wt% Mo and 0.1% N) and free Mo or free Mo and N grades of highly controlled laboratory heats was done considering their localized corrosion resistance and oxide film formation in different aggressive conditions, from neutral to alkaline pH. The passive layer was characterized by EIS and XPS analyses. The combined effect of Mo and N on the pitting potential was confirmed to be synergistic, and not just the addition of their individual effects. Moreover, this effect was found to be pH-dependent, being very positive in acid to neutral conditions whereas it was almost inexistent in high pH. - Highlights: • Laboratory austenitic stainless steels with Mo and/or N were tested. • Mo and N acted synergistically to improve pitting resistance. • Synergistic effect is pH-dependent. • N clearly enhanced the repassivation of austenitic SS in presence of Mo.

  16. Phase diagram of Nitrogen at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenei, Zsolt; Lin, Jung-Fu; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2007-03-01

    Nitrogen is a typical molecular solid with relatively weak van der Waals intermolecular interactions but strong intramolecular interaction arising from the second highest binding energy of all diatomic molecules. The phase diagram of solid nitrogen is, however, complicated at high pressures, as inter-molecular interaction becomes comparable to the intra-molecular interaction. In this paper, we present an updated phase diagram of the nitrogen in the pressure-temperature region of 100 GPa and 1000 K, based on in-situ Raman and synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies using externally heated membrane diamond anvil cells. While providing an extension of the phase diagram, our results indicate a ``steeper'' slope of the δ/ɛ phase boundary than previously determined^1. We also studied the stability of the ɛ phase at high pressures and temperatures. Our new experimental results improve the understanding of the Nitrogen phase diagram. 1. Gregoryanz et al, Phys. Rev. B 66, 224108 (2002)

  17. Utilization of aluminum to obtaining a duplex type stainless steel using high energy ball milling; Obtencao de um aco inoxidavel de estrutura duplex do sistema FeMnAl processado por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, I.E.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: eng.igorpavlak@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Capocchi, J.D.T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The obtaining of stainless steel using aluminum in its composition - FeMnAl system, has been researches subject since the sixties, by good mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation presented, when compared with conventional FeNiCr stainless steel system. In another point, the aluminum and manganese are low cost then traditional elements. This work, metallic powders of iron, manganese and pure aluminum, were processed in a Spex type high-energy ball mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The milling products were compressed into pastille form and sintered under inert atmosphere. The final products were characterized by optical and electronic microscopy and microhardness test. The metallographic analysis shows a typical austenite and ferrite duplex type microstructure. The presence of these phases was confirmed according X ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  18. Effect of Nanosize Yittria and Tungsten Addition to Duplex Stainless Steel During High Energy Planetary Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, A. K.; Shashanka, R.; Chaira, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this present investigation, elemental powders of duplex stainless steel composition (Fe-18Cr-13Ni) with 1 wt. % nano yittria and tungsten were milled separately in dual drive planetary mill (DDPM) for 10 h to fabricate yittria dispersed and tungsten dispersed duplex stainless steel powders. The milled powder samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the size, morphology and phase evolution during milling. The gradual transformation from ferrite to austenite is evident from XRD spectra during milling. The crystallite size and lattice strain of yittria dispersed duplex stainless steel after 10 h milling were found to be 7 nm and 1.1% respectively. The crystallite size of tungsten dispersed duplex stainless steel was 5 nm. It has been observed from SEM analysis that particles size has been reduced from 40 to 5 μm in both cases. Annealing of 10 h milled powder was performed at 750°C for 1 h under argon atmosphere to study phase transformation in both yittria and tungsten dispersed duplex stainless steel. The XRD analysis of annealed stainless steel depicts the phase transformation from α-Fe to γ-Fe with the formation of oxides of Y,Fe and Cr. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis was conducted by heating the milled powder from room temperature to 1200°C under argon atmosphere to investigate the thermal analysis of both the stainless steel powders.

  19. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  20. Strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties of high interstitial stainless steel for drill collar and its corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunkyung

    Two types (CN66, CN71) of high interstitial stainless steels (HISSs) were investigated for down-hole application in sour gas well environments. Experiments were designed to identify factors that have a significant effect on mechanical properties. The three factors examined in the study were carbon + nitrogen content (0.66 or 0.71 mass %), cooling rate in quenching (air or water), and heat treatment time (2 or 4 hours). The results showed that the cooling rate, C+N content, and the two-factor interaction of these variables have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of HISSs. Based on the statistical analysis results on mechanical properties, extensive analyses were undertaken to understand the strengthening mechanisms of HISSs. Microstructure analysis revealed that a pearlite phase with a high carbide and/or nitride content is dissolved in the matrix by heat treatment at 1,200 ºC which is considered the dissolution to increase the concentration of interstitial elements in steels. The distribution of elements in HISSs was investigated by quantitative mapping using EPMA, which showed that the high carbon concentration (carbide/cementite) area was decreased by increases in both the cooling rate and C+N content. The ferrite volume fraction of each specimen is increased by an increase in cooling rate, because there is insufficient time to form austenite from retained ferrite. The lattice expansion of HISS was investigated by the calculation of lattice parameters under various conditions, and these investigations confirm the solid solution strengthening effect on HISSs. CN66 with heat treatment at fast cooling has the highest wear resistance; a finding that was consistent with hardening mechanisms that occur due to an increased ferrite volume fraction. In addition, precipitates on the surface and the chemical bonding of chromium were investigated. As the amount of CrN bonding increased, the wear resistance also increased. This study also assessed the

  1. Characterization of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans biofilm on high-alloyed stainless steel: XPS and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, Weronika [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Branch Pszczyna, Doświadczalna Street 27, 43-200 Pszczyna (Poland); Mosiałek, Michał; Socha, Robert P. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek Street 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland); Jaworska-Kik, Marzena [Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Jedności Street 8, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 6 Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.k.michalska@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 6 Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Results on D. desulfuricans biofilm formation on austenitic-ferritic duplex (2205 DSS) and superaustenitic (904L) stainless steels are presented. Surface characterization including the structure, configuration and chemical composition of biofilms were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to monitor the attachment activity of bacteria on the steels' surface and to determine the effect of bacteria on passivity. It was proved that investigated steels are rapidly colonized by bacteria. The presence of biofilm caused significant ennoblement of 904L steel surface, while retarded the attainment of high passive state of 2205 DSS. XPS analysis revealed significant sulphidation of the biofilm and its layered structure. Accumulation of sulphides and hydroxides was proved in the outermost layer, while the increasing contents of disulphides, organometallic and C-N bonds were detected in the internal part of the biofilm. Irreversible bondings between steel matrix and biofilm had also been observed. - Highlights: • High-alloyed steels are rapidly colonized by sulphate-reducing bacteria. • Higher Ni content stimulates more intensive biofilm growth. • Extracellular polymeric substances indelibly bind to the high-alloyed steels. • Sulphate-reducing bacteria caused irreversible sulphidation of passive films.

  2. IASCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels and alloy 690 in high dissolved oxygen water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O.K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States); Dietz Rago, N.L. [Argonne National Lab., Chemical Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States); Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The influences of grain boundary engineering, alloying elements, and neutron dose on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels and Alloy 690 were investigated. Flat dog-bone specimens irradiated in the Halden boiling heavy water reactor to {approx}2 dpa were tested in slow strain rate tensile tests in high dissolved oxygen water at 289 {sup o}C. The area fractions of intergranular or transgranular fracture were measured using a scanning electron microscope. All tested materials showed significant hardening and loss of ductility after irradiation. The area fractions of the intergranular cracking decreased with increase of uniform elongation, and were used to rank IASCC susceptibility. The grain boundary engineering treatment employed in this study does not have a significant impact on IASCC susceptibility for austenitic SSs at {approx}2 dpa, but does affect the cracking behavior of Alloy 690. High-sulfur and low-carbon SSs are more susceptible to IASCC. Oxygen content also contributes to the IASCC susceptibility in high-purity Type 304L SS. (author)

  3. Phase transformations in a manganese-alloyed austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jargelius-Pettersson, R.F.A. (Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-05-01

    The increasing demands placed on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels has led to the successive development of more highly alloyed materials. In this context nitrogen has shown considerable value as an alloying element but its use is restricted by a solubility limit of approximately 0.2 wt% in conventional austenitic stainless steel grades. Manganese increases the nitrogen solubility appreciably and for this reason there has also been an increased interest in its use as an alloying addition but numerous questions remain to be answered about the effect of both nitrogen and manganese on structural stability. Although much work has been published on the precipitation of secondary phases in CrNi(Mo) stainless steels, there is a relative paucity of information available on manganese-alloyed steels. Brandis et al. investigated precipitation in a 25Cr 17Ni 3Mo 6Mn 0.2Nb steel and found no manganese-enriched phases to occur. Sigma phase was the predominant intermetallic precipitate at low nitrogen contents while higher nitrogen contents retarded the onset of sigma phase precipitation but caused the appearance of chi phase. Boothby et al. investigated a 12Cr 11-35Ni (3Mo) steel in which the nickel was partially replaced by 20 or 30% manganese and found the precipitation of the intermetallic sigma, chi and Laves phases to be promoted by manganese, although again no manganese-enriched phases were observed. Fritscher demonstrated however the existence in the Fe-Cr-Ni system of a brittle ternary Y phase containing 30--60% manganese which was destabilized by nitrogen. The present work represents part of a study designed to gain greater understanding of the precipitation and sensitization behavior of highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels and concentrates on the influence of nitrogen additions up to 0.5wt% on precipitation of secondary phases in a 20Cr 18Ni 4.5Mo 10Mn steel.

  4. High temperature oxidation of alumina forming cast austenitic stainless steels within an environment of pure steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenzlow, Elmer A.

    Steam cracking of hydrocarbons in the petrochemical industry is a multibillion dollar industry. The processes performed in these plants create byproducts that negatively affect the integrity of stainless steel piping through high temperature corrosion. Alloys used presently in industry rely on the formation of chromium oxide (chromia) as a protective layer between the bulk metal pipe and chemical byproducts. However, chromia can become susceptible to attack from aggressive species such as carbon, water vapor, and sulfur compounds, thus creating a need for a better protection method. A new series of austenitic stainless steels have been developed in recent years that, rather than forming chromia, create a protective layer of aluminum oxide (alumina) under oxidative conditions. These alloys have high nickel content for the stabilization of the austenitic phase, and a more thermodynamically stable oxide layer relative to the traditional chromia formers. Consequently, alumina forming alloys have been proposed as replacements for chromia forming alloys in the petrochemical industry. General oxidation testing has been performed on alumina forming alloys under dry and 10% water vapor conditions. However, oxidation conditions in industry resemble a 100% steam environment. Therefore, test methods to mimic such conditions are needed so that alloys can be tested and developed further for these applications. Four alloys with aluminum contents ranging from 2.6 to 3.9 wt% were cut from centrifugally cast pipes and subjected to oxidation in an environment of pure steam for up to 30 hours, at temperatures of 800 °C and 950 °C. Samples were analyzed using Raman, SEM, and EDS and showed a continuous alumina layer free of cracks. The alumina layer thickness increased with time. Additionally, larger thicknesses were observed in samples oxidized at 950 °C from those of 800 °C. Thickness measurements were used to calculate parabolic and non-parabolic oxidation rate constants

  5. Effect of initial grain size on dynamic recrystallization in high purity austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Wahabi, M. [Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel-42023, Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB - Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Gavard, L. [Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel-42023, Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Montheillet, F. [Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158, cours Fauriel-42023, Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB - Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.maria.cabrera@upc.edu; Prado, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB - Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The influence of initial microstructure on discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) has been investigated by using high purity and ultra high purity austenitic stainless steels with various initial grain sizes. After uniaxial compression tests at constant strain rates and various temperatures, the steady state microstructure or the state corresponding to the maximum strain ({epsilon} = 1) attained in the test was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy aided with automated electron back scattering diffraction. Recrystallized grain size d {sub rec} and twin boundary fraction f {sub TB} measurements were carried out. The mechanical behavior was also investigated by comparing experimental stress-strain curves with various initial grain sizes. DDRX kinetics was described by the classical Avrami equation. It was concluded that larger initial grain sizes promoted a delay in the DDRX onset in the two alloys. It was also observed that the softening process progressed faster for smaller initial grain sizes. The effect of initial grain size is larger in the HP material and becomes more pronounced at low temperature.

  6. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna [Institute of Dairy Science and Technology Development, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, Hevelius 1 Street, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland); Czerniewicz, Maria [Institute of Dairy Science and Technology Development, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, Hevelius 1 Street, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland); Michalak, Joanna [Chair of Instrumental Analysis, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, Hevelius 1 Street, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland); Brandt, Waldemar [Institute of Dairy Science and Technology Development, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, Hevelius 1 Street, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2004-04-14

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t{sub const.} = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p{sub const.} = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration.

  7. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Calderon, M., E-mail: mmcalderon@ceit.es [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M. [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm{sup 2} were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  8. Systematic Microstructural and Corrosion Performance Evaluation of CK-3MCuN and CN-3MN High Molybdenum Stainless Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.D. Lundin; S. Wen; W. Liu; G. Zhou

    2001-10-01

    High molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are widely accepted for their high strength, excellent weldability, and good corrosion resistance over a wide range of temperatures in highly oxidizing aqueous and gaseous media in chemical processing and other environments. With their desirable performance, high molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are increasingly applied in industry in a similar manner as wrought materials. In general, cast and wrought stainless and high alloy steels are anticipated to possess equivalent resistance to corrosive media, and they are frequently used in conjunction with each other. However, alloying element segregation usually is more evident in castings than in wrought counterparts. Segregation of alloying elements can lead to the formation of secondary phases, such as sigma. Mechanical properties and especially the corrosion resistance of castings may be affected by the secondary phases. In addition, improper heat treatment procedures c an also lead to the formation of carbides and secondary phases in high alloy and austenitic stainless steels.

  9. Microstructure characteristics of high borated stainless steel fabricated by hot-pressing sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Mingjia, E-mail: mingjiawangysu@126.com; Zhao, Hongchang

    2016-04-25

    The present study investigated the microstructure of powder metallurgy (P/M) high borated stainless steel through hot-pressing sintering in a temperature range of 1000–1150 °C within 30 min under 30 MPa. Microstructure and phase examinations were carried out by applying scanning electron microscope, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of as-atomized powders demonstrated that many powders kept egg-type structure with an austenite outer layer and the eutectic borides were much finer than those in traditional cast products. Microstructure studies revealed that borides suffered Ostwald ripening and were significantly influenced by the sintering temperature. Orientation maps indicated that the inter-particle contact areas consisted of equiaxed grains and the regions consisting of large elongated grains partly inherited the microstructure characteristics of as-atomized powder particles. Furthermore, the mechanisms governing the morphological changes in microstructure were discussed. - Highlights: • Near-complete densification could be obtained through hot-pressing sintering. • There was no phase transformation and present phases were M{sub 2}B and austenite. • Borides suffered Ostwald ripening and were significantly influenced by temperature. • Inter-particle contact areas consisted of equiaxed grains for recrystallization. • Deformation-free zones exhibited elongated grains for dendritic arms coarsening.

  10. Comparative study of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 and AISI 439 stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Claret Soares Sabioni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a comparison of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 austenitic and AISI 439 ferritic stainless steels. The oxidation experiments were performed between 850 and 950 °C, in oxygen and Ar (100 vpm H2. In most cases, it was formed a Cr2O3 protective scale, whose growth kinetics follows a parabolic law. The exception was for the the AISI 304 steel, at 950 °C, in oxygen atmosphere, which forms an iron oxide external layer. The oxidation resistance of the AISI 439 does not depend on the atmosphere. The AISI 304 has the same oxidation resistance in both atmospheres, at 850 °C, but at higher temperatures, its oxidation rate strongly increases in oxygen atmosphere. Concerning the performance of these steels under oxidation, our results show that the AISI 439 steel has higher oxidation resistance in oxidizing atmosphere, above 850 °C, while, in low pO2 atmosphere, the AISI 304 steel has higher oxidation resistance than the AISI 439, in all the temperature range investigated.

  11. Improved austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications. [Improved stress-rupture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; .01-.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; .03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, 0; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P + wt. % B + wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

  12. High harmonic phase in molecular nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Brian K.

    2009-10-17

    Electronic structure in atoms and molecules modulates the amplitude and phase of high harmonic generation (HHG). We report measurements of the high harmonic spectral amplitude and phase in N{sub 2}. The phase is measured interferometrically by beating the N{sub 2} harmonics with those of an Ar reference oscillator in a gas mixture. A rapid phase shift of 0.2{pi} is observed in the vicinity of the HHG spectral minimum, where a shift of {pi} had been presumed [J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)]. We compare the phase measurements to a simulation of the HHG recombination step in N{sub 2} that is based on a simple interference model. The results of the simulation suggest that modifications beyond the simple interference model are needed to explain HHG spectra in molecules.

  13. Physisorption of ammonia on AISI 304L stainless steel at different surface temperature under high vacuum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physisorption of ammonia molecules (sticking on the walls of a stainless steel pipe (AISI 304L has been studied at different wall temperatures (323-473K. The total amount of ammonia that is retained on the walls, once equilibrium is reached, has been measured by differentially-pumped mass spectrometry in gas exposure laboratory experiments. The results show ammonia retentions in the range of μg/cm2 resulting in a multilayer adsorption with lower amounts of stuck ammonia at higher temperatures of the stainless steel surface. The sticking coefficient follows an exponential decay evolution with time. The activation energy of the process has been estimated by an Arrhenius fit, assuming that the characteristic time for this decay is inversely proportional to the kinetic adsorption constant. A value of 0.15eV per ammonia molecule has been obtained, being in agreement with nominal values for the physisorption of small molecules or atoms (CO, N2, Ar… that can be found in the specialized literature. The implication of these results in the possible extrapolation to the ITER vacuum system under nitrogen seeded plasma operation is also addressed.

  14. Late-season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... The influence of late-season nitrogen (N) applications on the fruiting pattern of strawberry runner plants of 'Camarosa' was determined over three growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in high- latitude nurseries in northern California and fruit production trials were established in southern.

  15. Influence of high temperature on corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel in chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad R. Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the excellent performance of stainless steel in diverse application, there are media of exposure may accelerate failure of several stainless steel alloys. The possibility of this failure has to be examined by measuring the effective parameters that may result in corrosion at different rates. The present study has been conducted to examine the effect of exposing specimens of 304 stainless steel to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 M chloride concentration and 70, 80, and 90 °C. Electrochemical technique of measuring the potentials and currency of the examined system has been used to collect the corrosion data. Microstructure of the specimens is examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X- Ray Diffraction. Both of these tests revealed no serious phase change due to exposure even at severe conditions. The potentials gained show significant effect of the operation conditions.

  16. Liquid-Phase Surface Alloying of Copper with Stainless Steel Using Low-Energy, High-Current Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A. B.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Shepel', D. A.; Petrov, V. I.; Bestetti, M.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the formation of the stainless steel-copper surface alloy which occurs during the single vacuum cycle. Deposition of the stainless steel film onto a copper substrate is performed via successive magnetron sputtering followed by its liquid-phase mixing with copper using the low-energy, high-current electron beam of microsecond length. Numerical calculations are used to identify the optimum irradiation modes for the surface alloying. It is found that the optimum irradiation modes provide the homogeneous surface alloying, and the copper concentration in the obtained layer increases with the increase in energy density of the low-energy, high-current electron beam. The formation of the stainless steel-copper surface alloy increases the wear resistance of copper specimens by 7.5 times as compared to the original specimens. In addition, it is ascertained that the wear resistance of the surface alloy exceeds that of the common film coating (1 μm) more than 5 times.

  17. Pyrolysis-catalysis of waste plastic using a nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst for high-value carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Nahil, Mohamad A; Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2017-11-01

    A stainless-steel mesh loaded with nickel catalyst was produced and used for the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste high-density polyethylene with the aim of producing high-value carbon products, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The catalysis temperature and plastic-to-catalyst ratio were investigated to determine the influence on the formation of different types of carbon deposited on the nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst. Increasing temperature from 700 to 900°C resulted in an increase in the carbon deposited on the nickel-loaded stainless-steel mesh catalyst from 32.5 to 38.0 wt%. The increase in sample-to-catalyst ratio reduced the amount of carbon deposited on the mesh catalyst in terms of g carbon g -1 plastic. The carbons were found to be largely composed of filamentous carbons, with negligible disordered (amorphous) carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the filamentous carbons revealed them to be composed of a large proportion (estimated at ∼40%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The optimum process conditions for CNT production, in terms of yield and graphitic nature, determined by Raman spectroscopy, was catalysis temperature of 800°C and plastic-to-catalyst ratio of 1:2, where a mass of 334 mg of filamentous/MWCNTs g -1 plastic was produced.

  18. Discontinuous precipitation in a nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel on solution nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh; Akbari, Alireza; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    elements between austenite and nitrides, with chromium contents of about 80 wt.% in the precipitates. XRD analysis indicated that the Chromium-rich nitride precipitates are hexagonal (Cr, Mo)2N. Based on the TEM studies, (Cr, Mo)2N precipitates presented a (1 1 1)γ//(0 0 2)(Cr, Mo)2N, (Formula presented......, morphology and crystallographic orientation between the resulted austenite and precipitates were investigated using optical microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). On prolonged nitriding, Chromium-rich nitride...

  19. The Formation of Multipoles during the High-Temperature Creep of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, J.; Nielsson, O.; Horsewell, Andy

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that multipole dislocation configurations can arise during power-law creep of certain austenitic stainless steels. These multipoles have been analysed in some detail for two particular steels (Alloy 800 and a modified AISI 316L) and it is suggested that they arise either during...

  20. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, M.; Fousová, M.; Kubásek, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Fojt, J.; Jablonská, E.; Lipov, J.; Ruml, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, Dec (2016), 631–639 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : selective laser melting * 316L stainless steel * porous implants * scaffolds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Study of Creep of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, Natalie Petrovna

    To withstand the high temperature (>700°C) and pressure demands of steam turbines and boilers used for energy applications, metal alloys must be economically viable and have the necessary material properties, such as high-temperature creep strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance, to withstand such conditions. One promising class of alloys potentially capable of withstanding the rigors of aggressive environments, are alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels (AFAs) alloyed with aluminum to improve corrosion and oxidation resistance. The effect of aging on the microstructure, high temperature constant-stress creep behavior and mechanical properties of the AFA-type alloy Fe-20Cr-30Ni-2Nb-5Al (at.%) were investigated in this study. The alloy's microstructural evolution with increased aging time was observed prior to creep testing. As aging time increased, the alloy exhibited increasing quantities of fine Fe2Nb Laves phase dispersions, with a precipitate-free zone appearing in samples with higher aging times. The presence of the L1 2 phase gamma'-Ni3Al precipitate was detected in the alloy's matrix at 760°C. A constant-stress creep rig was designed, built and its operation validated. Constant-stress creep tests were performed at 760°C and 35MPa, and the effects of different aging conditions on creep rate were investigated. Specimens aged for 240 h exhibited the highest creep rate by a factor of 5, with the homogenized sample having the second highest rate. Samples aged for 2.4 h and 24 h exhibited similar low secondary creep rates. Creep tests conducted at 700oC exhibited a significantly lower creep rate compared to those at 760oC. Microstructural analysis was performed on crept samples to explore high temperature straining properties. The quantity and size of Fe2Nb Laves phase and NiAl particles increased in the matrix and on grain boundaries with longer aging time. High temperature tensile tests were performed and compared to room temperature results. The

  2. Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance 316L Stainless Steel Nanocomposites via Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMangour, Bandar Abdulaziz

    Austenitic 316L stainless steel alloy is an attractive industrial material combining outstanding corrosion resistance, ductility, and biocompatibility, with promising structural applications and biomedical uses. However, 316L has low strength and wear resistance, limiting its high-performance applicability. Adding secondary hard nanoscale reinforcements to steel matrices, thereby forming steel-matrix nanocomposites (SMCs), can overcome these problems, improving the performance and thereby the applicability of 316L. However, SMC parts with complex-geometry cannot be easily achieved limiting its application. This can be avoided through additive manufacturing (AM) by generating layer-by-layer deposition using computer-aided design data. Expanding the range of AM-applicable materials is necessary to fulfill industrial demand. This dissertation presents the characteristics of new AM-processed high-performance 316L-matrix nanocomposites with nanoscale TiC or TiB2 reinforcements, addressing specific aspects of material design, process control and optimization, and physical metallurgy theory. The nanocomposites were prepared by high-energy ball-milling and consolidated by AM selective laser melting (SLM). Continuous and refined ring-like network structures were obtained with homogenously distributed reinforcements. Additional grain refinement occurred with reinforcement addition, attributed to nanoparticles acting as nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation. The influence of reinforcement content was first investigated; mechanical and tribological behaviors improved with increased reinforcement contents. The compressive yield strengths of composites with TiB2 or TiC reinforcements were approximately five or two times those of 316L respectively. Hot isostatic pressing post-treatment effectively eliminated major cracks and pores in SLM-fabricated components. The effects of the SLM processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical performance were also investigated. Laser

  3. High temperature and stress corrosion cracking of 310S austenitic stainless steel in wet chloride corrosive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pornpibunsompop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of 310S austenitic stainless steel in wet chloride environment at a high temperature was investigated. The result showed that high temperature corrosion products mostly consisted of ferrous oxides and chromium oxides. Chloride ions attacked a chromium passive film and strongly reacted with iron and chromium. As a result of metal chlorides being volatized, tunnel of pores inside corrosion layer existed. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking was observed. The oxide originated on surface could act as a crack initiator and a crack propagation would progress along grain boundaries and particularly along tunnel of pores.

  4. Single-bonded allotrope of nitrogen predicted at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Greschner, Michael J.; Majumdar, Arnab; Wan, Biao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Zhiping; Gou, Huiyang; Yao, Yansun

    2017-12-01

    An allotrope of nitrogen formed solely by N-N single bonds is predicted to exist between 100 and 150 GPa. The crystal structure has the Pccn symmetry and is characterized by a distorted tetrahedral network consisting of fused N8, N10, and N12 rings. Stability of this structure is established by phonon and vibrational free energy calculations at 0 K and finite temperatures. The simulated x-ray diffraction pattern of the Pccn phase is compared to the pattern of a recently synthesized nitrogen phase at the same P -T conditions, which suggests that the Pccn phase is likely a minor component of the latter. The Pccn phase is expected to form above the stability field of the cubic gauche (cg) phase. The outstanding metastability of this phase is attributed to the intrinsic stability of the s p3 bonding as well as the energetically favorable dihedral angles between N-N single bonds, in either gauche or trans conformation. The prediction of another single-bonded phase of nitrogen after the lab-synthesized cg phase will stimulate research on metastable phases of nitrogen and their applications as high-energy-density materials.

  5. Very high cycle regime fatigue of thin walled tubes made from austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.V.; Mayer, H.; Brøndsted, P.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue life data of cold worked tubes (diameter 4 mm, wall thicknesses 0.25 and 0.30 mm) of an austenitic stainless steel, AISI 904 L, were measured in the regime ranging from 2 × 105 to 1010 cycles to failure. The influence of the loading frequency was investigated as data were obtained...... scanning electron microscopy. Fatigue cracks initiate at the surface and no significant influence from frequency or from loading modes on fatigue crack initiation and growth is visible....

  6. High temperature deformation behavior of a stainless steel fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef.hamada@suezuniv.edu.eg [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Khosravifard, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz Branch, IAU, Box 71993-1, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kisko, A.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Ahmed, E. [Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Porter, D.A. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2016-07-04

    Hot deformation behavior of stainless steel fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite and the associated microstructural changes have been investigated using compression tests in the temperature range 700–1000 °C and strain rate range 0.001–1 s{sup −1}. The metallographic observations by electron-backscattered diffraction revealed that dynamic recrystallization of stainless steel fibers is the dominant mechanism with inducing ultrafine-grained structures. Deformation bending and cracking through stainless steel fibers and the interfaces were observed to be the hot deformation-induced microstructural features in the concerned composite. The hot deformation behavior was modeled using the dislocation density based Bergstrom's equation which could be applied up to the peak strain. After the peak strain, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation could successfully predict the hot flow stresses of the studied composite. At different test conditions (temperatures and strain rates), slight variations in Avrami exponent were observed which could be related to transition from cyclic to single peak recrystallization.

  7. Formation Mechanism of Spinel-Type Inclusions in High-Alloyed Stainless Steel Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyun

    2007-08-01

    Fundamental thermodynamics of the relationship between high-alloyed stainless steel melts (Fe-20 mass pct Cr-13 mass pct Ni-3 mass pct Si) and the inclusions were investigated. The formation mechanism of the inclusions containing the spinel crystals was developed based on the experimental results and from the compositions of the inclusions in the steel samples taken during plant operations. The molar content of alumina in the inclusions was found to be linearly proportional to the increase of aluminum content, indicating that the inclusions could contain alumina even with less than about 200 ppm aluminum in the steel melt, e.g., steel melts that were mainly deoxidized by silicon. Furthermore, the composition of the inclusions is shown to be a function of the activity of the deoxidizers such as aluminum and silicon in the steel melt. From the analysis of the plant samples, it was found that the contents of MgO and Al2O3 in the calcium silicate type inclusions increased continuously as the steel melt transfers from the argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) converter to the tundish. This composition change in the inclusions originated from the reduction of MgO and Al2O3 in the slags or refractories by silicon in the steel melt. Increases of MgO and Al2O3 contents were prominent in tundish samples, and thus, the spinel phase could be crystallized in the calcium silicate inclusion matrix in the tundish; and finally the spinel crystals grew during cooling of the steel melt through the continuous casting (CC) mold and in the slabs. On the other hand, manganese silicate type inclusions containing chromium oxide were observed after tapping of the molten steel to the ladle. The MnO and Cr2O3 in these inclusions was initially reduced by silicon in the steel melt in the ladle treatment (LT) process, followed by further reduction by aluminum through the LT to the CC mold. The fractions of inclusions containing spinel crystals in cast slabs were negligible at the alumina content of

  8. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  9. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...... of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive...

  10. Interaction between recrystallization and strain-induced precipitation in a high Nb- and N-bearing austenitic stainless steel: Influence of the interpass time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.B.R., E-mail: marianabdrs@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gallego, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, UNESP, Avenida Brasil, 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Catalunya, Avenida Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundacio CTM Centre Tecnologic, Plaza de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Balancin, O. [Department of Materials Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Jorge, A.M., E-mail: moreira@dema.ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-06-18

    In this work, we studied the influence of the interpass time (20 and 5 s) on the interaction between recrystallization and strain-induced precipitation occurring during multiple passes' deformations under continuous cooling conditions in a high niobium- and nitrogen-bearing austenitic stainless steel (ISO 5832-9). The correlation between microstructure evolution and hot mechanical properties was performed by physical simulation using hot torsion tests. The microstructure evolution was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). This technique indicated that dynamic recrystallization occurred at the first passes promoting an excellent grain refinement. On the other hand, shorter interpass time (5 s) allowed higher volume fraction of smallest precipitates than larger interpass time (20 s). After soaking, only TiNbN precipitates were found, whereas, Z-phase (CrNbN) and NbN were formed during thermomechanical processing. Particles with sizes between 20 and 50 nm were effective to pin grain boundaries and dislocations.

  11. Highly accurate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen standards based on permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

    2012-12-04

    The development and operation of a highly accurate primary gas facility for the dynamic production of mixtures of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in nitrogen (N(2)) based on continuous weighing of a permeation tube and accurate impurity quantification and correction of the gas mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is described. NO(2) gas mixtures in the range of 5 μmol mol(-1) to 15 μmol mol(-1) with a standard relative uncertainty of 0.4% can be produced with this facility. To achieve an uncertainty at this level, significant efforts were made to reduce, identify and quantify potential impurities present in the gas mixtures, such as nitric acid (HNO(3)). A complete uncertainty budget, based on the analysis of the performance of the facility, including the use of a FT-IR spectrometer and a nondispersive UV analyzer as analytical techniques, is presented in this work. The mixtures produced by this facility were validated and then selected to provide reference values for an international comparison of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM), number CCQM-K74, (1) which was designed to evaluate the consistency of primary NO(2) gas standards from 17 National Metrology Institutes.

  12. Accelerated corrosion and oxide dissolution in 316L stainless steel irradiated in situ in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.; Was, Gary S.

    2017-09-01

    316L stainless steel samples were irradiated with a proton beam while simultaneously exposed to high temperature water with added hydrogen (320 °C, 3 wppm H2, neutral pH) to study the effect of radiation on stainless steel corrosion. Irradiated samples had thinner and more porous inner oxides with a lower chromium content when compared to unirradiated samples. Observations suggest that depletion of chromium from the inner oxide can be attributed to the dissolution of chromium-rich spinel oxides in irradiated water, leading to an accelerated rate of inner oxide dissolution. Sample areas which were not irradiated, but were exposed to the flow of irradiated water were also found to be porous and deficient in chromium, indicating that these phenomena can be attributed primarily to water radiolysis. A new empirical equation for oxide growth and dissolution is used to describe the observed changes in oxide thickness under irradiation. An experiment in which a stainless steel sample was exposed to high temperature water (320 °C, 3 wppm H2, neutral pH) without irradiation, and then exposed for a second time with irradiation was conducted to observe the effect of irradiation on a pre-formed protective film. After the irradiated exposure, the sample exhibited chromium loss in regions which were directly irradiated, but not on regions exposed only to irradiated water, suggesting that a pre-formed protective oxide may be effective in preventing chromium loss due to irradiated water. Additionally, this observation suggests that enhanced kinetics under irradiation may have accelerated dissolution of chromium from the inner oxide.

  13. Radiolysis driven changes to oxide stability during irradiation-corrosion of 316L stainless steel in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.; Bartels, David M.; Was, Gary S.

    2017-09-01

    316L stainless steel samples were irradiated with a proton beam while simultaneously exposed to high temperature water with hydrogen (320 °C, 3 wppm H2, neutral pH) to study the effect of radiation on corrosion. The inner oxides on irradiated samples were found to be depleted in chromium when compared to the inner oxides on unirradiated samples exposed to the same conditions. Additionally, hematite was found on the oxide surfaces of irradiated samples, but not on unirradiated samples. Sample areas which were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the flow of irradiated water also exhibited chromium-deficient inner oxides and had hematite on their surfaces, so it is concluded that water radiolysis is the primary driver of both effects. Thermodynamic calculations and radiolysis modeling were used to show that radiolytic production of hydrogen peroxide was sufficient to raise corrosion potential high enough to cause the dissolution of chromium-rich spinel oxides which make up the inner oxide layer on stainless steel in high temperature water.

  14. Influence of pre-deformation, sensitization and oxidation in high temperature water on corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jinlong, E-mail: ljltsinghua@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Hongyun [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The pre-strain accelerated desensitization and sensitization for austenitic stainless steels. • Low temperature sensitization (carbide precipitation) induced α′-martensite. • The sensitization level could affect directly corrosion resistance of the oxide film. - Abstract: The effects of pre-deformation on sensitization of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test. The effects of pre-deformation and sensitization on high temperature oxidized film formed in high temperature water were analyzed by a XRD and SEM. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at room temperature was used to study corrosion resistance of oxidized film. The point defect density of oxidized film was calculated by Mott–Schottky plots. The results showed that the value of the degree of sensitization first decreased and then slight increased with the increasing of engineering strain. Moreover, low temperature promoted to form sensitization induced “secondary” α′-martensite. The sample with 20% engineering strain had higher impedance value than other samples. The result was supported by further Mott–Schottky experiments. Considering increased α′-martensite with the increasing of strain, the results of the impedance were more consistent with values of the degree of sensitization.

  15. Martensitic high nitrogen steel for applications at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berns, H.; Escher, C. [Bochum Univ. (Germany); Streich, W.-D. [TRW Deutschland GmbH, Blumberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Based on required material properties for inlet valves in combustion engines a martensitic high nitrogen steel was created. After selecting an alloy system with 14-17 w/o Cr, 1-3 w/o Mo, 0.1-0.3 w/o V and 0.4-0.7 w/o N by method of thermodynamical calculations of phase equilibria the newly developed martensitic steel was produced by pressurized electroslag remelting. Hot tensile tests and corrosion tests were carried out on hardened and tempered specimens in comparison with two standard valve steels. The high nitrogen steel shows a distinctly better corrosion resistance and high-temperature strength than the standard steel X45CrSi9-3 and is therefore comparable with the steel X85CrMoV18-2. Due to finer nitrides the newly developed steel is characterized by a fatigue strength which is 26% higher at 500 C service temperature. (orig.)

  16. Forta FDX 27 - duplex stainless steel for high strength gasket plate heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, A.; Schedin, E.; Sun, CC; He, Hailan; Guan, Li

    2017-09-01

    Outokumpu has developed a new duplex stainless steel with improved formability compared to other duplex grades. The so-called Forta FDX grades allows the utilization of duplex grades in more forming intensive products previously not possible and at the same time benefit from other duplex stainless steel properties for increased application performance. In this paper a Gasket Plate Heat Exchanger (GPHE) plate is formed with the new duplex grade Forta FDX 27 and compared to the baseline grade Supra 316L/4404. Detailed material characterization, strain measurements and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were performed to further investigate the case. Small differences in measured strain distribution between Forta FDX 27 and Supra 316L/4404 were found after the stamping operation for both material grades and for the same design feature. Strain measurements showed reasonable agreement between measured experimental results and the numerical simulation for Forta FDX 27. Additionally, FEA predicts an improvement of the final strength of the product up to 30 % at the final configuration by using Forta FDX 27 instead of Supra 316L/4404.

  17. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  18. High nitrogen pressure solution growth of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockowski, Michal

    2014-10-01

    Results of GaN growth from gallium solution under high nitrogen pressure are presented. Basic of the high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) growth method is described. A new approach of seeded growth, multi-feed seed (MFS) configuration, is demonstrated. The use of two kinds of seeds: free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN (HVPE-GaN) obtained from metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing HVPE-GaN obtained from the ammonothermally grown GaN crystals, is shown. Depending on the seeds’ structural quality, the differences in the structural properties of pressure grown material are demonstrated and analyzed. The role and influence of impurities, like oxygen and magnesium, on GaN crystals grown from gallium solution in the MFS configuration is presented. The properties of differently doped GaN crystals are discussed. An application of the pressure grown GaN crystals as substrates for electronic and optoelectronic devices is reported.

  19. Structure and Properties of High-Temperature Multilayer Hybrid Material Based on Vanadium Alloy and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaykina, Tatyana A.; Nikulin, Sergey A.; Rozhnov, Andrey B.; Khatkevich, Vladimir M.; Rogachev, Stanislav O.

    2017-03-01

    The present work is devoted to the development of new structural composite material having the unique complex of properties for operating in ultrahard conditions that combine high temperatures, radiation, and aggressive environments. A new three-layer composite tube material based on vanadium alloy (V-4Ti-4Cr) protected by stainless steel (Fe-0.2C-13Cr) has been obtained by co-extrusion. Mechanism and kinetics of formation as well as structure, composition, and mechanical properties of "transition" area between vanadium alloy and stainless steel have been studied. The transition area (13- to 22- µm thick) of the diffusion interaction between vanadium alloy and steel was formed after co-extrusion. The microstructure in the transition area was rather complicated comprising different grain sizes in components, but having no defects or brittle phases. Tensile strength of the composite was an average 493 ± 22 MPa, and the elongation was 26 ± 3 pct. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) increased the thickness of transition area up to 1.2 times, homogenized microstructure, and slightly changed mechanical properties. Annealing at 1273 K (1000 °C) further increased the thickness of transition area and also lead to intensive grain growth in steel and sometimes to separation between composite components during tensile tests. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) is proposed as appropriate heat treatment after co-extrusion of composite providing balance between diffusion interaction thickness and microstructure and monolithic-like behavior of composite during tensile tests.

  20. Surface Nanocrystallization of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline surface was produced on 3Cr13 martensite stainless steel surface using high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB technique. The structures of the nanocrystallized surface were characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Two nanostructures consisting of fine austenite grains (50–150 nm and very fine carbides precipitates are formed in melted surface layer after multiple bombardments via dissolution of carbides and crater eruption. It is demonstrated that the dissolution of the carbides and the formation of the supersaturated Fe (C solid solution play a determining role on the microstructure evolution. Additionally, the formation of fine austenite structure is closely related to the thermal stresses induced by the HCPEB irradiation. The effects of both high carbon content and high value of stresses increase the stability of the austenite, which leads to the complete suppression of martensitic transformation.

  1. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  2. Characterization and corrosion behavior of F6NM stainless steel treated in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-yang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Yang, Wen-jin; Shen, Xiao-yao; Xue, Guo-hong; Zhu, Min-hao

    2018-03-01

    F6NM martensitic stainless steel was exposed to 350 °C water condition for 500, 1500, and 2500 h to simulate pressurized water reactor (PWR) condition. The characterization and corrosion behavior of the oxide film were investigated. Results indicate that the exposed steel surface formed a double-layer oxide film. The outer oxide film is Fe-rich and contains two type oxide particles. However, the inner oxide film is Cr-rich, and two oxide films, whose thicknesses increase with increasing exposure time. The oxide film reduces the corrosion behavior because the outer oxide film has many crack and pores. Finally, the mechanism and factors affecting the formation of the oxide film were investigated.

  3. Fracture-tough, high hardness stainless steel and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A cryogenically-formed and tempered stainless steel is provided having improved fracture toughness and corrosion resistance at a given hardness level, such as, for example, of at least about Rc 60 for bearing applications. The steel consists essentially of, in weight %, about 21 to about 24% Co, about 11 to about 13% Cr, about 7 to about 9% Ni, about 0.1 to about 0.5% Mo, about 0.2 to about 0.3% V, about 0.28 to about 0.32% C, and the balance iron. The steel includes a cryogenically-formed martensitic microstructure tempered to include about 5 to about 10 volume % post-deformation retained austenite dispersed therein and M.sub.2 C-type carbides, where M is Cr, Mo, V, and/or Fe, dispersed in the microstructure.

  4. Fracture-tough, high hardness stainless steel and method of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-06-22

    A cyrogenically-formed and tempered stainless steel having improved fracture toughness and corrosion resistance at a given hardness level, said steel including at least about 11 weight % Cr for corrosion resistance, at least about 0.28 weight % C for hardness, one or more refractory metal carbide formers in an amount selected to form M2C-type carbides, where M is the refractory metal(s), Cr and/or Fe, Co and Ni in amounts selected to provide an as-quenched austenitic microstructure cryogenically-deformable to a martensitic microstructure including a minor amount of post deformation retained austenite, and the balance essentially Fe, said steel having a cyrogenically-formed martensitic microstructure tempered to include a minor, controlled amount of post-deformation retained austenite and dispersed M[sub 2]C-type carbides.

  5. NITROGEN UTILIZATION BY DAIRY GOATS OFFERED DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES AS SUPPLEMENTS IN HIGH ISOCALORIC ENERGY CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.S. Asih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Twelve growing female goats (Anglo-Nubian were assigned to a multiple latin square designexperiment to evaluate the effectiveness of additions of nitrogen (N supplements to a high isocaloricenergy ration on N utilization. In this experiment, microbial synthesis and N balance were assessed. Thedaily rations were either unsupplemented barley meal (BM, or BM supplemented with one of threenitrogen sources. All rations were isocaloric (3.0 Mcal ME/kg DM and the N supplements weresoybean meal (BSBM, cottonseed meal (BCSM or urea (BU to provide 2.9% N in the concentratecomponent. The unsupplemented BM contained 1.7% N. The addition of N supplements to the rationenhanced N utilization in dairy goats. The organic matter (OM intake, N intake, N balance, andmicrobial N synthesis for BM, BSBM, BCSM and BU were 660.5 g, 721.9 g, 728.1g and 703.5 g; 13.5g, 21.5 g, 20.9 g and 20.7 g; 2.7 g; 7.1 g, 5.4 g, and 5.7 g; and 14.1 g 19.1 g, 19.1 g, and 20.0 g,respectively. It can be concluded that when sufficient dietary energy was available for ruminal microbialactivities, the source of N did not affect N balance, and microbial N synthesis.

  6. Effect of different surface treatments on the stability of stainless steels for use as bipolar plates in low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.; Schmidt, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Wolfsburg (Germany); Tuebke, J.; Cremers, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The stability of different stainless steels against corrosion under simulated low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating conditions was studied. These investigations showed a moderate corrosion resistance for a couple of steels under LT-PEMFC conditions. However, for the HT-PEMFC conditions all specimens except one exhibit visible corrosion traces. With regards to their corrosion resistance after different surface treatments results show a minor improvement in corrosion resistance after the electro polishing process for most of the tested stainless steel samples. (orig.)

  7. Exploring options to combine high yields with high nitrogen use efficiencies in irrigated rice in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Keulen, van H.; Cao, W.

    2007-01-01

    In Jiangsu province, Southeast China, high irrigated rice yields (6-8000 kg ha(-1)) are supported by high nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs (260-300 kg N ha(-1)) and low fertilizer N use efficiencies (recoveries of 30-35%). Improvement of fertilizer N use efficiency can increase farmers' profitability

  8. Sodium pentazolate: A nitrogen rich high energy density material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Brad A.; Oleynik, Ivan I.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5, new high energy density materials, are discovered during first principles crystal structure search for the compounds of varying amounts of elemental sodium and nitrogen. The pentazole anion (N5-) is stabilized in the condensed phase by sodium Na+ cations at pressures exceeding 20 GPa, and becomes metastable upon release of pressure. The sodium azide (NaN3) precursor is predicted to undergo a chemical transformation above 50 GPa into sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5. The calculated Raman spectrum of NaN5 is in agreement with the experimental Raman spectrum of a previously unidentified substance appearing upon compression and heating of NaN3.

  9. Effect of prior deformation on microstructural development and Laves phase precipitation in high-chromium stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Z-W; Chen, D; Kuo, J-C; Lin, D-Y

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of deformation on precipitation behaviour and microstructure change during annealing. Here, the prior deformation of high-chromium stainless steel was tensile deformation of 3%, 6% and 10%, and the specimens were then annealed at 700˚C for 10 h. The specimens were subsequently analyzed using backscattered electron image and electron backscattering diffraction measurements with SEM. Compared with the deformation microstructure, the grains revealed no preferred orientation. The precipitates of TiN and NbC were formed homogenously in the grain interior and at grain boundaries after annealing. Fine Laves phase precipitates were observed in grains and along subgrain boundaries as the deformation increased. Furthermore, the volume fraction of Laves phase increased, but the average particle diameter of precipitate was reduced as the deformation increased. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Effect of Grain Size on Void Formation during High-Energy Electron Irradiation of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain

    1974-01-01

    ’ model based on the property of grain boundaries as neutral and unsaturable sinks for vacancies and self-interstitials. It is suggested that even in the presence of sufficiently large amount of impurity gas atoms, a critical level of vacancy supersaturation is necessary to produce critically sized......Thin foils of an ‘ experimental ’ austenitic stainless steel, with and without dispersions of aluminium oxide particles, are irradiated with 1 MeV electrons in a High Voltage Electron Microscope at 600°C. Evidence of grain size dependent void nucleation, void concentration, and void volume swelling...... are presented for grains in the size range 0°45 to 50 μ. In both undoped and helium-doped samples the void nucleation is delayed, void concentration is lowered, and void volume swelling is reduced by decreasing the size of the grain under irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of a ‘ defect depletion...

  11. Annealing of GaN under high pressure of nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Porowski, S; Kolesnikov, D; Lojkowski, W; Jager, V; Jäger, W; Bogdanov, V; Suski, T; Krukowski, S

    2002-01-01

    Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride are basic materials for blue optoelectronic devices. The essential part of the technology of these devices is annealing at high temperatures. Thermodynamic properties of the Ga-N system and their consequences to application of high nitrogen pressure for the annealing of GaN based materials are summarized. The diffusion of Zn, Mg and Au in high dislocation density heteroepitaxial GaN/Al sub 2 O sub 3 layers will be compared with the diffusion in dislocation-free GaN single crystals and homoepitaxial layers. It will be shown that high dislocation density can drastically change the diffusion rates, which strongly affects the performance of nitride devices. Inter-diffusion of Al, Ga and In in AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures will be also considered. It will be shown that in contrast to stability of metal contacts, which is strongly influenced by dislocations, the inter-diffusion of group III atoms in QW structures is not affected strongly by...

  12. High Nb, Ta, and Al creep- and oxidation-resistant austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel HTUPS alloy includes, in weight percent: 15 to 30 Ni; 10 to 15 Cr; 2 to 5 Al; 0.6 to 5 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1 W; up to 0.5 Cu; up to 4 Mn; up to 1 Si; 0.05 to 0.15 C; up to 0.15 B; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni wherein said alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, said particles comprising at least one composition selected from the group consisting of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure, said austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  13. An experience with in-service fabrication and inspection of austenitic stainless steel piping in high temperature sodium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Sakthy, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Procedure for changing 304L SS pipe to 316L SS in sodium loop has been established. • Hot leg made of 304L SS was isolated from existing cold leg made of 316LN SS. • Innovative welding was used in joining the new 316L SS pipe with existing 316LN SS. • The old components of 304L SS piping have been integrated with the new piping. - Abstract: A creep testing facility along with dynamic sodium loop was installed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India to assess the creep behavior of fast reactor structural materials in flowing sodium. Type 304L austenitic stainless steel was used in the low cross section piping of hot-leg whereas 316LN austenitic stainless steel in the high cross section cold-leg of the sodium loop. The intended service life of the sodium loop was 10 years. The loop has performed successfully in the stipulated time period. To enhance its life time, it has been decided to replace the 304L piping with 316L piping in the hot-leg. There were more than 300 welding joints involved in the integration of cold-leg with the new 316L hot-leg. Continuous argon gas flow was maintained in the loop during welding to avoid contamination of sodium residue with air. Several innovative welding procedures have been adopted for joining the new hot-leg with the existing cold-leg in the presence of sodium residue adopting TIG welding technique. The joints were inspected for 100% X-ray radiography and qualified by performing tensile tests. The components used in the discarded hot-leg were retrieved, cleaned and integrated in the renovated loop. A method of cleaning component of sodium residue has been established. This paper highlights the in-service fabrication and inspection of the renovation.

  14. Effect of cold deformation on pitting corrosion of 00Cr18Mn15Mo2N0.86 stainless steel for coronary stent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Zhao, Haochuan; Liu, Wenpeng; Yang, Ke

    2016-03-01

    The high nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel has offered an alternative to further improve the performance of the coronary stents, and simultaneously avoids the potential harms of nickel element. Both cold deformation and pitting corrosion are very important for coronary stents made of stainless steel. In this work, the effect of cold deformation on the pitting corrosion resistance of a high nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel (00Cr18Mn15Mo2N0.86) in 0.9% saline solution was investigated. The results showed that the pitting corrosion of the steel was nearly unchanged with increases of the cold deformation up to 50%, indicating that the higher nitrogen content can reduce the negative effect of cold deformation on the pitting corrosion resistance, which is beneficial for the long term service of coronary stents in blood vessel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion and Nanomechanical Behaviors of 16.3Cr-0.22N-0.43C-1.73Mo Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Rahul; Krishna, S. Chenna; Venugopal, A.; Narayanan, P. Ramesh; Jha, Abhay K.; Ramkumar, P.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (ISRO), Kerala (India)

    2016-12-15

    The effect of nitrogen on the electrochemical corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of martensitic stainless steel was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and nanoindentation test methods. The results indicate that partial replacement of carbon with nitrogen effectively improved the passivation and pitting corrosion resistance of conventional high-carbon and high- chromium martensitic steels. Post-test observation of the samples after a potentiodynamic test revealed a severe pitting attacks in conventional martensitic steel compared with nitrogen- containing martensitic stainless steel. This was shown to be due to (i) microstructural refinement results in retaining a high-chromium content in the matrix, and (ii) the presence of reversed austenite formed during the tempering process. Since nitrogen addition also resulted in the formation of a Cr{sub 2}N phase as a process of secondary hardening, the hardness of the nitrogen- containing steel is slightly higher than the conventional martensitic stainless steel under tempered conditions, even though the carbon content is lowered. The added nitrogen also improved the wear resistance of the steel as the critical load (Lc2) is less, along with a lower scratch friction coefficient (SFC) when compared to conventional martensitic stainless steel such as AISI 440C.

  16. Nitrogen transport during plasma-enhanced case nitriding of stainless steels - the effects of the passivating oxide layer; Stickstofftransport waehrend der plasmagestuetzten Randaufstickung nichtrostender Staehle - der Einfluss der passivierenden Oxidschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parascandola, S.; Kruse, O.; Richter, E. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung; Moeller, W.

    1998-12-31

    Plasma-enhanced case nitriding at moderate temperatures is a promising technique for surface treatment of components made of stainless steels. In-situ ERD permits time-resolved and depth-dependent elemental analysis during the case nitriding process. This offers possibilities for process characterisation which are only briefly discussed in the paper. The oxide layer at the surface of the steel is a barrier to nitrogen input. In order to achieve fast nitrogen diffusion into the material, the oxide layer has to be largely removed in the low-energy ion implantation process. The observed equilibrium between diffusion and re-absorption is in good agreement with calculated as well as empirical results. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die plasmagestuetzte Randaufstickung bei moderaten Temperaturen ist eine erfolgversprechende Technologie zur Oberflaechenveredelung von Bauteilen aus nichtrostendem Stahl. Die Analytik mit in-situ ERD erlaubt zeit- und tiefenaufgeloeste Elementanalyse waehrend des Aufstickungsprozesses. Dadurch ergeben sich Moeglichkeiten der Prozesscharakterisierung, die hier nur angedeutet werden konnten. Die Oxidschicht an der Oberflaeche der nichtrostenden Staehle stellt eine Barriere fuer den Stickstoffeintrag dar. Fuer schnelle Stickstoffdiffusion muss die Oxidschicht bei der Niederenergie-Ionenimplantation weitgehend abgebaut werden. Das beobachtete Gleichgewicht zwischen Zerstaeubung und Wiederbelegung stimmt gut mit Simulationsrechnungen bzw. empirischen Werten ueberein. (orig.)

  17. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  18. Low friction and high strength of 316L stainless steel tubing for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Lee, Soo-Wohn; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2017-02-01

    We propose herein a nondestructive surface modification technique called ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) to increase the strength and to improve the tribological performance of 316L stainless steel (SS) tubing. Nanocrystallization along nearly the complete tube thickness of 200μm was achieved by UNSM technique that was confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Nano-hardness of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was measured using a nanoindentation. Results revealed that a substantial increase in hardness was obtained for the UNSM-treated specimen that may be attributed to the nanocrystallization and refined grains. Stress-strain behavior of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was assessed by a 3-point bending test. It was found that the UNSM-treated specimen exhibited a much higher strength than that of the untreated specimen. In addition, the tribological behavior of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens with an outer diameter (OD) of 1.6mm and an inner diameter (ID) of 1.2mm was investigated using a cylinder-on-cylinder (crossed tubes of equal radius) tribo-tester against itself under dry conditions at ambient temperature. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the UNSM-treated specimen were remarkably improved compared to that of the untreated specimen. The significant increase in hardness after UNSM treatment is responsible for the improved friction coefficient and wear resistance of the tubing. Thus, the UNSM technique was found to be beneficial to improving the mechanical and tribological properties of 316L SS tubing for various potential biomedical applications, in particular for coronary artery stents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biogas production from substrates with high amounts of organic nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ-EVUS Development Center for Process Engineering, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Thermophilic fermentation is a favoured method for treating animal by-products because of its short hydraulic retention time and hygienic features. However, substrates with high organic nitrogen content can create problems in the fermentation process due to the high ammonium concentration produced during anaerobic degradation. More economical and ecological solutions for treating animal by-products are also needed to address concerns of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. This study considered a recycling concept based on the Thermal Pressure Hydrolysis (TPH) process with subsequent anaerobic digestion. A heat exchange system was also developed. The sterilization in the TPH reactor guarantees complete disinfection. The study examined the reactor temperature, pH-value, hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and degradation performance. The amount of volatile fatty acids in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor suggests good biological degradation. A combined heat and power station with an electrical efficiency of 38 per cent made it possible to produce up to 780 kWh of electricity from 1,000 kg of raw material. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Measurement and tailoring of residual stress in expanded austenite on austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Winther, Grethe

    2017-01-01

    Expanded austenite on stainless steel with a high interstitial nitrogen content is characterized by elasto-plastic accommodation of the large composition-induced lattice expansion leading to huge compressive residual stress. The elasto-plastic accommodation as well as the (steep) concentration...... profile has implications for the measurement strategy to determine lattice strains and associated residual stresses with X-ray diffraction. Lattice strain measurements were performed on nitrided as well as subsequently de-nitrided expanded austenite on AISI 316L stainless steel, for various grazing...

  1. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  2. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  3. Nickel-free stainless steel avoids neointima formation following coronary stent implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-12-01

    SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1α and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform.

  4. Nickel-free stainless steel avoids neointima formation following coronary stent implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-01-01

    SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt–chromium and platinum–chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1α and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform. PMID:27877545

  5. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Heon-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sangshik

    2017-03-15

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Fe balance -19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21)N, in wt %) was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis.

  6. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Ha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21N, in wt % was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal and perpendicular (transverse to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis.

  7. Is stainless steel really "stainless"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Initial purchase and replacement costs for surgical instrumentation are significant components in today's operating room budgets. OR staff and medical device reprocessing personnel work together as a team to ensure effective management of this valuable commodity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the composition of stainless steel surgical instruments, to identify processes to minimize damage to instruments caused by staining, corrosion, and pitting, and to utilize that information to describe effective measures to manage instrumentation in both the OR and reprocessing areas.

  8. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of 317LN austenitic stainless steel in phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: javier.onoro@upm.es

    2009-10-15

    The corrosion fatigue crack-growth behaviour of AISI 317LN stainless steel was evaluated in air and in 85% phosphoric acid at 20 deg. C. Austenitic stainless steels with high molybdenum content have high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. However, this increase in the molybdenum content and other elements such as nitrogen can also modify the microstructure. This leads to a modification of its mechanical properties. The corrosion fatigue crack-growth rate was higher in phosphoric acid immersion than in air. Austenitic stainless steels with a fully austenitic microstructure were more ductile, tough, and behave better against corrosion fatigue. The higher resistance to corrosion fatigue was directly associated to its higher resistance to corrosion.

  9. Cavitation erosion tests of high tensile stainless steels for the Techno-Superliner (TSL-F) hulls; Techno superliner (TSL-F) sentai kozoyo kokyodo stainless ko no cavitation erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, M.; Ito, H.; Shibasaki, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, A.; Sugimoto, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Tomono, Y. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Investigations were given by using the magnetostrictive vibration method and the high-speed fluid testing method on cavitation erosion resistance of high-tensile stainless steels thought to have high applicability to submerged hull structures of Techno-Supeliner (TSL-L). The investigations revealed that these steels have nearly equivalent resistance to even SUS 304 or 15-5PH steel which is thought to have the highest cavitation erosion resistance among the conventional materials used customarily. An experiment using both materials provided a result different quantitatively but similar qualitatively in relative merits between the materials. Correlation between both materials was presented. A cavitation erosion experiment using a 1/6 scale model of the actual TSL-F was carried out to measure the amount of cavitation erosion generated on wing surfaces. Results from the experiment were used to attempt estimation of cavitation erosion amount at the level of the actual TSL-F. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in a mixed-conifer forest in southern California: controlling factors, fluxes, and nitrogen fertilization response at a high and low nitrogen deposition site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth; Joseph D. Terry; Timothy J. Blubaugh

    2005-01-01

    Net fluxes of nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification were measured in situ on a monthly basis for 3 years at a high (HN) and low (LN) N deposition site in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Mean N mineralization fluxes in the forest floor and top 10 cm of mineral soil were 19.0 and 59.8 kg N·ha–1·year–1 at LN...

  11. Analysis of correlations of multiple-performance characteristics for optimization of CO2 laser nitrogen cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of laser cutting conditions for satisfying different requirements such as improving cut quality characteristics and material removal rate is of great importance. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models in order to relate laser cutting parameters such as the laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure and focus position, and cut quality characteristics such as the surface roughness, kerf width and width of heat affected zone (HAZ. A laser cutting experiment was planned as per Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array with three levels for each of laser cutting parameters considered. 3 mm thick AISI 304 stainless steel was used as workpiece material. Mathematical models were developed using a single hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN trained with the Levenberg– Marquardt algorithm. On the basis of the developed ANN models the effects of the laser cutting parameters on the cut quality characteristics were presented. It was observed that laser cutting parameters variously affect cut quality characteristics. Also, for the range of operating conditions considered in the experiment, laser cut quality operating diagrams were shown. From these operating diagrams one can see the values of cut quality characteristics that can be achieved and subsequently select laser cutting parameter values. Furthermore, the analysis includes correlations between cut quality characteristics and material removal rate. To this aim, six trade-off operating diagrams for improving multiple responses at the same time were given.

  12. Late-season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of late-season nitrogen (N) applications on the fruiting pattern of strawberry runner plants of 'Camarosa' was determined over three growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in highlatitude nurseries in northern California and fruit production trials were established in southern California. A total of 80 ...

  13. Preparation of carbon nanoparticles and carbon nitride from high nitrogen compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, My Hang V [Los Alamos, NM; Hiskey, Michael A [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    The high-nitrogen compound 3,6-di(azido)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DiAT) was synthesized by a relatively simple method and used as a precursor for the preparation of carbon nanospheres and nanopolygons, and nitrogen-rich carbon nitrides.

  14. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  15. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@areva.com [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Fournier, Lionel [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Barbu, Alain [Alain Barbu Consultant, 6 Avenue Pasteur Martin Luther King, 78230 Le Pecq (France)

    2016-01-15

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium. - Highlights: • Irradiation of steels with helium is studied through a new cluster dynamics model. • There is only a small effect of helium on cavity distributions in PWR conditions. • An increase in helium production causes an increase in cavity density over 500 °C. • The role of helium is to stabilize cavities via reduced emission of vacancies.

  16. Change of Tensile Properties of High Cr Ferritic/Martensitic Stainless Steel after Irradiation at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, W. S.; Cho, Hae Dong; Han, Chang Hee; Ahn, S. B.; Choo, K. N

    2005-12-15

    In present study, we evaluated the irradiation properties of high Cr ferritic/martensitic steels. These steels were irradiated in HANARO for 14 days at 297{+-}5 .deg. C, and for 15 days at 307{+-}5 .deg. C, and then the fluence was 2.9x10{sup 20}n/cm{sup 2} (E>1.0Mev). High temperature tensile test after irradiation was performed at hot cell in IMEF. Tensile test temperature range was from room temperature to 700 .deg. C. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of specimens increased, and the elongation of specimens decreased by neutron irradiation. Especially elongation was greatly decreased. As the tensile test temperature increased, the increase of strength by irradiation was diminished. But elongation was not recovered at high temperature tensile test. As the irradiation fluence increased, the increase of yield and tensile strength became larger. But the elongation was not influenced by the increase of irradiation fluence.

  17. EXAFS investigation of low temperature nitrided stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 flakes were investigated with EXAFS and X-ray diffraction analysis. The stainless steel flakes were transformed into a mixture of nitrogen expanded austenite and nitride phases. Two treatments were carried out yielding different overall nitrogen...... contents: (1) nitriding in pure NH3 and (2)nitriding in pure NH3 followed by reduction in H2. The majority of the Cr atoms in the stainless steel after treatment 1 and 2 was associated with a nitrogen–chromium bond distance comparable to that of the chemical compound CrN. The possibility of the occurrence...

  18. Connection for transfer of Liquid Nitrogen from High Voltage to ground potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Hansen, Finn; Willén, Dag

    2001-01-01

    In order to operate a superconducting cable conductor it must be kept at a cryogenic temperature (e.g. using liquid nitrogen). The superconducting cable conductor is at high voltage and the cooling equipment is kept at ground potential. This requires a thermally insulating connection that is also...... properties and withstand towards high-pressure liquid nitrogen. The length per joint is approximately 900 mm, including a Johnstoncoupling. The joints are tested in a closed liquid nitrogen circuit, with a pressure of up to 10 bars. The rated voltage of the cable system is 36 kV (phase-phase)....

  19. Precipitation behavior of carbides in high-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao; Shi, Chang-min [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy; Li, Ji-hui [Yang Jiang Shi Ba Zi Group Co., Ltd, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-15

    A fundamental study on the precipitation behavior of carbides was carried out. Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the precipitation and transformation behaviors of carbides. Carbide precipitation was of a specific order. Primary carbides (M7C3) tended to be generated from liquid steel when the solid fraction reached 84 mol.%. Secondary carbides (M7C3) precipitated from austenite and can hardly transformed into M23C6 carbides with decreasing temperature in air. Primary carbides hardly changed once they were generated, whereas secondary carbides were sensitive to heat treatment and thermal deformation. Carbide precipitation had a certain effect on steel-matrix phase transitions. The segregation ability of carbon in liquid steel was 4.6 times greater that of chromium. A new method for controlling primary carbides is proposed.

  20. Nitrogen-rich graphene from small molecules as high performance anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Song, Wenbo

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen-rich graphene sheets were successfully achieved via facile thermal condensation of glucose and dicyandiamide at different temperatures during which dicyandiamide acts both as nitrogen source and sacrifice template. Devoid of surfactants or poisonous organic solvents, this small-molecule synthetic approach is a simple and cost-effective way to obtain nitrogen-rich graphene sheets (NRGS) with high specific surface area and large pore volume. Shown to be a promising anode material, the NRGS displayed high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and superior cycle performance. The superior lithium-storage performance is ascribed to the unique features of NRGS, including a large quantity of defects due to the high nitrogen doping level, favorable lithium ion transportation channels by virtue of the large surface area, and ultrahigh pore volume, as well as the crumpled two-dimensional structure.

  1. Is plant migration restrained by available nitrogen supply in high latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Schlosser, C. A.; Felzer, B.; Kicklighter, D.; Cronin, T.; Melillo, J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that growth and distribution of natural vegetation in high latitudes may be controlled by the amount of available nitrogen. Yet few studies have examined the role of available nitrogen on plant migration in response to anticipated climate change. We use a modeling approach to explore this issue. With a projected climate dataset (GFDL CM 2.0) from the IPCC AR4 archive, we first estimate net nitrogen mineralization values for natural plant functional types in high latitudes (north of 52N), using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). Previous work with TEM indicates that warming increases the rates of net nitrogen mineralization in high latitudes (e.g. 10 percent increase in boreal forests), which may help support a pattern of increased woodiness in northern systems such as boreal woodlands filling in with trees and tundra becoming more shrubby. Constrained with the available nitrogen for each vegetation type, a simple rule- based model, which describes the migration process and adopts processes of climatic tolerances of trees from the BIOME biogeography model, is used to generate a newly projected vegetation map for high latitudes. Our study emphasizes the significance of the role of nitrogen in the high latitude plant distribution. We also investigate the climatic consequences of the changing albedo, resulting from shifts in the vegetation distribution.

  2. Determination of nitric oxide in purified air and high purity nitrogen gases with computer-controlled second derivative spectrometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soichi OTSUKA; Takahiro YAMAMOTO; Kazuhiko SAKAMOTO; Issei IWAMOTO; Naoomi YAMAKI; Takashi KIMOTO

    1984-01-01

      Nitric oxide impurity in purified air and high purity nitrogen gases, which causes uncertain errors in setting zero level of a nitrogen oxides analyzer, was determined with a newly developed computer...

  3. Generation of runaway electron beams in high-pressure nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Burachenko, A. G.; Baksht, E. Kh

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the results of experimental studies of the amplitude-temporal characteristics of a runaway electron beam, as well as breakdown voltage in nitrogen are presented. The voltage pulses with the amplitude in incident wave ≈120 kV and the rise time of ≈0.3 ns was used. The supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) was detected by a collector behind the flat anode. The amplitude-time characteristics of the voltage and SAEB current were studied with subnanosecond time resolution. The maximum pressure at which a SAEB is detectable by collector was ∼1 MPa. This pressure increases with decreasing the voltage rise time. The waveforms of the discharge and runaway electron beam currents was synchronized with the voltage pulses. The mechanism of the runaway electron generation in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  4. In-situ preparation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays on stainless steel substrate for high efficient catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zeheng, E-mail: zehengyang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Key Laboratory of Controllable Chemical Reaction & Material Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Wang, Kun; Shao, Zongming; Tian, Yuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Key Laboratory of Controllable Chemical Reaction & Material Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Chen, Gongde [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chen, Zhangxian; Dou, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Key Laboratory of Controllable Chemical Reaction & Material Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Weixin, E-mail: wxzhang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Key Laboratory of Controllable Chemical Reaction & Material Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Hierarchical array catalysts with micro/nano structures on substrates not only possess high reactivity from large surface area and suitable interface, but intensify mass transfer through shortening the diffusion paths of both reactants and products for high catalytic efficiency. Herein, we first demonstrate fabrication of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays grown on stainless-steel substrates via in-situ hydrothermal chemical oxidation followed by heat treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere. As a Fenton-like catalyst, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays exhibit excellent catalytic activity and life cycle performance for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with unique hierarchical structures and efficient transport channels, effectively activates H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to generate large quantity of • OH radicals and highly promotes reaction kinetics between MB and • OH radicals. Immobilization of hierarchical array catalysts on stainless-steel can prevent particles agglomeration, facilitate the recovery and reuse of the catalysts, which is expected promising applications in wastewater remediation. - Graphical abstract: The in-situ synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays on stainless-steel substrates was reported for the first time, which exhibit excellent catalytic activity performance for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays was prepared by in-situ hydrothermal chemical oxidation. • F{sup −} ions play an important role in the formation of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical arrays show high catalytic activity to methylene blue degradation.

  5. Stainless and stainless-clad reinforcement for highway bridge use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel as concrete reinforcement has been in use for several decades. Although highly resistant to corrosion, and able to provide greater than 100 years maintenance-free service life, the main drawback to widespread use has been the cost of ...

  6. Consitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih

    2008-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels combine high formability and high strength, which are generally opposing properties in materials. This property is a consequence of the martensitic phase transformation that takes place during deformation. This transformation is purely mechanically induced

  7. Modifications of Superconducting Properties of Niobium Caused by Nitrogen Doping Recipes for High Q Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostrikov, Alexander [Fermilab; Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee [U. Chicago (main); Romanenko, Alexander [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    A study is presented on the superconducting properties of niobium used for the fabrication of the SRF cavities after treating by recently discovered nitrogen doping methods. Cylindrical niobium samples have been subjected to the standard surface treatments applied to the cavities (electro-polishing, l 20°C bake) and compared with samples treated by additional nitrogen doping recipes routinely used to reach ultra-high quality factor values (>3· 1010 at 2 K, 16 MV/m). The DC magnetization curves and the complex magnetic AC susceptibility have been measured. Evidence for the lowered field of first flux penetration after nitrogen doping is found suggesting a correlation with the lowered quench fields. Superconducting critical temperatures Tc = 9.25 K are found to be in agreement with previous measurements, and no strong effect on the critical surface field (Bd) from nitrogen doping was found.

  8. Groundwater nitrate pollution: High-resolution approach of calculating the nitrogen balance surplus for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz; Häußermann, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive determined that 26.3% of Germany's groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. As of late October 2016, the European Commission has filed a lawsuit against Germany for not taking appropriate measures against high nitrate levels in water bodies and thus failing to comply with the EU Nitrate Directive. Due to over-fertilization and high-density animal production, Agriculture was identified as the main source of nitrate pollution. One way to characterize the potential impact of reactive nitrogen on water bodies is the soil surface nitrogen balance where all agricultural nitrogen inputs within an area are contrasted with the output, i.e. the harvest. The surplus nitrogen (given in kg N per ha arable land and year) can potentially leach into the groundwater and thus can be used as a risk indicator. In order to develop and advocate appropriate measures to mitigate the agricultural nitrogen surplus with spatial precision, high-resolution data for the nitrogen surplus is needed. In Germany, not all nitrogen input data is available with the required spatial resolution, especially the use of mineral fertilizers is only given statewide. Therefore, some elements of the nitrogen balance need to be estimated based on agricultural statistics. Hitherto, statistics from the Federal Statistical Office and the statistical offices of the 16 federal states of Germany were used to calculate the soil surface balance annually for the spatial resolution of the 402 districts of Germany (mean size 890 km2). In contrast, this study presents an approach to estimate the nitrogen surplus at a much higher spatial resolution by using the comprehensive Agricultural census data collected in 2010 providing data for 326000 agricultural holdings. This resulted in a nitrogen surplus map with a 5 km x 5 km grid which was subsequently used to calculate the nitrogen concentration of percolation water. This provides a

  9. High pressure study of a highly energetic nitrogen-rich carbon nitride, cyanuric triazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laniel, Dominique; Desgreniers, Serge [Laboratoire de physique des solides denses, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Downie, Laura E. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Smith, Jesse S. [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Savard, Didier; Murugesu, Muralee [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-12-21

    Cyanuric triazide (CTA), a nitrogen-rich energetic material, was compressed in a diamond anvil cell up to 63.2 GPa. Samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. A phase transition occurring between 29.8 and 30.7 GPa was found by all three techniques. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative of the low pressure phase were determined by fitting the 300 K isothermal compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Due to the strong photosensitivity of CTA, synchrotron generated x-rays and visible laser radiation both lead to the progressive conversion of CTA into a two dimensional amorphous C=N network, starting from 9.2 GPa. As a result of the conversion, increasingly weak and broad x-ray diffraction lines were recorded from crystalline CTA as a function of pressure. Hence, a definite structure could not be obtained for the high pressure phase of CTA. Results from infrared spectroscopy carried out to 40.5 GPa suggest the high pressure formation of a lattice built of tri-tetrazole molecular units. The decompression study showed stability of the high pressure phase down to 13.9 GPa. Finally, two CTA samples, one loaded with neon and the other with nitrogen, used as pressure transmitting media, were laser-heated to approximately 1100 K and 1500 K while compressed at 37.7 GPa and 42.0 GPa, respectively. In both cases CTA decomposed resulting in amorphous compounds, as recovered at ambient conditions.

  10. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong, E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m{sup 2}/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  11. Crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets with ultrahigh pore volume for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenhai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Wang, Xinchen [Colloid Chemistry, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam/Golm (Germany); Mao, Shun; Bo, Zheng; Kim, Haejune; Cui, Shumao; Lu, Ganhua; Chen, Junhong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Feng, Xinliang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-11-02

    A reliable route for preparing highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (C-NGNSs) with ultrahigh pore volume was developed. The unique electrochemical properties of C-NGNSs make them a promising electrode for supercapacitors with high capacity, excellent rate capability, and long-term stability. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. The influence of the corrosion product layer generated on the high strength low-alloy steels welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiang; Zou, Yan; Kong, Xiangfeng; Gao, Yang; Dong, Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The high strength low-alloy steels are welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes. The micro-structural and electrochemical corrosion study of base metal (BM), weld zone (WZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) are carried out to understand the influence of the corrosion product layer generated on the high strength low-alloy steels welded by underwater wet welding with stainless steel electrodes, methods used including, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the WZ acts as a cathode and there is no corrosion product on it throughout the immersion period in seawater. The HAZ and BM acts as anodes. The corrosion rates of the HAZ and BM change with the immersion time increasing. In the initial immersion period, the HAZ has the highest corrosion rate because it has a coarse tempered martensite structure and the BM exhibites a microstructure with very fine grains of ferrite and pearlite. After a period of immersion, the BM has the highest corrosion rate. The reason is that the corrosion product layer on the HAZ is dense and has a better protective property while that on the BM is loose and can not inhibit the diffusion of oxygen.

  13. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  14. Dynamical recrystallization of high purity austenitic stainless steels; Recristallisation dynamique d'aciers inoxydables austenitiques de haute purete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavard, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the performance of structural materials. The elementary mechanisms (strain hardening and dynamical regeneration, germination and growth of new grains) occurring during the hot working of metals and low pile defect energy alloys have been studied for austenitic stainless steels. In particular, the influence of the main experimental parameters (temperature, deformation velocity, initial grain size, impurities amount, deformation way) on the process of discontinuous dynamical recrystallization has been studied. Alloys with composition equal to those of the industrial stainless steel-304L have been fabricated from ultra-pure iron, chromium and nickel. Tests carried out in hot compression and torsion in order to cover a wide range of deformations, deformation velocities and temperatures for two very different deformation ways have allowed to determine the rheological characteristics (sensitivity to the deformation velocity, apparent activation energy) of materials as well as to characterize their microstructural deformations by optical metallography and electron back-scattered diffraction. The influence of the initial grain size and the influence of the purity of the material on the dynamical recrystallization kinetics have been determined. An analytical model for the determination of the apparent mobility of grain boundaries, a semi-analytical model for the dynamical recrystallization and at last an analytical model for the stationary state of dynamical recrystallization are proposed as well as a new criteria for the transition between the refinement state and the state of grain growth. (O.M.)

  15. Effect of reversion treatment on strength and ductility of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel with high resistance to weld softening. Yosetsu nanka teiko no takai teitanso Cr-Ni maruten saito kei stainless ko no kyodo, ensei ni oyobosu gyaku hentai shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igawa, T.; Takemoto, T.; Uematsu, Y. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Steel R and D Lab.); Hoshino, K. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    Like the stainless steel and the stainless steel belt used in the rolling stock, materials treated by process and weld has a high strength and a good ductility, moreover, was expected that weld softening would not occurred. In this study, formation of the ultra-fine crystal grains based on the M to [gamma] reversion transformation of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel and effect of Si on change of mechanical properties were investigated. A high-strength stainless steel with a good ductility and without weld softening was developed. Main results obtained are as follows: After a steel was cold-rolled, the reversion treatment at the region between As and Af temperatures (600 to 640[degree]C) was carried out, a duplex structure with diameter of the ultra-fine grains of about 0.5 micron meter that is composed of [gamma] phase concentrated Ni and sintered M phase was formatted, and excellent mechanical properties with a high strength and a good ductility could be obtained, diameter of reversion [gamma] grains was dependent on reversion temperature. Diameter of [gamma] grains became large, and more homogeneous and uniform at higher reversion temperature. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Nitrogen diffusion and nitrogen depth profiles in expanded austenite: experimental assessment, numerical simulation and role of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper addresses the experimental assessment of the concentration dependent nitrogen diffusion coefficient in stress free expanded austenite foils from thermogravimetry, the numerical simulation of nitrogen concentration depth profiles on growth of expanded austenite into stainless ste...

  17. Nitrogen Atom Transfer From High Valent Iron Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Smith, Jeremy M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-10-14

    This report describes the synthesis and reactions of high valent iron nitrides. Organonitrogen compounds such as aziridines are useful species for organic synthesis, but there are few efficient methods for their synthesis. Using iron nitrides to catalytically access these species may allow for their synthesis in an energy-and atom-efficient manner. We have developed a new ligand framework to achieve these goals as well as providing a method for inducing previously unknown reactivity.

  18. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  19. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  20. Growth of niobium nitrides by nitrogen-niobium reaction at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musenich, R. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16141 Genoa (Italy)); Fabbricatore, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16141 Genoa (Italy)); Gemme, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16141 Genoa (Italy)); Parodi, R. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16141 Genoa (Italy)); Viviani, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16141 Genoa (Italy)); Zhang, B. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16141 Genoa (Italy)); Buscaglia, V. (Istituto di Chimica Fisica Applicata dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via De Marini 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy)); Bottino, C. (Istituto di Chimica Fisica Applicata dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via De Marini 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy))

    1994-07-01

    The reaction between nitrogen and bulk niobium under high purity conditions was studied in the range 1100-1900 C at 150 kPa. Two different nitride layers are formed: an inner [beta] phase (Nb[sub 2]N) and an outer [delta] phase (NbN). The latter undergoes a transformation to [gamma]-NbN and [epsilon]-NbN during cooling down. Nitrogen dissolves in the niobium core forming [alpha] solid solution. Both the weight gain and the thickness of the nitride layers follow the parabolic rate law, indicating that the reaction is mainly dominated by diffusional transport through the nitrides. Two parabolic kinetic stages are observed, the first before [alpha] phase saturation and the second after saturation. Data analysis based on a multiphase, moving boundary diffusion model allows the calculation of the effective nitrogen diffusion coefficients, yielding the expressions D[sub [beta

  1. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of oxide scale formed on Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel during early stages of high temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan, E-mail: swaminathan@kist.re.kr [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136 791 (Korea, Republic of); Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kim, Dong-Ik, E-mail: dongikkim@kist.re.kr [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136 791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Initial oxidation characteristics of Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel at 650 °C were studied. • Strong segregation and oxidation of Mn and Nb were found in the entire oxide scale. • Surface coverage by metallic Cu-rich precipitates increases with exposure time. • Chemical heterogeneity of oxide scale revealed initial oxidation to be non-selective. • Fe-Cr and Mn-Cr mixed oxides were realized along with binary oxides of Fe, Cr and Mn. - Abstract: Oxide scale evolution on Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel 304H at 650 °C, in ambient air, for exposure times 100, 300, 500 and 1000 h, has been investigated. Surface morphology and chemistry of the oxide scale grown were examined using SEM/EDX and XPS. The oxidation kinetics was determined by measuring the weight change using an electronic balance. At the initial stage, up to 500 h of exposure time, the oxidation rate was rapid due to surface reactions governed primarily by oxygen ingress, and then, dropped to a low rate after prolonged oxidation for 1000 h. The diffusion of reactants through the initially formed oxide scale limits the oxidation rate at longer times, thus, the progress of reaction followed the parabolic kinetics. The formed oxide scale was enriched significantly with segregation and subsequent oxidation of Nb, and finely dispersed metallic Cu particles. Within the time frame of oxidation, the oxide scale was mainly composed of mixed oxides such as FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} along with the binary oxides of Fe, Cr and Mn. Moreover, the precipitation fraction of Cu-rich particles on the oxide scale increased markedly with increase of exposure times. The chemical heterogeneity of oxide scale suggests that the oxidation occurred in a non-selective manner.

  3. Characteristic of riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in subtropic high-standing island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chin; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ting

    2015-04-01

    Extreme increase of anthropogenic nitrogen (e.g. fertilizer and excretion) has altered the nitrogen cycling and terrestrial ecosystems. Taiwan located between eastern Asia and Oceania is the hotspot of global riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, including NH4, NO3, and NO2) export, but rarely documented comprehensively. Totally 50 catchments, covering 2/3 of this island, with different anthropogenic activities are involved in this study. The monthly sampling for NH4 and seasonal sampling for NO3 and NO2 supplemented with daily discharge are used to estimate the riverine DIN export. Meanwhile, the landscape characteristics, land-use, and population density are also used to discriminate the characteristics of riverine DIN export. Results showed that the observed riverine DIN concentration and yield vary from 17.7-603.5 μM and 575.0-15588.9 kg-N km-2 yr-1 corresponding to the increase of anthropogenic activities. The arithmetic mean of DIN concentration and yield are 126.7μM and 3594.7 kg-N km-2 yr-1, respectively. The unexpected high yields can attribute to abundant precipitation, heavy fertilizer application, and high population. For concentration variation, no significant variation can be found in the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments, whereas the strong dilution effect in the wet season is characterized in the intensively-disturbed catchments. Although there are some seasonal variations in concentration, the yields in wet season are almost doubled than that in dry season indicating the strong control of streamflow. For speciation, NH4 is the dominant species in intensively-disturbed catchment, but NO3 dominates the DIN composition for the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments. Our result can provide a strong basis for supplementary estimation for regional to global study and DIN export control which is the aim of the Kampala Declaration on global nitrogen management. Keywords: dissolved inorganic nitrogen, anthropogenic nitrogen

  4. Does high reactive nitrogen input from the atmosphere decrease the carbon sink strength of a peatland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Zöll, Undine; Hurkuck, Miriam; Schrader, Frederik; Kutsch, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-latitude peatlands are often exposed to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition when located in close vicinity to agricultural land. As the impacts of altered deposition rates on nitrogen-limited ecosystems are poorly understood, we investigated the surface-atmosphere exchange of several nitrogen and carbon compounds using multiple high-resolution measurement techniques and modeling. Our study site was a protected semi-natural bog ecosystem. Local wind regime and land use in the adjacent area clearly regulated whether total reactive nitrogen (ΣNr) concentrations were ammonia (NH3) or NOx-dominated. Eddy-covariance measurements of NH3 and ΣNr revealed concentration, temperature and surface wetness-dependent deposition rates. Intermittent periods of NH3 and ΣNr emission likely attributed to surface water re-emission and soil efflux, respectively, were found, thereby indicating nitrogen oversaturation in this originally N-limited ecosystem. Annual dry plus wet deposition resulted in 20 to 25 kg N ha-1 depending on method and model used, which translated into a four- to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load. As the bog site had likely been exposed to the observed atmospheric nitrogen burden over several decades, a shift in grass species' composition towards a higher number of nitrophilous plants was already visible. Three years of CO2 eddy flux measurements showed that the site was a small net sink in the range of 33 to 268 g CO2 m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions of 32 g CO2-eq were found to partly offset the sequestered carbon through CO2. Our study indicates that the sink strength of the peatland has likely been decreased through elevated N deposition over the past decades. It also demonstrates the applicability of novel micrometeorological measurement techniques in biogeochemical sciences and stresses the importance of monitoring long-term changes in vulnerable ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure and climate change.

  5. High rate nitrogen removal by ANAMMOX internal circulation reactor (IC) for old landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, The Nhat; Van Truong, Thi Thanh; Ha, Nhu Biec; Nguyen, Phuoc Dan; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Dang, Bao Trong; Doan, Van Tuan; Park, Joonhong; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a high rate nitrogen removal lab-scale ANAMMOX reactor, namely Internal Circulation (IC) reactor, for old landfill leachate treatment. The reactor was operated with pre-treated leachate from a pilot Partial Nitritation Reactor (PNR) using a high nitrogen loading rate ranging from 2 to 10kgNm-3d-1. High rate removal of nitrogen (9.52±1.11kgNm-3d-1) was observed at an influent nitrogen concentration of 1500mgNL-1. The specific ANAMMOX activity was found to be 0.598±0.026gN2-NgVSS-1d-1. Analysis of ANAMMOX granules suggested that 0.5-1.0mm size granular sludge was the dominant group. The results of DNA analysis revealed that Candidatus Kueneniastuttgartiensis was the dominant species (37.45%) in the IC reactor, whereas other species like uncultured Bacteroidetes bacterium only constituted 5.37% in the system, but they were still responsible for removing recalcitrant organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro corrosion resistance of Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Kelly; Hyun, Soong-Keun; Fujimoto, Shinji; Nakajima, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of three kinds of austenitic high nitrogen Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels was examined in acellular simulated body fluid solutions and compared with type AISI 316L stainless steel. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical techniques, the analysis of released metal ions was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the cytotoxicity was investigated in a culture of murine osteoblasts cells. Total immunity to localized corrosion in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions was exhibited by Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels, while Lotus-type porous AISI 316L showed very low pitting corrosion resistance evidenced by pitting corrosion at a very low breakdown potential. Additionally, Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels showed a quite low metal ion release in SBF solutions. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that the fabricated materials were non-cytotoxic to mouse osteoblasts cell line. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the investigated alloys are biocompatible and corrosion resistant and a promising material for biomedical applications.

  7. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  8. The effect of nitrogen additions on bracken fern and its insect herbivores at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Jones; M.E. Fenn; T.D. Paine

    2011-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric pollution, including nitrogen deposition, on bracken fern herbivores has never been studied. Bracken fern is globally distributed and has a high potential to accumulate nitrogen in plant tissue. We examined the response of bracken fern and its herbivores to N fertilization at a high and low pollution site in forests downwind of Los Angeles,...

  9. High-resolution nitrogen stable isotope sclerochronology of bivalve shell carbonate-bound organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillikin, David P.; Lorrain, Anne; Jolivet, Aurélie; Kelemen, Zita; Chauvaud, Laurent; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ15N) of organic material have successfully been used to track food-web dynamics, nitrogen baselines, pollution, and nitrogen cycling. Extending the δ15N record back in time has not been straightforward due to a lack of suitable substrates in which δ15N records are faithfully preserved, thus sparking interest in utilizing skeletal carbonate-bound organic matter (CBOM) in mollusks, corals, and foraminifera. Here we test if calcite Pecten maximus shells from the Bay of Brest and the French continental shelf can be used as an archive of δ15N values over a large environmental gradient and at a high temporal resolution (approximately weekly). Bulk CBOM δ15N values from the growing tip of shells collected over a large nitrogen isotope gradient were strongly correlated with adductor muscle tissue δ15N values (R2 = 0.99, n = 6, p fossil shells. In conclusion, bivalve shell CBOM δ15N values can be used in a similar manner to soft-tissue δ15N values, and can track various biogeochemical events at a very high-resolution.

  10. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Arthanari, Haribabu; Shimada, Ichio; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Detection of (15)N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached (15)N nuclei (TROSY (15)NH) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow (15)N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low (15)N sensitivity. The (15)N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY (15)NH component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a (15)N-detected 2D (1)H-(15)N TROSY-HSQC ((15)N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τc ~ 40 ns). Unlike for (1)H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit (15)N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording (15)N TROSY of proteins expressed in H2O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D2O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of (15)NH-detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of improved cast stainless steels for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenik, E. A.; Busby, J. T.; Gussev, M. N.; Maziasz, P. J.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Rowcliffe, A. F.; Vitek, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Casting of stainless steels is a promising and cost saving way of directly producing large and complex structures, such a shield modules or divertors for the ITER. In the present work, a series of modified high-nitrogen cast stainless steels has been developed and characterized. The steels, based on the cast equivalent of the composition of 316 stainless steel, have increased N (0.14-0.36%) and Mn (2-5.1%) content; copper was added to one of the heats. Mechanical tests were conducted with non-irradiated and 0.7 dpa neutron irradiated specimens. It was established that alloying by nitrogen significantly improves the yield stress of non-irradiated steels and the deformation hardening rate. Manganese tended to decrease yield stress but increased radiation hardening. The role of copper on mechanical properties was negligibly small. Analysis of structure was conducted using SEM-EDS and the nature and compositions of the second phases and inclusions were analyzed in detail. No ferrite formation or significant precipitation were observed in the modified steels. It was shown that the modified steels, compared to reference material (commercial cast 316L steel), had better strength level, exhibit significantly reduced elemental inhomogeneity and only minor second phase formation.

  12. Transient heat transfer behavior of water spray evaporative cooling on a stainless steel cylinder with structured surface for safety design application in high temperature scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Hong, Wang; Xun, Zhu; Song, Sihong; Sajid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    High heat transfer performance of spray cooling on structured surface might be an additional measure to increase the safety of an installation against any threat caused by rapid increase in the temperature. The purpose of present experimental study is to explore heat transfer performance of structured surface under different spray conditions and surface temperatures. Two cylindrical stainless steel samples were used, one with pyramid pins structured surface and other with smooth surface. Surface heat flux of 3.60, 3.46, 3.93 and 4.91 MW/m2 are estimated for sample initial average temperature of 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively for an inlet pressure of 1.0 MPa. A maximum cooling rate of 507 °C/s was estimated for an inlet pressure of 0.7 MPa at 900 °C for structured surface while for smooth surface maximum cooling rate of 356 °C/s was attained at 1.0 MPa for 700 °C. Structured surface performed better to exchange heat during spray cooling at initial sample temperature of 900 °C with a relative increase in surface heat flux by factor of 1.9, 1.56, 1.66 and 1.74 relative to smooth surface, for inlet pressure of 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. For smooth surface, a decreasing trend in estimated heat flux is observed, when initial sample temperature was increased from 600 to 900 °C. Temperature-based function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Limited published work is available about the application of structured surface spray cooling techniques for safety of stainless steel structures at very high temperature scenario such as nuclear safety vessel and liquid natural gas storage tanks.

  13. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-04

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  14. Friction welding of a nickel free high nitrogen steel: influence of forge force on microstructure, mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel specimens were joined by continuous drive friction welding process by varying the amount of forge (upsetting force and keeping other friction welding parameters such as friction force, burn-off, upset time and speed of rotation as constant at appropriate levels. The joint characterization studies include microstructural examination and evaluation of mechanical (micro-hardness, impact toughness and tensile and pitting corrosion behaviour. The integrity of the joint, as determined by the optical microscopy was very high and no crack and area of incomplete bonding were observed. Welds exhibited poor Charpy impact toughness than the parent material. Toughness for friction weld specimens decreased with increase in forge force. The tensile properties of all the welds were almost the same (irrespective of the value of the applied forge force and inferior to those of the parent material. The joints failed in the weld region for all the weld specimens. Weldments exhibited lower pitting corrosion resistance than the parent material and the corrosion resistance of the weld specimens was found to decrease with increase in forge force.

  15. Fundamental study of the effect of high-salinity brines on the friction and wear properties of stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, K.J.; Govin, G.; Eliezer, Z.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    Friction and corrosive wear experiments were performed in a geothermal-geopressured brine and in a 3% NaCl solution in a friction and wear electrolytic cell. The formation of a passive film on 304 stainless steel has a beneficial effect on the magnitude of the coefficient of friction. When pits are electrochemically introduced in the passive film, the friction coefficient becomes even lower than the passive coefficient of friction in the 3% NaCl, but does not significantly change for the brine. The effect of corrosive wear on the surface film is more difficult to assess. Auger spectroscopy was performed on wear surfaces (subjected to both electrochemical and mechanical action) and non-wear surfaces (subjected only to electrochemical action). The surface films formed in 3% NaCl in the non-wear and wear areas including pits consisted of Cr, Fe and Ni in ratios consistent to the bulk material plus 0. In brine the surface film consists of the same elements as above; however, the surface film associated with the non-wear area and the wear area pit show a Cr depletion. Yet, the wear area film is consistent with bulk as in the case of the 3% NaCl.

  16. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    .86 ± 0.04 kg N m–3 biofilter d–1 and an empty bed residence time of 14 s. After 45 days of operation a stable nitrogen removal rate of 0.67 ± 0.06 kg N m–3 biofilter d–1, an ammonia removal efficiency of 99%, a removal of 75–80% of the total nitrogen, and negligible NO/N2O productions were obtained......Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  17. Influence of solar radiation on nitrogen recovery by the biomass grown in high rate ponds.

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar do; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Tango, Mariana Daniel; Santiago, Aníbal da Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different solar radiation intensities on nitrogen assimilation by a consortium of bacteria and microalgae grown in pilot scale high rate ponds (HRP) treating domestic wastewater. The HRPs received effluent from an anaerobic reactor. The experiment was carried out under tropical climate conditions. A total of five HRPs were used; four of them were covered with shading screens that blocked 9%, 18%, 30% and 60% of the incident solar radi...

  18. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju Won [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sharma, Ronish [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meduri, Praveen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schaef, Herbert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutkenhaus, Jodie [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Lemmon, John P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Electrochemical performance of the existing state-of-the art capacitors is not very high, key scientific barrier is that its charge storage mechanism wholly depends on adsorption of electrolyte on electrode. We present a novel method for the synthesis of nitrogen -doped porous carbons and address the drawback by precisely controlling composition and surface area. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon was synthesized using a self-sacrificial template technique without any additional nitrogen and carbon sources. They exhibited exceptionally high capacitance (239 Fg-1) due to additional pseudocapacitance originating from doped nitrogen. Cycling tests showed no obvious capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, which meets the requirement of commercial supercapacitors. Our method is simple and highly efficient for the production of large quantities of nitrogen-doped porous carbons.

  19. Law of mixture used to model the flow behavior of a duplex stainless steel at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, A., E-mail: ammomeni@aut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, K. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poletti, M.C. [Institute for Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    In this investigation the flow curves of a duplex stainless steel were drawn by performing hot compression tests over a wide temperature range of 950–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.001–100 s{sup −1}. The flow curves of ferrite and austenite phases in the duplex structure were depicted by conducting similar hot compression tests on two steels that were cast and prepared with the same chemical compositions. The flow curves of the austenitic steel were found typical of dynamic recrystallization. They were successfully modeled by using the experimental exponential equation proposed by Cingara and McQueen. The flow curves of the ferritic steel were typical of dynamic recovery. They were modeled by the dislocation density evolution function proposed by Estrin and Meckning. Comparing the flow curves of three studied steels, it was found that the flow curves of the duplex steel were very similar and close to those of the ferrite steel. It was understood that in a duplex structure of ferrite and austenite the flow behavior is mostly controlled by the softer phase, i.e. ferrite. The law of mixture was modified to consider the strain partitioning between ferrite and austenite. The distribution coefficients of ferrite and austenite were described and determined at different deformation conditions. The results of modeling satisfactorily predicted the experimental curves. It was shown that the influence of austenite on the flow behavior of the duplex structure is almost low. However, it increases as strain rate or temperature rises. - Highlights: ► Flow curves of austenite and ferrite in the duplex steel were modeled separately. ► The flow behavior of the duplex steel is mostly controlled by ferrite. ► The effect of austenite on flow curve increases with temperature and strain rate. ► The flow curve of the duplex steel is modeled by the modified law of mixture.

  20. Estimation of embrittlement during aging of AISI 316 stainless steel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Stainless steel; TIG welds; aging; Charpy impact; lower shelf energy; embrittlement. 1. Introduction. Austenitic stainless steels have high ductility, low yield strength, high tensile strength, are easy to fabricate and have good corrosion resistance (Harvey 1979). In welding of these steels there are some difficulties including hot.

  1. A high-performance mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Shiyao; Chen, Xu; Wang, Jianan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiao, Chunhui; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-12-01

    Investigating low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is of crucial importance for energy conversion and storage devices. Herein, we design and prepare mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated on CMK-3. This electrocatalyst exhibits excellent performance towards ORR in alkaline media. The optimized nitrogen-doped mesoporous electrocatalyst show an onset potential (E onset) of 0.95 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and half-wave potential (E 1/2) of 0.83 V (versus RHE) in 0.1 M KOH. Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst presents superior durability and methanol tolerance compared to commercial Pt/C indicating its potential applications in fuel cells and metal–air batteries.

  2. Corrosion-free precast prestressed concrete piles made with stainless steel reinforcement : construction, test and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The use of duplex high-strength stainless steel (HSSS) grade 2205 prestressing strand and : austenitic stainless steel (SS) grade 304 spiral wire reinforcement is proposed as a replacement of : conventional prestressing steel, in order to provide a 1...

  3. Effect of Laves Phase on High-Temperature Deformation and Microstructure Evolution in an 18Cr-2Mo-0.5Nb Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Yamoah, Nana Kwame Gyan; Reynolds, William T.; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Niobium-containing ferritic stainless steels are finding new applications in automotive exhaust components because of their oxidation resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, and high-temperature strength. The mechanical behavior of Nb-containing ferritic steels at service temperatures of 973 K (700 °C) and higher results from the convolution of dynamic microstructural changes including precipitation, precipitate coarsening, strain hardening, recovery, and recrystallization. The relative contributions of these competing processes have yet to be clarified. In this study, the high-temperature flow strength of an 18Cr-2Mo-0.5Nb ferritic stainless steel (SUS 444) was correlated with microstructure under different strain and initial precipitate distributions to clarify the relative role of the strengthening and softening processes. High-temperature tensile tests at 1023 K (750 °C) of un-aged (initial microstructure is precipitate-free) and pre-aged (initial microstructure contains precipitates) samples were carried out and transmission electron microscopy was used to assess dislocation distributions and precipitate morphology. The difference in the stress-strain curves between un-aged and pre-aged samples was drastic; the yield strength of the un-aged sample was twice that of the pre-aged sample, and the un-aged sample exhibits a noticeable yield drop. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a Laves phase nucleated and grew during the high-temperature tensile test in the un-aged sample and the majority of the precipitates in the pre-aged sample were the same Laves phase. Furthermore, a strain effect on precipitate growth was recognized in un-aged and pre-aged conditions by comparing grip (no strain) and gage (strained) sections of tensile samples. The dominant strengthening contribution in un-aged samples is initially the precipitate shearing mechanism and it changes to Orowan strengthening beyond the ultimate tensile strength, whereas the dominant contribution in

  4. Ductility of stabilized ferritic stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. B.; Eagar, T. W.

    1980-02-01

    An investigation was made into the mechanism of ductility loss in low interstitial 18 Cr-2Mo ferritic stainless steel welds stabilized with Ti and Nb. It was found that stabilizing TiN or Nb(C,N) precipitates are dissolved during the welding process, resulting in a finer distribution of precipitates in the weld metal than in the base metal. Furthermore, the FATT was found to increase by more than 200°C, leading to decreased room temperature ductility. Such an increase in FATT may not be explained solely in terms of grain growth. Internal friction measurements indicate that no free nitrogen is present in the weld metal, yet wet chemical analysis reveals that the nitrogen is present in a soluble form. Kinetic arguments suggest that the stabilized nitrogen dissolved during welding tends to reprecipitate during solidification in the form of a chromium rich nitride phase.

  5. Formation and control of nitrogenous DBPs from Western Australian source waters: Investigating the impacts of high nitrogen and bromide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ina; Liew, Deborah; Henderson, Rita K; Joll, Cynthia A; Linge, Kathryn L

    2017-08-01

    We studied the formation of four nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) classes (haloacetonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloacetamides, and N-nitrosamines), as well as trihalomethanes and total organic halogen (TOX), after chlorination or chloramination of source waters. We also evaluated the relative and additive toxicity of N-DBPs and water treatment options for minimisation of N-DBPs. The formation of halonitromethanes, haloacetamides, and N-nitrosamines was higher after chloramination and positively correlated with dissolved organic nitrogen or total nitrogen. N-DBPs were major contributors to the toxicity of both chlorinated and chloraminated waters. The strong correlation between bromide concentration and the overall calculated DBP additive toxicity for both chlorinated and chloraminated source waters demonstrated that formation of brominated haloacetonitriles was the main contributor to toxicity. Ozone-biological activated carbon treatment was not effective in removing N-DBP precursors. The occurrence and formation of N-DBPs should be investigated on a case-by-case basis, especially where advanced water treatment processes are being considered to minimise their formation in drinking waters, and where chloramination is used for final disinfection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Morphology of stress corrosion cracking due to exposure to high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide in stainless steel specimens with different crevice lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-01

    Crack growth tests were performed in high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to evaluate the relationships between the crevice structure and H2O2 on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) growth morphology of stainless steel (SS). Small compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from thermally sensitized type 304 SS. 20-300 ppb H2O2 was injected into the high-temperature water at 561 K. Intergranular SCC (IGSCC) and transgranular SCC were observed near the side grooves and the central region of the original CT specimens, respectively. Chevron notches were removed from the CT specimens after fatigue pre-crack introduction. Owing to pre-crack shortening, the IGSCC area expanded to the central region of the CT specimens and increased with H2O2 concentration. The effects of H2O2 on SCC appeared intensely near the surfaces exposed to high levels of H2O2. Microanalysis and distribution examination of oxide layers were performed and the percentage of H2O2 remaining in the crack was calculated.

  7. Manganese oxide nanowires wrapped with nitrogen doped carbon layers for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Mei, Yuan; Zhang, Lin-Qun; Wang, Jian-Hai; Liu, An-Ran; Zhang, Yuan-Jian; Liu, Song-Qin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, manganese oxide nanowires wrapped by nitrogen-doped carbon layers (MnO(x)@NCs) were prepared by carbonization of poly(o-phenylenediamine) layer coated onto MnO2 nanowires for high performance supercapacitors. The component and structure of the MnO(x)@NCs were controlled through carbonization procedure under different temperatures. Results demonstrated that this composite combined the high conductivity and high specific surface area of nitrogen-doped carbon layers with the high pseudo-capacitance of manganese oxide nanowires. The as-prepared MnO(x)@NCs exhibited superior capacitive properties in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution, such as high conductivity (4.167×10(-3) S cm(-1)), high specific capacitance (269 F g(-1) at 10 mV s(-1)) and long cycle life (134 F g(-1) after 1200 cycles at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1)). It is reckoned that the present novel hybrid nanowires can serve as a promising electrode material for supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, M.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover) vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio. We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW) and sediment pore water (SPW) from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰), with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes. In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (-9.4‰ to 7.4‰) than for nitrate (-11.4‰ to -3.4‰), as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water). For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion). Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil interaction; and another highly influenced by soil conditions. The snow-type flow path contributes low DIN

  9. Impact of influent characteristics on a partial nitritation SBR treating high nitrogen loaded wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganigué, R; Volcke, E I P; Puig, S; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2012-05-01

    The Anammox process allows a sustainable treatment of wastewater with high nitrogen content. Partial oxidation of ammonium to nitrite is a previous and crucial step. Given the variability on wastewater composition, the operation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for partial nitritation (PN) is very challenging. This work assessed the combined influence of influent characteristics and process loading rate. Simulation results showed that wastewater composition - Total nitrogen as ammonia (TNH) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) - as well as nitrogen loading rate (NLR) govern the outcomes of the reactor. A suitable effluent can be produced when treating wastewater with different ammonia levels, as long as the TIC:TNH influent molar ratio is around 1:1 and extreme NLR are avoided. The influent pH has a key impact on nitrite conversion by governing the CO(2)-bicarbonate-carbonate equilibrium. Finally, results showed that oxidation of biodegradable organic matter produces CO(2), which acidifies the media and limits process conversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated under double limitation of nitrogen and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, S; Triantaphyllidou, I-E; Mizerakis, P; Aggelis, G

    2016-09-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated under double nitrogen and magnesium limitation, but not under single nitrogen or single magnesium limitation, produced 12.2g/l biomass containing 47.5% lipids, which corresponds to a lipid production 5.8g/l. These yields are the higher described in the literature for wild strains of Y. lipolytica. Transcription of ACL1 and ACL2, encoding for ATP-citrate lyase (ATP:CL) was observed even under non-oleaginous conditions but high activity of ATP:CL was only detected under oleaginous conditions induced by low or zero activity of NAD(+) dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. The low activity of malic enzyme (ME), a NADPH donor in typical oleaginous microorganisms, indicated that ME may not be implicated in lipid biosynthesis in this yeast, and NADPH may be provided by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). These findings underline the essential role of magnesium in lipogenesis, which is currently quite unexplored. The presence of organic nitrogen in low concentrations during lipogenesis was also required, and this peculiarity was probably related with the PPP functioning, being the NADPH donor of lipogenic machinery in Y. lipolytica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchically porous carbons with optimized nitrogen doping as highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Brüller, Sebastian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Development of efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalysts as the alternative to platinum for the oxygen reduction reaction is of significance for many important electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells, metal-air batteries and chlor-alkali electrolysers. Here we report a highly active nitrogen-doped, carbon-based, metal-free oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst, prepared by a hard-templating synthesis, for which nitrogen-enriched aromatic polymers and colloidal silica are used as precursor and template, respectively, followed by ammonia activation. Our protocol allows for the simultaneous optimization of both porous structures and surface functionalities of nitrogen-doped carbons. Accordingly, the prepared catalysts show the highest oxygen reduction reaction activity (half-wave potential of 0.85 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode with a low loading of 0.1 mg cm-2) in alkaline media among all reported metal-free catalysts. Significantly, when used for constructing the air electrode of zinc-air battery, our metal-free catalyst outperforms the state-of the-art platinum-based catalyst.

  12. Imposed potential measurement to evaluate the pitting corrosion resistance and the galvanic behaviour of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel and its weldment in a LiBr solution at temperatures up to 150ºC

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Tamarit, María Encarnación; García García, Dionisio Miguel; García Antón, José

    2011-01-01

    Pitting corrosion resistance and galvanic behaviour of Alloy 31, a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031), and its weldment were studied in a heavy brine LiBr solution 1080 g/l at different temperatures (75–150 °C) using electrochemical techniques. The Mixed Potential Theory was used to evaluate the galvanic corrosion between the base and welded metals. Cyclic potentiodynamic curves indicate that high temperatures make passivation and repassivation of pits difficult, because t...

  13. High doses of ethylene diurea (EDU) are not toxic to willow and act as nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Saitanis, Costas J; Manning, William J; Shi, Cong; Koike, Takayoshi

    2016-10-01

    Ethylene diurea (EDU) is synthetic chemical which protects plants against damage caused by ground level O3 and is used experimentally as a biomonitoring tool at doses usually ranging from 200 to 400mgL(-1) a.i. Although several studies have investigated the protective action of EDU, this mechanism remains unclear. Important uncertainties in EDU action are whether EDU acts as a source of nitrogen (N) to plants and whether high doses are phytotoxic. In order to answer these questions, we conducted an open-field experiment where potted willow (Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schm) plants were exposed to ambient O3 conditions and treated with 0, 800 or 1600mgL(-1) EDU as a soil drench, every nine days, for about 2.5months. We examined approximately 50 response variables. Based on N content in different plant organs, we found that (a) all EDU was transferred to the leaves and (b) high doses of EDU increased the leaf N content. However, EDU did not affect the C content and distribution within the plant body. Still, even at the highest dose, EDU was not toxic to this fast-growing species (however such a high dose should not be applied in uncontrolled environments); and there was no EDU persistence in the soil, as indicated by soil N content. Notably, our soil was free from organic matter and N-poor. EDU per se does not cause toxicity to willow plants when applied as drench to a soil with no organic matter, rather, high EDU doses may act as nitrogen fertilizer in a nitrogen-poor soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the High-Grain Yield and High-Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Elite Rice Varieties under a Low Rate of Nitrogen Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Selecting rice varieties with a high nitrogen (N use efficiency (NUE is the best approach to reduce N fertilizer application in rice production and is one of the objectives of the Green Super Rice (GSR Project in China. However, the performance of elite candidate GSR varieties under low N supply remains unclear. In the present study, differences in the grain yield and NUE of thirteen and fourteen candidate varieties with two controls were determined at a N rate of 100 kg ha-1 in field experiments in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The grain yield for all of the rice varieties ranged from 8.67 to 11.09 t ha-1, except for a japonica rice variety YG29, which had a grain yield of 6.42 t ha-1. HY549 and YY4949 produced the highest grain yield, reflecting a higher biomass production and harvest index in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Total N uptake at maturity (TNPM ranged from 144 to 210 kg ha-1, while the nitrogen use efficiency for grain production (NUEg ranged from 35.2 to 62.0 kg kg-1. Both TNPM and NUEg showed a significant quadratic correlation with grain yield, indicating that it is possible to obtain high grain yield and NUEg with the reduction of TNPM. The correlation between N-related parameters and yield-related traits suggests that promoting pre-heading growth could increase TNPM, while high biomass accumulation during the grain filling period and large panicles are important for a higher NUEg. In addition, there were significant and negative correlations between the NUEg and N concentrations in leaf, stem and grain tissues at maturity. Further improvements in NUEg require a reduction in the stem N concentration but not the leaf N concentration. The daily grain yield was the only parameter that significantly and positively correlated with both TNPM and NUEg. This study determined variations in the grain yield and NUE of elite candidate GSR rice varieties and provided plant traits that could be used as selection criteria in breeding N

  15. Effects of temperature on stress corrosion cracking behavior of stainless steel and outer oxide distribution in cracks due to exposure to high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Cracking growth tests were conducted in high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 561-423 K to evaluate the effects of H2O2 on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel (SS) at temperature lower than the boiling water reactor (BWR) operating temperature. Small compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from thermally sensitized type 304 SS. Despite the observation of only a small portion intergranular SCC (IGSCC) near the side groove of the CT specimen at 561 K in high-temperature water containing 100 ppb H2O2, the IGSCC area expanded to the central region of the CT specimens at 423 and 453 K. Effects of H2O2 on SCC appeared intensely at temperature lower than the BWR operating temperature because of a reduction in the thermal decomposition of H2O2. To estimate the environment in the cracks, outer oxide distribution on the fracture surface and the fatigue pre-crack were examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and thermal equilibrium calculation was performed.

  16. Mechanical analysis of ferritic stainless steel applied in radiation tubes in high temperature; Analise mecanica de acos inoxidaveis ferriticos aplicados em tubos de radiacao em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreto, J.A.; Ponte, H.A.; Oliveira, V.L.; Silva, C.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays Brazilian oil refineries face an important challenge: to adjust their units to the processing of more aggressive crudes. The use of this kind of oil has caused an increase on corrosion on process streams in high temperatures. This study's objective is to evaluate the changes in mechanic properties and phases processing occurred in tubes from de radiation furnaces type A268/446 Tp ferritic stainless steel tubes used in conditions of high temperatures. For comparison samples of the APM/Kanthal alloy tube were examined. Hot tensile tests were performed in the studied materials evidence bodies. The evidence bodies for the hot tensile tests were extracted from the longitudinal position of the tubes and were machined with cylindrical shape with threads. There was a series of trials for each tube (at different traction speeds) at temperature of 600 deg C. With the traction test it was possible to evaluate resistance and ductility characteristics and was used to establish criteria for quality control to ensure satisfactory performance in certain applications. Data testing creep were performed in the evidence bodies taken from the longitudinal position of the tubes in constant charge form. Data testing creep were executed in the constant stress mode at various levels of temperature. Through data testing creep it was possible to predict for how long the material is good for use. Data from testing creep were treated by the method of Larson and Miller. (author)

  17. Nitrogen-doped diamond electrode shows high performance for electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • A metal-free nitrogen-doped diamond electrode was synthesized. • The electrode exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for nitrobenzene reduction. • The electrode exhibits high selectivity for reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. • High energy efficiency was obtained compared with graphite electrode. -- Abstract: Effective electrode materials are critical to electrochemical reduction, which is a promising method to pre-treat anti-oxidative and bio-refractory wastewater. Herein, nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) electrodes that possess superior electrocatalytic properties for reduction were fabricated by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology. Nitrobenzene (NB) was chosen as the probe compound to investigate the material's electro-reduction activity. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration and pH on NB reduction and aniline (AN) formation efficiencies were studied. NDD exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for reduction of NB to AN. The NB removal efficiency and AN formation efficiency were 96.5% and 88.4% under optimal conditions, respectively; these values were 1.13 and 3.38 times higher than those of graphite electrodes. Coulombic efficiencies for NB removal and AN formation were 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively; these values were 4.70 and 16.6 times higher than those of graphite electrodes under identical conditions. LC–MS analysis revealed that the dominant reduction pathway on the NDD electrode was NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) to AN.

  18. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Influence of Nitrogen Partial Pressure on Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-Cu-V-N Composite Coatings with High Cu Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijuan Mei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings with high Cu content of ~18 at.% were deposited on 316L stainless steel and YT14 cemented carbide substrates by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in Ar–N2 gas mixtures. The influence of N2 partial pressure was investigated with respect to the microstructure and tribological properties of the coatings. The results indicated that the Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings exhibited FCC B1-MoN phase with a strong (200 preferred orientation, and Cu phase was found to exist as metallic species. As the N2 partial pressure increased from 0.11 to 0.35 Pa, the peak intensity of (200 plane decreased gradually and simultaneous peak broadening was observed, which was typical for grain refinement. With increasing the N2 partial pressure, the columnar microstructure became much coarser, which led to the decrease of residual stress and hardness. The Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings with high Cu content exhibited a relatively low wear rate of 10−8 mm3/N·m at 25 °C, which was believed to be attributed to the mixed lubricious oxides of MoO2, CuO and V2O5 formed during tribo-oxidation, which cannot be formed in the coatings with low Cu content. When the wear temperature was increased up to 400 °C, the wear rate increased sharply up to 10−6 mm3/N·m despite the formation of lubricious oxides of MoO3/CuMoO4 and V2O5. This could be due to the loss of nitrogen and pronounced oxidation at high temperatures, which led the wear mechanism to be transformed from mild oxidation wear to severe oxidation wear.

  20. New nitrogen-containing materials for hydrogen storage and their characterization by high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    or liquid form, technologies that are well developed and usable, but not energy efficient. Certain metals and alloys are able to contain hydrogen within practical pressure and temperature ranges very efficient volume-wise, but they are too heavy for use in cars. Recently, attention has turned to the so......-called complex hydrides, which contain hydrogen bound covalently often in very light materials involving elements such as lithium, sodium, nitrogen and aluminum. While these materials typically have high decomposition temperatures, the combination with other compounds helps to destabilize the material resulting...

  1. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). A high NH4(+)-N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4(+)-N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4(+)-N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4(+)-N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4(+)-N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4(+)-N enrichment wastewater pollution control. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. High Level of Nitrogen Makes Tomato Plants Releasing Less Volatiles and Attracting More Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Nazrul; Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production is seriously hampered by the infestation of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM 1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1). The infestation behavior of the whiteflies could be affected by the quantity of plant released volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to nitrogen concentrations of the plant. In this study, we determined the infestation behavior of B. tabaci to the tomato plants that produced different levels of VOCs after application of different levels of nitrogen with a wind tunnel and an olfactometer. We also analyzed the VOCs released from nitrogen-treated tomato plants using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the production of eight VOCs (β-pinene, (+)-4-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, β-phellandrene, α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene) was reduced after the plants were treated with high levels of nitrogen. However, more whiteflies were attracted to the tomato plants treated with high levels of nitrogen than to the plants treated with normal or below normal levels of nitrogen. These results clearly indicated that nitrogen can change the quality and quantity of tomato plant volatile chemicals, which play important roles in B. tabaci host plant selection. PMID:28408917

  3. Effect of high energy shot peening pressure on the stress corrosion cracking of the weld joint of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiming, Lu, E-mail: lzm@zjut.edu.cn; Laimin, Shi, E-mail: 810050107@qq.com; Shenjin, Zhu, E-mail: 523469865@qq.com; Zhidong, Tang, E-mail: 466054569@qq.com; Yazhou, Jiang, E-mail: 191268219@qq.com

    2015-06-18

    The weld joint of 304 stainless steel is treated using high energy shot peening(HESP) with various shot peening pressures. The grain size and metallographic microstructure of the specimen surface layer are analyzed using the X-ray diffraction method, and the surface hardness is measured. Slow strain rate tension tests are then performed to investigate the effect of shot peening pressure on the stress corrosion sensitivity. The results show that in the surface layer of the specimen, the grain refinement, hardness and the strain-induced plastic deformation all increase with the increasing shot peening pressure. Martensitic transformation is observed in the surface layer after being treated with HESP. The martensite phase ratio is found to increase with increasing shot peening pressure. The result also shows that the effects of the shot peening treatment on the stress corrosion sensitivity index depend on the shot peening pressure. When the shot peening pressure is less than 0.4 MPa, the grain refinement effect plays the main role, and the stress corrosion sensitivity index decreases with the increasing shot peening pressure. In contrast, when the shot peening pressure is higher than 0.4 MPa, the martensite transformation effect plays the main role, the stress corrosion sensitivity index increases with increasing shot peening pressure.

  4. Achieving Highly Efficient, Selective, and Stable CO2 Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Liu, Mingjie; Sharma, Pranav P; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Lulu; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yakobson, Boris I; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-05-26

    The challenge in the electrosynthesis of fuels from CO2 is to achieve durable and active performance with cost-effective catalysts. Here, we report that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), doped with nitrogen to form resident electron-rich defects, can act as highly efficient and, more importantly, stable catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to CO. The unprecedented overpotential (-0.18 V) and selectivity (80%) observed on nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) are attributed to their unique features to facilitate the reaction, including (i) high electrical conductivity, (ii) preferable catalytic sites (pyridinic N defects), and (iii) low free energy for CO2 activation and high barrier for hydrogen evolution. Indeed, DFT calculations show a low free energy barrier for the potential-limiting step to form key intermediate COOH as well as strong binding energy of adsorbed COOH and weak binding energy for the adsorbed CO. The highest selective site toward CO production is pyridinic N, and the NCNT-based electrodes exhibit no degradation over 10 h of continuous operation, suggesting the structural stability of the electrode.

  5. High retention of 15N-labeled nitrogen deposition in a nitrogen saturated old-growth tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa; Lu, Xiankai; Gundersen, Per

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased reactive nitrogen (N) deposition in forests depend largely on its fate in the ecosystems. However, our knowledge on the fates of deposited N in tropical forest ecosystems and its retention mechanisms is limited. Here, we report the results from the first whole ecosystem (15...... ecosystem compartments were quantified 4 months after the last addition. Tracer recoveries in soil solution were monitored monthly to quantify leaching losses. Total tracer recovery in plant and soil (N retention) in the control plots was 72% and similar to those observed in temperate forests. The retention...... decreased to 52% in the N-plots. Soil was the dominant sink, retaining 37% and 28% of the labeled N input in the control and N-plots, respectively. Leaching below 20 cm was 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in the control plots and was close to the N input (51 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ), indicating N saturation of the top...

  6. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Plasma-induced nanoporous metal oxides with nitrogen doping for high-performance electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min

    2017-06-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a critical reaction in energy storage and conversion systems such as metal-air batteries and water splitting. The current commercial OER catalysts are the noble metal based materials, which have a high cost and a limited supply. Xu et al have prepared the nanoporous N-Co3O4 materials as cost-effective and high efficient electrocatalysts for OER by N2 plasma (Xu et al 2017 Nanotechnology 28 165402). This work has successfully demonstrated the simple N2 plasma treatment to be a powerful technique to introduce the nitrogen doping and nanoporous structure in the bulk materials, enhancing the performance of electrochemical catalysis. Based on this study, more future work on developing highly porous non-precious metal-based materials with good conductivity would be promising for energy storage and conversion.

  8. Measuring the angle-dependent photoionization cross section of nitrogen using high-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Makhija, Varun; Le, Anh-Thu; Troß, Jan; Mondal, Sudipta; Jin, Cheng; Kumarappan, Vinod; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    We exploit the relationship between high harmonic generation (HHG) and the molecular photorecombination dipole to extract the molecular-frame differential photoionization cross section (PICS) in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) for molecular nitrogen. A shape resonance and a Cooper-type minimum are reflected in the pump-probe time delay measurements of different harmonic orders, where high-order rotational revivals are observed in N2. We observe the energy- and angle-dependent Cooper minimum and shape resonance directly in the laboratory-frame HHG yield by achieving a high degree of alignment, ≥0.8. The interplay between PICS and rotational revivals is confirmed by simulations using the quantitative rescattering theory. Our method of extracting molecular-frame structural information points the way to similar measurements in more complex molecules.

  9. Influence of thermomechanical treatments on mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of high-nitrogen austenitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, Valentina; Astafurova, Elena; Maier, Galina; Melnikov, Eugene; Astafurov, Sergey; Burlachenko, Alexander; Galchenko, Nina

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of the high-nitrogen austenitic steel Fe- 17Cr-10Mn-7Ni-0.95V-0.8N-0.1C (in wt %) processed by different thermomechanical treatments are investigated. Cold rolling and short-time solid solution hardening contribute to the formation of a rather homogeneous fine-grained structures in the steel, which possess high strength, sufficient plasticity and exhibit excellent product of strength and elongation (σYS = 540-570 MPa, σUTS = 900-950 MPa, EL = 36-37%, PSE=33-35 GPa %) in comparison with cold-rolled specimens possessing high strength properties, but extremely low elongation (σYS = 1200 MPa, σUTS = 1650 MPa, EL=1%, PSE=1.7 GPa %).

  10. Electronic kinetics of molecular nitrogen and molecular oxygen in high-latitude lower thermosphere and mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kirillov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total quenching rate coefficients of Herzberg states of molecular oxygen and three triplet states of molecular nitrogen in the collisions with O2 and N2 molecules are calculated on the basis of quantum-chemical approximations. The calculated rate coefficients of electronic quenching of O2* and N2* molecules show a good agreement with available experimental data. An influence of collisional processes on vibrational populations of electronically excited N2 and O2 molecules is studied for the altitudes of high-latitude lower thermosphere and mesosphere during auroral electron precipitation. It is indicated that molecular collisions of metastable nitrogen N2(A3Σu* with O2 molecules are principal mechanism in electronic excitation of both Herzberg states c1Σu&minus, A'3Δu, A3Σu+ and high vibrational levels of singlet states a1Δg and b1Σg+ of molecular oxygen O2 at these altitudes.

  11. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  13. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  14. The Necessary Nitrogen Atom: A Versatile High-Impact Design Element for Multiparameter Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Lewis D; Moustakas, Demetri T

    2017-05-11

    There is a continued desire in biomedical research to reduce the number and duration of design cycles required to optimize lead compounds into high-quality chemical probes or safe and efficacious drug candidates. The insightful application of impactful molecular design elements is one approach toward achieving this goal. The replacement of a CH group with a N atom in aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems can have many important effects on molecular and physicochemical properties and intra- and intermolecular interactions that can translate to improved pharmacological profiles. In this Perspective, the "necessary nitrogen atom" is shown to be a versatile high-impact design element for multiparameter optimization, wherein ≥10-, 100-, or 1000-fold improvement in a variety of key pharmacological parameters can be realized.

  15. Highly Photoluminescent Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots and Their Protective Effects against Oxidative Stress on Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Qiang; Lan, Jia-Yi; Jin, Jian-Cheng; Dong, Ping; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi

    2015-12-30

    Highly photoluminescent (PL) (quantum yield = 54%) nitrogen doped carbon nanodots (C-dots) have been prepared through one-step carbonizing citric acid and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and using oleic acid as solvent. The synthesized C-dots are monodisperse with narrow size distribution (average 1.7 nm). The PL properties of C-dots are pH dependent, and hence, using C-dots as sophisticated pH sensor to detect pH values between 7 and 9 can be expected. In addition, the PL intensity of C-dots remains stable under high ionic strength. The C-dots can protect cells from oxidative stress, which shows potential to expand the biological application of C-dots, especially in medical treatment. The protective mechanism is associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species elimination and the intracellular superoxide dismutase production.

  16. Strain hardening and fracture behavior during tension of directionally solidified high-nitrogen austenitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Galina; Astafurova, Elena; Melnikov, Eugene; Moskvina, Valentina; Galchenko, Nina

    2017-12-01

    The effect of grain orientation relative to tensile load on the strain hardening behavior and fracture mechanism of directionally solidified high-nitrogen steel Fe-20Cr-22Mn-1.5V-0.2C-0.6N (in wt %) was studied. The tensile samples oriented along the longitudinal direction of columnar grains demonstrated the improved mechanical properties compared to specimens with the transversal directions of columnar grains: the values of tensile strength and strain-to-fracture were as high as 1080 MPa and 22%, respectively, for tension along the columnar grains and 870 MPa and 11%, respectively, for the tension transversal to the columnar grains. The change in the grain orientation relative to the tensile load varies a fracture mode of the steel. The fraction of the transgranular fracture was higher in the samples with longitudinal directions of the columnar grains compared to the transversal ones.

  17. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartrons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen15N is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio.

    We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW and sediment pore water (SPW from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰, with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes.

    In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (−9.4‰ to 7.4‰ than for nitrate (−11.4‰ to −3.4‰, as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water. For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion. Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil

  18. Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of PO43−:Mg2+ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43−-P was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.

  19. Beef and coal are key drivers of Australia’s high nitrogen footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Leach, Allison M.; Galloway, James N.; Gu, Baojing; Lam, Shu Kee; Chen, Deli

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic release of reactive nitrogen (Nr; all species of N except N2) to the global nitrogen (N) cycle is substantial and it negatively affects human and ecosystem health. A novel metric, the N footprint, provides a consumer-based perspective for Nr use efficiency and connects lifestyle choices with Nr losses. Here we report the first full-scale assessment of the anthropogenic Nr loss by Australians. Despite its ‘clean and green’ image, Australia has the largest N footprint (47 kg N cap-1 yr-1) both in food and energy sectors among all countries that have used the N-Calculator model. About 69% of the Australia’s N footprint is attributed to food consumption and the associated food production, with the rest from energy consumption. Beef consumption and production is the major contributor of the high food N footprint, while the heavy dependence on coal for electricity explains the large energy N footprint. Our study demonstrates opportunities for managing Nr loss and lifestyle choices to reduce the N footprint.

  20. Comparison of Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance between 2205 Duplex Stainless Steels and type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steels Under the Cathodic Applied Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Il; Lee, Jae-Bong [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    2205 duplex stainless steels have been used for the construction of the marine environment, because of their excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. However, the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) may be less than that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. The reason why 316L stainless steels have better resistance to HE is associated with crystal structure (FCC, face centered cubic) and the higher stacking faults energy than 2205 duplex stainless steels. Furthermore 2205 stainless steels with or without tungsten were also examined in terms of HE. 2205 stainless steels containing tungsten is less resistible to HE. It is because dislocation tangle was formed in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Slow strain-rate tensile test (SSRT) was conducted to measure the resistance to HE under the cathodic applied potential. Hydrogen embrittlement index (HEI) was used to evaluate HE resistance through the quantitative calculation.

  1. Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Supercapacitors with High Gravimetric and Volumetric Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Xu, Yunling; Shen, Laifa; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2015-10-14

    Graphene is considered a promising electrochemical capacitors electrode material due to its high surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, restacking interactions between graphene nanosheets significantly decrease the ion-accessible surface area and impede electronic and ionic transfer. This would, in turn, severely hinder the realization of high energy density. Herein, we report a strategy for preparation of few-layer graphene material with abundant crumples and high-level nitrogen doping. The two-dimensional graphene nanosheets (CNG) feature high ion-available surface area, excellent electronic and ion transfer properties, and high packing density, permitting the CNG electrode to exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the CNG electrode exhibits gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 128 F g(-1) and 98 F cm(-3), respectively, achieving gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 56 Wh kg(-1) and 43 Wh L(-1). The preparation strategy described here provides a new approach for developing a graphene-based supercapacitor with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities.

  2. Technical Note: Comparison between a direct and the standard, indirect method for dissolved organic nitrogen determination in freshwater environments with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Graeber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON in aquatic systems with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, the sum of NO3, NO2 and NH4+ concentrations is often hampered by high uncertainties regarding the determined DON concentration. The reason is that DON is determined indirectly as the difference between total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and DIN. In this standard approach to determine DON concentrations, even small relative measurement errors of the DIN and TDN concentrations propagate into high absolute errors of DON concentrations at high DIN : TDN ratios. To improve the DON measurement accuracy at high DIN : TDN ratios, we investigated the DON measurement accuracy of this standard approach according to the DIN : TDN ratio and compared it to the direct measurement of DON by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC for freshwater systems. For this, we used standard compounds and natural samples with and without DIN enrichment. We show that for the standard approach, large errors of the determined DON concentrations at DIN : TDN ratios >0.6 occur for both standard compounds and natural samples. In contrast, measurements of DON by SEC always gave low errors at high DIN : TDN ratios due to the successful separation of DON from DIN. For SEC, DON recovery rates were 91–108% for five pure standard compounds and 89–103% for two standard compounds, enriched with DIN. Moreover, SEC resulted in 93–108% recovery rates for DON concentrations of natural samples at a DIN : TDN ratio of 0.8 and the technique was successfully applied to a range of samples from waste water treatment plants to forest and agricultural streams. With 2.5 h of measurement time per sample, SEC is slower, but more accurate than the standard approach for determination of DON concentrations in freshwaters with DIN : TDN ratios >0.6. To sum up, the direct DON measurement by SEC enables better understanding of the

  3. Plasmon enhanced organic devices utilizing highly ordered nanoimprinted gold nanodisks and nitrogen doped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Teridi, Mohd Asri; Sookhakian, Mehran; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Zakaria, R.; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; da Silva, Wilson Jose; Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seung Joo; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    High performance organic devices including polymer solar cells (PSCs) and light emitting diodes (PLEDs) were successfully demonstrated with the presence of highly ordered nanoimprinted Au nanodisks (Au NDs) in their solution-processed active/emissive layers, respectively. PSCs and PLEDs were fabricated using a low bandgap polymer and acceptor, nitrogen doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes poly[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]-thiophenediyl] (n-MWCNTs:PTB7), and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) and (4,4-N,N-dicarbazole) biphenyl (CBP) doped with tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(iii) (Ir(ppy)3) as active/emissive layers, respectively. We synthesized nitrogen doped graphene and used it as anodic buffer layer in both devices. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect from Au NDs clearly contributed to the increase in light absorption/emission in the active layers from electromagnetic field enhancement, which originated from the excited LSPR in PSCs and PLEDs. In addition to the high density of LSPR and strong exciton-SP coupling, the electroluminescent (EL) enhancement is ascribed to enhanced spontaneous emission rates. This is due to the plasmonic near-field effect induced by Au NDs. The PSCs and PLEDs exhibited 14.98% (8.08% to 9.29%) under one sun of simulated air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) illumination (100 mW cm-2) and 19.18% (8.24 to 9.82 lm W-1) enhancement in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) compared to the control devices without Au NDs.

  4. Comparison of early and late results of a Carbofilm-coated stent versus a pure high-grade stainless steel stent (the Carbostent-Trial).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sick, P.B.; Gelbrich, G.; Kalnins, U.; Erglis, A.; Bonan, R.; Aengevaeren, W.R.M.; Elsner, D.; Lauer, B.; Woinke, M.; Brosteanu, O.; Schuler, G.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term success of coronary interventions with stents is largely determined by the development of restenosis. The aim of this study was to compare a Carbofilm-coated and a pure stainless steel stent with regard to early and late adverse events. In this prospective, randomized trial, the

  5. Effects of reversion and recrystallization on microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-alloyed low-Ni high-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisko, A., E-mail: anna.kisko@oulu.fi [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Hamada, A.S. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, P.O. Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Talonen, J. [Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 140, FI-02201 Espoo (Finland); Porter, D.; Karjalainen, L.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2016-03-07

    The influence of reversion annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an austenitic high-Mn low-Ni 15Cr–9Mn–1.1Ni–1.7Cu stainless steel with and without Nb alloying was investigated. The steel sheets were cold rolled to a 60% thickness reduction to obtain about 60% of strain-induced α'-martensite and subsequently annealed at temperatures between 700 and 1100 °C for 0.1–1000 s in order to revert the α'-martensite back to austenite and recrystallize the retained austenite. Microstructure evolution was studied using X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques. Mechanical properties were determined using microhardness measurements and tensile tests at room temperature. It was observed that reversion could be completed at 700 °C but then recrystallization of the retained austenite remained partial. At 800 °C, a non-uniform grain structure was obtained consisting of ultrafine-grained areas formed via α'-martensite reversion and coarser ones by recrystallization of the retained austenite, whereas at 900 °C a uniform austenite grain size in the range of 1–2 μm was obtained for all the steels. The non-uniform grain structures exhibited excellent combinations of strength and ductility. The major contribution to the strength is attributed to the refined grain size. The strain hardening rate was higher for the Nb-free steel, even though strain-induced α'-martensite fractions after fracture were slightly lower than in the Nb-alloyed steels.

  6. Microstructures and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Martensitic Heat-Resistant Stainless Steel 403Nb Processed by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqing; Zeng, Zhouyu; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Fuxian; Liu, Xianghua

    2013-11-01

    Thermo-mechanical treatments (TMT) at different rolling deformation temperatures were utilized to process a martensitic heat-resistant stainless steel 403Nb containing 12 wt pct Cr and small additions of Nb and V. Microstructures and mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness, tensile, and creep tests. The results showed that high-temperature mechanical behavior after TMT can be greatly improved and microstructures with refined martensitic lath and finely dispersed nanosized MX carbides could be produced. The particle sizes of M23C6 and MX carbides in 403Nb steel after conventional normalizing and tempering (NT) treatments are about 50 to 160 and 10 to 20 nm, respectively, while those after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) and subsequent tempering at 923 K (650 °C) for 2 hours reach about 25 to 85 and 5 to 10 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 260 MPa and 873 K (600 °C), the tensile creep rupture life of 403Nb steel after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) is 455 hours, more than 3 times that after conventional NT processes. The mechanisms for improving mechanical properties at elevated temperature were analyzed in association with the existence of finely dispersed nanosized MX particles within martensitic lath. It is the nanosized MX particles having the higher stability at elevated temperature that assist both dislocation hardening and sub-grain hardening for longer duration by pinning the movement of dislocations and sub-grain boundary migration.

  7. Pitting corrosion resistance and bond strength of stainless steel overlay by friction surfacing on high strength low alloy steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification is essential for improving the service properties of components. Cladding is one of the most widely employed methods of surface modification. Friction surfacing is a candidate process for depositing the corrosion resistant coatings. Being a solid state process, it offers several advantages over conventional fusion based surfacing process. The aim of this work is to identify the relationship between the input variables and the process response and develop the predictive models that can be used in the design of new friction surfacing applications. In the current work, austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was friction surfaced on high strength low alloy steel substrate. Friction surfacing parameters, such as mechtrode rotational speed, feed rate of substrate and axial force on mechtrode, play a major role in determining the pitting corrosion resistance and bond strength of friction surfaced coatings. Friction surfaced coating and base metal were tested for pitting corrosion by potentio-dynamic polarization technique. Coating microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Coatings in the as deposited condition exhibited strain-induced martensite in austenitic matrix. Pitting resistance of surfaced coatings was found to be much lower than that of mechtrode material and superior to that of substrate. A central composite design with three factors (mechtrode rotational speed, substrate traverse speed, axial load on mechtrode and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Response surface methodology was used to develop the model. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model to predict the pitting corrosion resistance and bond strength by incorporating the friction surfacing process parameters.

  8. Work hardening mechanism in high nitrogen austenitic steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, M., E-mail: 07nd602g@hcs.ibaraki.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Adachi, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tomota, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hikari, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-0014 (Japan); Kamiyama, T. [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Katada, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    With a focus on microstructural hierarchy, work hardening behaviour in high nitrogen-bearing austenitic steel (HNS) was investigated mainly by a combined technique of in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Stress partitioning due to difference in deformability among grains is enhanced in HNS. The larger stress partitioning among [h k l]-oriented family grains seems to realize high work hardening at a small strain. At a larger strain, dislocation density is higher in HNS than in low nitrogen austenitic steel (LNS), which is a possible reason for high work hardening after straining proceeds, resulting in large uniform elongation.

  9. Can evolutionary constraints explain the rarity of nitrogen-fixing trees in high-latitude forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Duncan N L; Crews, Timothy E

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1195 I. 1195 II. 1196 III. 1196 IV. 1200 1200 References 1200 SUMMARY: The rarity of symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees in temperate and boreal ('high-latitude') forests is curious. One explanation - the evolutionary constraints hypothesis - posits that high-latitude N-fixing trees are rare because few have evolved. Here, we consider traits necessary for high-latitude N-fixing trees. We then use recent developments in trait evolution to estimate that > 2000 and > 500 species could have evolved from low-latitude N-fixing trees and high-latitude N-fixing herbs, respectively. Evolution of N-fixing from nonfixing trees is an unlikely source of diversity. Dispersal limitation seems unlikely to limit high-latitude N-fixer diversity. The greater number of N-fixing species predicted to evolve than currently inhabit high-latitude forests suggests a greater role for ecological than evolutionary constraints. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eunsub [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr

    2005-09-25

    Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation was investigated in the present study. Three kinds of powder mixtures, i.e., 50Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-50CaF{sub 2}(flux), 100Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and 87.5Cr-12.5C (wt.%), were placed on an AISI 316L stainless steel substrate, which was then irradiated with electron beam. In the specimens fabricated without the flux addition, the surface composite layer of 3.5-4.8 mm in thickness was successfully formed without defects by the self-fluxing effect, and contained a large amount (up to 18 vol.%) of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides in the austenite matrix. The composite layer fabricated with Cr + C powders having lower melting points than Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} powders was thicker than that fabricated with Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} powders because of more effective melting of Cr + C powders during electron beam irradiation. The hardness and wear resistance of the surface composite layer were directly influenced by hard Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides, and thus were about two times greater than those of the stainless steel substrate.

  11. Nitrogen-doped biomass/polymer composite porous carbons for high performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yu; Maruyama, Jun; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Maruyama, Shohei; Shen, Yehua; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped porous monolithic carbon (NDPMC) is obtained from biomass-derived activated carbon/polyacrylonitrile composite for the first time via a template-free thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) approach followed by KOH activation. The electrochemical results indicate that NDPMC possesses ultrahigh specific capacitance of 442 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, excellent rate capability with 81% retention rate from 1 to 100 A g-1 and outstanding cycling stability with 98% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the evaluation of NDPMC on the practical symmetrical system also exhibits desired electrochemical performances. The novel composite carbon displays remarkable capacitance properties and the feasible, low-cost synthetic route demonstrates great potential for large-scale production of high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  12. Nitrogen Doped Macroporous Carbon as Electrode Materials for High Capacity of Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon materials as electrodes of supercapacitors have attracted abundant attention. Herein, we demonstrated a method to synthesize N-doped macroporous carbon materials (NMC with continuous channels and large size pores carbonized from polyaniline using multiporous silica beads as sacrificial templates to act as electrode materials in supercapacitors. By the nice carbonized process, i.e., pre-carbonization at 400 °C and then pyrolysis at 700/800/900/1000 °C, NMC replicas with high BET specific surface areas exhibit excellent stability and recyclability as well as superb capacitance behavior (~413 F ⋅ g−1 in alkaline electrolyte. This research may provide a method to synthesize macroporous materials with continuous channels and hierarchical pores to enhance the infiltration and mass transfer not only used as electrode, but also as catalyst somewhere micro- or mesopores do not work well.

  13. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure of ferritic stainless steels with high Mo content; Efeito da temperatura de recozimento na microestrutura em acos inoxidaveis ferriticos com alto teor de Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, H.F.G.; Miranda, H.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Herculano, L.F.G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Lab. de Caracterizacao de Materiais; Tavares, S.S.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    The petroleum refined in Brazilian refining plants is characterized by its high content of sulphur. This fact has increased problems related to naphtenic corrosion. It is known by the experience in refining that steels with high contents of Mo present good naphtenic corrosion resistance. This papers studied aspects referring to mechanical properties and microstructure of high Mo ferritic stainless steels developed in laboratory as a function of annealing temperature. Results showed that temperatures between 1000 and 1050 deg C were more suitable to the steels studied. (author)

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  15. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  16. Heavily Graphitic-Nitrogen Self-doped High-porosity Carbon for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tong; Liao, Wenli; Li, Zhongbin; Sun, Lingtao; Shi, Dongping; Guo, Chaozhong; Huang, Yu; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Li, Yanrong; Diao, Qizhi

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale production of active and stable porous carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) from protein-rich biomass became a hot topic in fuel cell technology. Here, we report a facile strategy for synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous nanocarbons by means of a simple two-step pyrolysis process combined with the activation of zinc chloride and acid-treatment process, in which kidney bean via low-temperature carbonization was preferentially adopted as the only carbon-nitrogen sources. The results show that this carbon material exhibits excellent ORR electrocatalytic activity, and higher durability and methanol-tolerant property compared to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst for the ORR, which can be mainly attributed to high graphitic-nitrogen content, high specific surface area, and porous characteristics. Our results can encourage the synthesis of high-performance carbon-based ORR electrocatalysts derived from widely-existed natural biomass.

  17. Development of Cast Alumina-forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys for use in High Temperature Process Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Pankiw, Roman [Duraloy Technologies Inc; Voke, Don [Duraloy Technologies Inc

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of alumina-forming, creep resistant alloys for use in various industrial process environments. It is expected that these alloys can be fabricated into components for use in these environments through centrifugal casting and welding. Based on the successful earlier studies on the development of wrought versions of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) alloys, new alloy compositions have been developed for cast products. These alloys achieve good high-temperature oxidation resistance due to the formation of protective Al2O3 scales while multiple second-phase precipitation strengthening contributes to excellent creep resistance. This work will summarize the results on the development and properties of a centrifugally cast AFA alloy. This paper highlights the strength, oxidation resistance in air and water vapor containing environments, and creep properties in the as-cast condition over the temperature range of 750°C to 900°C in a centrifugally cast heat. Preliminary results for a laboratory cast AFA composition with good oxidation resistance at 1100°C are also presented.

  18. High-temperature nitridation of Nb-Ti alloys in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscaglia, V.; Martinelli, A. [Nat. Res. Council, Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Phys. Chem. of Mater.; Musenich, R. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Mayr, W.; Lengauer, W. [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/161, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    1999-02-01

    Microstructure evolution, phase composition, weight gain and layer growth kinetics of Nb-Ti alloys (10, 47, 63 and 90 at.% Ti) annealed in high-purity nitrogen atmosphere (0.3, 3 and 30 bar) were studied in the temperature range 1300-1600 C. After nitridation, the formation of an external compact nitride layer as well as extensive internal nitride precipitation was observed. The overall nitridation kinetics (weight gain) is invariably parabolic; a deviation from the initial rate law is observed at 1450 and 1600 C for the longer reaction times when the alloy core approaches nitrogen saturation and internal precipitation slows down. The parabolic rate constant is strongly affected by the Nb content in the alloy. The phases detected in the reacted samples are isostructural with those of the Nb-Ti, Nb-N and Ti-N systems. The surface nitride was {delta}-(Ti,Nb)N in any case. The morphology of the internal nitridation zone corresponds to the growth of large, oriented, nitride needles for the three alloys richer in titanium. The needles are composed of {alpha}-(Ti,Nb)(N) in the case of Ti{sub 90}Nb{sub 10} alloy and of {delta}-(Ti,Nb)N{sub 1-x} in the case of Ti{sub 63}Nb{sub 37} and Ti{sub 47}Nb{sub 53}. Such a microstructure is evidence for nucleation difficulty; coarsening of the existing particles is favoured in comparison to the formation of new precipitates. Homogeneous nucleation is hindered by the small chemical Gibbs free energy available and the elastic strain energy related to volume misfit. After initial reaction, microstructure evolution is mainly determined by the fast inward diffusion of nitrogen and the slow Nb-Ti interdiffusion in the {beta}-(Ti,Nb) alloy. Internal nitridation of Ti{sub 10}Nb{sub 90} at 1450 and 1600 C leads to the formation of fine and numerous precipitates of {beta}-(Nb,Ti){sub 2}N. (orig.) 58 refs.

  19. High density nitrogen-vacancy sensing surface created via He{sup +} ion implantation of {sup 12}C diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinsasser, Ed E., E-mail: edklein@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 (United States); Stanfield, Matthew M.; Banks, Jannel K. Q. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Zhu, Zhouyang; Li, Wen-Di [HKU-Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-SIRI), Shenzhen 518000 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Acosta, Victor M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Correlated Electronics Group, Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Itoh, Kohei M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fu, Kai-Mei C., E-mail: kaimeifu@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    We present a promising method for creating high-density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers with narrow spin-resonances for high-sensitivity magnetic imaging. Practically, narrow spin-resonance linewidths substantially reduce the optical and RF power requirements for ensemble-based sensing. The method combines isotope purified diamond growth, in situ nitrogen doping, and helium ion implantation to realize a 100 nm-thick sensing surface. The obtained 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} nitrogen-vacancy density is only a factor of 10 less than the highest densities reported to date, with an observed 200 kHz spin resonance linewidth over 10 times narrower.

  20. Three-Dimensional Porous Nitrogen-Doped NiO Nanostructures as Highly Sensitive NO2 Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hoang Luan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nickel oxide has been widely used in chemical sensing applications, because it has an excellent p-type semiconducting property with high chemical stability. Here, we present a novel technique of fabricating three-dimensional porous nitrogen-doped nickel oxide nanosheets as a highly sensitive NO2 sensor. The elaborate nanostructure was prepared by a simple and effective hydrothermal synthesis method. Subsequently, nitrogen doping was achieved by thermal treatment with ammonia gas. When the p-type dopant, i.e., nitrogen atoms, was introduced in the three-dimensional nanostructures, the nickel-oxide-nanosheet-based sensor showed considerable NO2 sensing ability with two-fold higher responsivity and sensitivity compared to non-doped nickel-oxide-based sensors.

  1. Graphene quantum dots with nitrogen-doped content dependence for highly efficient dual-modality photodynamic antimicrobial therapy and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chen, Hua-Han; Chen, Shih-Yao; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Pei-Chi; Hou, Yung-I; Shao, Yu-Ting; Kao, Hui-Fang; Lilian Hsu, Chih-Li; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Shean-Jen; Wu, Shang-Rung; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2017-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species is the main contributor to photodynamic therapy. The results of this study show that a nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot, serving as a photosensitizer, was capable of generating a higher amount of reactive oxygen species than a nitrogen-free graphene quantum dot in photodynamic therapy when photoexcited for only 3 min of 670 nm laser exposure (0.1 W cm -2 ), indicating highly improved antimicrobial effects. In addition, we found that higher nitrogen-bonding compositions of graphene quantum dots more efficiently performed photodynamic therapy actions than did the lower compositions that underwent identical treatments. Furthermore, the intrinsically emitted luminescence from nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and high photostability simultaneously enabled it to act as a promising contrast probe for tracking and localizing bacteria in biomedical imaging. Thus, the dual modality of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots presents possibilities for future clinical applications, and in particular multidrug resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T T

    2007-08-10

    Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be

  3. Melting Alpine glaciers enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2010-07-01

    Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.

  4. High Nitrogen Fertilization of Tobacco Crop in Headwater Watershed Contaminates Subsurface and Well Waters with Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis was that subsurface and well waters in watershed with shallow, stony soils, steep landscapes, and cropped to tobacco are contaminated by nitrate. Nitrate in soil solution was monitored in (0.20 m and below (0.5 m root zone with tension lysimeters, in five transects. Water from two wells (beneath tobacco field and in native forest used for human consumption was also analyzed for nitrate. Soil bulk density, porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were evaluated. Soil physical and hydrological properties showed great variation at different landscape positions and soil depths. Soil coarse grain size, high porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity favored leaching nitrate. Nitrate in soil solution from tobacco fields was greater than in natural environment. Nitrate reached depths bellow rooting zone with values as high as 80 mg L−1 in tobacco plantation. Water well located below tobacco plantation had high nitrate concentration, sometimes above the critical limit of 10 mg L−1. Tobacco cropping causes significant water pollution by nitrate, posing risk to human health. A large amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied to tobacco and nitrate in subsurface waters demonstrate the unsustainability of tobacco production in small farming units on steeps slopes, with stony and shallow soils.

  5. Vanadium nitride quantum dot/nitrogen-doped microporous carbon nanofibers electrode for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yage; Ran, Fen

    2017-03-01

    In this article, vanadium nitride quantum dot/nitrogen-doped microporous carbon nanofibers (VNQD/CNF) is developed by a method of combination of electrostatic spinning and high-temperature calcination under the atmosphere of NH3: N2 = 3: 2 for high performance supercapacitors. VNQD dispersing into CNF, enrichment of N atom doped in carbon bulk, and abundant porous structure not only prevent the growth and aggregation of VN nanoparticles, improve electrical conductivity, wettability, and stability of the electrode materials, but also enhance fast migration of electrolyte ions during the electrochemical process. Thus, VNQD/CNF exhibits a high specific capacitance of 406.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and a good rate capability with a capacitance retention of 75.1% at 5.0 A g-1. Additionally, VNQD/CNF as a negative electrode are combined with Ni(OH)2 as a positive electrode to fabricate the hybrid supercapacitor of VNQD/CNF//Ni(OH)2. Remarkably, at a power density of 774.6 W kg-1, the supercapacitor device delivers an ultrahigh energy density of 31.2 Wh kg-1.

  6. High winds induce nitrogen loss from US Pacific Northwest agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, B. S.; Graves, L.; Pressley, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    High winds common to the Pacific Northwest region of the USA have resulted in massive loss of topsoil from agricultural fields that are primarily managed in a winter wheat / summer fallow rotation. This topsoil contains nitrogen (N), an essential nutrient required for growth and development of plants. Loss of N from soils can cause degradation of air and water quality and also is an economic concern to farmers because depletion of nutrients from soils results in lower crop yield. Flux of windblown sediment moving across eroding fields was measured during high wind events between 1999 and 2006 in eastern Washington. Samplers were deployed to trap sediment that was creeping along or in saltation/suspension at various heights above fields that were in the summer fallow phase of the rotation. Windblown sediment was weighed and analyzed for N content by combustion and a thermal conductivity analyzer. Enrichment, or the ratio of N in the windblown sediment to soil of greater than one, was observed in about half of the years. For nearly all high wind events, N content of sediment transported by creep was greater than sediment transported by saltation or suspension. This study suggests that wind erosion can result in loss of N from agricultural soils.

  7. Application of a Chemiluminescence Detector for the Measurement of Total Oxides of Nitrogen and Ammonia in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgeson, J. A.; Bell, J. P.; Rehme, K. A.; Krost, K. J.; Stevens, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    By means of the thermal conversion of nitrogen dioxide to the nitric oxide, the chemiluminescent nitric oxide monitor, based on the nitric oxide plus ozone reaction, may be used for monitoring nitrogen dioxide plus nitric oxide (NO(x)). Under conditions previously described, ammonia is also converted to nitric oxide and therefore interferes. A metal surface, gold wool or stainless steel, operated at two different temperatures has been used to convert only nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen dioxide plus ammonia. Quantitative conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide has been obtained at temperatures as low as 200 C. Conversion of ammonia is effected at temperatures of 300 C or higher. By the addition of a converter the basic nitric oxide monitor may be used for measuring NO(x) or NO(x) plus ammonia. As an alternate mode, for a fixed high temperature, a specific scrubber is described for removing NH3 without affecting NO2 concentrations.

  8. Studi Eksperimental Stick-Slip Friction Akibat Multi-Directional Contact Friction dengan Material Uji Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE Terhadap Stainless Steel (AISI 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Yamsi Kurnia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apabila dua buah atau lebih benda yang mengalami kontak dan bergerak relatif satu sama lain maka akan menimbulkan gaya gesek yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya   keausan. Pada kecepatan tertentu, sering terjadi suatu fenomena dimana keausan yang terjadi lebih besar dibandingkan yang lain. Fenomena tersebut disebabkan oleh adanya Stick-Slip Friction. Namun, masih sedikit penelitian mengenai gesekan tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menganalisa kinematika gerakan spesimen untuk menentukan pada rasio kecepatan berapakah stick-slip terjadi. Kemudian, hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan pengambilan data volume keausan menggunakan tribometer tipe Pin-on-disk dengan material Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE sebagai pin uji dan Stainless steel sebagai disk, dimana masing-masing pin dan disk akan bergerak secara rotasi. Masing-masing pengujian divariasikan berdasarkan rasio kecepatan antara pin dengan disk, yaitu rasio kecepatan antara 4,2; 5; 6,5; 10; dan 20 rpm/rpm. Pengujian dilakukan dengan pin digesekkan sepanjang 2000 meter dan diberikan pembebanan 4kg serta diberikan variasi dari radius pin. Selanjutnya spesimen diamati struktur permukaannya menggunakan mikroskop optis dengan perbesaran 5x dan 10x sehingga diketahui mekanisme keausannya, sedangkan data hasil pengujian selanjutnya diolah untuk diketahui laju keausan (wear coefficient dari spesimen uji. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah Pada saat rasio kecepatan 4,2 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 9 mm dari pusat pin, ketika rasio kecepatan 5 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 8 mm dari pusat pin, saat rasio kecepatan 6,5 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 6 mm dari pusat pin, kemudian saat rasio kecepatan 10 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 4 mm dari pusat pin, dan saat rasio kecepatan 20 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 2 mm dari pusat pin. Laju keausan benda yang mengalami stick

  9. High-fidelity spin measurement on the nitrogen-vacancy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Michael; Trupke, Michael; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are versatile candidates for many quantum information processing tasks, ranging from quantum imaging and sensing through to quantum communication and fault-tolerant quantum computers. Critical to almost every potential application is an efficient mechanism for the high fidelity readout of the state of the electronic and nuclear spins. Typically such readout has been achieved through an optically resonant fluorescence measurement, but the presence of decay through a meta-stable state will limit its efficiency to the order of 99%. While this is good enough for many applications, it is insufficient for large scale quantum networks and fault-tolerant computational tasks. Here we explore an alternative approach based on dipole induced transparency (state-dependent reflection) in an NV center cavity QED system, using the most recent knowledge of the NV center’s parameters to determine its feasibility, including the decay channels through the meta-stable subspace and photon ionization. We find that single-shot measurements above fault-tolerant thresholds should be available in the strong coupling regime for a wide range of cavity-center cooperativities, using a majority voting approach utilizing single photon detection. Furthermore, extremely high fidelity measurements are possible using weak optical pulses.

  10. Efficient streptavidin-functionalized nitrogen-doped graphene for the development of highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Lan, Qingchun; Li, Juan; Wu, Jiajia; Tang, Yan; Hu, Xiaoya

    2017-03-15

    In this work, an efficient and universal streptavidin-functionalized nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was for the first time proposed and used to develop a highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of tumor markers. Transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectrum, static water contact measurement, and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the streptavidin-functionalized NG platform and immunosensor. The biofunctionalized NG showed excellent hydrophilicity, larger specific surface area, and high electrochemical activity. These properties of the platform enhanced the loading capacity of proteins, and retained the bioactivity of the immobilized proteins, and thus remarkably improved the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as model analyte, the proposed immunosensor demonstrated a wide linear range of 0.02-12ngmL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.01ngmL(-1). The CEA immunosensor could be applied to detect human serum samples with satisfactory results. The streptavidin-functionalized NG material provided an universal and promising platform for the electrochemical immunosensing applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile synthesis high nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheet from pomelo peel and as catalyst support for nitrobenzene hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Pingping; Duan, Jiaqi; Fan, Huailin; Qu, Shijie; Shen, Wenzhong

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen-doping porous carbon-based nanosheets were fabricated from pemole peel and melamine through hydrothermal route and carbonization. The pomelo peel with sponge-like natural structure was employed as carbon source, and melamine was used both as nitrogen precursors and as nanosheet structure directing. The morphology and chemical composition of the obtained porous carbon nanosheet carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The result indicated that the nanosheet thickness, nitrogen-doped amount and surface area were determined by the ratio of pomelo peel to melamine and carbonization temperature. The catalytic nitrobenzene hydrogenation was evaluated after Pd was loaded on nitrogen-doping porous carbon-based nanosheet. The results showed Pd@PCN had almost 100% conversion and good cycling performance towards the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene due to the developed pore structure, high nitrogen-doping and well dispersed less Pd particle; it was superior to other nanomaterial supports and demonstrated great potential application.

  12. Aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Shi, Li; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Yifan; Du, Bin

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). After successful aerobic granulation, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of the SBR increased from 3.11 to 14.52 g/L, while sludge volume index (SVI) values decreased from 144.61 to 30.32 mL/g. Protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS) concentrations increased from 60.2 and 12.5 mg/L to 101.1 and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was enhanced by altering the influent chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio. At COD/N ratio of 9, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were up to 89.8% and 77.5%, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectroscopy showed that the chemical compositions of sludge EPS were changed during granulation process. The results could provide useful information to promote nitrogen and phosphorus removal using aerobic granular sludge technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple preparation of nitrogen doped titanium dioxide nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets with high visible light activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosong; Peng, Feng; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Fang, Yueping

    2012-01-14

    Nanoscaled nitrogen doped anatase TiO(2) with dominant (001) facets, which exhibited high photocatalytic activity and excellent photoelectrochemical properties under visible light irradiation, was successfully synthesized by solvothermal treatment of TiN in acidic NaBF(4) solution for the first time. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Parsons, A.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Edwards, G.R.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in

  15. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  16. High rates of nitrogen cycling in volcanic soils from Chilean grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E R; Cardenas, L; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Hatch, D J

    2011-06-15

    There are over one million hectares of pasture in Chile, and 80% and 50% of the country's milk and meat comes from 72% of this area, situated in the lake region of southern Chile. The soils are volcanic and a major characteristic is that they have very high organic matter (OM) contents with the potential to support plant growth with only moderate levels of added nitrogen (N). To understand better the potential fertility of these soils in order to maximise production and minimise losses of N, we undertook studies using the stable isotope of N ((15)N) to resolve the rates of the main internal N cycling processes in three soils representing the two main volcanic soil types: Osorno and Chiloé (Andisol) and Cudico (Ultisol). We also assessed the longer-term potential of these soils to sustain N release using anaerobic incubation. Gross rates (µg N g(-1) day(-1)) of mineralisation were 27.9, 27.1 and 15.5 and rates of immobilisation were 5.9, 12.0 and 6.3 for Osorno, Chiloé and Cudico, respectively, implying high rates of net mineralisation in these soils. This was confirmed by anaerobic incubation which gave potential seasonal net mineralisation indices of 1225, 1059 and 450 kg N ha(-1) in the top 10 cm soil layers of the three soils. However, plant production may still benefit from added N, as the release of N from organic sources may not be closely synchronised with crop demand. The low rates of nitrification that we found with these acidic soils suggest that the more mobile N (viz. nitrate-N) would be in limited supply and plants would have to compete for the less mobile ammonium-N with the soil microbial biomass. Nitrogen was mineralised in appreciable amounts even down to 60 cm depth, so that leaching could become significant, particularly if the soils were limed, which could enhance nitrification and N mobility through the soil profile. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. High Level Ethanol Production by Nitrogen and Osmoprotectant Supplementation under Very High Gravity Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachaya Chan-u-tit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nutrient supplements i.e., yeast extract (1, 3 and 5 g·L−1, dried spent yeast (DSY: 4, 12 and 20 g·L−1 and osmoprotectant (glycine: 1, 3 and 5 g·L−1 to improve the efficiency of ethanol production from a synthetic medium under very high gravity (VHG fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 was performed using a statistical method, an L9 (34 orthogonal array design. The synthetic medium contained 280 g·L−1 of sucrose as a sole carbon source. When the fermentation was carried out at 30 °C, the ethanol concentration (P, yield (Yp/s and productivity (Qp without supplementation were 95.3 g·L−1, 0.49 g·g−1 and 1.70 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. According to the orthogonal results, the order of influence on the P and Qp values were yeast extract > glycine > DSY, and the optimum nutrient concentrations were yeast extract, 3; DSY, 4 and glycine, 5 g·L−1, respectively. The verification experiment using these parameters found that the P, Yp/s and Qp values were 119.9 g·L−1, 0.49 g g−1 and 2.14 g·L−1·h−1, respectively. These values were not different from those of the synthetic medium supplemented with 9 g·L−1 of yeast extract, indicating that DSY could be used to replace some amount of yeast extract. When sweet sorghum juice cv. KKU40 containing 280 g·L−1 of total sugar supplemented with the three nutrients at the optimum concentrations was used as the ethanol production medium, the P value (120.0 g·L−1 was not changed, but the Qp value was increased to 2.50 g·L−1·h−1.

  18. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  19. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Soil and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, which provides spatial resolution as fine as 15 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant and soil nitrogen among other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of oats and formulated a machine learning regression model of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant nitrogen and soil nitrogen. A multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) was used to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant and soil nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the model.

  20. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-05-17

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.

  1. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.

  2. Exceptionally high organic nitrogen concentrations in a semi-arid South Texas estuary susceptible to brown tide blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetz, Michael S.; Cira, Emily K.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Montagna, Paul A.; Palmer, Terence A.; Hayes, Kenneth C.

    2017-03-01

    Studies of estuarine eutrophication have tended to focus on systems with continually flowing rivers, while little is known about estuaries from semi-arid/arid regions. Here we report results from an assessment of water quality conditions in Baffin Bay, Texas, a shallow (2 fold higher than in three other Texas estuaries. In contrast, inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, nitrate) and phosphate concentrations were relatively low. Statistically significant long-term annual increases in chlorophyll a and salinity were observed in Baffin Bay, while long-term seasonal increases were observed for water temperature and TKN. Overall, Baffin Bay is displaying multiple symptoms of eutrophication, namely very high organic carbon, organic nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations, as well as symptoms not quantified here such as fish kills and episodic hypoxia. Much of the increase in chlorophyll in Baffin Bay, at least since ∼1990, have coincided with blooms of the mixotrophic phytoplankton species, Aureoumbra lagunensis, which is thought to be favored under high proportions of organic to inorganic nitrogen. Thus the high and possibly increasing organic nitrogen concentrations, coupled with a long-term annual increase in salinity and a long-term seasonal increase in water temperature are likely to promote additional brown tide blooms in this system in the future.

  3. State on AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The passivity and protective nature of the passive films are essentially related to ionic and electronic transport processes, which are controlled by the optical and electronic properties of passive films. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of passive films anodically formed on AISI 304 stainless steel in sulfuric acid solution has been examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. AISI 304 in sulphuric acid solution is characterized by high interfacial impedance, thereby illustrating its high corrosion resistance. Results showed that the interfacial impedance and the polarization resistance (pol initially increase with applied potential, within the low potential passive. However, at a sufficiently high potential passive (>0.4 V, the interfacial impedance and the polarization resistance decrease with increasing potential. An electrical equivalent circuit based on the impedance analysis, which describes the behavior of the passive film on stainless steel more satisfactorily than the proposed models, is presented.

  4. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster restoration and aquaculture are both hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification (DNF). However, this has...

  5. High-performance alkaline direct methanol fuel cell using a nitrogen-postdoped anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghee, Prabhuram; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Wood, Kevin; Bender, Guido; O'Hayre, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    A commercial PtRu/C catalyst postdoped with nitrogen demonstrates a significantly higher performance (~10-20% improvement) in the anode of an alkaline direct methanol fuel cell than an unmodified commercial PtRu/C catalyst control. The enhanced performance shown herein is attributed at least partially to the increased electrochemical surface area of the PtRu/C after postdoping with nitrogen. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandong Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP. Methods. A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, and serum creatinine (Scr determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model was developed to predict SAP as follows: −2.25–0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. Conclusions. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  7. Nitrogen-doped diamond electrode shows high performance for electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-30

    Effective electrode materials are critical to electrochemical reduction, which is a promising method to pre-treat anti-oxidative and bio-refractory wastewater. Herein, nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) electrodes that possess superior electrocatalytic properties for reduction were fabricated by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology. Nitrobenzene (NB) was chosen as the probe compound to investigate the material's electro-reduction activity. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration and pH on NB reduction and aniline (AN) formation efficiencies were studied. NDD exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for reduction of NB to AN. The NB removal efficiency and AN formation efficiency were 96.5% and 88.4% under optimal conditions, respectively; these values were 1.13 and 3.38 times higher than those of graphite electrodes. Coulombic efficiencies for NB removal and AN formation were 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively; these values were 4.70 and 16.6 times higher than those of graphite electrodes under identical conditions. LC-MS analysis revealed that the dominant reduction pathway on the NDD electrode was NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) to AN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  9. Nitrogen-doped graphene-wrapped iron nanofragments for high-performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Yeol; Kim, Na Young; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Joon Kwon, S.; Lim, Dong-Hee; Bong, Ki Wan; Son, Jeong Gon; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-03-01

    Transition metals, such as iron (Fe)- or cobalt (Co)-based nanomaterials, are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells due to their high theoretical activity and low cost. However, a major challenge to using these metals in place of precious metal catalysts for ORR is their low efficiency and poor stability, thus new concepts and strategies should be needed to address this issue. Here, we report a hybrid aciniform nanostructures of Fe nanofragments embedded in thin nitrogen (N)-doped graphene (Fe@N-G) layers via a heat treatment of graphene oxide-wrapped iron oxide (Fe2O3) microparticles with melamine. The heat treatment leads to transformation of Fe2O3 microparticles to nanosized zero-valent Fe fragments and formation of core-shell structures of Fe nanofragments and N-doped graphene layers. Thin N-doped graphene layers massively promote electron transfer from the encapsulated metals to the graphene surface, which efficiently optimizes the electronic structure of the graphene surface and thereby triggers ORR activity at the graphene surface. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped graphene and Fe nanoparticles with porous aciniform nanostructures, the Fe@N-G hybrid catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, which was evidenced by high E1/2 of 0.82 V, onset potential of 0.93 V, and limiting current density of 4.8 mA cm-2 indicating 4-electron ORR, and even exceeds the catalytic stability of the commercial Pt catalyst.

  10. Biological nitrogen fixation in acidic high-temperature geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Lange, Rachel K; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W

    2011-08-01

    The near ubiquitous distribution of nifH genes in sediments sampled from 14 high-temperature (48.0-89.0°C) and acidic (pH 1.90-5.02) geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park suggested a role for the biological reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia (NH(3)) (e.g. nitrogen fixation or diazotrophy) in these environments. nifH genes from these environments formed three unique phylotypes that were distantly related to acidiphilic, mesophilic diazotrophs. Acetylene reduction assays and (15) N(2) tracer studies in microcosms containing sediments sampled from acidic and high-temperature environments where nifH genes were detected confirmed the potential for biological N(2) reduction in these environments. Rates of acetylene reduction by sediment-associated populations were positively correlated with the concentration of NH(4)(+), suggesting a potential relationship between NH(4)(+) consumption and N(2) fixation activity. Amendment of microcosms with NH(4)(+) resulted in increased lag times in acetylene reduction assays. Manipulation of incubation temperature and pH in acetylene reduction assays indicated that diazotrophic populations are specifically adapted to local conditions. Incubation of sediments in the presence of a N(2) headspace yielded a highly enriched culture containing a single nifH phylotype. This phylotype was detected in all 14 geothermal spring sediments examined and its abundance ranged from ≈ 780 to ≈ 6800 copies (g dry weight sediment)(-1), suggesting that this organism may contribute N to the ecosystems. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrate thermoacidiphilic N(2) fixation in the natural environment and extend the upper temperature for biological N(2) fixation in terrestrial systems. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Nitrogen-doped graphene-wrapped iron nanofragments for high-performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Yeol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Yun [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Soo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Joon Kwon, S. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanophotonics Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong-Hee [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Bong, Ki Wan [Korea University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong Gon, E-mail: jgson@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young, E-mail: jinykim@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Transition metals, such as iron (Fe)- or cobalt (Co)-based nanomaterials, are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells due to their high theoretical activity and low cost. However, a major challenge to using these metals in place of precious metal catalysts for ORR is their low efficiency and poor stability, thus new concepts and strategies should be needed to address this issue. Here, we report a hybrid aciniform nanostructures of Fe nanofragments embedded in thin nitrogen (N)-doped graphene (Fe@N-G) layers via a heat treatment of graphene oxide-wrapped iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) microparticles with melamine. The heat treatment leads to transformation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles to nanosized zero-valent Fe fragments and formation of core-shell structures of Fe nanofragments and N-doped graphene layers. Thin N-doped graphene layers massively promote electron transfer from the encapsulated metals to the graphene surface, which efficiently optimizes the electronic structure of the graphene surface and thereby triggers ORR activity at the graphene surface. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped graphene and Fe nanoparticles with porous aciniform nanostructures, the Fe@N-G hybrid catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, which was evidenced by high E{sub 1/2} of 0.82 V, onset potential of 0.93 V, and limiting current density of 4.8 mA cm{sup −2} indicating 4-electron ORR, and even exceeds the catalytic stability of the commercial Pt catalyst.

  12. High potential of nitrogen fixation in pristine, ombrotrophic bogs in Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A.; Bahamonde Aguilar, Nelson A.; Borken, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) input in pristine peatlands occurs via natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation. However, N2 fixation is to date mostly attributed to bacteria and algae associated to Sphagnum and its contribution to plant productivity and peat buildup has been often underestimated in previous studies. Based on net N storage, exceptionally low N deposition, and high abundance of vascular plants at pristine peatlands in Southern Patagonia, we hypothesized that there must be a high potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation not limited to the occurrence of Sphagnum. To this end, we chose two ombrotrophic bogs with spots that are dominated either by Sphagnum or by vascular, cushion-forming plants and sampled peat from different depths for incubation with 15N2 to determine N2 fixation potentials. Moreover, we analyzed 15N2 fixation by a nodule-forming, endemic conifer inhabiting the peatlands. Results from 15N2 uptake were compared to the conventional approach to study N2 fixation by the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Using 15N2 as a tracer, high non-symbiotic N2 fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N g-1 d-1 were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from both plots either covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants. Peat N concentrations suggested a higher potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds as substrates and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth would rather reflect a potential fixation that may switch on during periods of low water levels when oxygen penetrates deeper into the peat. 15N natural abundance of live Sphagnum from 0-10 cm pointed to N uptake solely from atmospheric deposition and non-symbiotic N2 fixation. 15N signatures of peat from the cushion plant plots indicated additional N supply from N

  13. Technical Note: Comparison between a direct and the standard, indirect method for dissolved organic nitrogen determination in freshwater environments with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    was successfully applied to a range of samples from waste water treatment plants to forest and agricultural streams. With 2.5 h of measurement time per sample, SEC is slower, but more accurate than the standard approach for determination of DON concentrations in freshwaters with DIN : TDN ratios >0.6. To sum up...... accuracy at high DIN : TDN ratios, we investigated the DON measurement accuracy of this standard approach according to the DIN : TDN ratio and compared it to the direct measurement of DON by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for freshwater systems. For this, we used standard compounds and natural samples......, the direct DON measurement by SEC enables better understanding of the nitrogen cycle of urban and agricultural freshwater systems....

  14. Three-dimensional nitrogen and boron co-doped graphene for high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Chen, Long; Sun, Yi; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Winter, Andreas; Turchanin, Andrey [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Physik Supramolekularer Systeme und Oberflaechen, Universitaetsstr. 25D, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Feng, Xinliang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-25

    A simplified prototype device of high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) based on 3D nitrogen and boron co-doped monolithic graphene aerogels (BN-GAs) is demonstrated for the first time. The resulting ASSSs show high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and enhanced energy density or power density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. On High-Temperature Materials: A Case on Creep and Oxidation of a Fully Austenitic Heat-Resistant Superalloy Stainless Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanni Raj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of AISI 310S stainless steel taken from SAIL’s Salem stainless steel plant has been investigated by constant load tensile creep test at the temperatures of 973, 1023, and 1073 K and loads of 66.6, 74.8, 86.6, and 94.8 MPa. It exhibits steady-state creep behavior in most test conditions. The double logarithm plot of rupture life and applied stress yielded straight lines at all the three test temperatures indicating that power-law creep due to dislocation climb is the operating mechanism of creep deformation. Linear relationship was obtained for plots of logarithm of rupture life against inverse temperature obeying Arrhenius type of temperature dependence with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. The stress-rupture data yielded a master curve of Larson-Miller parameter. The plot of Monkman-Grant relationship is typical indicating that rupture is controlled by growth of grain boundary cavities. The metallographic examination of crept samples revealed formation of grain boundary voids and cracks leading to intergranular creep fracture. Deformation twins and carbide precipitates were also observed. Oxidation tests were also carried out isothermally at 973 K, 1023 K, and 1073 K in dry air. The plots of mass gain versus square root time were linear at all the three test temperatures obeying parabolic kinetics of oxidation. It was found that scales are well adherent to the substrate. The plot of parabolic rate constant and inverse temperature was linear giving an activation energy value of 210 kJ/mol. The metallographic examination of an oxidized sample reveals duplex types of scales. Finally, rupture properties are compared with that of AISI 600 iron-based superalloy and oxidation weight gain analysis with surface nanocrystalline AISI 310S stainless steel to analyze quantitatively its behavior.

  16. Effect of the purging gas on properties of Ti stabilized AISI 321 stainless steel TIG welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taban, Emel; Kaluc, Erdinc; Aykan, T. Serkan [Kocaeli Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2014-07-01

    Gas purging is necessary to provide a high quality of stainless steel pipe welding in order to prevent oxidation of the weld zone inside the pipe. AISI 321 stabilized austenitic stainless steel pipes commonly preferred in refinery applications have been welded by the TIG welding process both with and without the use of purging gas. As purging gases, Ar, N{sub 2}, Ar + N{sub 2} and N{sub 2} + 10% H{sub 2} were used, respectively. The aim of this investigation is to detect the effect of purging gas on the weld joint properties such as microstructure, corrosion, strength and impact toughness. Macro sections and microstructures of the welds were investigated. Chemical composition analysis to obtain the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen content of the weld root was done by Leco analysis. Ferrite content of the beads including root and cap passes were measured by a ferritscope. Vickers hardness (HV10) values were obtained. Intergranular and pitting corrosion tests were applied to determine the corrosion resistance of all welds. Type of the purging gas affected pitting corrosion properties as well as the ferrite content and nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen contents at the roots of the welds. Any hot cracking problems are not predicted as the weld still solidifies with ferrite in the primary phase as confirmed by microstructural and ferrite content analysis. Mechanical testing showed no significant change according to the purge gas. AISI 321 steel and 347 consumable compositions would permit use of nitrogen rich gases for root shielding without a risk of hot cracking.

  17. Precipitation of aluminum nitride in a high strength maraging steel with low nitrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, G., E-mail: guillaume.jeanmaire@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Dehmas, M.; Redjaïmia, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Puech, S. [Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Fribourg, G. [Snecma Gennevilliers, 171 Boulevard de Valmy-BP 31, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, aluminum nitride (AlN) precipitation was investigated in a X23NiCoCrMoAl13-6-3 maraging steel with low nitrogen content (wt.% N = 5.5 ppm). A reliable and robust automatic method by scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was developed for the quantification of AlN precipitates. The first stage was to identify the solvus temperature and to develop a heat treatment able to dissolve the AlN precipitates. The experimental determination of equilibrium conditions and solvus temperature show good agreement with ThermoCalc® simulation. Then, from this AlN-free state, the cooling rate, isothermal holding time and temperature were the subject of an intensive investigation in the austenite region of this maraging steel. In spite of the high temperatures used during heat treatments, the growth kinetic of the largest AlN precipitates (> 1 μm) is slow. The cooling rate has a major effect on the size and the number density of AlN due to a higher driving force for nucleation at low temperatures. At last, quenching prior to isothermal annealing at high temperatures leads to fine and dense AlN precipitation, resulting from the martensite to austenite transformation. Experimental results will be discussed and compared with kinetic data obtained with the mobility database MobFe2 implemented in Dictra® software. - Highlights: • Slow dissolution kinetic of AlN precipitates due to both their large size and small chemical driving force • Significant effects of cooling rate prior isothermal heat treatment, holding time and temperature on AlN precipitation • Size of AlN precipitates can be reduced by quenching prior isothermal holding. • Fine precipitation of AlN related to the α → γ transformation.

  18. High temperature and low field regime vortex phase diagram of in-situ prepared stainless steel sheathed MgB2 tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Suchitra

    2017-04-01

    A magnetic field-temperature vortex phase diagram has been proposed for MgB2 on the basis of magnetoresistance studies performed on an in-situ prepared stainless steel sheathed MgB2 tapes. Thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) behavior is analyzed using Arrhenius relation. Low dissipative part of magnetoresistance with temperature is well described by vortex glass theory. Above critical region, the resistive behavior is influenced by fluctuation conductivity. In addition, a considerable vortex liquid region below HC2 is also observed but TAFF region is found to be quite narrow.

  19. Strategy for designing stable and powerful nitrogen-rich high-energy materials by introducing boron atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important aims in the development of high-energy materials is to improve their stability and thus ensure that they are safe to manufacture and transport. In this work, we theoretically investigated open-chain N 4 B 2 isomers using density functional theory in order to find the best way of stabilizing nitrogen-rich molecules. The results show that the boron atoms in these isomers are aligned linearly with their neighboring atoms, which facilitates close packing in the crystals of these materials. Upon comparing the energies of nine N 4 B 2 isomers, we found that the structure with alternating N and B atoms had the lowest energy. Structures with more than one nitrogen atom between two boron atoms had higher energies. The energy of N 4 B 2 increases by about 50 kcal/mol each time it is rearranged to include an extra nitrogen atom between the two boron atoms. More importantly, our results also show that boron atoms stabilize nitrogen-rich molecules more efficiently than carbon atoms do. Also, the combustion of any isomer of N 4 B 2 releases more heat than the corresponding isomer of N 4 C 2 does under well-oxygenated conditions. Our study suggests that the three most stable N 4 B 2 isomers (BN13, BN24, and BN34) are good candidates for high-energy molecules, and it outlines a new strategy for designing stable boron-containing high-energy materials. Graphical abstract The structural characteristics, thermodynamic stabilities, and exothermic properties of nitrogen-rich N 4 B 2 isomers were investigated by means of density functional theory.

  20. 77 FR 28568 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; North American Stainless, (Stainless Steel), Ghent, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; North American Stainless, (Stainless... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the stainless steel mill of North American Stainless... subzone status for activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of stainless steel at the...

  1. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Paulraj; Rajnish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic pha...

  2. Exploring X-ray lasing in nitrogen pinch plasma at very high and fast discharge current excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, S.; Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Sharma, M. L.; Tripathi, P. K.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Vora, H. S.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The possibility to demonstrate X-ray lasing in nitrogen at 13.4 nm through recombination scheme driven by capillary discharge excitation has been explored at a high discharge current of 95 kA, with 46 ns quarter period. The emission from nitrogen pinch plasma showed a fast pulse at the instant of pinch formation, overriding the long duration Bremsstrahlung emission. The spectroscopic study revealed dominant X-ray line emissions at 2.8 and 2.1 nm, apart from various X-ray line emissions at higher wavelengths. Line emission at 2.8 nm confirms the formation of NVI charge state of nitrogen. At lower pressures, faint emission of Ly-α line at 2.4 nm indicated formation of NVII ions by further heating. The favourable role of pre-pulse in the formation of higher charge states of nitrogen was also established beyond doubt. This study provides important inputs for future experiments towards demonstration of X-ray lasing at 13.4 nm.

  3. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  4. Identification of QTL Associated with Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Use Efficiency Using High Throughput Genotyped CSSLs in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N availability is a major factor limiting crop growth and development. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for N uptake (NUP and N use efficiency (NUE can provide useful information regarding the genetic basis of these traits and their associated effects on yield production. In this study, a set of high throughput genotyped chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs derived from a cross between recipient 9311 and donor Nipponbare were used to identify QTL for rice NUP and NUE. Using high throughput sequencing, each CSSL were genotyped and an ultra-high-quality physical map was constructed. A total of 13 QTL, seven for NUP and six for NUE, were identified in plants under hydroponic culture with all nutrients supplied in sufficient quantities. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by these QTL for NUP and NUE ranged from 3.16–13.99% and 3.76–12.34%, respectively. We also identified several QTL for biomass yield (BY and grain yield (GY, which were responsible for 3.21–45.54% and 6.28–7.31%, respectively, of observed phenotypic variation. GY were significantly positively correlated with NUP and NUE, with NUP more closely correlated than NUE. Our results contribute information to NUP and NUE improvement in rice.

  5. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: S.Choudhary@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  6. High-resolution magnetic field imaging with a nitrogen-vacancy diamond sensor integrated with a photonic-crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, I V; Blakley, S M; Serebryannikov, E E; Hemmer, P; Scully, M O; Zheltikov, A M

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution magnetic field imaging with a scanning fiber-optic probe which couples nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to a high-numerical-aperture photonic-crystal fiber integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. Magnetic resonance excitation of NV centers driven by the microwave field is read out through optical interrogation through the photonic-crystal fiber to enable high-speed, high-sensitivity magnetic field imaging with sub 30 μm spatial resolution.

  7. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  8. Nitriding Process Characterization of Cold Worked AISI 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Alfredo Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitriding behavior of austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 and 316 was studied by different cold work degree (0% (after heat treated, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% before nitride processing. The microstructure, layer thickness, hardness, and chemical microcomposition were evaluated employing optical microscopy, Vickers hardness, and scanning electron microscopy techniques (WDS microanalysis. The initial cold work (previous plastic deformations in both AISI 304 and 306 austenitic stainless steels does not show special influence in all applied nitriding kinetics (in layer thicknesses. The nitriding processes have formed two layers, one external layer formed by expanded austenite with high nitrogen content, followed by another thinner layer just below formed by expanded austenite with a high presence of carbon (back diffusion. An enhanced diffusion can be observed on AISI 304 steel comparing with AISI 316 steel (a nitrided layer thicker can be noticed in the AISI 304 steel. The mechanical strength of both steels after nitriding processes reveals significant hardness values, almost 1100 HV, on the nitrided layers.

  9. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Aili; Liang, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhuqing; Cai, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH4+ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants. PMID:25915023

  10. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Bao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH4+ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants.

  11. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  12. SCC of stainless steel under evaporative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, H.; Arnvig, P.E.; Wasielewska, W.; Wegrelius, L.; Wolfe, C. [Avesta Sheffield AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Three different test methods have been used to assess the susceptibility of different stainless steel grades to SCC under evaporative and immersed conditions. The methods employed were the drop evaporation test, the wick test and a high temperature, high pressure test simulating a feedwater heater tubing application in power plants. The alloys investigated were commercially produced austenitic and duplex stainless steels varying in chemical composition, plus one copper-nickel alloy. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels towards SCC increased by increasing the content of Ni, Mo and Cr, thus the super austenitic 654SMO{reg_sign} (uns32654) did not show any cracking in any of the three tests. The super austenitic 254SMO{reg_sign} (UNS31254) revealed only slight SCC in the simulated feed water heater tubing application while the equivalent N08367 revealed severe pitting and cracking. The drop evaporation test exhibited the most severe test conditions characterized by thermally induced fatigue effects, sensibility to onset of corrosion and severe acidic conditions generated under deposits on the test specimen. Some factors in stress corrosion cracking tests such as thermal fatigue, diffusion, heat transfer and stress condition, are discussed with regard to their influence on the test results.

  13. High-Nitrogen-Based Pyrotechnics: Development of Perchlorate-Free Green-Light Illuminants for Military and Civilian Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    previously.[1,9] Rather than de- riving their combustion energy from the oxidation of a carbon backbone, high-nitrogen compounds derive their energy from...ignitability and decomposes exo- thermically ,[5] removing it from the formulation means that energy is removed from the pyrotechnic system. To compen...when subjected to the vacuum thermal stability test (100 8C for 48 h). Analysis of 4 by X- ray diffraction[9a] has shown that the water molecule is not

  14. High/low nitrogen adapted hybrid of rice cultivars and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other four types were lying in the middle with moderate adaptability of nitrogen. Furthermore, five varieties were selected from each of the mentioned six types and then grew in N-free conditions to investigate their performance on lack of N. The results showed that type 1, the dry weight of the materials originally growing in ...

  15. High performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an electrolysis-integrated biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Xie, Y W; Zhang, Q; Yu, Y X; Yang, L Y

    A novel electrolysis-integrated biofilter system was developed in this study to evaluate the intensified removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from contaminated water. Two laboratory-scale biofilter systems were established, one with electrolysis (E-BF) and one without electrolysis (BF) as control. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the changes of inflow and outflow water qualities were also evaluated. The total nitrogen (TN) removal rate was 94.4% in our newly developed E-BF, but only 74.7% in the control BF. Ammonium removal rate was up to 95% in biofilters with or without electrolysis integration with an influent ammonium concentration of 40 mg/L, and the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was much lower in the effluent of E-BF than that of BF. Thus electrolysis plays an important role in TN removal especially the nitrate and nitrite removal. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 90% in E-BF by chemical precipitation, physical adsorption, and flocculation of phosphorus because of the in situ formation of ferric ions by the anodizing of sacrificial iron anodes. Results from this study indicate that the electrolysis integrated biofilter is a promising solution for intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

  16. Plant functional type affects nitrogen use efficiency in high-Arctic tundra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Rowe, E. C.; Myška, Oldřich; Chuman, T.; Evans, C.D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, mar (2016), s. 19-28 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Arctic * Nitrogen * Isotope * Mineralization * Nitrification * Tundra Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  17. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  18. The Mekong River plume fuels nitrogen fixation and determines phytoplankton species distribution in the South China Sea during low- and high-discharge season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosse, Julia; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu

    2010-01-01

    cruises. High N2 fixation rates were measured during both seasons, with rates of up to 5.05 nmol N L-1 h -1 in surface waters under nitrogen-replete conditions, increasing to 22.77 nmol N L-1 h-1 in nitrogen-limited waters. Asymbiotic diatoms were found only close to the river mouth, and symbiotic diatoms...

  19. A nitrogen-doped graphene/gold nanoparticle/formate dehydrogenase bioanode for high power output membrane-less formic acid/O2 biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Panpan; Ji, Yusheng; Chen, Yun; Zhu, Cheng; Zhang, Jianrong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-03-21

    A high power output, membrane-less formic acid/O2 enzymatic biofuel cell was fabricated, in which nitrogen-doped graphene was proven to be effective for recycling the NAD(+)/NADH cofactor at a nitrogen-doped graphene/gold nanoparticle/formate dehydrogenase bioanode in the catalytic oxidation of formic acid.

  20. Design and construction of prototype transversely excited atmospheric (TEA nitrogen laser energized by a high voltage electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports design and construction, of a prototype of Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA nitrogen laser, and a high voltage power supply to excite N2 gas in air, while air is used as an active lasing medium. A Blumlein line discharge circuit is used for operation of this laser. The high voltage is generated by a fly back transformer based power supply varying from 10 kV to 20 kV. The wavelength (337.1 nm of TEA nitrogen laser is measured employing a standard commercial spectrometer and the laser output energy of 300 μJ is measured from the constructed system. Different parameters such as beam profile, laser output spectrum, laser efficiency, and variation of E/P (Electrical field/Pressure value with respect to input voltage and electrodes separations are studied in order to optimize the overall operational efficiency of present nitrogen laser. The analysis of the high voltage prototype appeared in this designed source has also been made and described in this paper.

  1. Effect of Titanium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel 8Cr13MoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of titanium on the carbides and mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steel 8Cr13MoV was studied. The results showed that TiCs not only acted as nucleation sites for δ-Fe and eutectic carbides, leading to the refinement of the microstructure, but also inhibited the formation of eutectic carbides M7C3. The addition of titanium in steel also promoted the transformation of M7C3-type to M23C6-type carbides, and consequently more carbides could be dissolved into the matrix during hot processing as demonstrated by the determination of extracted carbides from the steel matrix. Meanwhile, titanium suppressed the precipitation of secondary carbides during annealing. The appropriate amount of titanium addition decreased the size and fraction of primary carbides in the as-cast ingot, and improved the mechanical properties of the annealed steel.

  2. Stainless steel tube-based cell cryopreservation containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Hung; Yu, Zong-Yan; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on increasing the freezing rate in cell vitrification cryopreservation by using a cryopreservation container possessing rigid mechanical properties and high heat-transfer efficiency. Applying a fast freezing rate in vitrification cryopreservation causes a rapid temperature change in the cryopreservation container and has a substantial impact on mechanical properties; therefore, a highly rigid cryopreservation container that possesses a fast freezing rate must be developed. To produce a highly rigid cryopreservation container possessing superior heat transfer efficiency, this study applies an electrochemical machining (ECM) method to an ANSI 316L stainless steel tube to treat the surface material by polishing and roughening, thereby increasing the freezing rate and reducing the probability of ice crystal formation. The results indicated that the ECM method provided high-quality surface treatment of the stainless steel tube. This method can reduce internal surface roughness in the stainless steel tube, thereby reducing the probability of ice crystal formation, and increase external surface roughness, consequently raising convection heat-transfer efficiency. In addition, by thinning the stainless steel tube, this method reduces heat capacity and thermal resistance, thereby increasing the freezing rate. The freezing rate (3399 ± 197 °C/min) of a stainless steel tube after interior and exterior polishing and exterior etching by applying ECM compared with the freezing rate (1818 ± 54 °C/min) of an original stainless steel tube was increased by 87%, which also exceeds the freezing rate (2015 ± 49 °C/min) of an original quartz tube that has a 20% lower heat capacity. However, the results indicated that increasing heat-transferring surface areas and reducing heat capacities cannot effectively increase the freezing rate of a stainless steel tube if only one method is applied; instead, both techniques must be implemented concurrently to improve the

  3. High efficiency of isopropanol combustion over cobalt oxides modified ZSM-5 zeolite membrane catalysts on paper-like stainless steel fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Huiping; Yan, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic performances of isopropanol combustion and bed pressure drop in structured fixed bed reactor composed of cobalt oxides modified ZSM-5 zeolite membrane catalysts on paper-like stainless steel fibers (Co/ZSM-5/PSSF) and traditional granular ZSM-5 zeolites catalysts were investigated in this paper. Both of the catalyst samples were fabricated by wetness impregnation method and were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) mapping and the N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm analyses. The result of EDS mapping revealed that cobalt oxides dispersed well on ZSM-5/PSSF. The Co/ZSM-5/PSSF catalyst display superior catalytic activity to granular Co/ZSM-5 catalyst, 50% and 90% isopropanol conversion temperatures over Co/ZSM-5/PSSF reduced 107 °C and 51 °C, respectively, compared with those over granular Co/ZSM-5 catalysts. The apparent activation energy for isopropanol combustion over Co/ZSM-5/PSSF (90 kJ/mol) was much lower than that over granular Co/ZSM-5 (134 kJ/mol). When the face velocity increased to 14.9 cm/s, the bed pressure drop of reactor filled with only Co/ZSM-5/PSSF catalysts was 9.5% of that of reactor filled with only granular Co/ZSM-5 catalysts. The ZSM-5 zeolite membrane on paper-like stainless steel fibers support provide good dispersion for cobalt oxides and Co/ZSM-5/PSSF show superior catalytic efficiency of isopropanol combustion and produced lower bed pressure drop in reactor compared with granular ZSM-5 zeolites. Co/ZSM-5/PSSF composite catalyst show superior catalytic activity for isopropanol combustion and produced lower bed pressure drop compared with traditional granular Co/ZSM-5.

  4. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  5. The use of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, N Sue

    2002-01-01

    The stainless steel crown (SSC) is an extremely durable restoration with several clear-cut indications for use in primary teeth including: following a pulpotomy/pulpectomy; for teeth with developmental defects or large carious lesions involving multiple surfaces where an amalgam is likely to fail; and for fractured teeth. In other situations, its use is less clear cut, and caries risk factors, restoration longevity and cost effectiveness are considerations in decisions to use the SSC. The literature on caries risk factors in young children indicates that children at high risk exhibiting anterior tooth decay and/or molar caries may benefit by treatment with stainless steel crowns to protect the remaining at-risk tooth surfaces. Studies evaluating restoration longevity, including the durability and lifespan of SSCs and Class II amalgams demonstrate the superiority of SSCs for both parameters. Children with extensive decay, large lesions or multiple surface lesions in primary molars should be treated with stainless steel crowns. Because of the protection from future decay provided by their feature of full coverage and their increased durability and longevity, strong consideration should be given to the use of SSCs in children who require general anesthesia. Finally, a strong argument for the use of the SSC restoration is its cost effectiveness based on its durability and longevity.

  6. High efficiency of inorganic nitrogen removal by integrating biofilm-electrode with constructed wetland: Autotrophic denitrifying bacteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Yuhui; Bai, Junhong; Liu, Zhaowei; Song, Xinshan; Yan, Dengming; Abiyu, Asaminew; Zhao, Zhimiao; Yan, Denghua

    2017-03-01

    The constructed wetland coupled with biofilm-electrode reactor (CW-BER) is a novel technology to treat wastewater with a relatively high level of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) concentration. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of C/Ns, TIN concentrations, current intensities, and pH on the removal of nitrogen in CW-BER; a control system (CW) was also constructed and operated with similar influent conditions. Results indicated that the current, inorganic carbon source and hydrogen generated by the micro-electric field could significantly improve the inorganic nitrogen removal with in CW-BER, and the enhancement of average removal rate on NH3-N, NO3-N, and TIN was approximately maintained at 5-28%, 5-26%, and 3-24%, respectively. The appropriate operation conditions were I=10mA and pH=7.5 in CW-BER. In addition, high-throughput sequencing analysis implied that the CW-BER reactor has been improved with the relative abundance of autotrophic denitrifying bacteria (Thiobacillus sp.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets derived from egg white by using expanded perlite template and its high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiucun; Liu, Yinqin; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Liqun; Yang, Huan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets were synthesized using egg white as a unique carbon source and expanded perlite as a novel template. The as-prepared material was further used as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications, demonstrating excellent supercapacitance with a maximum gravimetric specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in a 3-electrode setup for a sample carbonized at 850 °C and activated for 6 h. Moreover, the carbon sheet-based capacitor with 2-symmetric electrodes showed an excellent cycle life (2% loss at 0.1 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles). The excellent performance may be attributed to the combination of the 3D carbon structure and the highly concentrated doped nitrogen component from the natural egg source for superior pseudocapacitance.

  8. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP, throughfall (TF, stemflow (SF, surface runoff (SR, forest floor leachate (FFL, soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1 and 100 cm (SW2 were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+, N-NO3(- and dissolved organic N (DON accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(- and DON but not N-NH4(+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  9. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  10. Vapour-liquid equilibrium of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures and air at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, J. C.; Jacobsen, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium surface of the binary mixture nitrogen-oxygen is correlated over an extended critical region with the Leung-Griffiths model as modified by Rainwater and Moldover (1983). No single comprehensive experimental measurement of the coexistence surface is available. However, several different experiments along isopleths, isotherms, and isobars collectively provide enough data to make possible the development of a reasonable correlation. The model is optimized to modern data and is shown to be consistent with pioneering measurements done before 1930, to within experimental and temperature-scale uncertainties. It is shown that air in the critical region can be accurately modeled as a nitrogen-oxygen binary mixture by including the small argon component with oxygen. Ancillary equations for the saturation properties of air as functions of temperature are also constructed.

  11. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets made from biomass as highly active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fuping; Cao, Zhongyue; Zhao, Qiuping; Liang, Hongyu; Zhang, Junyan

    2014-12-01

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells requires the efficient electrocatalyst to make the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) fast because of the sluggish nature of ORR and the high cost of the platinum catalysts. In this work, we report the excellent performance of metal-free nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets (NPCN) with hierarchical porous structure and a high surface area of 1436.02 m2 g-1 for catalyzing ORR. The active NPCN is synthesized via facile high-temperature carbonization of natural ginkgo leaves followed by purification and ammonia post-treatment without using additional supporting templates and activation processes. In O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH solution, the resultant NPCN exhibits a high kinetic-limiting current density of 13.57 mA cm-2 at -0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) approaching that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst (14 mA cm-2) and long-term electrochemical stability. Notably, the NPCN shows a slightly negative ORR half-wave potential in comparison with Pt/C (ΔE1/2 = 19 mV). The excellent electrocatalytic properties of NPCN originate from the combined effect of optimal nitrogen doping, high surface area, and porous architecture, which induce the high-density distribution of highly active and stable catalytic sites.

  12. Sulfur and Nitrogen Co-Doped Graphene Electrodes for High-Performance Ionic Artificial Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotal, Moumita; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Kwang J; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-02-24

    Sulfur and nitrogen co-doped graphene electrodes for bioinspired ionic artificial muscles, which exhibit outstanding actuation performances (bending strain of 0.36%, 4.5 times higher than PSS electrodes, and 96% of initial strain after demonstration over 18 000 cycles), provide remarkable electro-chemo-mech anical properties: specific capacitance, electrical conductivity, and large surface area with mesoporosity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. a proposal of nitrogen balance in a very high density olive orchard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belguerri H, Villar J.M, Pascual M, Fatmi A, Amadeu A and Rufat J

    1 mai 2016 ... augmente la production de l'olivier de la variété Arbequina particulièrement en super-intensif, bien que le niveau de ... Le bilan de l'azote est considéré comme la différence entre les apports (entrées) et les exportations ...... [15] Rovira P, and Vallejo V.R, Organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization under.

  14. High-Performance Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cell using a Nitrogen-Postdoped Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Prior to nitrogen implantation, powders were outgassed by heating to above 180°( for 15 min. Samples were then implanted by using a 3 em DC ion...acted as GDLs on the anode and cathode side of the MEAs, respectively. Serpentine -type graphite separators with channel dimensions of 1 mmxl mm...analysis facilities provided at NREL. Keywords: electrochemistry • fuel cells • ion exchange • membranes • oxidation {1] A. V. TripkoviC, K. D

  15. Coal Matrix Deformation and Pore Structure Change in High-Pressure Nitrogen Replacement of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal matrix deformation is one of the main controlling factors for coal reservoir permeability changes in nitrogen foam fracturing. The characteristics and mechanism of coal matrix deformation during the process of adsorption/desorption were studied by isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments with methane and nitrogen. Based on the free-energy theories, the Langmuir equation, and elastic mechanics, mathematical models of coal matrix deformation were developed and the deformation characteristics in adsorption/desorption processes were examined. From the study, we deduced that the coal matrix swelling, caused by methane adsorption, was a Langmuir-type relationship with the gas pressure, and exponentially increased as the adsorption quantity increased. Then, the deformation rate and amplitude of the coal matrix decreased gradually with the increase of the pressure. At the following stage, where nitrogen replaces methane, the coal matrix swelling continued but the deformation amplitude decreased, which was only 19.60% of the methane adsorption stage. At the mixed gas desorption stage, the coal matrix shrank with the reduction of pressure and the shrinkage amount changed logarithmically with the pressure, which had the hysteresis effect when compared with the swelling in adsorption. The mechanism of coal matrix deformation was discussed through a comparison of the change of micropores, mesopores, and also part macropores in the adsorption process.

  16. Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon-silicon core-shell structures for high-power supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, S A Safiabadi; Soleimani-Amiri, S; Sanaee, Z; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2017-02-10

    We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C2H2 and N2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures. Although as-deposited a-C:N films have a porous surface, their porosity can be significantly improved through a modification process consisting of Ni-assisted annealing and etching steps. The electrochemical analyses demonstrated the superior performance of the modified a-C:N as a supercapacitor active material, where specific capacitance densities as high as 42 F/g and 8.5 mF/cm2 (45 F/cm3) on silicon microrod arrays were achieved. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode showed less than 6% degradation of capacitance over 5000 cycles of a galvanostatic charge-discharge test. It also exhibited a relatively high energy density of 2.3 × 103 Wh/m3 (8.3 × 106 J/m3) and ultra-high power density of 2.6 × 108 W/m3 which is among the highest reported values.

  17. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Stainless Steel Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H [ORNL; Lou, Xiaoyuan [General Electric (GE); List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Webber, David [General Electric (GE)

    2016-09-01

    This collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Electric Company aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties, microstructure, and porosity of the additively manufactured 316L stainless steel by ORNL’s Renishaw AM250 machine for nuclear application. The program also evaluated the stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of the same material in high temperature water environments. Results show the properties of this material to be similar to the properties of 316L stainless steel fabricated additively with equipment from other manufacturers with slightly higher porosity. The stress corrosion crack growth rate is similar to that for wrought 316L stainless steel for an oxygenated high temperature water environment and slightly higher for a hydrogenated high temperature water environment. Optimized heat treatment of this material is expected to improve performance in high temperature water environments.

  18. Nanotribological behavior of deep cryogenically treated martensitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Germán; Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D; Tuckart, Walter R; Broitman, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Cryogenic treatments are increasingly used to improve the wear resistance of various steel alloys by means of transformation of retained austenite, deformation of virgin martensite and carbide refinement. In this work the nanotribological behavior and mechanical properties at the nano-scale of cryogenically and conventionally treated AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel were evaluated. Conventionally treated specimens were subjected to quenching and annealing, while the deep cryogenically treated samples were quenched, soaked in liquid nitrogen for 2 h and annealed. The elastic-plastic parameters of the materials were assessed by nanoindentation tests under displacement control, while the friction behavior and wear rate were evaluated by a nanoscratch testing methodology that it is used for the first time in steels. It was found that cryogenic treatments increased both hardness and elastic limit of a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, while its tribological performance was enhanced marginally.

  19. Influence of interstitial solute level on toughness properties of 40% Cr-Fe stainless-steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zwieten, ACTM

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a study aimed at assessing the influence of interstitial solute concentrations, in the form of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, on the mechanical properties of a 40% Cr-Fe stainless steel. It’s observed that carbon...

  20. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  1. High electrocatalytic performance of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber-supported nickel oxide nanocomposite for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Enizi, Abdullah M. [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, PO Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Elzatahry, Ahmed A., E-mail: aelzatahry@ksu.edu.sa [Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Science, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria 21934 (Egypt); Abdullah, Aboubakr M., E-mail: bakr@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Vinu, Ajayan [Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Building X-X2-09, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes 5095 SA (Australia); Iwai, Hideo [Materials Analysis Station, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047 (Japan); Al-Deyab, Salem S. [Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, PO Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A mixture of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), graphene and emeraldine base polyaniline (PANi) was electrospun and used as starting materials to prepare a nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF). • Nickel oxide was loaded on the N-CNF to form a nanocomposite which was calcined later at different temperatures. • The effect of calcination temperature on the electrocatalytic behavior of the nanocomposite was studied which shows that the nanocomposite calcined at 500 °C was proved to be very high compared to the other calcination temperatures. • The stability of catalyst was excellent and its resistance to the adsorption of the intermediates generated from the methanol oxidation was very high. - Abstract: Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber (N-CNF)–supported NiO composite was prepared by electrospinning a sol-gel mixture of graphene and polyaniline (PANi) with aqueous solutions of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by a high-temperature annealing process. The electrospun was stabilized for 2 h at 280 °C, carbonized for 5 h at 1200 °C then loaded by 10% NiO. The electrocatalytic activities of the produced nanocomposite have been studied using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. Also, N-CNF was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained N-doped carbon nanofiber was found to have a nitrogen content of 2.6 atomic% with a diameter range of (140–160) nm, and a surface area (393.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). In addition, it showed a high electrocatalytic behavior towards methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium and high stability and resistivity to the adsorption of intermediates.

  2. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  3. Synthesis of biocompatible and highly photoluminescent nitrogen doped carbon dots from lime: Analytical applications and optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arkan, Elham [Nano Drug Delivery Research Center Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Leila [Novel Drug Delivery Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: abd@iasbs.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Herein, a facile hydrothermal treatment of lime juice to prepare biocompatible nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen source has been presented. The resulting N-CQDs exhibited excitation and pH independent emission behavior; with the quantum yield (QY) up to 40%, which was several times greater than the corresponding value for CQDs with no added nitrogen source. The N-CQDs were applied as a fluorescent probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg{sup 2+} ions with a detection limit of 14 nM. Moreover, the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of N-CQDs at different concentration ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 mg/ml were investigated by using PC12 cells as a model system. Response surface methodology was used for optimization and systematic investigation of the main variables that influence the QY, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and ammonium bicarbonate weight. - Highlights: • High fluorescent N-doped CQDs from lime juice have been prepared. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize and model the main factors. • N-doped CQDs were used in the selective and sensitive detection of Hg(II). • The biocompatibility of prepared N-doped CQDs was conformed using PC12 cells.

  4. Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on ferritic stainless steel AISI 441 at high temperatures; Efeito da pressao parcial de oxigenio sobre o aco inoxidavel ferritico AISI 441 em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, M.F.; Carvalho, I.S.; Santos, R.S. [Universidade Estadual do Maranhao(UEMA), MA (Brazil); Correa, O.V.; Ramanathan, L.V., E-mail: fatima.salgado@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Stainless steels can be exposed to aggressive gases at high temperatures. To understand the behavior of oxidation of the steel AISI 441 was made oxidation at temperatures between 850 ° C and 950 ° C, at two different atmospheres: synthetic air, using tubular furnace and Argon, containing 1ppm O{sub 2}, in thermobalance. The kinetics of oxidation of the films was established by measuring the mass gain per unit of area as a function of the oxidation time. The microstructure and chemical composition of the oxides were analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. Chemical analysis showed that films formed on steel AISI 441 had mostly chromium oxide and the following elements: Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti and Si. Regarding the kinetics of oxidation, it was observed that in synthetic air, the steel oxidation increased gradually with the temperature, but in argon, it showed the highest oxidation at 900 ° C and the lowest oxidation at 950 ° C. (author)

  5. Electrochemical and passivation behavior investigation of ferritic stainless steel in simulated concrete pore media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The applications of stainless steel are one of the most reliable solutions in concrete structures to reduce chloride-induced corrosion problems and increase the structures service life, however, due to high prices of nickel, especially in many civil engineering projects, the austenitic stainless steel is replaced by the ferritic stainless steels. Compared with austenite stainless steel, the ferritic stainless steel is known to be extremely resistant of stress corrosion cracking and other properties. The good corrosion resistance of the stainless steel is due to the formation of passive film. While, there is little literature about the electrochemical and passive behavior of ferritic stainless steel in the concrete environments. So, here, we present the several corrosion testing methods, such as the potentiodynamic measurements, EIS and Mott–Schottky approach, and the surface analysis methods like XPS and AES to display the passivation behavior of 430 ferritic stainless steel in alkaline solution with the presence of chloride ions. These research results illustrated a simple and facile approach for studying the electrochemical and passivation behavior of stainless steel in the concrete pore environments.

  6. Electrochemical study of a novel high performance supercapacitor based on MnO{sub 2}/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: hrnaderi@ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Parviz, E-mail: norouzi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was prepared by sonochemical method. • MnO{sub 2} are anchored on the surface of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGO). • MnO{sub 2}/NRGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • The nanocomposite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 522 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. • The electrode reveals 97% retention of initial capacitance after 4000 cycles. - Abstract: A new nanocomposite was synthesized via deposition of MnO{sub 2} on Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene (MnO{sub 2}/NRGO) by sonochemical method, in which, the particles of manganese oxide were uniformly distributed on NRGO sheets. The structure and morphology of MnO{sub 2}/NRGO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical supercapacitive performance of the nanocomposite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), continuous cyclic voltammetry (CCV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The MnO{sub 2}/NRGO nanocomposite shows enhanced specific capacitance of 522 F g{sup −1} at 2 mV s{sup −1} and its high synergistic effect was compared with MnO{sub 2}/RGO. The high specific capacitance and exceptionally high cyclic stability of MnO{sub 2}/NRGO attributes to the doping of nitrogen and uniform dispersion of MnO{sub 2} particles on NRGO. The CCV showed that the capacity retention for MnO{sub 2}/NRGO and MnO{sub 2}/RGO still maintained at 96.3% and 93% after 4000 CVs. The improved supercapacitive performance enables this nanocomposite as efficient electrode material for supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. Altitudinal gradients of soil and vegetation carbon and nitrogen in a high altitude nature reserve of Karakoram ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedayi, Arshad Ali; Xu, Ming; Naseer, Iqnaa; Khan, Babar

    2016-01-01

    the STC (76.20 %) as compared to the SIC (1.05 %). Furthermore, SOC (75.15 %) was the major constituent to the soil organic matter (SOM) as compared to the STN (5.85 %). The vegetation type and litter both showed high impact on STN and STC, while altitude and HB showed very little or no impact on carbon and nitrogen concentrations. However, altitude puts great impact on shaping vegetation structure due to decreasing temperature along the elevation and other climatic factors which are further responsible in controlling the carbon and nitrogen concentration.

  8. An innovative wood-chip-framework substrate used as slow-release carbon source to treat high-strength nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai; Chi, Zifang; Yan, Baixing; Cheng, Long; Li, Jianzheng

    2017-01-01

    Removal of nitrogen in wastewater before discharge into receiving water courses is an important consideration in treatment systems. However, nitrogen removal efficiency is usually limited due to the low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. A common solution is to add external carbon sources, but amount of liquid is difficult to determine. Therefore, a combined wood-chip-framework substrate (with wood, slag and gravel) as a slow-release carbon source was constructed in baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to overcome the problem. Results show that the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 37.5%-85%, 57.4%-86%, 32.4%-78%, respectively, indicating the combined substrate could diffuse sufficient oxygen for the nitrification process (slag and gravel zone) and provide carbon source for denitrification process (wood-chip zone). The nitrification and denitrification were determined according to the location of slag/gravel and wood-chip, respectively. Nitrogen removal was efficient at the steady phase before a shock loading using slag-wood-gravel combined substrate because of nitrification-denitrification process, while nitrogen removal was efficient under a shock loading with wood-slag-gravel combined substrate because of ANAMMOX process. This study provides a new idea for wetland treatment of high-strength nitrogen wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Bin [Department of Materials Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Baocheng, E-mail: caobch@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO{sub 2} thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  10. Effect of oxidation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Z3CN20.09M dyplex stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huan Chun; Yang, Bin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Chen, Yue Feng; Chen, Xu Dong [Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    The fatigue crack propagation behaviors of Z3CN20.09M duplex stainless steel (DSS) were investigated by studying oxide films of specimens tested in 290°C water and air. The results indicate that a full oxide film that consisted of oxides and hydroxides was formed in 290°C water. By contrast, only a half-baked oxide film consisting of oxides was formed in 290°C air. Both environments are able to deteriorate the elastic modulus and hardness of the oxide films, especially the 290°C water. The fatigue lives of the specimens tested in 290°C air were about twice of those tested in 290°C water at all strain amplitudes. Moreover, the crack propagation rates of the specimen tested in 290°C water were confirmed to be faster than those tested in 290°C air, which was thought to be due to the deteriorative strength of the oxide films induced by the mutual promotion of oxidation and crack propagation at the crack tip. It is noteworthy that the crack propagation can be postponed by the ferrite phase in the DSS, especially when the specimens were tested in 290°C water.

  11. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  12. Synthesis and properties of high nitrogen salts of 4,4',5,5'-tetranitro-2,2'-biimidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Lewczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitro derivatives of imidazole form an interesting group of high-energy materials. One of them is 4,4’,5,5’-tetranitro-2,2’-biimidazole (TNBI which has high detonation parameters and could be used in modern propellants or explosive compositions. Unfortunately it is very hygroscopic and can be used only in form of salt. An important feature of these materials is their low sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. In the past few years, several publications about TNBI and its salts have been released but still there are no results of complex study on detonation parameters. In this work, new high-nitrogen salts of TNBI were synthesized — 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazolium 4,4’,5,5’-tetranitro-2,2’-biimidazolate. The structure of the obtained compounds was confirmed with NMR spectroscopy. Thermal properties were investigated with DTA/TG analysis.[b]Keywords[/b]: explosives, TNBI, high nitrogen salts

  13. Hierarchical porous nitrogen-rich carbon nanospheres with high and durable capabilities for lithium and sodium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lianbo; Chen, Renpeng; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Guoyin; Chen, Tao; Lu, Hongling; Liang, Jia; Tie, Zuoxiu; Jin, Zhong; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-20

    To improve the energy storage performance of carbon-based materials, considerable attention has been paid to the design and fabrication of novel carbon architectures with structural and chemical modifications. Herein, we report that hierarchical porous nitrogen-rich carbon (HPNC) nanospheres originating from acidic etching of metal carbide/carbon hybrid nanoarchitectures can be employed as high-performance anode materials for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The structural advantages of HPNC nanospheres are that the exceptionally-high content of nitrogen (17.4 wt%) can provide abundant electroactive sites and enlarge the interlayer distance (∼3.5 Å) to improve the capacity, and the large amount of micropores and mesopores can serve as reservoirs for storing lithium/sodium ions. In LIBs, HPNC based anodes deliver a high reversible capacity of 1187 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1, a great rate performance of 470 mA h g-1 at 5000 mA g-1, and outstanding cycling stabilities with a capacity of 788 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1. In SIBs, HPNC based anodes exhibit a remarkable reversible capacity of 357 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and high long-term stability with a capacity of 136 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1.

  14. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of highly luminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaling; Zheng, Jingxia; Wang, Junli; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2017-11-01

    Highly luminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized rapidly by one-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using citric acid as carbon source and ethylenediamine as dopant. The influences of reaction temperature, reaction time and raw material ratio on the fluorescence performance of N-CDs were investigated. Then N-CDs with the highest quantum yield were selected as fluorescent materials for fabricating white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Highly luminescent N-CDs with the quantum yield of 75.96% and blue-to-red spectral composition of 51.48% were obtained at the conditions of 180 °C, 8 min and the molar ratio of citric acid to ethylenediamine 2:1. As-prepared highly luminescent N-CDs have an average size of 6.06 nm, possess extensive oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups on their surface, and exhibit strong absorption in ultraviolet region. White LEDs based on the highly luminescent N-CDs emit warm white light with color coordinates of (0.42, 0.40) and correlated color temperature of 3416 K.

  15. Characteristics of vacuum sintered stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Brytan; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Actis Grande; M. Rosso

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study duplex stainless steels were sintered in vacuum. using rapid cooling form the mixture of prealloyed and alloying element powders The purpose of this paper was to describe the obtained microstructures after sintering as well as the main mechanical properties of sintered stainless steels.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic 316L or ferritic 410L prealloyed stainless s...

  16. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities in hollow fiber-membrane biofilm reactors system for treating high-strength nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hun; Choi, Okkyoung; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyunook; Sang, Byoung-In

    2016-11-01

    Wastewaters from swine farms, nitrogen-dealing industries or side-stream processes of a wastewater treatment plant (e.g., anaerobic digesters, sludge thickening processes, etc.) are characterized by low C/N ratios and not easily treatable. In this study, a hollow fiber-membrane biofilm reactors (HF-MBfR) system consisting of an O2-based HF-MBfR and an H2-based HF-MBfR was applied for treating high-strength wastewater. The reactors were continuously operated with low supply of O2 and H2 and without any supply of organic carbon for 250 d. Gradual increase of ammonium and nitrate concentration in the influent showed stable and high nitrogen removal efficiency, and the maximum ammonium and nitrate removal rates were 0.48 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3) d(-1) and 0.55 kg NO3(-)-N m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The analysis of the microbial communities using pyrosequencing analysis indicated that Nitrosospira multiformis, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and Nitrobacter winogradskyi and Nitrobacter vulgaris, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were highly enriched in the O2-based HF-MBfR. In the H2-based HF-MBfR, hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria belonging to the family of Thiobacillus and Comamonadaceae were initially dominant, but were replaced to heterotrophic denitrifiers belonging to Rhodocyclaceae and Rhodobacteraceae utilizing by-products induced from autotrophic denitrifying bacteria. The pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities indicates that the autotrophic HF-MBfRs system well developed autotrophic nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria within a relatively short period to accomplish almost complete nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synergic Adsorption–Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2017-03-29

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities composed of a heterotrophic strain Pseudomonas sp. QG6 (hereafter referred as QG6), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (anammox). The bacterial immobilization was implemented with the help of a self-designed porous cubic carrier that created structured microenvironments including an inner layer adapted for anaerobic bacteria, a middle layer suitable for coaggregation of certain aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and an outer layer for heterotrophic bacteria. By coating functional polyurethane foam (FPUF) with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), the biocarrier (IONPs-FPUF) could provide a good outer-layer barrier for absorption and selective treatment of aromatic compounds by QG6, offer a conducive environment for anammox in the inner layer, and provide a mutualistic environment for AOB in the middle layer. Consequently, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were reached with the significant removal of up to 322 mg L (98%) NH, 311 mg L (99%) NO, and 633 mg L (97%) total nitrogen (8 mg L averaged NO concentration was recorded in the effluent), accompanied by an efficient removal of chemical oxygen demand by 3286 mg L (98%) and 350 mg L (100%) quinoline. This study provides an alternative way to promote synergic adsorption and biodegradation with the help of a modified biocarrier that has great potential for treatment of wastewater containing high-strength carbon, toxic organic pollutants, and nitrogen.

  18. High temperature and salinity enhance soil nitrogen mineralization in a tidal freshwater marsh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Gao

    Full Text Available Soil nitrogen (N mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰ and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C. The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P0.05, while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001. Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88-0.99, P<0.01. Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems.

  19. High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (Pwetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88–0.99, PNH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  20. Effect of chemical compositions and heat treatment on IGSCC resistance for strain hardened low carbon austenitic stainless steels in oxygenated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, T. [FRRI, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan); Kanasaki, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Taneike, M. [Takasago R-D Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan); Ooki, S.; Sueishi, Y.; Tezuka, H.; Takamori, K.; Suzuki, S. [Materials Engineering Center, R-D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop the highly resistant alternative materials to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) for the non-sensitized and strain hardened low carbon austenitic stainless steel in oxygenated water, the effects of chemical compositions and heat treatment conditions on the IGSCC resistance and stacking fault energy (SFE) values were studied for 33 laboratory melted steels and commercial type 310S stainless steel. The IGSCC resistance for test materials was compared by the maximum crack length, average crack length and cracked area in fatigue pre-cracked CT specimens after SCC test in oxygenated high temperature water. SFE values for these test materials were measured by the transmission electron microscopy on the width of isolated extended dislocations under g-3g weak beam condition for thin foils taken from the test materials, in this study. From these experiments, the effects of the chromium, molybdenum, nitrogen, silicon and manganese contents on the SCC resistance for non-aged materials were not so pronounced in this study. It is strongly suggested that the SFE value is a key parameter for the IGSCC resistance of the aged or non-aged and strain hardened low carbon austenitic stainless steels. (authors)

  1. Application of dynamic milling in stainless steel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wenju

    2017-09-01

    This paper mainly introduces the method of parameter setting for NC programming of stainless steel parts by dynamic milling. Stainless steel is of high plasticity and toughness, serious hard working, large cutting force, high temperature in cutting area and easy wear of tool. It is difficult to process material. Dynamic motion technology is the newest NC programming technology of Mastercam software. It is an advanced machining idea. The tool path generated by the dynamic motion technology is more smooth, more efficient and more stable in the machining process. Dynamic motion technology is very suitable for cutting hard machining materials.

  2. Spectral and raw quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray data captured via a TEM analysis of an ODS austenitic stainless steel sample under 1 MeV Kr2+ high temperature irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Adam J; Yao, Zhongwen

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research experiment, titled: 'Quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy observation of matrix and solute interactions on Y-Ti-O oxide particles in an austenitic stainless steel under 1 MeV Kr2+ high temperature irradiation' (Brooks et al., 2017) [1]. Quasi in-situ analysis during 1 MeV Kr2+ 520 °C irradiation allowed the same microstructural area to be observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), on an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic stainless steel sample. The data presented contains two sets of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data collected before and after irradiation to 1.5 displacements-per-atom (~1.25×10-3 dpa/s with 7.5×1014 ions cm-2). The vendor software used to process and output the data is the Bruker Esprit v1.9 suite. The data includes the spectral (counts vs. keV energy) of the quasi in-situ scanned region (512×512 pixels at 56k magnification), along with the EDX scanning parameters. The.raw files from the Bruker Esprit v1.9 output are additionally included along with the.rpl data information files. Furthermore included are the two quasi in-situ HAADF images for visual comparison of the regions before and after irradiation. This in-situ experiment is deemed 'quasi' due to the thin foil irradiation taking place at an external TEM facility. We present this data for critical and/or extended analysis from the scientific community, with applications applying to: experimental data correlation, confirmation of results, and as computer based modeling inputs.

  3. Highly uniform and monodisperse carbon nanospheres enriched with cobalt-nitrogen active sites as a potential oxygen reduction electrocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xing; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Peng, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Uniform cobalt and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanospheres (CoN-CNS) with high specific surface area (865 m2 g-1) have been prepared by a simple but efficient method. The prepared CoN-CNS catalyst exhibits outstanding catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic electrolytes. In alkaline electrolyte, the prepared CoN-CNS has more positive half-wave potential and larger kinetic current density than commercial Pt/C. In acidic electrolyte, CoN-CNS also shows good ORR activity with high electron transfer number, its onset and half-wave potentials are all close to those of commercial carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C). CoN-CNS catalyst shows more superior stability and higher methanol-tolerance than commercial Pt/C both in alkaline and in acidic electrolytes. The potassium thiocyanate-poisoning test further confirms that the cobalt-nitrogen active sites exist in CoN-CNS, which are dominating to endow high ORR catalytic activity in acidic electrolyte. This study develops a new method to prepare non-precious metal catalyst with excellent ORR performances for direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Electrochemical study of a novel high performance supercapacitor based on MnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Hamid Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-03-01

    A new nanocomposite was synthesized via deposition of MnO2 on Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene (MnO2/NRGO) by sonochemical method, in which, the particles of manganese oxide were uniformly distributed on NRGO sheets. The structure and morphology of MnO2/NRGO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical supercapacitive performance of the nanocomposite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), continuous cyclic voltammetry (CCV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The MnO2/NRGO nanocomposite shows enhanced specific capacitance of 522 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 and its high synergistic effect was compared with MnO2/RGO. The high specific capacitance and exceptionally high cyclic stability of MnO2/NRGO attributes to the doping of nitrogen and uniform dispersion of MnO2 particles on NRGO. The CCV showed that the capacity retention for MnO2/NRGO and MnO2/RGO still maintained at 96.3% and 93% after 4000 CVs. The improved supercapacitive performance enables this nanocomposite as efficient electrode material for supercapacitor electrodes.

  5. High electrocatalytic performance of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber-supported nickel oxide nanocomposite for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Abdullah, Aboubakr M.; Vinu, Ajayan; Iwai, Hideo; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber (N-CNF)-supported NiO composite was prepared by electrospinning a sol-gel mixture of graphene and polyaniline (PANi) with aqueous solutions of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by a high-temperature annealing process. The electrospun was stabilized for 2 h at 280 °C, carbonized for 5 h at 1200 °C then loaded by 10% NiO. The electrocatalytic activities of the produced nanocomposite have been studied using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. Also, N-CNF was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained N-doped carbon nanofiber was found to have a nitrogen content of 2.6 atomic% with a diameter range of (140-160) nm, and a surface area (393.3 m2 g-1). In addition, it showed a high electrocatalytic behavior towards methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium and high stability and resistivity to the adsorption of intermediates.

  6. Dancing with Energetic Nitrogen Atoms: Versatile N-Functionalization Strategies for N-Heterocyclic Frameworks in High Energy Density Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-01-19

    Nitrogen-rich heterocycles represent a unique class of energetic frameworks featuring high heats of formation and high nitrogen content, which have generated considerable research interest in the field of high energy density materials (HEDMs). Although traditional C-functionalization methodology of aromatic hydrocarbons has been fully established, studies on N-functionalization strategies of nitrogen-containing heterocycles still have great potential to be exploited by virtue of forming diverse N-X bonds (X = C, N, O, B, halogen, etc.), which are capable of regulating energy performance and the stability of the resulting energetic compounds. In this sense, versatile N-functionalization of N-heterocyclic frameworks offers a flexible strategy to meet the requirements of developing new-generation HEDMs. In this Account, the role of strategic N-functionalization in designing new energetic frameworks, including the formation of N-C, N-N, N-O, N-B and N-halogen bonds, is emphasized. In the family of N-functionalized HEDMs, energetic derivatives, by virtue of forming N-C bonds, are the most widely used type due to the good nucleophilic capacity of most heterocyclic backbones. Although introduction of carbon tends to decrease energetic performance, significant improvement in material sensitivity makes this strategy attractive for safety concerns. More importantly, most "explosophores" can be readily introduced into the N-C linkage, thus providing a promising route to various HEDMs. Formation of additional N-N bonds typically gives rise to higher heats of formation, implying the potential enhancement in detonation performance. In many cases, the increased hydrogen bonding interactions within N-N functionalized heterocycles also improve thermal stability accordingly. Introduction of a single N,N'-azo bridge into several azole moieties leads to an extended nitrogen chain, demonstrating a new strategy for designing high-nitrogen compounds. The strategy of N-O functionalization

  7. High Expression of Human Cathepsin S by Recombinant Pichia pastoris with Cod Skin as an Organic Co-Nitrogen Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying Y; Fu, Man; Qin, Mei; Xue, Liming M

    2018-02-06

    Human cathepsin S production by recombinant Pichia pastoris using cod skin as the co-nitrogen source was investigated in this study. The addition of carbon sources of glycerol in the fed-batch phase and of methanol in the induction stage was also investigated. A new approach to the highly expression of human cathepsin S was developed using 90 g/L of cod skin (wet weight). After 24 h of the initial fermentation, 4% glycerol (v/v, glycerol/culture) was added once to enhance the cell density (OD600) in the cultivation. Then, adding and maintaining methanol at 0.5% (v/v, methanol/cultivation) after about 48 h of fermentation achieved a high expression of human cathepsin S in a 5-L bioreactor. The results demonstrate that the maximum activity of human cathepsin S in the fermentation supernatant reached 7,152 U/L after 96 h of methanol induction. The methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris grown in the medium containing cod skin (90 g/L) as the co-nitrogen source provided a 21% higher cell density (OD600) and 18.3% higher human cathepsin S yield than P. pastoris grown in BMGY medium. For the first time, human cathepsin S was successfully expressed by P. pastoris with cod skin as the co-nitrogen source. The glycerol fed-batch controlling strategy and method of maintaining methanol at a constant concentration of 0.5% (v/v, methanol/cultivation) in the induction stage was efficient for P. pastoris growth and the expression of human cathepsin S. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Controllable embedding of sulfur in high surface area nitrogen doped three dimensional reduced graphene oxide by solution drop impregnation method for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Tsai, Meng-Che; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Hung-Ming; Rick, John; Su, Wei-Nien; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-06-01

    High capacity lithium-sulfur batteries with stable cycle performance and sulfur loadings greater than 70 wt% are regarded as promising candidates for energy storage devices. However, it has been challenged to achieving practical application of sulfur cathode because of low loading of active sulfur and poor cycle performance. Herein, we design novel nanocomposite cathode materials consist of sulfur (80 wt%) embedded within nitrogen doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (N-3D-rGO) by controllable sulfur-impregnation method. Nitrogen doping helps increase the surface area by ten times from pristine graphene, and pore volume by seven times. These structural features allow the cathode to hold more sulfur. It also adsorbs polysulfides and prevents their detachment from the host materials; thereby achieving stable cycle performance. The solution drop sulfur-impregnation method provides uniform distribution of nano-sulfur in controlled manner. The material delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 1042 mAhg-1 and 916 mAhg-1 with excellent capacity retention of 94.8% and 81.9% at 0.2 C and 0.5 C respectively after 100 cycles. Thus, the combination of solution drop and nitrogen doping opens a new chapter for resolving capacity fading as well as long cycling problems and creates a new strategy to increase sulfur loading in controlled mechanism.

  9. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  10. Microbial electrocatalysis with Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilm on stainless steel cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Claire; Basseguy, Regine [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: Alain.Bergel@ensiacet.fr

    2008-01-01

    Stainless steel and graphite electrodes were individually addressed and polarized at -0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl in reactors filled with a growth medium that contained 25 mM fumarate as the electron acceptor and no electron donor, in order to force the microbial cells to use the electrode as electron source. When the reactor was inoculated with Geobacter sulfurreducens, the current increased and stabilized at average values around 0.75 A m{sup -2} for graphite and 20.5 A m{sup -2} for stainless steel. Cyclic voltammetry performed at the end of the experiment indicated that the reduction started at around -0.30 V vs. Ag/AgCl on stainless steel. Removing the biofilm formed on the electrode surface made the current totally disappear, confirming that the G.sulfurreducens biofilm was fully responsible for the electrocatalysis of fumarate reduction. Similar current densities were recorded when the electrodes were polarized after being kept in open circuit for several days. The reasons for the bacteria presence and survival on non-connected stainless steel coupons were discussed. Chronoamperometry experiments performed at different potential values suggested that the biofilm-driven catalysis was controlled by electrochemical kinetics. The high current density obtained, quite close to the redox potential of the fumarate/succinate couple, presents stainless steel as a remarkable material to support biocathodes.

  11. Crack initiation at high temperature on an austenitic stainless steel; Amorcage de fissure a haute temperature dans un acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiarinandrasana, L.

    1994-11-25

    The study deals with crack initiation at 600 and 650 degrees Celsius, on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17 12. The behaviour laws of the studied plate were update in comparison with existing data. Forty tests were carried out on CT specimens, with continuous fatigue with load or displacement controlled, pure creep, pure relaxation, creep-fatigue and creep-relaxation loadings. The practical initiation definition corresponds to a small crack growth of about the grain size. The time necessary for the crack to initiate is predicted with fracture mechanics global and local approaches, with the helps of microstructural observations and finite elements results. An identification of a `Paris`law` for continuous cyclic loading and of a unique correlation between the initiation time and C{sup *}{sub k} for creep tests was established. For the local approach, crack initiation by creep can be interpreted as the reaching of a critical damage level, by using a damage incremental rule. For creep-fatigue tests, crack growth rates at initiation are greater than those of Paris`law for continuous fatigue. A calculation of a transition time between elastic-plastic and creep domains shows that crack initiation can be interpreted whether by providing Paris`law with an acceleration term when the dwell period is less than the transition time, or by calculating a creep contribution which relies on C{sup *}{sub k} parameter when the dwell period and/or the initiation times are greater than the transition time. Creep relaxation tests present crack growth rates at initiation which are less than those for `equivalent` creep-fatigue tests. These crack growth rates when increasing hold time, but also when temperature decreases. Though, for hold times which are important enough and at lower temperature, there is no effect of the dwell period insofar as crack growth rate is equal to continuous fatigue Paris law predicted ones. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Crack growth in an austenitic stainless steel at high temperature; Propagation de fissure a haute temperature dans un acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvora, J.P

    1998-12-31

    This study deals with crack propagation at 650 deg C on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17-12 (316L(NN)). It is based on an experimental work concerning two different cracked specimens: CT specimens tested at 650 deg C in fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue with load controlled conditions (27 tests), tube specimens containing an internal circumferential crack tested in four points bending with displacement controlled conditions (10 tests). Using the fracture mechanics tools (K, J and C* parameters), the purpose here is to construct a methodology of calculation in order to predict the evolution of a crack with time for each loading condition using a fracture mechanics global approach. For both specimen types, crack growth is monitored by using a specific potential drop technique. In continuous fatigue, a material Paris law at 650 deg C is used to correlate crack growth rate with the stress intensity factor range corrected with a factor U(R) in order to take into account the effects of crack closure and loading ratio R. In pure creep on CT specimens, crack growth rate is correlated to the evolution of the C* parameter (evaluated experimentally) which can be estimated numerically with FEM calculations and analytically by using a simplified method based on a reference stress approach. A modeling of creep fatigue growth rate is obtained from a simple summation of the fatigue contribution and the creep contribution to the total crack growth. Good results are obtained when C* parameter is evaluated from the simplified expression C*{sub s}. Concerning the tube specimens tested in 4 point bending conditions, a simulation based on the actual A 16 French guide procedure proposed at CEA. (authors) 104 refs.

  13. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bibo; Zhou, Zhaoyao; Duan, Liuyang; Xiao, Zhiyu

    2016-03-04

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  14. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibo Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (P/M technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  15. Controllable Nitrogen Doping of High-Surface-Area Microporous Carbons Synthesized from an Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gel Approach for Li-S Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huichao; Wei, Yanju; Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui

    2015-09-30

    High-surface-area microporous carbons with controllable nitrogen doping were prepared via a novel organic-inorganic sol-gel approach, using phenolic resol and hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) as carbon precursors, and partially hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane as silica template. The pore structures of microporous carbons were completely replicated from a thin silica framework and could be tailored greatly by changing the organic/inorganic ratio. The nitrogen atoms doped into the carbon framework were issued from high-nitrogen-content HMMM precursors, and the nitrogen content could be adjusted in a wide range by changing the phenolic resol/HMMM ratio. Moreover, the porous structure and nitrogen content could be simultaneously controlled, allowing the preparation of a series of microporous carbons with almost the same microstructures (BET surface areas of ca.1900 m(2)·g(-1)and pore volumes of ca. 1.2 cm(3)·g(-1), and the same pore size distributions) but with different nitrogen contents (0-12 wt %). These results provided a general method to synthesize nitrogen-doped microporous carbons and allowed these materials to serve as a model system to illustrate the role of nitrogen content on the performance of the carbons. When used as the supports for sulfur cathodes, only an appropriate nitrogen content of ca. 6.3 wt % was found to effectively improve sulfur utilization and cycle life of the sulfur cathodes. The resulting sulfur cathodes could deliver an outstanding reversible discharge capacity of 1054 mAh·g(-1) at 0.5 C after 100 cycles.

  16. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2016-01-01

    with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N...... in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest...... carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground...

  17. Preformed posterior stainless steel crowns: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1999-02-01

    For almost 50 years, dentists have used stainless steel crowns for primary and permanent posterior teeth. No other type of restoration offers the convenience, low cost, durability, and reliability of such crowns when interim full-coronal coverage is required. Preformed stainless steel crowns have improved over the years. Better luting cements have been developed and different methods of crown manipulation have evolved. This article reviews stainless steel crown procedures for primary and permanent posterior teeth. Step-by-step placement of a primary molar stainless steel crown is documented and permanent molar stainless steel crown restoration is described. A method for repairing a worn-through crown also is reviewed.

  18. Pomelo peels-derived porous activated carbon microsheets dual-doped with nitrogen and phosphorus for high performance electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Tan, Yongtao; Yang, Yunlong; Zhao, Xiaoning; Liu, Ying; Niu, Lengyuan; Tichnell, Brandon; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Liu, Zhen; Ran, Fen

    2018-02-01

    In this work, biomass pomelo peel is used to fabricate the porous activated carbon microsheets, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DHP) is employed to dual-dope carbon with nitrogen and phosphorus elements. With the benefit of DHP inducement and dual-doping of nitrogen and phosphorus, the prepared carbon material has a higher carbon yield, and exhibits higher specific surface area (about 807.7 m2/g), and larger pore volume (about 0.4378 cm3/g) with hierarchically structure of interconnected thin microsheets compared to the pristine carbon. The material exhibits not only high specific capacitance (240 F/g at 0.5 A/g), but also superior cycling performance (approximately 100% of capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 2 A/g) in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric electrochemical capacitor in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte exhibits a high energy density of 11.7 Wh/kg at a power density of 160 W/kg.

  19. Multifaceted Investigation of Metabolites During Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago via High Resolution MALDI-MS Imaging and ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemperline, Erin; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Maeda, Junko; Ané, Jean-Michel; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have developed the unique ability to establish a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. This interaction results in the formation of root nodules in which rhizobia thrive and reduce atmospheric dinitrogen into plant-usable ammonium through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Owing to the availability of genetic information for both of the symbiotic partners, the Medicago truncatula- Sinorhizobium meliloti association is an excellent model for examining the BNF process. Although metabolites are important in this symbiotic association, few studies have investigated the array of metabolites that influence this process. Of these studies, most target only a few specific metabolites, the roles of which are either well known or are part of a well-characterized metabolic pathway. Here, we used a multifaceted mass spectrometric (MS) approach to detect and identify the key metabolites that are present during BNF using the Medicago truncatula- Sinorhizobium meliloti association as the model system. High mass accuracy and high resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) Orbitrap instruments were used in this study and provide complementary results for more in-depth characterization of the nitrogen-fixation process. We used well-characterized plant and bacterial mutants to highlight differences between the metabolites that are present in functional versus nonfunctional nodules. Our study highlights the benefits of using a combination of mass spectrometric techniques to detect differences in metabolite composition and the distributions of these metabolites in plant biology.

  20. Boron- and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide coated separators for high-performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pauline; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-11-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as a potential next-generation energy storage system but they are hampered by low active-material utilization, polysulfide shuttling, and rapid capacity fade. We present here the use of lightweight boron- and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-rGO, N-rGO) coated separators to suppress polysulfide diffusion and enhance active material utilization at high sulfur contents. B-rGO and N-rGO are synthesized through a facile modified Hummer's method involving the exfoliation of graphite sheets. Upon reduction, the carbon forms valuable interlayers with dynamic spacings for polysulfide trapping. Freeze-drying is utilized to preserve the structure of the pillow-like carbon, which is then slurry-coated onto a separator and placed against a sulfur cathode. The advantages of boron and nitrogen and their affinity towards polysulfides is compared while noting the lighter carbon coatings with good electrochemical stability. The cells attain a loading of 4.0 mg cm-2 with a high sulfur content of 66.5 ± 0.5 wt % on including the weight of the coatings. After a long cycle life of 400 cycles, N-rGO and B-rGO are still able to maintain a specific capacity of, respectively, 430 mA h g-1 and 367 mA h g-1.

  1. Highly efficient transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbide-derived carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratso, Sander; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Käärik, Maike; Kook, Mati; Puust, Laurits; Saar, Rando; Leis, Jaan; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2018-01-01

    The search for an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace platinum in fuel cell cathode materials is one of the hottest topics in electrocatalysis. Among the many non-noble metal catalysts, metal/nitrogen/carbon composites made by pyrolysis of cheap materials are the most promising with control over the porosity and final structure of the catalyst a crucial point. In this work we show a method of producing a highly active ORR catalyst in alkaline media with a controllable porous structure using titanium carbide derived carbon as a base structure and dicyandiamide along with FeCl3 or CoCl2 as the dopants. The resulting transition metal-nitrogen co-doped carbide derived carbon (M/N/CDC) catalyst is highly efficient for ORR electrocatalysis with the activity in 0.1 M KOH approaching that of commercial 46.1 wt.% Pt/C. The catalyst materials are also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterise the changes in morphology and composition causing the raise in electrochemical activity. MEA performance of M/N/CDC cathode materials in H2/O2 alkaline membrane fuel cell is tested with the highest power density reached being 80 mW cm-2 compared to 90 mW cm-2 for Pt/C.

  2. Highly Microporous Nitrogen-doped Carbon Synthesized from Azine-linked Covalent Organic Framework and its Supercapacitor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gayoung; Yang, Jun; Nakashima, Naotoshi; Shiraki, Tomohiro

    2017-12-11

    Porous carbons with nitrogen-doped (N-doped) structures are promising materials for advanced energy conversion and storage applications, including supercapacitors and fuel cell catalysts. In this study, microporous N-doped carbon was successfully fabricated through carbonization of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with an azine-linked two-dimensional molecular network (ACOF1). In the carbonized ACOF1, micropores with diameters smaller than 1 nm are selectively formed, and a high specific surface area (1596 cm2  g-1 ) is achieved. In addition, the highly porous structure with N-doped sites results in enhancement of the electrochemical capacitance. Detailed investigation for the micropore-forming process reveals that the formation of nitrogen gas during the thermal degradation of the azine bond contributes to the microporous structure formation. Therefore, the present direct carbonization approach using COFs allows the fabrication of microporous heteroatom-doped carbons, based on molecularly designed COFs, toward future electrochemical and energy applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. Th...

  4. Highly selective sensing of Fe3+by an anionic metal-organic framework containing uncoordinated nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hui; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Lan; Huang, Yuan-Biao; Cao, Rong

    2018-02-12

    Fast and highly selective detection of trace amounts of metal ions has become one of the most urgent issues concerning public security and living systems. However, developing a highly efficient fluorescent sensor for metal ions still remains a great challenge. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a promising class of porous fluorescent sensors towards ion detection. Herein, the anionic MOF FJI-C8 based on the π-conjugated aromatic ligand H 6 TDPAT (2,4,6-tris(3,5-dicarboxylphenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine) containing uncoordinated nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen atoms was chosen as highly efficient sensor for selective detection of Fe 3+ . Due to the strong interaction between Fe 3+ and Lewis base sites (uncoordinated nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen atoms), the high overlap between the emission spectrum of the anionic FJI-C8 and the absorption spectrum of Fe 3+ , and the good overlap of the excitation spectrum of the host material FJI-C8 with the absorption spectrum of Fe 3+ , FJI-C8 exhibited a high sensitivity (0.0233 mM of Fe 3+ ) and extra selectivity (K sv = 8245 M -1 ) for the rapid detection (less than 30 s) of Fe 3+ with low usage (0.04 mg mL -1 of FJI-C8 suspension). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a luminescent MOF chemosensor based on a trefoil ligand with the highest density of uncoordinated N and carboxylate O atoms for the highly selective detection of Fe 3+ . It is also crucial to note that this is a first time detection of Fe 3+ using both FJI-C8 suspension and solid after filtration, and the results indicate that the detection of Fe 3+ using the FJI-C8 suspension is better. This study will pave the way for designing luminescent MOF chemosensors for the detection of Fe 3+ ion.

  5. Nitrogen and hydrogen fractionation in high-mass star-forming cores from observations of HCN and HNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, L.; Fontani, F.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Bizzocchi, L.

    2018-02-01

    The ratio between the two stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14N and 15N, is well measured in the terrestrial atmosphere ( 272), and for the pre-solar nebula ( 441, deduced from the solar wind). Interestingly, some pristine solar system materials show enrichments in 15N with respect to the pre-solar nebula value. However, it is not yet clear if and how these enrichments are linked to the past chemical history because we have only a limited number of measurements in dense star-forming regions. In this respect, dense cores, which are believed to be the precursors of clusters and also contain intermediate- and high-mass stars, are important targets because the solar system was probably born within a rich stellar cluster, and such clusters are formed in high-mass star-forming regions. The number of observations in such high-mass dense cores has remained limited so far. In this work, we show the results of IRAM-30 m observations of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of the molecules HCN and HNC and their 15N-bearing counterparts towards 27 intermediate- and high-mass dense cores that are divided almost equally into three evolutionary categories: high-mass starless cores, high-mass protostellar objects, and ultra-compact HII regions. We have also observed the DNC(2-1) rotational transition in order to search for a relation between the isotopic ratios D/H and 14N/15N. We derive average 14N/15N ratios of 359 ± 16 in HCN and of 438 ± 21 in HNC, with a dispersion of about 150-200. We find no trend of the 14N/15N ratio with evolutionary stage. This result agrees with what has been found for N2H+ and its isotopologues in the same sources, although the 14N/15N ratios from N2H+ show a higher dispersion than in HCN/HNC, and on average, their uncertainties are larger as well. Moreover, we have found no correlation between D/H and 14N/15N in HNC. These findings indicate that (1) the chemical evolution does not seem to play a role in the fractionation of nitrogen, and that (2) the

  6. Soil nitrogen dynamics in high-altitude ski runs during the winter season (Monterosaski - Vallée d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freppaz, M.; Icardi, M.; Filippa, G.; Zanini, E.

    2009-04-01

    In many Alpine catchments, the development of winter tourism determined a widespread change in land use, shifting from forested and cultivated lands to ski slopes. The construction of a ski slope implies a strong impact on the landscape, with potential consequences on the soil quality. In most cases, the construction procedures include the total or partial removal of the soil body, the reallocation of the fine hearth fraction, the subsequent seeding of plants and the use of organic fertilizers. This work aims to evaluate soil physical and chemical properties and nitrogen (N) dynamics in anthropogenic soils from ski slopes of different age. Study sites were located in Champoluc (AO)- NW Italy between 2400 and 2700 m ASL. Topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were sampled in 4 ski slopes hydroseeded with commercial mixtures 4, 6, 10 and 12 years earlier, and in 4 control plots at the same exposure and altitude as the ski slopes. Soil samples were characterized, N dynamics in winter was evaluated with the buried bag technique and snowpack was analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Total nitrogen (TN) content in topsoil ranged 0.75-1.06 g kg-1 and was not correlated with the ski slope age. In all but one site, the TN content was significantly lower in the ski slope than in the control plot. A positive net ammonification and nitrification throughout the winter were found in all but one ski runs. These results suggest a high variability in the evolution degree of these anthropogenic soils. The net overwinter N mineralization that we report demonstrates that these soils are biologically active during the winter season. Such activity results in a pool of labile inorganic nitrogen potentially available for plant demand at the spring snowmelt.

  7. Contrasting above- and belowground organic matter decomposition and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in response to warming in High Arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Daan; Faucherre, Samuel; Banyasz, Imre; Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Elberling, Bo

    2017-12-13

    Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates. Here, we assess the impacts of experimental warming on turnover rates of leaf litter, active layer soil and thawed permafrost sediment in two high-arctic tundra heath sites in NE-Greenland, either dominated by evergreen or deciduous shrubs. We incubated shrub leaf litter on the surface of control and warmed plots for 1 and 2 years. Active layer soil was collected from the plots to assess the effects of 8 years of field warming on soil carbon stocks. Finally, we incubated open cores filled with newly thawed permafrost soil for 2 years in the active layer of the same plots. After field incubation, we measured basal respiration rates of recovered thawed permafrost cores in the lab. Warming significantly reduced litter mass loss by 26% after 1 year incubation, but differences in litter mass loss among treatments disappeared after 2 years incubation. Warming also reduced litter nitrogen mineralization and decreased the litter carbon to nitrogen ratio. Active layer soil carbon stocks were reduced 15% by warming, while soil dissolved nitrogen was reduced by half in warmed plots. Warming had a positive legacy effect on carbon turnover rates in thawed permafrost cores, with 10% higher respiration rates measured in cores from warmed plots. These results demonstrate that warming may have contrasting effects on above- and belowground tundra carbon turnover, possibly governed by microbial resource availability. © 2017 John

  8. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  9. Stainless steel in contact with food and bevarage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveto Cvetkovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels are probably the most important materials in the food and beverage industries. The main reason for such broad implementation of stainless steel in contact with food are excellent properties which they possess such as corrosion resistance, resistance to high and low temperatures, very good mechanical and physical properties, aesthetic appeal, inertness of surface, durability, easy cleaning and recycling. Low thermal conductivity of these steels produces steeper temperature coefficient provoking an increased distortion, shrinkage and stresses compared with carbon steel.

  10. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  11. Preparation of nitrogen-doped biomass-derived carbon nanofibers/graphene aerogel as a binder-free electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Hao; Zhou, Lincheng; Zheng, Xinliang; Li, Xinghua; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dandan; Pan, Duo

    2017-12-01

    Carbon materials derived from various biomasses have aroused forceful interest from scientific community based on their abundant resource, low cost, environment friendly and easy fabrication. Herein, the method has been developed to prepare nitrogen-doped biomass-derived carbon nanofibers/graphene aerogel (NCGA) as the binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. Ethylenediamine (EDA) is select as nitrogen source for its high nitrogen content and strong interaction with graphene oxide (GO) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) via hydrothermal self-assembly method to form hybrid hydrogel, and finally converts to NCGA by freeze-drying and carbonization. After carbonization the insulated CNFs converted to high conductivity carbon nanofibers. The NCGA electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 289 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 and high stability of 90.5% capacitance retention ratio after 5000 cycles at 3 A g-1. This novel biomass electrode could be potential candidate for high performance supercapacitors.

  12. Tandem Nitrogen Functionalization of Porous Carbon: Toward Immobilizing Highly Active Palladium Nanoclusters for Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhangpeng [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. of Electrochemical Energy; Yang, Xinchun [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. of Electrochemical Energy; Tsumori, Nobuko [Toyama National College of Technology (Japan); Liu, Zheng [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya, Aichi (Japan). Inorganic Functional Materials Research Inst.; Himeda, Yuichiro [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Research Inst. of Energy Frontier; Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Qiang [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. of Electrochemical Energy

    2017-03-10

    Highly dispersed palladium nanoclusters (Pd NCs) immobilized by a nitrogen (N)-functionalized porous carbon support (N-MSC-30) are synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method, wherein the N-MSC-30 prepared by a tandem low temperature heat-treatment approach proved to be a distinct support for stabilizing the Pd NCs. The prepared Pd/N-MSC-30 shows extremely high catalytic activity and recyclability for the dehydrogenation of formic acid (FA), affording the highest turnover frequency (TOF = 8414 h-1) at 333 K, which is much higher than that of the Pd catalyst supported on the N-MSC-30 prepared via a one-step process. This tandem heat treatment strategy provides a facile and effective synthetic methodology to immobilize ultrafine metal NPs on N-functionalized carbon materials, which have tremendous application prospects in various catalytic fields.

  13. High dose implantation of nitrogen in tool steel: Auger electron spectroscopy and hardness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredell, L.J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)); Malherbe, J.B. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa))

    1993-05-15

    Tool stell samples were implanted with 100 keV N[sup +] ions at liquid nitrogen temperature to doses of 3 x 10[sup 17] and 1 x 10[sup 18] cm[sup -2]. Only the dose of 1 x 10[sup 18] cm[sup -2] caused a significant hardening effect. Two mechanisms contributed to this hardness increase, namely nitride formation and radiation damage. Cooling during implantation caused additional hardening, owing to a martensitic phase transformation. The projected range (R[sub p] = 110 nm) for the implanted species was obtained by Auger sputter depth profiling. If the hardened layer thickness was taken as 2R[sub p], then the Joensson-Hogmark model gave an average hardness value of 2010 HV for the implanted layer. However, a more realistic value of 900 HV was calculated under the assumption that typical radiation damage profiles (R[sub d] = 3R[sub p]) contributed to the hard film thickness. It is difficult to judge the accuracy of the model for predicting the correct absolute hardness of the implanted layer but it is shown that deep radiation-induced damage plays a major role in surface hardening. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis of novel nitrogen-doped carbon dots for highly selective detection of iron ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengfei; Yao, Yixin; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jin; Pang, Zengyuan; Ao, Kelong; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report an eco-friendly and simple fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dot (N-CQD) biosensor which was synthesized via a hydrothermal method using erhanediamine (EDA) and citric acid (CA) as precursors. The surface functionalization of N-CQDs exhibited a bright blue emission under the excitation wavelength of 350 nm. The obtained N-CQDs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the surface of the CQDs was successfully functionalized. After that, as-prepared N-CQDs were further applied in Fe(III) detection. Spectroscopic data indicated that fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials displayed a sensitive response to Fe3+ in the range of 0.5-1000 μM as a fluorescence sensor in real environmental samples. Furthermore, the results also showed that a novel N-CQD nanomaterial could be employed as an ideal fluorescent Fe(III) probe.

  15. Long-term effects of high nitrogen loads on cation and carbon riverine export in agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Poszwa, Anne; Walter, Christian; Vergnaud, Virginie; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Ruiz, Laurent

    2012-09-04

    The intensification of agriculture in recent decades has resulted in extremely high nitrogen inputs to ecosystems. One effect has been H(+) release through NH(4)(+) oxidation in soils, which increases rock weathering and leads to acidification processes such as base-cation leaching from the soil exchange complex. This study investigated the evolution of cation concentrations over the past 50 years in rivers from the Armorican crystalline shield (Brittany, western France). On a regional scale, acidification has resulted in increased base-cation riverine exports (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) correlated with the increased NO(3)(-) concentration. The estimated cation increase is 0.7 mmol(+)/L for Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) and 0.85 mmol(+)/L for total cations. According to mass balance, cation loss represents >30% of the base-cation exchange capacity of soils. Long-term acidification thus contributes to a decline in soil productivity. Estimates of the total organic nitrogen annually produced worldwide indicate that acidification may also constitute an additional carbon source in crystalline catchments if compensated by liming practices.

  16. Indicators: Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen, like phosphorus, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Nitrogen can occur in rivers and streams, lakes, and coastal waters in several forms including ammonia (NH3), nitrates (NO3), and nitrites (NO2).

  17. Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stella II software was used to simulate nitrogen transformation processes. The results show that the most influential nitrogen ... Accretion of organic nitrogen was a major pathway accounting for 0.279 g/m2.d, which is 19.2% of all the influent nitrogen. The accumulation of ammonia nitrogen was found to be high compared to ...

  18. Graphene oxide quantum dot-derived nitrogen-enriched hybrid graphene nanosheets by simple photochemical doping for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjie; Li, Xinyu; Hu, Guanghui; Wu, Ting; Luo, Yi; Sun, Lang; Tang, Tao; Wen, Jianfeng; Wang, Heng; Li, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen-enriched graphene was fabricated via a facile strategy. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) were used as a structure-directing agent and in situ activating agent, respectively, after photoreduction under NH3 atmosphere. The combination of photoreduction and NH3 not only reduced GO and GQD composites (GO/GQDs) within a shorter duration but also doped a high level of nitrogen on the composites (NrGO/GQDs). The nitrogen content of NrGO/GQDs reached as high as 18.86 at% within 5 min of irradiation. Benefiting from the nitrogen-enriched GO/GQDs hybrid structure, GQDs effectively prevent the agglomeration of GO sheets and increased the numbers of ion channels in the material. Meanwhile, the high levels of nitrogen improved electrical conductivity and strengthened the binding energy between GQD and GO sheets. Compared with reduced GO and low nitrogen-doped reduced GO, NrGO/GQD electrodes exhibited better electrochemical characteristics with a high specific capacitance of 344 F g-1 at a current density of 0.25 A g-1. Moreover, the NrGO/GQD electrodes exhibited 82% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles at a current density of 0.8 A g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, the NrGO/GQD electrodes deliver a high energy density of 43 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 417 W kg-1 in 1 M Li2SO4 electrolyte. The nitrogen-doped graphene and corresponding supercapacitor presented in this study are novel materials with potential applications in advanced energy storage systems.

  19. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Syed Altaf; Kumar, Vadivel; Jayaram, Prithviraj

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated ca...

  20. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Nitrogen Content and Its Role on the Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Capacity of Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhi, Kripal S; Park, Dae-Hwan; Joseph, Stalin; Talapaneni, Siddulu N; Ravon, Ugo; Al-Bahily, Khalid; Vinu, Ajayan

    2017-03-02

    Mesoporous carbon nitrides (MCNs) with rod-shaped morphology and tunable nitrogen contents have been synthesized through a calcination-free method by using ethanol-washed mesoporous SBA-15 as templates at different carbonization temperatures. Carbon tetrachloride and ethylenediamine were used as the sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The resulting MCN materials were characterized with low- and high-angle powder XRD, nitrogen adsorption, high-resolution (HR) SEM, HR-TEM, elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure techniques. The carbonization temperature plays a critical role in controlling not only the crystallinity, but also the nitrogen content and textural parameters of the samples, including specific surface area and specific pore volume. The nitrogen content of MCN decreases with a concomitant increase in specific surface area and specific pore volume, as well as the crystallinity of the samples, as the carbonization temperature is increased. The results also reveal that the structural order of the materials is retained, even after heat treatment at temperatures up to 900 °C with a significant reduction of the nitrogen content, but the structure is partially damaged at 1000 °C. The carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of these materials is not only dependent on the textural parameters, but also on the nitrogen content. The MCN prepared at 900 °C, which has an optimum BET surface area and nitrogen content, registers a carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of 20.1 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 30 bar, which is much higher than that of mesoporous silica, MCN-1, activated carbon, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Transformation in austenitic stainless steel sheet under different loading directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Krauer, J.; Hora, P.

    2011-01-01

    The stress-strain relation for austenitic stainless steels is based on 2 main contributions: work hardening and a phase transformation from austenite to martensite. The transformation is highly temperature dependent. In most models for phase transformation from austenite to martensite, the stress

  2. Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet under Different Loading Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Krauer, J.; Hora, P.

    2011-01-01

    The stress-strain relation for austenitic stainless steels is based on 2 main contributions: work hardening and a phase transformation from austenite to martensite. The transformation is highly temperature dependent. In most models for phase transformation from austenite to martensite, the stress

  3. Cutting of Stainless Steel With Fiber and Disk Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandera, Catherine; Salminen, Antti; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    , the new laser types with a high beam quality, in cutting of austenitic stainless steel. The performance of these new lasers at power level of 4 kW was compared with CO2-laser in respect of cutting speed, kerf width, kerf edge roughness and perpendicularity (squarness) in order to validate the potential...

  4. Effect of Microstructure on the Localized Corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Park, Y.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University (Korea); Kim, Y.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    This paper dealt with the effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels. The experimental alloys were made by vacuum induction melting and then hot rolled. The alloys were designed by controlling Creq/Nieq ratio. Two alloys had austenitic phase and one alloy showed (austenite + ferrite) duplex phase. High nitrogen addition in austenitic alloys stabilized the austenitic structure and then suppressed the formations of ferrite and a' martensite, but martensite was formed in the case of large Creq/Nieq ratio and low nitrogen addition. Pitting initiation site was grain boundary in austenitic alloys and was ferrite / austenite phase boundary in duplex alloy in the HCl solution. In sulfuric acids, austenitic alloys showed uniform corrosion, but ferrite phase was preferentially corroded in duplex alloy. The preferential dissolution seems to be related with the distribution of alloying elements between ferrite and austenite. Intergranular corrosion test showed that corrosion rate by immersion Huey test had a linear relation with degree of sensitization by EPR test. 22 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  5. Structure and properties of carbon nitride thin films synthesized by nitrogen-ion-beam-assisted pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Zhao, J. P.; Yano, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Ooie, T.

    2002-09-01

    Carbon nitride films were deposited by pulsed KrF excimer laser ablation of graphite with assistance of low energy nitrogen-ion-beam bombardment. The nitrogen to carbon ratio, bonding state, microstructure, and surface morphology of the deposited carbon nitride films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The irradiation effect of the nitrogen ion beam with various ion currents on the synthesis of carbon nitride films was investigated. XPS and FTIR analyses indicate that the bonding state between carbon and nitrogen in the deposited films is influenced by nitrogen irradiation with different ion currents during deposition. The carbon-nitrogen bonding of C-N and CDouble_BondN is observed in the films. High nitrogen ion current is proposed to promote the desired N-sp3C bonds, i.e., the C3N4 phase. In addition, tribological properties of the carbon nitride films deposited on TiN coated stainless steel substrates were also studied in both dry and oil environments, which exhibits a low friction coefficient compared with hard TiN film. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  6. Surface composition effect of nitriding Ni-free stainless steel as bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nakatsuyama, Kunio [Nakatsuyama Heat Treatment Co., Ltd., 1-1089-10, Nanyou, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-1164 (Japan); Souma, Kenichi [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd., 3 Kanda Neribei, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0022 (Japan); Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The anodic current densities in the passive region of nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel are lower than those of a non heat-treated SUS445 stainless steel and heat-treated SUS445-Ar stainless steel under an Ar atmosphere. It shows a better corrosion resistance for the SUS445 stainless steel after the nitriding heat treatment. - Highlights: • The nitriding heat treatment was carried out using Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. • The corrosion resistance of the nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel was improved. • The structure of the nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel changed from α-Fe to γ-Fe. • The surface elemental components present in the steels affect the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In order to increase the corrosion resistance of low cost Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel as the bipolar plate of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, a nitriding surface treatment experiment was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere under vacuum conditions, while an Ar atmosphere was used for comparison. The electrochemical performance, microstructure, surface chemical composition and morphology of the sample before and after the electrochemical measurements were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDS) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) measurements. The results confirmed that the nitriding heat treatment not only increased the corrosion resistance, but also improved the surface conductivity of the Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. In contrast, the corrosion resistance of the SUS445 stainless steel decreased after heat treatment in an Ar atmosphere. These results could be explained by the different surface compositions between these samples.

  7. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Retention of nitrogen and phosphorous from liquid swine and poultry manures using highly characterized peats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, Anthony M; Cohen, Arthur D; Hunt, Patrick G; Ellison, Aprel Q

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports on research designed to test the hypothesis that differences in peat composition will cause differences in amounts of N and P retained during contact with liquid swine manure (LSM) and liquid poultry manure (LPM). Peat types representing a wide range of properties were tested in order to establish which chemical and physical properties might be most indicative of their capacities to retain N and P from LSM and LPM. Eight-percent slurries (peat/LSM and peat/LPM) were measured for total nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorous (TP) after 6, 24 and 96 hours. Tests were done to determine the TKN and TP contents of these peats, the LSM, and the LPM, both before and after they were mixed together. The N and P retention results revealed that most peats worked reasonably well at retaining N and P from either LSM or LPM. However, some peats were more effective than others. These peats also decreased the N and P levels in the liquid portion of the LSM. Peats with higher N retention capacities tended to have lower ash contents, but higher macroporosities and total cellulose contents. Peats with higher P retention capacities tended to have lower bulk densities, ash contents, total guaiacyl lignins contents, fulvic acids contents, but higher microporosities, macroporosities, H contents, and total cellulose contents. Peats with higher N and P retention capacities also had humic acid contents between 5-7%. The results of this study suggest that if these peats are used to reduce odors and N and P contamination, possible byproducts could be the production of odorless fertilizers.

  9. Dependence of high density nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble coherence on electron irradiation doses and annealing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Yuan, H.; Zhang, N.; Xu, L. X.; Li, B.; Cheng, G. D.; Wang, Y.; Gui, Q.; Fang, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV‑) center ensembles in diamond have proved to have great potential for use in highly sensitive, small-package solid-state quantum sensors. One way to improve sensitivity is to produce a high-density NV‑ center ensemble on a large scale with a long coherence lifetime. In this work, the NV‑ center ensemble is prepared in type-Ib diamond using high energy electron irradiation and annealing, and the transverse relaxation time of the ensemble—T 2—was systematically investigated as a function of the irradiation electron dose and annealing time. Dynamical decoupling sequences were used to characterize T 2. To overcome the problem of low signal-to-noise ratio in T 2 measurement, a coupled strip lines waveguide was used to synchronously manipulate NV‑ centers along three directions to improve fluorescence signal contrast. Finally, NV‑ center ensembles with a high concentration of roughly 1015 mm‑3 were manipulated within a ~10 µs coherence time. By applying a multi-coupled strip-lines waveguide to improve the effective volume of the diamond, a sub-femtotesla sensitivity for AC field magnetometry can be achieved. The long-coherence high-density large-scale NV‑ center ensemble in diamond means that types of room-temperature micro-sized solid-state quantum sensors with ultra-high sensitivity can be further developed in the near future.

  10. High-nitrogen-based pyrotechnics: perchlorate-free red- and green-light illuminants based on 5-aminotetrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Moretti, Jared D

    2013-09-16

    Prototype testing of perchlorate-free hand-held signal illuminants for the US Army's M126 A1 red-star and M195 green-star parachute illuminants are described. Although previous perchlorate-free variants for these items have been developed based on high-nitrogen compounds that are not readily available, the new formulations consist of anhydrous 5-aminotetrazole as the suitable perchlorate replacement. Compared to the perchlorate-containing control, the disclosed illuminants exhibited excellent stabilities toward various ignition stimuli and had excellent pyrotechnic performance. The illuminants are important from both military and civil fireworks perspectives, as the perchlorate-free nature of the illuminants adequately address environmental concerns associated with perchlorate-containing red- and green-light-emitting illuminants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. In situ fabrication of nickel based oxide on nitrogen-doped graphene for high electrochemical performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denghui; Zhang, Mingmei; Wang, Ying; Yan, Zaoxue; Jing, Junjie; Xie, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we synthesize Ni(OH)2 homogeneous grown on nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni(OH)2/NG), subsequently, small and uniform nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiO/NG) is also successfully obtained through tube furnace calcination method. The high specific capacitance of the NiO/NG electrode can reach to 1314.1 F/g at a charge and discharge current density of 2 A/g, meanwhile the specific capacitance of Ni(OH)2/NG electrode is also 1350 F/g. The capacitance of NiO/NG can remain 93.7% of the maximum value after 1000 cycles, while the Ni(OH)2/NG electrode losses 16.9% of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. It can be attributed to nickel hydroxide instability during charge-discharge cycles.

  12. Highly dispersed Pt-Ni nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for application in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujuan; Ma, Yanwen; Tao, Haisheng; Jian, Guoqiang; Wang, Xizhang; Fan, Yining; Zhu, Jianmin; Hu, Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) have been facilely constructed without pre-modification by making use of the active sites in NCNTs due to the N-participation. So-obtained binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles have been highly dispersed on the outer surface of the support with the size of about 3-4 nm. The electrochemical properties of the catalysts for methanol oxidation have been systematically evaluated. Binary Pt-Ni alloyed composites with molar ratio (Pt:Ni) of 3:2 and 3:1 present enhanced electrocatalytic activities and improved tolerance to CO poisoning as well as the similar stability, in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst and the monometallic Pt/NCNTs catalysts. These results imply that so-constructed nanocomposite catalysts have the potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  13. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  14. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  15. Numerical Study of Evaporation and Motion Characteristics of Liquid Nitrogen Droplet in High-Speed Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Y.; Chen, L.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Hou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In the cryogenic wind tunnel, cooling the circulating gas to cryogenic temperature by spraying liquid nitrogen (LN2) is an efficient way to increase the Reynolds number. The evaporation and motion of LN2 droplets in the high-speed gas flow is the critical process that determines the cooling rate, cooling capacity and the safe operation of the down-stream compressor. In this study, a numerical model of droplet motion and evaporation in high-speed gas flow is developed and verified against experimental data. The droplet evaporation rate, diameter and velocity are obtained during the evaporation process under different gas temperatures and flow velocities. The results show that the gas temperature has dominant influence on the droplet evaporation rate. High flow speed can increase droplet evaporation effectively at the beginning process. Evaporation of droplets with different diameters follows a similar trend. The absolute evaporation rate increases with the increase of droplet diameter while the relative evaporation amount is highest for the smallest droplet due to its high area-volume ratio. This numerical study provides insight for understanding the evaporation of LN2 droplets in high-speed gas flow and useful guidelines for the design of LN2 spray cooling.

  16. Ultramicroporous carbon with extremely narrow pore distribution and very high nitrogen doping for efficient methane mixture gases upgrading

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2017-06-24

    It is notably challenging to fabricate heavily heteroatom-doped porous carbonaceous materials with narrow ultramicropore size distributions for highly effective mixed-gas separation. In this study, new carbon-based materials with narrow ultramicropore size (<7 Å) distributions (>95%) and high N doping contents (>10 at%) are fabricated through the pyrolysis of a perchloro-substituted porous covalent triazine-based framework (ClCTF). In particular, the sample prepared at 650 °C (ClCTF-1-650) possesses the highest ultramicropores content (98%) and large N content (12 at%) and demonstrates a very high CH and CO capacity, as well as a low N uptake under ambient conditions. The extraordinarily high CH/N and CO/N selectivities correlate with both the ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) method and performed dynamic separation experiments (breakthrough experiments). The results reported in this study far exceed the CH/N and CO/N selectivities of previously reported carbon-based adsorbents including various nitrogen-doped ones. These results are believed to be associated with the unusually high N content, as well as the suitably narrow ultramicropore size distribution. This report introduces a new pathway to design porous absorbents with precisely controlled ultramicropores for gas separation.

  17. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  18. Nitriding using cathodic cage technique of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 with addition of CH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, R.R.M. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui, Departamento de Mecanica, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Araujo, F.O. de [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientais, Mossoro, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: odolbert@yahoo.com.br; Barbosa, J.C.P.; Ribeiro, K.J.B. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica - UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, J.A.P. da [Departamento de Fisica - UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Alves, C. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica - UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-25

    Samples of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 were nitrided using the cathodic cage technique with the addition of methane in the nitriding atmosphere. The aim was to study the influence of this technique in reducing the precipitation of chromium nitrite and in improving the wear resistance. The results show that there was a significant improvement in such properties when compared to the results of ionic plasma nitriding. Formation of a double layer, one more internal composed of carbon and another with high nitrogen content, was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The microhardness profile of the layer showed an increase in hardness values and a larger uniformity, while X-ray analysis showed less chromium nitriding precipitation when compared with results obtained for samples treated using ionic plasma nitriding.

  19. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  20. Isotope exchange investigation of nitrogen redistribution in expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Drouet, M.; Martinavičius, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential plasma and gaseous nitriding of Fe–18Cr–10Ni–3Mo stainless steel at 390°C with 14N and 15N isotopes followed by denitriding in flowing hydrogen was investigated. Redistribution of plasma-inserted nitrogen atoms (15N) by subsequent gaseous nitriding (14N) was observed. Denitriding after...... plasma- and gaseous nitriding resulted in predominant retraction of 14N, and only a minor amount of 15N. The nitrogen isotope diffusion behaviour is explained by two different states of nitrogen bonding and short-range ordering between nitrogen and chromium....

  1. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM followed by carbonization under Ar atmosphere. Ammonia-activated N-CNPs (N-CNPs-NH3 were prepared via subsequent ammonia activation treatments at a high temperature. The as-prepared N-CNPs and N-CNPs-NH3 materials both exhibited high surface areas (above 700 m2/g and mean particle size of 50 nm. N-CNPs-NH3 showed a relatively higher content of pyridinic and graphitic N compared to N-CNPs. In alkaline media, N-CNPs-NH3 showed superior performances as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR catalyst (E0 = −0.033 V, J = 2.4 mA/cm2 compared to N-CNPs (E0 = 0.07 V, J = 1.8 mA/cm2. In addition, N-CNPs-NH3 showed greater oxygen reduction stability and superior methanol crossover avoidance than a conventional Pt/C catalyst. This study provides a novel, simple, and scalable approach to valorize biomass wastes by synthesizing highly efficient electrochemical ORR catalysts.

  2. Tuning of ZIF-Derived Carbon with High Activity, Nitrogen Functionality, and Yield - A Case for Superior CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadipelli, Srinivas; Guo, Zheng Xiao

    2015-06-22

    A highly effective and facile synthesis route is developed to create and tailor metal-decorated and nitrogen-functionalized active microporous carbon materials from ZIF-8. Clear metal- and pyrrolic-N-induced enhancements of the cyclic CO2 uptake capacities and binding energies are achieved, particularly at a much lower carbonization temperature of 700 °C than those often reported (1000 °C). The high-temperature carbonization can enhance the porosity but only at the expense of considerable losses of sample yield and metal and N functional sites. The findings are comparatively discussed with carbons derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) reported previously. Furthermore, the porosity of the MOF-derived carbon is critically dependent on the structure of the precursor MOF and the crystal growth. The current strategy offers a new and effective route for the creation and tuning of highly active and functionalized carbon structures in high yields and with low energy consumption. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. Modeling High Rate Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal in a Vertical Flow Alum Sludge based Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Lordwin; Zhao, Yaqian

    2014-05-01

    Increased awareness of the impacts of diffuse pollution and their intensification has pushed forward the need for the development of low-cost wastewater treatment techniques. One of such efforts is the use of novel DASC (Dewatered Alum Sludge Cakes) based constructed wetlands (CWs) for removing nutrients, organics, trace elements and other pollutants from wastewater. Understanding of the processes in CWs requires a numerical model that describes the biochemical transformation and degradation processes in subsurface vertical flow (VF) CWs. Therefore, this research focuses on the development of a process-based model for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal to achieve a stable performance by using DASC as a substrate in CWs treatment system. An object-oriented modelling tool known as "STELLA" which works based on the principle of system dynamics is used for the development of P and N model. The core objective of the modelling work is oriented towards understanding the process in DASC-based CWs and optimizes design criteria. The P and N dynamic model is developed for DASC-based CWs. The P model developed exclusively for DASC-based CW was able to simulate the effluent P concentration leaving the system satisfactorily. Moreover, the developed P dynamic model has identified the major P pathways as adsorption (72%) followed by plant uptake (20%) and microbial uptake (7%) in single-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CW. Similarly, P dynamic simulation model was developed to simulate the four-stage laboratory scale DASC-based CWs. It was found that simulated and observed values of P removal were in good agreement. The fate of P in all the four stages clearly shows that adsorption played a pivotal role in each stage of the system due to the use of the DASC as a substrate. P adsorption by wetland substrate/DASC represents 59-75% of total P reduction. Subsequently, plant uptake and microbial uptake have lesser role regarding P removal (as compared to adsorption).With regard

  4. Low cycle fatigue: high cycle fatigue damage accumulation in a 304L austenitic stainless steel; Endommagement et cumul de dommage en fatigue dans le domaine de l'endurance limitee d'un acier inoxydable austenitique 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehericy, Y

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of a Low Cycle Fatigue pre-damage on the subsequent fatigue limit of a 304L stainless steel. The effects of hardening and severe roughness (grinding) have also been investigated. In a first set of tests, the evolution of the surface damage induced by the different LCF pre-cycling was characterized. This has permitted to identify mechanisms and kinetics of damage in the plastic domain for different surface conditions. Then, pre-damaged samples were tested in the High Cycle Fatigue domain in order to establish the fatigue limits associated with each level of pre-damage. Results evidence that, in the case of polished samples, an important number of cycles is required to initiate surface cracks ant then to affect the fatigue limit of the material but, in the case of ground samples, a few number of cycles is sufficient to initiate cracks and to critically decrease the fatigue limit. The fatigue limit of pre-damaged samples can be estimated using the stress intensity factor threshold. Moreover, this detrimental effect of severe surface conditions is enhanced when fatigue tests are performed under a positive mean stress (author)

  5. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrogen doped CNT/Li4Ti5O12 composite for the improved high-rate electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bin; Li, Wen; Wei, Aijia; He, Rui; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2017-09-01

    A novel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) composite with nitrogen doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), denoted N-C-LTO, was successfully prepared via simple thermal annealing of CNTs in the presence of melamine. For comparison, LTO, C-LTO (Li4Ti5O12/CNT) were also synthesized. N-C-LTO demonstrated the best electrochemical performance among the samples. Even at a high charge/discharge rate of 20 C, the reversible capacity was maintained at the high level of 100 mAhg-1. Moreover, after 150 cycles at 3.0 C, 90.7 % of the capacity was retained with negligible capacity fading. The excellent electrochemical performance was possibly due to the nitrogen in the doped CNTs, which maintained the benefits of the nitrogen as good electron donating.

  7. Low-Temperature Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase/Brookite Biphasic Nanoparticles with High Surface Area and Visible-Light Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doping in combination with the brookite phase or a mixture of TiO2 polymorphs nanomaterials can enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Generally, nitrogen-dopedanatase/brookite mixed phases TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal or solvothermal method need to be at high temperature and with long time heating treatment. Furthermore, the surface areas of them are low (<125 m2/g. There is hardly a report on the simple and direct preparation of N-doped anatase/brookite mixed phase TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel method at low heating temperature. In this paper, the nitrogen-doped anatase/brookite biphasic nanoparticles with large surface area (240 m2/g were successfully prepared using sol-gel method at low temperature (165 °C, and with short heating time (4 h under autogenous pressure. The obtained sample without subsequent annealing at elevated temperatures showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO with 4.2-, 9.6-, and 7.5-fold visible light activities compared to P25 and the amorphous samples heated in muffle furnace with air or in tube furnace with a flow of nitrogen at 165 °C, respectively. This result was attributed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping, mixed crystalline phases, and high surface area.

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus dual-doped graphene as a metal-free high-efficiency electrocatalyst for triiodide reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Meng, Xiangtong; Lu, Bing; Cui, Dan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-10-14

    Alternative high-performance electrocatalysts for triiodide (I3(-)) reduction of low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are urgently sought after. To address the concerned issues, we report a facile strategy for engineering the nitrogen and phosphorus dual-doped graphene (NPG) via an efficient ball-milling process, followed by a simple thermal annealing approach utilizing melamine (C3H6N6) and triphenylphosphine ((C6H5)3P) as the N and P source, respectively. When employed as the counter electrode (CE) in DSSCs, such a metal-free material exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. Dual-doping of N and P heteroatoms can markedly enhance the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs by a synergistic effect and a high conversion efficiency of 8.57% is achieved, which is superior to Pt CE, and much higher than that of the single-component N- or P-doped graphene electrodes. In addition, the NPG CE also shows an outstanding electrochemical stability. The present results demonstrate that the NPG as a low-cost and high-efficiency electrocatalyst for reduction of I3(-) will be one of the promising CE materials in DSSCs.

  9. A confined "microreactor" synthesis strategy to three dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene for high-performance sodium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajie; Zhang, Yumin; Gao, Tangling; Han, Jiecai; Wang, Xianjie; Hultman, Benjamin; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Gang; Song, Bo

    2018-02-01

    In virtue of abundant sodium resources, sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been regarded as one of the most promising alternatives for large-scale energy storage applications. However, the absence of a suitable anode material makes it difficult to realize these applications. Here, we demonstrate an effective synthesis strategy of using a "microreactor" consisting of melamine fiber (inside) and graphene oxide (GO, outside) to fabricate three dimensional (3D) nitrogen doped (N-doped) graphene as high-performance anode materials for sodium ion batteries. Through a controlled pyrolysis, the inside melamine fiber and the outside GO layer has been converted into N-doped graphene and reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) respectively, and thus the "microreactor" is transformed into interconnected 3D N-doped graphene structures. Such highly desired 3D graphene structures show reversible sodium storage capacities up to ∼305 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 and promising long cycling stability with a stable capacity of ∼198 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. The high capacity and superior durability in combination with the facile synthesis procedure of the 3D graphene structure make it a promising anode material for SIBs and other energy storage applications.

  10. Investigation of bonded hydrogen defects in nanocrystalline diamond films grown with nitrogen/methane/hydrogen plasma at high power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. J.; Hou, Haihong; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Jiang, X. F.; Pinto, J. L.; Ye, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of some growth parameters such as high microwave power ranging from 3.0 to 4.0 kW and N2 additive on the incorporation of bonded hydrogen defects in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown through a small amount of pure N2 addition into conventional 4% CH4/H2 plasma using a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD system. Incorporation form and content of hydrogen point defects in the NCD films produced with pure N2 addition was analyzed by employing Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time. A large amount of hydrogen related defects was detected in all the produced NCD films with N2 additive ranging from 29 to 87 μm thick with grain size from 47 nm to 31 nm. Furthermore, a specific new H related sharp absorption peak appears in all the NCD films grown with pure N2/CH4/H2 plasma at high powers and becomes stronger at powers higher than 3.0 kW and is even stronger than the 2920 cm-1 peak, which is commonly found in CVD diamond films. Based on these experimental findings, the role of high power and pure nitrogen addition on the growth of NCD films including hydrogen defect formation is analyzed and discussed.

  11. Wastewater nitrogen and trace metal uptake by biota on a high-energy rocky shore detected using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joanne M; Eyre, Bradley D

    2015-11-15

    On high-energy rocky shores receiving treated wastewater, impacts are difficult to distinguish against a highly variable background and are localised due to rapid dilution. We demonstrate that nitrogen stable isotope values (δ(15)N) of rocky shore biota are highly sensitive to wastewater inputs. For macroalgae (Ulva lactuca and Endarachne binghamiae), grazing snails (Bembicium nanum and Nerita atramentosa), and predatory snails (Morula marginalba), δ(15)N was enriched near a wastewater outfall and declined with distance, returning to background levels within 290m. Any of these species therefore indicates the extent of influence of wastewater, allowing identification of an appropriate scale for studies of ecosystem impacts. For M. marginalba, significant regressions between δ(15)N and tissue copper, manganese, and zinc concentrations indicate a possible wastewater source for these metals. This suggests that δ(15)N is a proxy for exposure to wastewater contaminants, and may help to attribute variations in rocky shore communities to wastewater impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Microflowers and Their Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-01

    Sustainable carbon materials have received particular attention in CO2 capture and storage owing to their abundant pore structures and controllable pore parameters. Here, we report high-surface-area hierarchically porous N-doped carbon microflowers, which were assembled from porous nanosheets by a three-step route: soft-template-assisted self-assembly, thermal decomposition, and KOH activation. The hydrazine hydrate used in our experiment serves as not only a nitrogen source, but also a structure-directing agent. The activation process was carried out under low (KOH/carbon=2), mild (KOH/carbon=4) and severe (KOH/carbon=6) activation conditions. The mild activated N-doped carbon microflowers (A-NCF-4) have a hierarchically porous structure, high specific surface area (2309 m(2)  g(-1)), desirable micropore size below 1 nm, and importantly large micropore volume (0.95 cm(3)  g(-1)). The remarkably high CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.52 and 19.32 mmol g(-1) were achieved with this sample at 0 °C (273 K) and two pressures, 1 bar and 20 bar, respectively. Furthermore, this sample also exhibits excellent stability during cyclic operations and good separation selectivity for CO2 over N2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biomass Derived Nitrogen-Doped Highly Porous Carbon Material with a Hierarchical Porous Structure for High-Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon (NMPC with a hierarchical porous structure is prepared by simple carbonizing the green algae, which is applied as a host material to encapsulate sulfur for lithium/sulfur (Li/S battery. The NMPC exhibits high pore volume as well as large specific surface area, and thus sulfur content in the S/NMPC composite reaches up to 63 wt %. When tested in a Li/S battery, the S/NMPC composite yields a high initial capacity of 1327 mAh·g−1 as well as 757 mAh·g−1 after 100 cycles at a current rate of 0.1 C, a reversible capacity of 642 was achieved even at 1 C. This good electrochemical performance of the S/NMPC composite could be attributed to a unique combination of mesopority and surface chemistry, allowing for the retention of the intermediate polysuflides within the carbon framework.

  14. A high-pressure van der Waals compound in solid nitrogen-helium mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, W. L.; Finger, L. W.; Hemley, R. J.; Hu, J. Z.; Mao, H. K.; Schouten, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed diamond anvil-cell study using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and optical microscopy has been conducted for the He-N system, with a view to the weakly-bound van der Waals molecule interactions that can be formed in the gas phase. High pressure is found to stabilize the formation of a stoichiometric, solid van der Waals compound of He(N2)11 composition which may exemplify a novel class of compounds found at high pressures in the interiors of the outer planets and their satellites.

  15. Structure and properties of the Stainless steel AISI 316 nitrided with microwave plasma; Estructura y propiedades del acero inoxidable AISI 316 nitrurado con plasmas de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril R, F

    1999-07-01

    In this work were presented the results obtained by nitridation on stainless steel AISI 316 using a plasma generated through a microwave discharge with an external magnetic field using several moistures hydrogen / nitrogen to form a plasma. The purpose of nitridation was to increase the surface hardness of stainless steel through a phase formation knew as {gamma}N which has been reported that produces such effect without affect the corrosion resistance proper of this material. (Author)

  16. A Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Highly Porous Carbon Nanoplatelets: Efficient Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xianlei; Ma, Xiuxiu; Guo, Wenhui; Wang, Chunchi; Asefa, Tewodros; He, Xingquan

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great importance for various renewable energy conversion technologies such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have proven to be robust metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in the above-mentioned energy devices. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of novel highly porous N-doped carbon nanoplatelets (N-HPCNPs) derived from oatmeal (or a biological material) and we show the materials’ high-efficiency as electrocatalyst for ORR. The obtained N-HPCNPs hybrid materials exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities towards ORR, besides excellent stability and good methanol tolerance in both basic and acidic electrolytes. The unique nanoarchitectures with rich micropores and mesopores, as well as the high surface area-to-volume ratios, present in the materials significantly increase the density of accessible catalytically active sites in them and facilitate the transport of electrons and electrolyte within the materials. Consequently, the N-HPCNPs catalysts hold a great potential to serve as low-cost and highly efficient cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). PMID:28240234

  17. A Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Highly Porous Carbon Nanoplatelets: Efficient Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xianlei; Ma, Xiuxiu; Guo, Wenhui; Wang, Chunchi; Asefa, Tewodros; He, Xingquan

    2017-02-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great importance for various renewable energy conversion technologies such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have proven to be robust metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in the above-mentioned energy devices. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of novel highly porous N-doped carbon nanoplatelets (N-HPCNPs) derived from oatmeal (or a biological material) and we show the materials’ high-efficiency as electrocatalyst for ORR. The obtained N-HPCNPs hybrid materials exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities towards ORR, besides excellent stability and good methanol tolerance in both basic and acidic electrolytes. The unique nanoarchitectures with rich micropores and mesopores, as well as the high surface area-to-volume ratios, present in the materials significantly increase the density of accessible catalytically active sites in them and facilitate the transport of electrons and electrolyte within the materials. Consequently, the N-HPCNPs catalysts hold a great potential to serve as low-cost and highly efficient cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  18. Selecting microalgae with high lipid productivity and photosynthetic activity under nitrogen starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, G.; Bosma, R.; Cuaresma Franco, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    An economically feasible microalgal lipid industry heavily relies on the selection of suitable strains. Because microalgae lipid content increases under a range of adverse conditions (e.g. nutrient deprivation, high light intensity), photosynthetic activity is usually strongly reduced. As a

  19. Chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zuohui; Xue, Yongqiang; Ju, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems of high temperature and non-uniformity of coloring on stainless steel, a new chemical coloring process, applying ultrasonic irradiation to the traditional chemical coloring process, was developed in this paper. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and power density (sound intensity) on chemical coloring on stainless steel were studied. The uniformity of morphology and colors was observed with the help of polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), meanwhile, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance were investigated, and the effect mechanism of ultrasonic irradiation on chemical coloring was discussed. These results show that in the process of chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation, the film composition is the same as the traditional chemical coloring, and this method can significantly enhance the uniformity, the wear and corrosion resistances of the color film and accelerate the coloring rate which makes the coloring temperature reduced to 40°C. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the chemical coloring can be attributed to the coloring rate accelerated and the coloring temperature reduced by thermal-effect, the uniformity of coloring film improved by dispersion-effect, and the wear and corrosion resistances of coloring film enhanced by cavitation-effect. Ultrasonic irradiation not only has an extensive application prospect for chemical coloring on stainless steel but also provides an valuable reference for other chemical coloring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Graphene Nanoplatelets Based Protective and Functionalizing Coating for Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Jayanta; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Sammelselg, Väino

    2015-09-01

    Stainless steel is the most widely used alloy for many industrial and everyday applications, and protection of this alloy substrate against corrosion is an important industrial issue. Here we report a promising application of graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets as effective corrosion inhibitors for AISI type 304 stainless steel alloy. The graphene oxide and graphene coatings on the stainless steel substrates were prepared using spin coating techniques. Homogeneous and complete surface coverage by the graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets were observed with a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. The corrosion inhibition ability of these materials was investigated through measurement of open circuit potential and followed by potentiodymamic polarization analysis in aqueous sodium chloride solution before and after a month of immersion. Analyzed result exhibits effective corrosion inhibition for both substrates coated with graphene oxide or graphene nanoplatelets by increasing corrosion potential, pitting potential and decreasing passive current density. The corrosion inhibition ability of the coated substrates has not changed even after the long-term immersion. The result showed both graphene materials can be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor for the stainless steel substrates, which would certainly increase lifetime the substrate. However, long-term protection ability of the graphene coated susbtsrate showed somewhat better inhibition performance than the ones coated with graphene oxide.

  1. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ben H.; Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C.; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J.; Wild, Robert J.; Brown, Steven S.; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B.; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Miller, David O.; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D' Ambro, Emma L.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-01-25

    Organic nitrates (ON = RONO2 + RO2NO2) are an important reservoir, if not sink, of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2). ON formed from isoprene oxidation alone are responsible for the export of 8 to 30% of anthropogenic NOx out of the U.S. continental boundary layer [Horowitz et al., 1998; Liang et al., 1998]. Regional NOx budgets and tropospheric ozone (O3) production, are therefore particularly sensitive to uncertainties in the yields and fates of ON [Beaver et al., 2012; Browne et al., 2013]. The yields implemented in modeling studies are determined from laboratory experiments in which only a few of the first generation gaseous ON or the total gas and particle-phase ON have been quantified [Perring et al., 2013 and references therein], while production of highly functionalized ON capable of strongly partitioning to the particle-phase have been inferred [Farmer et al., 2010; Ng et al., 2007; Nguyen et al., 2011; Perraud et al., 2012; Rollins et al., 2012], or directly measured [Ehn et al., 2014]. Addition of a nitrate (–ONO2) functional group to a hydrocarbon is estimated to lower the equilibrium saturation vapor pressure by 2.5 to 3 orders of magnitude [e.g. Capouet and Muller, 2006]. Thus, organic nitrate formation can potentially enhance particle-phase partitioning of hydrocarbons in regions with elevated levels of nitrogen oxides, contributing to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation [Ng et al., 2007]. There has, however, been no high time-resolved measurements of speciated ON in the particle-phase. We utilize a newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) using Iodide-adduct ionization [B H Lee et al., 2014a] with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO) [Lopez-Hilfiker et al., 2014] that allows alternating in situ measurement of the molecular composition of gas and particle phases. We present observations of speciated ON in the particle-phase obtained during the 2013 Southern Oxidant

  2. Formation of Inclusions in Ti-Stabilized 17Cr Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue; Sun, Yanhui; Yang, Yindong; Bai, Xuefeng; Barati, Mansoor; Mclean, Alex

    2016-12-01

    The behavior and formation mechanisms of inclusions in Ti-stabilized, 17Cr Austenitic Stainless Steel produced by the ingot casting route were investigated through systematic sampling of liquid steel and rolled products. Analysis methods included total oxygen and nitrogen contents, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that the composition of inclusions was strongly dependent on the types of added alloying agents. During the AOD refining process, after the addition of ferrosilicon alloy and electrolytic manganese, followed by aluminum, the composition of inclusions changed from manganese silicate-rich inclusions to alumina-rich inclusions. After tapping and titanium wire feeding, pure TiN particles and complex inclusions with Al2O3-MgO-TiO x cores containing TiN were found to be the dominant inclusions when [pct Ti] was 0.307 mass pct in the molten steel. These findings were confirmed by thermodynamic calculations which indicated that there was a driving force for TiN inclusions to be formed in the liquid phase due to the high contents of [Ti] and [N] in the molten steel. From the start of casting through to the rolled bar, there was no further change in the composition of inclusions compared to the titanium addition stage. Stringer-shaped TiN inclusions were observed in the rolled bar. These inclusions were elongated along the rolling direction with lengths varying from 17 to 84 µm and could have a detrimental impact on the corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties of the stainless steel products.

  3. One-step preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Biaofeng; Zhou, Haitao; Yang, Jianhong

    2017-07-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) have been successfully synthesized by one-step carbonization and simultaneous chemical activation of polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers, with large surface area (1759.5 m2 g-1), high pore volume (1.16 cm3 g-1) and a mesopore rich structure (volume in micropore/total ratio, 2.16%). The vital (NDs) become entrapped within a carbon lattice (to form GNs). GNs could be used as an outstanding electrode material for supercapacitors in EMIMBF4 with high cycling stability (more than 73% retention of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles). The symmetric supercapacitor has an excellent energy density of 170.2 Wh kg-1 (25 °C) at 0.5 A g-1, with an operating cell voltage of 4.0 V. Meanwhile, oriented activation with polymers of anisotropic geometry might be regarded as a novel process to prepare GNs.

  4. The Biosynthesis of Nitrogen-, Sulfur-, and High-carbon Chain-containing Sugars†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-I; McCarty, Reid M.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates serve many structural and functional roles in biology. While the majority of monosaccharides are characterized by the chemical composition: (CH2O)n, modifications including deoxygenation, C-alkylation, amination, O- and N-methylation, which are characteristic of many sugar appendages of secondary metabolites, are not uncommon. Interestingly, some sugar molecules are formed via modifications including amine oxidation, sulfur incorporation, and “high-carbon” chain attachment. Most of these unusual sugars have been identified over the past several decades as components of microbially produced natural products, although a few high-carbon sugars are also found in the lipooligosaccharides of the outer cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. Despite their broad distribution in nature, these sugars are considered “rare” due to their relative scarcity. The biosynthetic steps that underlie their formation continue to perplex researchers to this day and many questions regarding key transformations remain unanswered. This review will focus on our current understanding of the biosynthesis of unusual sugars bearing oxidized amine substituents, thio-functional groups, and high-carbon chains. PMID:23348524

  5. The biosynthesis of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and high-carbon chain-containing sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-I; McCarty, Reid M; Liu, Hung-wen

    2013-05-21

    Carbohydrates serve many structural and functional roles in biology. While the majority of monosaccharides are characterized by the chemical composition (CH2O)n, modifications including deoxygenation, C-alkylation, amination, O- and N-methylation, which are characteristic of many sugar appendages of secondary metabolites, are not uncommon. Interestingly, some sugar molecules are formed via modifications including amine oxidation, sulfur incorporation, and "high-carbon" chain attachment. Most of these unusual sugars have been identified over the past several decades as components of microbially produced natural products, although a few high-carbon sugars are also found in the lipooligosaccharides of the outer cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. Despite their broad distribution in nature, these sugars are considered "rare" due to their relative scarcity. The biosynthetic steps that underlie their formation continue to perplex researchers to this day and many questions regarding key transformations remain unanswered. This review will focus on our current understanding of the biosynthesis of unusual sugars bearing oxidized amine substituents, thio-functional groups, and high-carbon chains.

  6. High levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 using ammonium chloride as the sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekez, B D; Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Jakovljevic, D M; Stefanovic Kojic, J R; Markovic, M D; Beskoski, V P; Vrvic, M M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 isolated from a petroleum sludge sample was investigated. High levan yield was obtained in a wide range of sucrose concentrations (up to 400 g/L) and, contrary to most levan-producing strains, using ammonium chloride as the sole N source. Interaction between sucrose, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium in a low sucrose (60-200 g/L) and a high sucrose (300-400 g/L) system was analyzed by response surface methodology. According to the calculated model in the low sucrose system, maximum predicted levan yield was 47.8 g/L (sucrose 196.8 g/L, ammonium chloride 2.4 g/L, pH 7.0), while in the high sucrose system, levan yield was 99.2 g/L (sucrose 397.6 g/L, ammonium chloride 4.6 g/L, pH 7.4). In addition, protective effect of microbial levan against copper toxicity to Daphnia magna is observed for the first time. The acute toxicity (48 h EC50) of copper decreased from 0.14 to 0.44 mg/L by levan in concentration of 50 ppm.

  7. Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: Characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Hu, Hongying; Tang, Fusheng; Li, Yuhong; Yu, Kanghua

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales. Stainless steel corrosion scale is identified as a podiform chromite deposit according to these characteristics, which is unlike deposit formed during iron corrosion. A conceptual model to explain the formation and growth of stainless steel corrosion scale is proposed based on its composition and structure. The scale growth process involves pitting corrosion on the stainless steel surface and the consecutive generation and homogeneous deposition of corrosion products, which is governed by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. This model shows the role of corrosion scales in the mechanism of iron and chromium release from pitting corroded stainless steel materials. The formation of corrosion scale is strongly related to water quality parameters. The presence of HClO results in higher ferric content inside the scales. Cl- and SO42- ions in reclaimed water play an important role in corrosion pitting of stainless steel and promote the formation of scales. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Meteorology and Chemistry of High Nitrogen Oxide Episodes at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, W. D.; Crawford, J. H.; Buhr, M. P.; Chen, G.; Nicovich, J. M.; Davis, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    High nitric oxide (NO) concentrations have been observed during four field studies at South Pole (Davis et al. 2004; Eisele et al. 2008) and at Concordia Station (Frey et al. 2015). At each site, the concentrations have not only been high but their variability has also been large. At Concordia Station, the diurnal cycle influences NO concentrations whereas at the South Pole, the lack of a diurnal cycle allows concentrations to be controlled by meteorological and chemical factors. Meteorological factors affecting NO at the South Pole include 1) the bimodal distribution of wind directions at 300 hPa in the 30 days prior to the breakup of the polar stratospheric vortex leading to stronger inversions, lighter surface winds, and high NO concentrations, 2) the effect of clearing skies that lead to the rapid collapse of the boundary layer and higher NO that mimics the effect due to the diurnal cycle at Concordia, and 3) the progression of the seasonal cycle with increases in temperature, a weakening of the surface temperature inversion, and increased cloudiness that promote a deep boundary layer and low NO concentrations. However, these factors could not account for the very high average values of NO observed at times. We have thus explored the centrally important topic of intra-seasonal recycling of NOx. We conclude that only with this recycling is it possible to explain the average elevated levels of NO and NOx. Further, we argue that the recycling must involve a significantly enhanced photolysis process (e.g., factors ranging from 4 to 9) over that typically calculated using existing nitrate-ice models for the release of NOx. This enhancement we speculate involves the importance of photochemical releases of NOx from nitrate species adsorbed on surface ice crystals as hypothesized in (Davis et al. 2008), (Davis et al. 2010) and (Davis and Neff 2014). The most critical factor in this enhancement process is the value assumed for the quantum yield for regeneration of NOx

  9. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  10. Paleolimnological records of nitrogen deposition in shallow, high-elevation lakes of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Otu, Megan K.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Baron, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elevation lakes and are less sensitive to nutrient inputs than planktonic algae. Because the benthos is typically more nutrient rich than the water column, shallow lakes are not expected to show evidence of anthropogenic Nr. In this study, we assessed sedimentary evidence for regional Nr deposition, sediment chronology, and the nature of algal community response in five shallow, high-elevation lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE). Over 140 diatom taxa were identified from the sediments, with a relatively high species richness of taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions. The diatom assemblages were dominated by benthic taxa, especially motile taxa. The GRTE lakes demonstrate assemblage-wide shifts in diatoms, including 1) synchronous and significant assemblage changes centered on ~1960 AD; 2) pre-1960 assemblages differed significantly from post-1960 assemblages; 3) pre-1960 diatom assemblages fluctuated randomly, whereas post- 1960 assemblages showed directional change; 4) changes in δ15N signatures were correlated with diatom community composition. These results demonstrate recent changes in shallow high18 elevation lakes that are most correlated with anthropogenic Nr. It is also possible, however, that the combined effect of Nr deposition and warming is accelerating species shifts in benthic diatoms. While uncertainties remain about the potential synergy of Nr deposition and warming, this study adds shallow lakes to the growing list of impacted high-elevation localities in western North America.

  11. Plant species diversity reduces N2O but not CH4 emissions from constructed wetlands under high nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjuan; Shi, Mengmeng; Chang, Jie; Ren, Yuan; Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Chongbang; Ge, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used for treating wastewater. CWs also are the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) due to high pollutant load. It has been reported that plant species diversity can enhance nitrogen (N) removal efficiency in CWs for treating wastewater. However, the influence of plant species diversity on GHG emissions from CWs in habitats with high N levels still lack research. This study established four species richness levels (1, 2, 3, 4) and 15 species compositions by using 75 simulated vertical flow CWs microcosms to investigate the effects of plant species diversity on the GHG emissions and N removal efficiency of CWs with a high N level. Results showed plant species richness reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and N (NO3--N, NH4+-N, and TIN) concentrations in wastewater, but had no effect on methane (CH4