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Sample records for high negative states

  1. The role of high Rydberg states in the generation of negative ions in negative-ion discharges

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of substantial yields of H - ions in a laser excited H 2 gas has been reported by Pinnaduwage and Christoforu. These H - yields have been attributed to (2 + 1) REMP photoexcitation processes leading to dissociative attachment of doubly-excited or superexcited states (SES), or dissociative attachment of high Rydberg product states. The new feature of these experiments is the implied large dissociative attachment rates, of order 10 -6 cm 3 sec -1 , values that are orders-of-magnitude larger than the dissociative attachment of the vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state. While these laser excitations are not directly applicable to a hydrogen negative-ion discharge, the implication of large dissociative attachment rates to the high Rydberg states may affect both the total negative-ion density and the interpretation of discharge performance. Within the discharge energetic electrons will collisionally excite the higher Rydberg states, and the relative contribution of the dissociative attachment of these states when compared with the dissociative attachment to the ground state vibrational levels, is the topic of this paper

  2. Negative-ion states

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  3. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  4. On negative norm states in supersymmetric theories

    Ellwanger, U.

    1983-01-01

    We study the effective kinetic energy of scalar fields for two classes of supersymmetric theories. In theories with very large VEVs of scalar fields, as proposed by Witten, the use of the renormalization group improved effective action prevents the appearance of negative norm states. For simpler theories a general criterium for the absence of negative norm states is given, which is violated in a model with O(N)-symmetry proposed recently. (orig.)

  5. Entanglement negativity bounds for fermionic Gaussian states

    Eisert, Jens; Eisler, Viktor; Zimborás, Zoltán

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement negativity is a versatile measure of entanglement that has numerous applications in quantum information and in condensed matter theory. It can not only efficiently be computed in the Hilbert space dimension, but for noninteracting bosonic systems, one can compute the negativity efficiently in the number of modes. However, such an efficient computation does not carry over to the fermionic realm, the ultimate reason for this being that the partial transpose of a fermionic Gaussian state is no longer Gaussian. To provide a remedy for this state of affairs, in this work, we introduce efficiently computable and rigorous upper and lower bounds to the negativity, making use of techniques of semidefinite programming, building upon the Lagrangian formulation of fermionic linear optics, and exploiting suitable products of Gaussian operators. We discuss examples in quantum many-body theory and hint at applications in the study of topological properties at finite temperature.

  6. High-Field Quasiparticle Tunneling in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ : Negative Magnetoresistance in the Superconducting State

    Morozov, N.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shibauchi, T.; Bulaevskii, L. N.; Maley, M. P.; Latyshev, Yu. I.; Yamashita, T.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the c -axis resistivity ρ c (H) in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ that peaks in quasistatic magnetic fields up to 60 T. By suppressing the Josephson part of the two-channel (Cooper pair/quasiparticle) conductivity σ c (H) , we find that the negative slope of ρ c (H) above the peak is due to quasiparticle tunneling conductivity σ q (H) across the CuO 2 layers below H c2 . At high fields (a) σ q (H) grows linearly with H , and (b) ρ c (T) tends to saturate (σ c ≠0 ) as T→0 , consistent with the scattering at the nodes of the d -wave gap. A superlinear σ q (H) marks the normal state above T c . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Coherent Behavior and the Bound State of Water and K(+) Imply Another Model of Bioenergetics: Negative Entropy Instead of High-energy Bonds.

    Jaeken, Laurent; Vasilievich Matveev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Observations of coherent cellular behavior cannot be integrated into widely accepted membrane (pump) theory (MT) and its steady state energetics because of the thermal noise of assumed ordinary cell water and freely soluble cytoplasmic K(+). However, Ling disproved MT and proposed an alternative based on coherence, showing that rest (R) and action (A) are two different phases of protoplasm with different energy levels. The R-state is a coherent metastable low-entropy state as water and K(+) are bound to unfolded proteins. The A-state is the higher-entropy state because water and K(+) are free. The R-to-A phase transition is regarded as a mechanism to release energy for biological work, replacing the classical concept of high-energy bonds. Subsequent inactivation during the endergonic A-to-R phase transition needs an input of metabolic energy to restore the low entropy R-state. Matveev's native aggregation hypothesis allows to integrate the energetic details of globular proteins into this view.

  8. Negativity of Two-Qubit System Through Spin Coherent States

    Berrada, K.; El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.; Eleuch, H.

    2009-12-01

    Using the negativity, we express and analyze the entanglement of two-qubit nonorthogonal pure states through the spin coherent states. We formulate this measure in terms of the amplitudes of coherent states and we give the conditions for the minimal and the maximal entanglement. We generalize this formalism to the case of a class of mixed states and show that the negativity is also a function of probabilities. (author)

  9. Negative-norm states, superselection rules, and the lepton family

    Crawford, J.P.; Barut, A.O.

    1983-01-01

    Field theories containing states of both positive and negative norm are considered. With the correct definition of the number operators for the quantum fields, all physical quantities are rendered canonically normalized. If the theory admits a global symmetry leading to a superselection rule which forbids transitions between positive- and negative-norm states, then the negative-norm states are allowed to be physical. Specifically, a spinor theory with higher-order field equations and multiple excitations is considered and applied to the charged lepton system: e,μ,tau. In this model, the negative norm of the muon state allows us to understand the nonexistence of μ→eγ decay. For minimal coupling, the theory is renormalizable and equivalent to three separate fermion electrodynamics with the additional prediction of equal charge for the leptons. A further anomalous magnetic moment coupling can only allow one of the decays tau→μγ or tau→eγ

  10. Negative freedom and death in the United States.

    Ackerson, Leland K; Subramanian, S V

    2010-11-01

    Personal freedoms have been characterized as "positive" (freedom to pursue opportunities) and "negative" (freedom from external constraints on decision making). An ecological analysis of US data revealed a strong positive association (r = 0.41; P = .003) between state-level negative personal freedom (defined in terms of regulation of personal behavior) and state-level age-adjusted rates of unintentional injury. A conceptual emphasis on positive freedom construed as freedom to pursue a life without risk of unintentional injury could help motivate a conversation to improve public health.

  11. Monte Carlo Sampling of Negative-temperature Plasma States

    John A. Krommes; Sharadini Rath

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure is used to generate N-particle configurations compatible with two-temperature canonical equilibria in two dimensions, with particular attention to nonlinear plasma gyrokinetics. An unusual feature of the problem is the importance of a nontrivial probability density function R0(PHI), the probability of realizing a set Φ of Fourier amplitudes associated with an ensemble of uniformly distributed, independent particles. This quantity arises because the equilibrium distribution is specified in terms of Φ, whereas the sampling procedure naturally produces particles states gamma; Φ and gamma are related via a gyrokinetic Poisson equation, highly nonlinear in its dependence on gamma. Expansion and asymptotic methods are used to calculate R0(PHI) analytically; excellent agreement is found between the large-N asymptotic result and a direct numerical calculation. The algorithm is tested by successfully generating a variety of states of both positive and negative temperature, including ones in which either the longest- or shortest-wavelength modes are excited to relatively very large amplitudes

  12. Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes

    Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru; Lukin, V.G.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khatymova, L.Z.; Kinzyabulatov, R.R.; Tseplin, E.E.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies.

  13. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  14. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part I: Effect of lignosulfonates and BaSO{sub 4} on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigates the influence of the organic expander component (Vanisperse A) and of BaSO{sub 4} on the performance of negative lead-acid battery plates on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Batteries operating in the HRPSoC mode should be classified as a separate type of lead-acid batteries. Hence, the additives to the negative plates should differ from the conventional expander composition. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and thus impede the charge processes, which results in impaired reversibility of the charge-discharge processes and hence shorter cycle life on HRPSoC operation, limited by sulfation of the negative plates. BaSO{sub 4} exerts the opposite effect: it improves the reversibility of the processes in the HRPSoC mode and hence prolongs the cycle life of the cells. The most pronounced effect of BaSO{sub 4} has been registered when it is added in concentration of 1.0 wt.% versus the leady oxide (LO) used for paste preparation. It has also been established that BaSO{sub 4} lowers the overpotential of PbSO{sub 4} nucleation. The results of the present investigation indicate that BaSO{sub 4} affects also the crystallization process of Pb during cell charging. Thus, BaSO{sub 4} eventually improves the performance characteristics of lead-acid cells on HRPSoC cycling. (author)

  15. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    Joaquín T. Limonero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  16. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  17. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  18. Quantum Entanglement and Shannon Information Entropy for the Doubly Excited Resonance State in Positronium Negative Ion

    Chien-Hao Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report an investigation on quantum entanglement in the doubly excited 2s2 1Se resonance state of the positronium negative ion by using highly correlated Hylleraas type wave functions, determined by calculation of the density of resonance states with the stabilization method. Once the resonance wave function is obtained, the spatial (electron-electron orbital entanglement entropies (von Neumann and linear can be quantified using the Schmidt decomposition method. Furthermore, Shannon entropy in position space, a measure for localization (or delocalization for such a doubly excited state, is also calculated.

  19. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: evidence for conditioned appetitive responding to negative emotional states.

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Appetitive learning has been demonstrated several times using neutral cues or contexts as a predictor of food intake and it has been shown that humans easily learn cued desires for foods. It has, however, never been studied whether internal cues are also capable of appetitive conditioning. In this study, we tested whether humans can learn cued eating desires to negative moods as conditioned stimuli (CS), thereby offering a potential explanation of emotional eating (EE). Female participants were randomly presented with 10 different stimuli eliciting either negative or neutral emotional states, with one of these states paired with eating chocolate. Expectancy to eat, desire to eat, salivation, and unpleasantness of experiencing negative emotions were assessed. After conditioning, participants were brought into a negative emotional state and were asked to choose between money and chocolate. Data showed differential conditioned responding on the expectancy and desire measures, but not on salivation. Specific conditioned effects were obtained for participants with a higher BMI (body mass index) on the choice task, and for participants high on EE on the unpleasantness ratings. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for the idea that negative emotions can act as conditioned stimuli, and might suggest that classical conditioning is involved in EE.

  20. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Boden, D.P.; Loosemore, D.V.; Spence, M.A.; Wojcinski, T.D. [Hammond Expanders Division, Hammond Group, Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use. (author)

  1. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  2. Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics

    Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of a compressible active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that respo...

  3. Negativity of asymmetric two-mode Gaussian states: An explicit analytic formula and physical interpretation

    Poon, Phoenix S. Y.; Law, C. K.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the negativity of a general two-mode Gaussian state can be explicitly expressed in terms of an optimal uncertainty product in position-momentum space. Such an uncertainty product is shown to have the greatest violation of a separability criterion based on positive partial transposition. Our analytic formula indicates the observables determining the negativity. For asymmetric Gaussian states, we show that the negativity is controlled by an asymmetric parameter which sets an upper bound for the negativity

  4. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  5. Creation, Storage, and On-Demand Release of Optical Quantum States with a Negative Wigner Function

    Jun-ichi Yoshikawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly nonclassical quantum states of light, characterized by Wigner functions with negative values, have been all-optically created so far only in a heralded fashion. In this case, the desired output emerges rarely and randomly from a quantum-state generator. An important example is the heralded production of high-purity single-photon states, typically based on some nonlinear optical interaction. In contrast, on-demand single-photon sources are also reported, exploiting the quantized level structure of matter systems. These sources, however, lead to highly impure output states, composed mostly of vacuum. While such impure states may still exhibit certain single-photon-like features such as antibunching, they are not nonclassical enough for advanced quantum-information processing. On the other hand, the intrinsic randomness of pure, heralded states can be circumvented by first storing and then releasing them on demand. Here, we propose such a controlled release, and we experimentally demonstrate it for heralded single photons. We employ two optical cavities, where the photons are both created and stored inside one cavity and finally released through a dynamical tuning of the other cavity. We demonstrate storage times of up to 300 ns while keeping the single-photon purity around 50% after storage. Our experiment is the first demonstration of a negative Wigner function at the output of an on-demand photon source or a quantum memory. In principle, our storage system is compatible with all kinds of nonclassical states, including those known to be essential for many advanced quantum-information protocols.

  6. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  7. Neuroticism Negatively Affects Multitasking Performance through State Anxiety

    Poposki, Elizabeth M; Oswald, Frederick L; Chen, Hubert T

    2009-01-01

    .... Results supported the hypothesis that neuroticism, but not the other personality characteristics measured, significantly predicts performance at multitasking, and that this relationship is mediated by state anxiety experienced during multitasking. Implications for the impact of personality and anxiety on multitasking performance are discussed.

  8. Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics.

    Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2016-10-04

    We examine the dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that responsible for modulated phases arising at an equilibrium Lifshitz point. Tuning activity and the degree of nematic order in the passive system, we obtain a linear stability phase diagram that exhibits a nonequilibrium tricritical point where ordered, modulated and disordered phases meet. Numerical solution of the nonlinear equations yields a succession of spatial structures of increasing complexity with increasing activity, including kink walls and active turbulence, as observed in experiments on microtubule bundles confined at an oil-water interface. Our work provides a minimal model for an overdamped active nematic that reproduces all the nonequilibrium structures seen in simulations of the full active nematic hydrodynamics and provides a framework for understanding some of the mechanisms for selection of the nonequilibrium patterns in the language of equilibrium critical phenomena.

  9. Negative pion trapping by metastable state in liquid helium

    Nakamura, S.N.; Iwasaki, M.; Outa, H.

    1991-11-01

    We found long-lived metastable states of stopped π - 's in liquid helium by measuring time spectra of two different delayed products: 1) protons emitted after π - absorption by 4 He nuclei and 2) 70-MeV electrons originating from free π - → e - (ν e )-bar decay. The lifetime and fraction of delayed π - absorption obtained by emitted protons are 7.26±0.12 nsec and 1.66±0.05%, respectively. The free-decay fraction was calculated to be 0.64±0.03% from this result, which is consistent with the observed free-decay fraction of π e2 decay. These results imply that 2.30±0.07% of stopped π - are trapped in metastable states which have an overall lifetime of 10.1±0.2 nsec. The same experiment and analysis were performed for stopped π - in liquid neon. No evidence for trapping was found in liquid neon. (author)

  10. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabis use and schizotypy: the role of social anxiety and other negative affective states.

    Najolia, Gina M; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S

    2012-12-30

    Emerging research suggests that cannabis use might be related to psychosis onset in people vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Furthermore, individuals with high-positive and disorganized schizotypy traits report more cannabis use and cannabis-related problems than controls. Social anxiety, a frequently co-occurring schizotypal feature, is related to increased cannabis-related problems in the general population. Building on this research, we explored the impact of social anxiety, measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and depression and trait anxiety reported on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), on the relationship of schizotypy, measured by the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR), to cannabis use (n=220 schizotypy, 436 controls) and frequent use and cannabis-related problems among users (n=88 schizotypy, 83 controls) in college undergraduates. Among cannabis users, social anxiety moderated the relationships of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems in the total schizotypy group, and across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Depression and trait anxiety also moderated the relationship of schizotypy to frequent cannabis use and more cannabis-related problems, but results varied across high-positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy subgroups. Results suggest therapeutically targeting negative affective states may be useful in psychosocial intervention for cannabis-related problems in schizotypy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative muon spin precession measurement of the hyperfine states of muonic sodium

    Brewer, J.H.; Ghandi, K.; Froese, A.M.; Fryer, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Both hyperfine states of muonic 23 Na and the rate R of conversion between them have been observed directly in a high field negative muon spin precession experiment using a backward muon beam with transverse spin polarization. The result in metallic sodium, R=13.7±2.2 μs -1 , is consistent with Winston's prediction in 1963 based on Auger emission of core electrons, and with the measurements of Gorringe et al. in Na metal, but not with their smaller result in NaF. In NaOH we find R=23.5±8 μs -1 , leaving medium-dependent effects ambiguous

  13. The blues broaden, but the nasty narrows: attentional consequences of negative affects low and high in motivational intensity.

    Gable, Philip; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-02-01

    Positive and negative affects high in motivational intensity cause a narrowing of attentional focus. In contrast, positive affects low in motivational intensity cause a broadening of attentional focus. The attentional consequences of negative affects low in motivational intensity have not been experimentally investigated. Experiment 1 compared the attentional consequences of negative affect low in motivational intensity (sadness) relative to a neutral affective state. Results indicated that low-motivation negative affect caused attentional broadening. Experiment 2 found that disgust, a high-motivation negative affect not previously investigated in attentional studies, narrowed attentional focus. These experiments support the conceptual model linking high-motivation affective states to narrowed attention and low-motivation affective states to broadened attention.

  14. Entropy, energy and negativity in Fermi-resonance coupled states of substituted methanes

    Hou Xiwen; Wan Mingfang; Ma Zhongqi

    2010-01-01

    Several measures of entanglement have attracted considerable interest in the relationship of a measure of entanglement with other quantities. The dynamics of entropy, energy and negativity is studied for Fermi-resonance coupled vibrations in substituted methanes with three kinds of initial mixed states, which are the mixed density matrices of binomial states, thermal states and squeezed states on two vibrational modes, respectively. It is demonstrated that for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes the entropies of the stretch and the bend are anti-correlated in the same oscillatory frequency, so do the energies for each kind of state with small magnitudes, whereas the entropies exhibit positive correlations with the corresponding energies. Furthermore, for small magnitudes quantum mutual entropy is positively correlated with the interacting energy. Analytic forms of entropies and energies are provided with initial conditions in which they are stationary, and the agreement between analytic and numerical simulations is satisfactory. The dynamical entanglement measured by negativity is examined for those states and conditions. It is shown that negativity displays a sudden death for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes, and the time-averaged negativity has the minimal value under the conditions of stationary entropies and energies. Moreover, negativity is positively correlated with the mutual entropy and the interacting energy just for mixed squeezed states with small magnitudes. Those are useful for molecular quantum information processing and dynamical entanglement.

  15. Measuring Positive and Negative Occupational States (PNOSI: Structural Confirmation of a New Belgian Tool

    Marie Barbier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI, a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants. The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, namely engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties.

  16. Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they

  17. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  18. Two-way and three-way negativities of three-qubit entangled states

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to quantify three-qubit entanglement using global negativity along with K-way negativities, where K=2 and 3. The principle underlying the definition of K-way negativity for pure and mixed states of N subsystems is a positive partial transpose sufficient condition. However, K-way partial transpose with respect to a subsystem is defined so as to shift the focus to K-way coherences instead of K subsystems of the composite system. A quantum state of a three-qubit system is characterized by the coherences measured by global, two-way, and three-way negativities. For a canonical state of three-qubit system, entanglement measures for genuine tripartite entanglement, W-like entanglement, and bipartite entanglement can be related to two-way and three-way negativities

  19. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  20. Classes of n-copy undistillable quantum states with negative partial transposition

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of entangled quantum states from which one cannot distill pure entanglement constitutes a fundamental recent advance in the field of quantum information. Such bipartite bound-entangled (BE) quantum states could fall into two distinct categories: (1) Inseparable states with positive partial transposition (PPT), and (2) states with negative partial transposition (NPT). While the existence of PPT BE states has been confirmed, only one class of conjectured NPT BE states has been discovered so far. We provide explicit constructions of a variety of multicopy undistillable NPT states, and conjecture that they constitute families of NPT BE states. For example, we show that for every pure state of Schmidt rank greater than or equal to 3, one can construct n-copy undistillable NPT states, for any n≥1. The abundance of such conjectured NPT BE states, we believe, considerably strengthens the notion that being NPT is only a necessary condition for a state to be distillable

  1. Daily Emotional Labor, Negative Affect State, and Emotional Exhaustion: Cross-Level Moderators of Affective Commitment

    Hyewon Kong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ emotional-labor strategies, experienced affects, and emotional exhaustion in the workplace may vary over time within individuals, even within the same day. However, previous studies on these relationships have not highlighted their dynamic properties of these relationships. In addition, although the effects of surface and deep acting on emotional exhaustion have been investigated in emotional-labor research, empirical studies on these relationships still report mixed results. Thus, we suggest that moderators may affect the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Also, this study examines the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion within individuals by repeated measurements, and verifies the mediating effect of a negative affect state. Finally, our study confirms the moderating effects that affective commitment has on the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Data was collected from tellers who had a high degree of interaction with clients at banks based in South Korea. A total of 56 tellers participated in the survey and responded for five working days. A total of 616 data entries were collected from the 56 respondents. We used a hierarchical linear model (HLM to examine our hypothesis. The results showed that surface-acting emotional labor increases emotional exhaustion; furthermore, the relationship between surface acting emotional labor and emotional exhaustion is mediated by a negative affect state within individuals. In addition, this study verified that affective commitment buffers the negative effects that surface acting emotional labor has on emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that emotional labor is a dynamic process within individuals, and that emotional exhaustion caused by emotional labor differs among individuals, and is dependent upon factors such as the individual’s level of affective commitment.

  2. The contribution of trait negative affect and stress to recall for bodily states.

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Lai, Lei; Taylor, Shelley E; Lerner, Jennifer S

    2016-12-01

    How does trait negative affect shape somatic memory of stressful events? We hypothesized that negative affect would impair accurate recall of one's own heart rate during stressful situations. Two bio-behavioral studies used a new paradigm to test retrospective visceral perception and assessed whether negative affective states experienced during aversive events (i.e., the Trier Stress Task-Time 1) would retrospectively shape recall of past heart rate (Time 2), even when accounting for actual heart rate at the time of each stressful event (Time 1). Results across both studies showed that individual differences in negative affect in response to a stressful task predicted visceral recollections, and those who experienced more negative affect were more inaccurate. Negative affect was associated with a tendency to remember visceral reactions as worse than they actually were. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contextual Variations in Negative Mood and State Self-Esteem: What Role Do Peers Play?

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the link between peer problems in school and contextual variations in negative mood and state self-esteem over a 5-day period. Fifth-grade children completed measures of mood and state self-esteem while they were at home in the morning and while they were at school each day, allowing for an examination of whether psychological…

  4. High-brightness negative-hydrogen linear accelerator

    Wadlinger, E.A.; Farrell, J.A.; Dogliani, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed a linear accelerator to accelerate negative hydrogen ions to 50 MeV with an instantaneous output current of 100 mA and a normalized rms emittance in both transverse planes of 0.02 π cm mrad. The design and results obtained to date with a 2-MeV prototype are presented

  5. Negative differential electrolyte resistance in a solid-state nanopore resulting from electroosmotic flow bistability.

    Luo, Long; Holden, Deric A; White, Henry S

    2014-03-25

    A solid-state nanopore separating two aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of KCl is demonstrated to exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) when a constant pressure is applied across the nanopore. NDR refers to a decrease in electrical current when the voltage applied across the nanopore is increased. NDR results from the interdependence of solution flow (electroosmotic and pressure-engendered) with the distributions of K+ and Cl- within the nanopore. A switch from a high-conductivity state to a low-conductivity state occurs over a very narrow voltage window (flow, yielding a true bistability in fluid flow and electrical current at a critical applied voltage, i.e., the NDR "switching potential". Solution pH and Ca2+ were separately employed as chemical stimuli to investigate the dependence of the NDR on the surface charge density. The NDR switching potential is remarkably sensitive to the surface charge density, and thus to pH and the presence of Ca2+, suggesting possible applications in chemical sensing.

  6. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  7. Long-wavelength negative mass instabilities in high current betatrons

    Godfrey, B.B.; Hughes, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Growth rates of negative mass instabilities in conventional and modified betatrons are calculated by analytic methods and by performing three-dimensional particle simulations. In contrast to earlier work, toroidal corrections to the field equations are included in the analytic model. As a result, good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained. The simulations show that the nonlinear development of the instabilities can seriously disrupt the beam

  8. Number-Phase Wigner Representation and Entropic Uncertainty Relations for Binomial and Negative Binomial States

    Amitabh, J.; Vaccaro, J.A.; Hill, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    We study the recently defined number-phase Wigner function S NP (n,θ) for a single-mode field considered to be in binomial and negative binomial states. These states interpolate between Fock and coherent states and coherent and quasi thermal states, respectively, and thus provide a set of states with properties ranging from uncertain phase and sharp photon number to sharp phase and uncertain photon number. The distribution function S NP (n,θ) gives a graphical representation of the complimentary nature of the number and phase properties of these states. We highlight important differences between Wigner's quasi probability function, which is associated with the position and momentum observables, and S NP (n,θ), which is associated directly with the photon number and phase observables. We also discuss the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation for the binomial and negative binomial states and we show that negative binomial states give a lower phase entropy than states which minimize the phase variance

  9. Bias to negative emotions: a depression state-dependent marker in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Maalouf, Fadi T; Clark, Luke; Tavitian, Lucy; Sahakian, Barbara J; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-06-30

    The aim of the current research was to examine for the first time the extent to which bias to negative emotions in an inhibitory control paradigm is a state or trait marker in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. We administered the affective go/no go task which measures the ability to switch attention to or away from positive or negative emotional stimuli to 40 adolescents with MDD (20 in acute episode (MDDa) and 20 in remission (MDDr)) and 17 healthy controls (HC). MDDa were significantly faster on the shift to negative target blocks as compared to shift to positive target blocks while HC and MDDr displayed the opposite pattern as measured by an "emotional bias index" (EBI=latency (shift to negative targets)-latency (shift to positive targets)). There was also a trend for an effect of group on commission errors, suggesting more impulsive responding by MDDa than both MDDr and HC independently of stimulus valence throughout the task. Negative bias was not associated with depression severity or medication status. In conclusion, bias to negative emotional stimuli appears to be present in the acute stage of MDD and absent in remission suggesting that it is a depression state-specific marker of MDD in adolescents. Latency emerges as a better proxy of negative bias than commission errors and accuracy on this inhibitory control task in adolescents with MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  11. High and low dimensions in the black hole negative mode

    Asnin, Vadim; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak; Levi, Michele; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    The negative mode of the Schwarzschild black hole is central to Euclidean quantum gravity around hot flat space and for the Gregory-Laflamme black string instability. We analyze the eigenvalue as a function of spacetime dimension λ = λ(d) by constructing two perturbative expansions: one for large d and the other for small d - 3, and determining as many coefficients as we are able to compute analytically. By joining the two expansions, we obtain an interpolating rational function accurate to better than 2% through the whole range of dimensions including d = 4

  12. Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.

    Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

    2014-09-01

    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative norm states in de Sitter space and QFT without renormalization procedure

    Takook, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    In recent papers, 1,2 it has been shown that the presence of negative norm states or negative frequency solutions are indispensable for a fully covariant quantization of the minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space. Their presence, while leaving unchanged the physical content of the theory, offers the advantage of eliminating any ultraviolet divergence in the vacuum energy 2 and infrared divergence in the two point function. 3 We attempt here to extend this method to the interacting quantum field in Minkowski space-time. As an illustration of the procedure, we consider the λϕ 4 theory in Minkowski space-time. The mathematical consequences of this method is the disappearance of the ultraviolet divergence to the one-loop approximation. This means, the effect of these auxiliary negative norm states is to allow an automatic renormalization of the theory in this approximation. (author)

  14. Negative quantum capacitance induced by midgap states in single-layer graphene.

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Chao; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Zhang, Mingwei; Li, Wei; He, Yuheng; Xiong, Wei; Law, Kam Tuen; Su, Dangsheng; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that single-layer graphene (SLG) decorated with a high density of Ag adatoms displays the unconventional phenomenon of negative quantum capacitance. The Ag adatoms act as resonant impurities and form nearly dispersionless resonant impurity bands near the charge neutrality point (CNP). Resonant impurities quench the kinetic energy and drive the electrons to the Coulomb energy dominated regime with negative compressibility. In the absence of a magnetic field, negative quantum capacitance is observed near the CNP. In the quantum Hall regime, negative quantum capacitance behavior at several Landau level positions is displayed, which is associated with the quenching of kinetic energy by the formation of Landau levels. The negative quantum capacitance effect near the CNP is further enhanced in the presence of Landau levels due to the magnetic-field-enhanced Coulomb interactions.

  15. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  16. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Etoh, H., E-mail: Hrh-Etoh@shi.co.jp; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Arakawa, Y.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Hiasa, T.; Yajima, S. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Onai, M.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okumura, Y. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H{sup −} beam of 10 mA and D{sup −} beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H{sup −} beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H{sup −} current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H{sup −} production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H{sup −} current dependence on the arc power.

  17. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  18. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  19. Ground-state splitting of ultrashallow thermal donors with negative central-cell corrections in silicon

    Hara, Akito; Awano, Teruyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Ultrashallow thermal donors (USTDs), which consist of light element impurities such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, have been found in Czochralski silicon (CZ Si) crystals. To the best of our knowledge, these are the shallowest hydrogen-like donors with negative central-cell corrections in Si. We observed the ground-state splitting of USTDs by far-infrared optical absorption at different temperatures. The upper ground-state levels are approximately 4 meV higher than the ground-state levels. This energy level splitting is also consistent with that obtained by thermal excitation from the ground state to the upper ground state. This is direct evidence that the wave function of the USTD ground state is made up of a linear combination of conduction band minimums.

  20. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  1. Entanglement Potential Versus Negativity of Wigner Function for SUP-Operated Quantum States

    Chatterjee, Arpita

    2018-02-01

    We construct a distinct category of nonclassical quantum states by applying a superposition of products (SUP) of field annihilation (\\hat {a}) and creation (\\hat {a}^{\\dagger }) operators of the type (s\\hat {a}\\hat {a}^{\\dagger }+t\\hat {a}^{\\dagger }\\hat {a}), with s2+t2=1, upon thermal and even coherent states. We allow these SUP operated states to undergo a decoherence process and then describe the nonclassical features of the resulted field by using the entanglement potential (EP) and the negativity of the Wigner distribution function. Our analysis reveals that both the measures are reduced in the linear loss process. The partial negativity of the Wigner function disappears when losses exceed 50% but EP exists always.

  2. Altruism as hedonism: a social development perspective on the relationship of negative mood state and helping.

    Cialdini, R B; Kenrick, D T

    1976-11-01

    A study was conducted to provide a means for reconciliation of the conflicting data on the relationship of negative mood state to altruism. Whereas some studies have shown that negative mood leads to increases in altruistic action, others have shown the reverse. It was hypothesized that the inconsistency of these results was due to differences in the ages and consequent levels of socialization of the subjects employed in the earlier studies. In order to test the hypothesis, subjects from three age groups (6-8, 10-12, and 15-18 years old) were asked to think of either depressing or neutral events and were subsequently given the opportunity to be privately generous. Consistent with predictions from the negative state relief model of altruism, the youngest, least socialized subjects were somewhat less generous in the negative mood condition, but this relationship progressively reversed itself until in the oldest, most socialized group, the negative mood subjects were significantly more generous than neutral mood controls. The data were taken as support for a hedonistic conception of altruism that views adult benevolence as self-gratification. It is suggested that the reward character of benevolence derives from the socialization experience.

  3. Survival among patients with HIV infection and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis - United States, 1993-2006.

    J Sean Cavanaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB in resource-constrained settings, smear-negative disease has been associated with higher mortality than smear-positive disease. Higher reported mortality may be due to misdiagnosis, diagnostic delays, or because smear-negative disease indicates more advanced immune suppression. METHODS: We analyzed culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB among patients with TB and HIV in the United States from 1993-2008 to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs for smear-negative disease by demographic and clinical characteristics. Allowing two years for treatment outcome to be reported, we determined hazard ratios (HRs for survival by smear status, adjusted for significant covariates on patients before 2006. RESULTS: Among 16,710 cases with sputum smear results, 6,739 (39% were sputum smear-negative and 9,971 (58% were sputum smear-positive. The prevalence of smear-negative disease was lower in male patients (PR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-0.93 and in those who were homeless (PR: 0.92, CI: 0.87-0.97 or used alcohol excessively (PR: 0.91, CI: 0.87-0.95, and higher in persons diagnosed while incarcerated (PR: 1.20, CI: 1.13-1.27. Patients with smear-negative disease had better survival compared to patients with smear-positive disease, both before (HR: 0.82, CI: 0.75-0.90 and after (HR: 0.81, CI: 0.71-0.92 the introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, smear-negative pulmonary TB in patients with HIV was not associated with higher mortality, in contrast to what has been documented in high TB burden settings. Smear-negative TB can be routinely and definitively diagnosed in the United States, whereas high-burden countries often rely solely on AFB-smear microscopy. This difference could contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays in high-burden countries, possibly resulting in higher mortality.

  4. Searching for highly entangled multi-qubit states

    Brown, Iain D K; Stepney, Susan; Sudbery, Anthony; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple numerical optimization procedure to search for highly entangled states of 2, 3, 4 and 5 qubits. We develop a computationally tractable entanglement measure based on the negative partial transpose criterion, which can be applied to quantum systems of an arbitrary number of qubits. The search algorithm attempts to optimize this entanglement cost function to find the maximal entanglement in a quantum system. We present highly entangled 4-qubit and 5-qubit states discovered by this search. We show that the 4-qubit state is not quite as entangled, according to two separate measures, as the conjectured maximally entangled Higuchi-Sudbery state. Using this measure, these states are more highly entangled than the 4-qubit and 5-qubit GHZ states. We also present a conjecture about the NPT measure, inspired by some of our numerical results, that the single-qubit reduced states of maximally entangled states are all totally mixed

  5. Novel five-state latch using double-peak negative differential resistance and standard ternary inverter

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2016-04-01

    We propose complement double-peak negative differential resistance (NDR) devices with ultrahigh peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with conventional CMOS and its compact five-state latch circuit by introducing standard ternary inverter (STI). At the “high”-state of STI, n-type NDR device (tunnel diode with nMOS) has 1st NDR characteristics with 1st peak and valley by band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) and trap-assisted tunneling (TAT), whereas p-type NDR device (tunnel diode with pMOS) has second NDR characteristics from the suppression of diode current by off-state MOSFET. The “intermediate”-state of STI permits double-peak NDR device to operate five-state latch with only four transistors, which has 33% area reduction compared with that of binary inverter and 57% bit-density reduction compared with binary latch.

  6. Neural mechanisms of attentional control differentiate trait and state negative affect

    Laura D. Crocker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA. Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways.

  7. Neural mechanisms of attentional control differentiate trait and state negative affect.

    Crocker, Laura D; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Warren, Stacie L; Bredemeier, Keith; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA). Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways.

  8. On the structure of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge

    Cleemann, L.; Eberth, J.; Neumann, W.; Zobel, V.

    1982-09-01

    Mean lifetimes of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge have been measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. The states in 66Zn have been studied through the reaction 55Mn( 14N, 2pnγ) 66Zn at E = 47 MeV, those in 70Ge through the reaction 56Fe( 16O, 2pγ) 70Ge at E = 46 MeV. The measurements were performed with a plunger apparatus with a piezo-electric distance regulation. The mean lifetimes in 66Zn were measured to be 66 ± 4ps (5 - state), 43 ± 2 ps (6 - state), 192 ± 15 ps (7 - state), and 2.7 ± 1.2 ps (9 - state), those of 70Ge 19.7 ± 2 ps (5 - state), 51 ± 4 ps (6 - state), and 25.2 ± 1.4 ps (7 - state). Deduced B ( Ml) and B( E2) values are compared with theoretical predictions of a two-proton cluster-vibration coupling model (CVM) which describes these states as couplings of g {9}/{2} ⊗ (fp shell) proton clusters to zero, one and higher phonon excitations of the corresponding Ni and Zn cores. Good overall agreement between the theoretical values and the experimental data was found.

  9. JT-60 negative ion beam NBI apparatus. Present state of its construction and initial experimental results

    Kuriyama, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-02-01

    The NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) apparatus used for negative ion at first in the world, has an aim to actually prove heating and electric current drive with high density plasma at the JT-60 and to constitute physical and technical bases for selection and design of heating apparatus of ITER (International Thermal Nuclear Fusion Experimental Reactor). Construction of 500 KeV negative ion NBI apparatus for the JT-60 started to operate on 1993 was completed at March, 1996. On the way, at a preliminary test on forming and acceleration of the negative ion beam using a portion of this apparatus, 400 KeV and 13.5 A/D of the highest deuterium negative ion beam acceleration in the world was obtained successfully, which gave a bright forecasting of the plasma heating and electric current drive experiment using the negative ion NBI apparatus. After March, 1996, some plans to begin beam incident experiment at the JT-60 using the negative ion NBI apparatus and to execute the heating and electric current drive experiment at the JT-60 under intending increase of beam output are progressed. (G.K.)

  10. Determinants of pre-procedural state anxiety and negative affect in first-time colposcopy patients: implications for intervention.

    Kola, S; Walsh, J C

    2012-07-01

    Women experience significant emotional distress in relation to further diagnostic evaluation of pre-cancerous cell changes of the cervix. However, less is known about the specific variables that contribute to elevated state anxiety and negative affect prior to colposcopy. The study aims to identify psychosocial factors that predict distress in this patient group, which can help in the development of more sophisticated interventions to reduce psychological distress. Socio-demographic variables, scores for state anxiety, negative affect, trait anxiety, fear of pain, coping style, pain-related expectancy and knowledge were assessed in 164 first-time colposcopy patients immediately before the colposcopy examination. Twenty-six per cent of variance in pre-colposcopy state anxiety was significantly explained by marital status, parity, trait anxiety, fear of minor pain and expectations of discomfort. Twenty-nine per cent of variance in pre-colposcopy negative affect was significantly explained by trait anxiety and expectations of pain. Women who are single, have children, are high trait anxious, and anticipate pain and discomfort appear to be at risk for pre-colposcopy distress. Interventions aimed at reducing pre-colposcopy psychological distress should include situation-specific variables that are amenable to change, and trait anxious women are likely to benefit from interventions to reduce distress. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Entanglement and Wigner Function Negativity of Multimode Non-Gaussian States

    Walschaers, Mattia; Fabre, Claude; Parigi, Valentina; Treps, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Non-Gaussian operations are essential to exploit the quantum advantages in optical continuous variable quantum information protocols. We focus on mode-selective photon addition and subtraction as experimentally promising processes to create multimode non-Gaussian states. Our approach is based on correlation functions, as is common in quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics, mixed with quantum optics tools. We formulate an analytical expression of the Wigner function after the subtraction or addition of a single photon, for arbitrarily many modes. It is used to demonstrate entanglement properties specific to non-Gaussian states and also leads to a practical and elegant condition for Wigner function negativity. Finally, we analyze the potential of photon addition and subtraction for an experimentally generated multimode Gaussian state.

  12. High mobility group protein DSP1 negatively regulates HSP70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis

    Miao, Zongyu; Xu, Delin; Cui, Miao; Zhang, Qizhong, E-mail: zhangqzdr@126.com

    2016-06-10

    HSP70 acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays important roles in facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the refolding or degradation of the denatured proteins. Under stressed conditions, the expression level of HSP70 is upregulated significantly and rapidly, as is known to be achieved by various regulatory factors controlling the transcriptional level. In this study, a high mobility group protein DSP1 was identified by DNA-affinity purification from the nuclear extracts of Crassostrea hongkongensis using the ChHSP70 promoter as a bait. The specific interaction between the prokaryotically expressed ChDSP1 and the FITC-labeled ChHSP70 promoter was confirmed by EMSA analysis. ChDSP1 was shown to negatively regulate ChHSP70 promoter expression by Luciferase Reporter Assay in the heterologous HEK293T cells. Both ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were induced by either thermal or CdCl{sub 2} stress, while the accumulated expression peaks of ChDSP1 were always slightly delayed when compared with that of ChHSP70. This indicates that ChDSP1 is involved, very likely to exert its suppressive role, in the recovery of the ChHSP70 expression from the induced level to its original state. This study is the first to report negative regulator of HSP70 gene transcription, and provides novel insights into the mechanisms controlling heat shock protein expression. -- Highlights: •HMG protein ChDSP1 shows affinity to ChHSP70 promoter in Crassostrea hongkongensis. •ChDSP1 negatively regulates ChHSP70 transcription. •ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were coordinately induced by thermal/Cd stress. •ChDSP1 may contribute to the recovery of the induced ChHSP70 to its original state. •This is the first report regarding negative regulator of HSP70 transcription.

  13. [Adolescent daily smoking, negative mood-states and the role of family communication].

    Martínez-Hernáez, Ángel; Marí-Klose, Marga; Julià, Albert; Escapa, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Pau; DiGiacomo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether negative mood states constitute a risk factor for daily smoking during adolescence, and to specify the role of familial factors in the association between the two variables. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (second wave, Panel of Families and Childhood) of Catalan adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. Six logistic regression models were used for girls (n = 1,442) and six for boys (n =1,100) in order to determine whether negative mood states constitute a risk factor for daily cigarette consumption, and to what extent this effect is attributable to familial factors. The prevalence of daily smoking at ages 17-18 is 3.8% for girls and 3.6 for boys. Feelings of sadness constitute a risk factor for daily cigarette consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 1.633), and communication with the father cancels out this effect. Parental pressure is a risk factor for daily smoking in both sexes (girls, OR = 2.064; boys, OR = 1.784). When parental communication is controlled for, this effect is reduced but not canceled out. Living in a reconstituted family is a risk factor for daily cigarette consumption among boys (OR = 2.988). Intergenerational communication decreases the risk of daily tobacco use among adolescents independently of their mood state. Anti-smoking interventions designed in accordance with these findings may be more effective. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Producing high-quality negatives from ERTS black-and-white transparancies

    Richard J. Myhre

    1973-01-01

    A method has been devised for producing high-quality black-and-white negatives quickly and efficiently from dense transparencies orgininating from Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery. Transparencies are evaluated on a standard light source to determine exposure and processing information needed for making negatives. A “System ASA Rating” was developed by...

  15. Properties of the low-lying negative parity states in 45Sc

    Chevallier, J.; Haas, B.; Schulz, N.; Toulemonde, M.

    1975-01-01

    The electromagnetic decay of negative parity states in 45 Sc up to an excitation energy of 2107keV have been investigated via the 42 Ca(α,pγ) 45 Sc reaction at a bombarding energy of 10.5MeV. Spin and lifetime of the levels as well as branching and mixing ratios of their decay γ-rays have been obtained from proton-gamma angular correlation measurements. Calculations based on the strong coupling model have been performed. The results are compared with experiment [fr

  16. Trapping of negative kaons by metastable states during the atomic cascade in liquid helium

    Yamazaki, T.; Aoki, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Outa, H.; Takada, E.; Tamura, H.; Sakaguchi, A.

    1989-06-01

    We observed two distinct peaks, 205 MeV/cπ - and 235 MeV/cμ - , associated with K π2 - and K μ2 - decays at rest, respectively, from negative kaons stopped in liquid helium. These peaks were found to be delayed with respect to the stopping K - , showing that stopped K - mesons of about 2% fraction are trapped in metastable states with an overall lifetime of about 40 nsec. This observation provides a direct evidence for Condo's trapping hypothesis for the at-rest decay components of K - and π - in liquid helium. (author)

  17. The relationship of social function to depressive and negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Corcoran, C M; Kimhy, D; Parrilla-Escobar, M A; Cressman, V L; Stanford, A D; Thompson, J; David, S Ben; Crumbley, A; Schobel, S; Moore, H; Malaspina, D

    2011-02-01

    Social dysfunction is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia which commonly precedes the onset of psychosis. It is unclear if social symptoms in clinical high-risk patients reflect depressive symptoms or are a manifestation of negative symptoms. We compared social function scores on the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report between 56 young people (aged 13-27 years) at clinical high risk for psychosis and 22 healthy controls. The cases were also assessed for depressive and 'prodromal' symptoms (subthreshold positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms). Poor social function was related to both depressive and negative symptoms, as well as to disorganized and general symptoms. The symptoms were highly intercorrelated but linear regression analysis demonstrated that poor social function was primarily explained by negative symptoms within this cohort, particularly in ethnic minority patients. Although this study demonstrated a relationship between social dysfunction and depressive symptoms in clinical high-risk cases, this association was primarily explained by the relationship of each of these to negative symptoms. In individuals at heightened risk for psychosis, affective changes may be related to a progressive decrease in social interaction and loss of reinforcement of social behaviors. These findings have relevance for potential treatment strategies for social dysfunction in schizophrenia and its risk states and predict that antidepressant drugs, cognitive behavioral therapy and/or social skills training may be effective.

  18. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  19. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  20. Auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: topographic evaluation with a high-density recording montage.

    Hirayasu, Y; Potts, G F; O'Donnell, B F; Kwon, J S; Arakaki, H; Akdag, S J; Levitt, J J; Shenton, M E; McCarley, R W

    1998-09-01

    The mismatch negativity, a negative component in the auditory event-related potential, is thought to index automatic processes involved in sensory or echoic memory. The authors' goal in this study was to examine the topography of auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia with a high-density, 64-channel recording montage. Mismatch negativity topography was evaluated in 23 right-handed male patients with schizophrenia who were receiving medication and in 23 nonschizophrenic comparison subjects who were matched in age, handedness, and parental socioeconomic status. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure psychiatric symptoms. Mismatch negativity amplitude was reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. They showed a greater left-less-than-right asymmetry than comparison subjects at homotopic electrode pairs near the parietotemporal junction. There were correlations between mismatch negativity amplitude and hallucinations at left frontal electrodes and between mismatch negativity amplitude and passive-apathetic social withdrawal at left and right frontal electrodes. Mismatch negativity was reduced in schizophrenia, especially in the left hemisphere. This finding is consistent with abnormalities of primary or adjacent auditory cortex involved in auditory sensory or echoic memory.

  1. Highly efficient bioinspired molecular Ru water oxidation catalysts with negatively charged backbone ligands.

    Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Li, Fusheng; Li, Fei; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-21

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven

  2. Development of the negative ion source at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics

    Takagi, Akira [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    On formation of direct high frequency chopped negative hydrogen ion beam from surface forming type negative hydrogen ion source, incident acceleration due to proton synchrotron was tried for a forming experiment and its application. By overlapping a high frequency pulse onto a bias DC voltage of convertor electrode, control of formation of negative hydrogen ion with high speed RF pulse of 2 MHz could be realized. And, incidence into 12 GeV proton accelerator to catch RF particles with waiting bucket system due to booster synchrotron, was effective for control of longitudinal emittance in the booster synchrotron. As a result, controls of the beam width and shape emitted from the booster synchrotron were possible. On application of high speed chopped negative hydrogen ion beam to accelerator, improvement of beam capture efficiency to the accelerated RF bucket, control of longitudinal emittance of accelerated beam, beam measurement at incidence into the accelerator and so forth were conducted. In this paper, results of the high speed chopped beam formation experiment using surface plasma forming type negative ion source and application of high speed beam chopping method synchronized with high frequency pulse at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics are described. (G.K.)

  3. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  4. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  5. Twistacene contained molecule for optical nonlinearity: Excited-state based negative refraction and optical limiting

    Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Jinchong; Sun, Ru; Jia, Jidong; Yang, Junyi; Ao, Guanghong; Shi, Guang; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru; Song, Yinglin

    2018-06-01

    Spindle-type molecules containing twisted acenes (PyBTA-1 &PyBTA-2) are designed, synthesized characterized. Picosecond Z-scan experiments under 532 nm show reverse saturable absorption and negative nonlinear refraction, indicating large third-order optical nonlinearity in PyBTA-1. The mechanism of the optical nonlinearity is investigated and the results show that the nonlinear absorption and refraction in PyBTA-1 originates from a charge transfer (CT) state. Furthermore, relatively long lifetime and absorptive cross section of the CT state are measured. Based on the excited state absorption in PyBTA-1, strong optical limiting with ∼0.3 J/cm2 thresholds are obtained when excited by picoseconds and nanoseconds pulses. The findings on nonlinear optics suggest PyBTA-1 a promising material of all optical modulation and laser protection, which enrich the potential applications of these spindle-type molecules. Comparing to the previously reported spindle-type molecules with analogous structures, the introduction of ICT in PyBTA-1 &PyBTA-2 dramatically decreases the two-photon absorption while enhances the nonlinear refraction. The results could be used to selectively tailor the optical nonlinearity in such kind of compounds.

  6. Trajectory effects in the negative charge-state fraction of 3He and 4He reflected from a sodium target

    Schneider, P.J.; Eckstein, W.; Verbeek, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of the positive and negative charge-state fractions of He reflected from a sodium target with incident energies in the range of 1.75 keV/nucleon to 5 keV/nucleon are presented. The exit angle of the particles was held constant at 75 0 from the surface normal, while the incident angle was varied from 0 0 (normal incidence) to 75 0 . The positive charge-state fractions exhibited no incident-angle or incident-energy dependence and dependend only upon the exit energy. For normal incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were also only dependent upon the exit energy. However, for glancing incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were incident- and exit-energy dependent. These results are compared to previous results for D [1] and are discussed in terms of the trajectory-dependent formation probability of the negative ions. (orig.)

  7. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  8. Parenting stress as a mediator of parents' negative mood state and behavior problems in children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Measurement of the dechanneling length for high-energy negative pions

    Scandale, W.; Losito, R.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Della Mea, G.; Vallazza, E.; Afonin, A.G.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Denisov, A.S.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dechanneling length of 150 GeV/cπ − interacting with a short bent silicon crystal. Dechanneling length measures the rate and the strength of incoherent interactions of channeled particles in a crystal. The mechanism of dechanneling of negatively charged particles has been elucidated through simulation and experiment. It was found that the dechanneling length for negative particles is comparable to the nuclear dechanneling length for positive charges. Indeed, dechanneling of negative particles occurs as a result of incoherent interactions with the nuclei because the trajectories of such particles always intersect atomic planes, explaining the lower channeling efficiency for such particles. Obtained results can be useful for the design of crystals for manipulating high-energy negative particle beams through channeling

  11. High-spin states in 60Cu

    Tsan, U.C.; Agard, M.; Bruandet, J.F.; Dauchy, A.; Giorni, A.; Glasser, F.; Morand, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.

    1981-04-01

    The 60 Cu nucleus has been studied via the 58 Ni(α, pnγ) reaction using different in-beam γ spectroscopy techniques. As for the other odd-odd Cu, the gsub(9/2) shell plays an important role for the explanation of observed high-spin states. Some of them (in particular 6 - and 9 + states) could be interpreted as two-nucleon states in the framework of a crude shell model

  12. High false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian patients on regular hemodialysis.

    El-Sherif, Assem; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Aboelfotoh, Atef; Abdelkarim, Magdy; Saied Mohammad, Abdel-Gawad; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud; Mostafa, Sadek; Elmestikawy, Amr; Elwassief, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamed; Abdelbaseer, Mohamed Ali; Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin

    2012-07-01

    Routine serological testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis (HD) patients is currently recommended. A dilemma existed on the value of serology because some investigators reported a high rate of false-negative serologic testing. In this study, we aimed to detect the false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian HD patients. Seventy-eight HD patients, negative for anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigen, were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the next step, the viral load was quantified by real-time PCR in RT-PCR-positive patients. Risk factors for HCV infection, as well as clinical and biochemical indicators of liver disease, were compared between false-negative and true-negative anti-HCV HD patients. The frequency of false-negative anti-HCV was 17.9%. Frequency of blood transfusion, duration of HD, dialysis at multiple centers, and diabetes mellitus were not identified as risk factors for HCV infection. The frequency of false-negative results had a linear relation to the prevalence of HCV infection in the HD units. Timely identification of HCV within dialysis units is needed in order to lower the risk of HCV spread within the HD units. The high false-negative rate of anti-HCV among HD patients in our study justifies testing of a large scale of patients for precious assessment of effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification technology testing in screening HD patient. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. The study of very high spin states

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Some examples are given of the study of very high spin states that decay by discrete line gamma-ray emission. States up to spin 70(h/2π) have been seen in superdeformed bands. In other bands with normal deformation the limit is near 50(h/2π). (Author)

  14. Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect

    Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information (“following feelings”), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning. PMID:27041783

  15. Depletion of the excited state population in negative ions using laser photodetachment in a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion guide

    Lindahl, A O; Hanstorp, D [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forstner, O [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Universitaet Wien, Vienna (Austria); Gibson, N D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Gottwald, T; Wendt, K [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Havener, C C; Liu, Y, E-mail: Dag.Hanstorp@physics.gu.s [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6368 (United States)

    2010-06-14

    The depopulation of excited states in beams of negatively charged carbon and silicon ions was demonstrated using collisional detachment and laser photodetachment in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion guide filled with helium. The high-lying, loosely bound {sup 2}D excited state in C{sup -} was completely depleted through collisional detachment alone, which was quantitatively determined within 6%. For Si{sup -} the combined signal from the population in the {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D excited states was only partly depleted through collisions in the cooler. The loosely bound {sup 2}P state was likely to be completely depopulated, and the more tightly bound {sup 2}D state was partly depopulated through collisions. 98(2)% of the remaining {sup 2}D population was removed by photodetachment in the cooler using less than 2 W laser power. The total reduction of the excited population in Si{sup -}, including collisional detachment and photodetachment, was estimated to be 99(1)%. Employing this novel technique to produce a pure ground state negative ion beam offers possibilities of enhancing selectivity, as well as accuracy, in high-precision experiments on atomic as well as molecular negative ions.

  16. The Coordination of calculation and experimental procedures in the determination of high-negative reactivities

    Pinegin, A.A.; Tsyganov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Usually three sources of information about the value of inserted negative reactivity (ρ) are used: dynamical experiment with reactimeters, solution of conventionally critical problems, and dynamical calculation of the process of reactivity insertion with the reactimer model. Each of them gives they own estimation of ρ. The discrepancy between these estimation could be significant, particularly noticeable in dissymmetric insertion of perturbation. The paper discusses origin of problems of estimation high negative reactivity with reactivity meter. Authors believe that correct method of high negative reactivity estimation have to include three dimensional dynamic core model for taking to account spatial effect. Moreover, some special process, such a removal of delayed neutron emitters, change in the fraction of delayed neutrons, inner source etc. (Authors)

  17. The coordination of calculation and experimental procedures in the determination of high-negative reactivities

    Pinegin, A.A.; Tsyganov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Usually three sources of information about the value of inserted negative reactivity (ρ) are used: dynamical experiment with reactimeters, solution of conventionally critical problems, and dynamical calculation of the process of reactivity insertion with the reactimeter model. Each of them gives they own estimation of ρ. The discrepancy between these estimations could be significant, particularly noticeable in dissymmetric insertion of perturbation. Origin of problems of estimation high negative reactivity is discussed using the reactivity meter. A correct method of high negative reactivity estimation have to include three dimensional dinamic core model for taking to account spatial effect. Moreover, some special processes, such as removal of delayed neutron emitters, change in the fraction of delayed neutrons, inner sources are considered etc. (author)

  18. Macroscopic quantum interference in the conventional and coherent quantum 1/F effect with negative quantum entropy states

    Handel, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    The author's recent application of the new Quantum Information Theory Approach (QIT) to Infra Quantum Physics (IQP) explains for the first time the apparent lack of unitarity caused by the entropy increase in the Quantum 1/f Effect (Q1/fE). This allows for a better understanding of the quantum 1/f effect in this paper, showing no resultant entropy increase and therefore no violation of unitarity. This new interpretation involves the concept of von Neumann Quantum Entropy, including the new negative conditional entropy concept for quantum entangled states introduced by QIT. The Q1/fE was applied to many high-tech systems, in particular to ultra small electronic devices. The present paper explains how the additional entropy implied by the Q1/fE arises in spite of the entropy-conserving evolution of the system. On this basis, a general derivation of the conventional and coherent quantum 1/f effect is given. (author)

  19. Entanglement sharing via qudit channels: Nonmaximally entangled states may be necessary for one-shot optimal singlet fraction and negativity

    Pal, Rajarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro

    2018-03-01

    We consider the problem of establishing entangled states of optimal singlet fraction and negativity between two remote parties for every use of a noisy quantum channel and trace-preserving local operations and classical communication (LOCC) under the assumption that the parties do not share prior correlations. We show that for a family of quantum channels in every finite dimension d ≥3 , one-shot optimal singlet fraction and entanglement negativity are attained only with appropriate nonmaximally entangled states. A consequence of our results is that the ordering of entangled states in all finite dimensions may not be preserved under trace-preserving LOCC.

  20. Design of long pulse/steady state negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion applications

    Prelec, K.

    1980-01-01

    By using parameters of ion sources when operating in a pulsed mode and without cooling (pulse length 2 . For the range of cathode power densities between 0.2 kW/cm 2 and 1 Kw/cm 2 , nucleated boiling has to be used for heat removal; below 0.2 kW/cm 2 water flow cooling suffices. Although this source should deliver 0.3 to 0.5 A of H - ions in a steady state operation and at full power, the other source, which has a magnetron geometry, is more promising. The latter incorporates two new features compared to first designs, geometrical focusing of fast, primary negative hydrogen ions from the cathode into the extraction slit, and a wider discharge gap in the back of the source. These two changes have resulted in an improvement of the power and gas efficiencies by a factor of 3 to 4 and in a reduction of the cathode power density by an order of magnitude. The source has water cooling for all the electrodes, because maximum power densities will not be higher than 0.2 kW/cm 2 . Very recently a modification of this magnetron source is being considered; it consists of plasma injection into the source from a hollow cathode discharge

  1. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    Methods and results. In this prospective observational study, patients were classied into categories of infection, namely denite, probable and possible. Of 76 neonates, 1 had denite infection, 5 probable infection, 30 possible infection, and 32 no infection. .e neutrophil CD64 index at a cut-o. value of 1.8 had a high negative ...

  2. Risk score predicts high-grade prostate cancer in DNA-methylation positive, histopathologically negative biopsies.

    Van Neste, Leander; Partin, Alan W; Stewart, Grant D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Harrison, David J; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is challenging because efforts for effective, timely treatment of men with significant cancer typically result in over-diagnosis and repeat biopsies. The presence or absence of epigenetic aberrations, more specifically DNA-methylation of GSTP1, RASSF1, and APC in histopathologically negative prostate core biopsies has resulted in an increased negative predictive value (NPV) of ∼90% and thus could lead to a reduction of unnecessary repeat biopsies. Here, it is investigated whether, in methylation-positive men, DNA-methylation intensities could help to identify those men harboring high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa, resulting in an improved positive predictive value. Two cohorts, consisting of men with histopathologically negative index biopsies, followed by a positive or negative repeat biopsy, were combined. EpiScore, a methylation intensity algorithm was developed in methylation-positive men, using area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic as metric for performance. Next, a risk score was developed combining EpiScore with traditional clinical risk factors to further improve the identification of high-grade (Gleason Score ≥7) cancer. Compared to other risk factors, detection of DNA-methylation in histopathologically negative biopsies was the most significant and important predictor of high-grade cancer, resulting in a NPV of 96%. In methylation-positive men, EpiScore was significantly higher for those with high-grade cancer detected upon repeat biopsy, compared to those with either no or low-grade cancer. The risk score resulted in further improvement of patient risk stratification and was a significantly better predictor compared to currently used metrics as PSA and the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) risk calculator (RC). A decision curve analysis indicated strong clinical utility for the risk score as decision-making tool for repeat biopsy. Low DNA-methylation levels in PCa-negative biopsies led

  3. Management of High-Voltage Burns of the Hand and Wrist with Negative Pressure Dressing

    Nazım Gümüş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Negative pressure dressing stimulates wound healing by promoting cellular proliferation and regeneration. It also removes interstitial edema and increases local blood flow, resulting in rapid growth of the granulation tissue. We used the dressing method in deep hand and wrist burns caused by high-voltage electrical current, which leads to progressive tissue necrosis, elevated compartment pressure, and deep tissue edema, to reveal if subatmospheric pressure could limit the zone of injury or ongoing tissue necrosis after electrical burn. Material and Methods: Six hands of five patients, who came in contact with high-voltage electrical wire carrying more than 1000 volts, are presented in this study. Hands and wrists were seriously injured and contracted. After the initial treatment involving fluid resuscitation, fasciotomy, carpal tunnel release, and debridement, a negative pressure dressing was applied to the wounds of hand, wrist, and forearm with 125 mm Hg continuous pressure, and maintained for 20 days. Results: When negative pressure dressing was stopped on the 20th day, significant granulation tissue developed over the hand and forearm wounds. However, wrist wounds needed more debridement and repeated dressings because of the presence of necrosis. Edema of the hands subsided significantly during the use of negative pressure dressing. Time to closure for hand and forearm wounds decreased considerably. Moreover, in one wrist, spontaneous closure was achieved at about one month. All hands except one treated with negative pressure dressing could be saved from amputation; however, significant tissue loss developed, needing complex reconstruction procedures. One hand was amputated because of the permanent loss of blood perfusion. Conclusion: The management of high-voltage burns of hand and wrist with subatmospheric pressure appears to be capable of reducing hand edema and accelerating closure of the wounds. It seems that negative

  4. Time-resolved measurements of highly-polymerised negative ions in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    Howling, A.A.; Sansonnens, L.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1993-07-01

    The time-resolved fluxes of negative polysilicon hydride ions from a power-modulated rf silane plasma have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry and modeled using a simple polymerisation scheme. Experiments were performed with plasma parameters suitable for high-quality amorphous silicon deposition. Polysilicon hydride anions diffuse from the plasma with low energy (approximately 0.5 eV) during the afterglow after the electron density has decayed and the sheath fields have collapsed. The mass-dependence of the temporal behavior of the anion loss flux demonstrates that the plasma composition is influenced by the modulation frequency. The negative species attain much higher masses than the positive or neutral species, and anions containing as many as sixteen silicon atoms have been observed, corresponding to the 500 amu limit of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that negative ions could be the precursors to particle formation. Ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions are discussed and a simple negative ion polymerisation scheme is proposed which qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The model shows that the densities of high mass negative ions in the plasma are strongly reduced by modulation frequencies near 1 kHz. Each plasma period is then too short for the polymerisation chain to propagate to high masses before the elementary anions are lost in each subsequent afterglow period. This explains why modulation of the rf power can reduce particle contamination. We conclude that, for the case of silane rf plasmas, the initiation steps which ultimately lead to particle contamination proceed by negative ion polymerisation. (author) 15 figs., 72 refs

  5. A Langmuir probe system for high power RF-driven negative ion sources on high potential

    McNeely, P; Christ-Koch, S; Fantz, U; Dudin, S V

    2009-01-01

    A fully automated Langmuir probe system capable of operating simultaneously with beam extraction has been developed and commissioned for the negative hydrogen ion source testbeds at IPP Garching. It allows the measurement of temporal and spatial distributions of the plasma parameters within a single plasma pulse ( 10 18 m -3 ) and hot (T e > 10 eV) plasma with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures. The plasma found near the plasma grid is very different being of low density (≤10 17 m -3 ) and very cold (T e < 2 eV). This plasma is also strongly influenced by the presence of caesium, the potential of the plasma grid, and if an ion beam is extracted from the source. Caesium strongly reduces the plasma potential of the source and enhances the negative ion density near the plasma grid. Extracting an ion beam is observed to reduce the electron density and increase the potential near the plasma grid. Applying a potential greater than the plasma potential to the plasma grid is found to significantly decrease the electron density near the plasma grid.

  6. Negative Emotions Predict Elevated Interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Coe, Christopher L.; Curhan, Katherine B.; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Western cultures have shown that negative emotions predict higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6). This link between negative emotions and IL-6 may be specific to Western cultures where negative emotions are perceived to be problematic and thus may not extend to Eastern cultures where negative emotions are seen as acceptable and normal. Using samples of 1044 American and 382 Japanese middle-aged and older adults, we investigated whether the relationship between negative emotions and IL-6 varies by cultural context. Negative emotions predicted higher IL-6 among American adults, whereas no association was evident among Japanese adults. Furthermore, the interaction between culture and negative emotions remained even after controlling for demographic variables, psychological factors (positive emotions, neuroticism, extraversion), health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption), and health status (chronic conditions, BMI). These findings highlight the role of cultural context in shaping how negative emotions affect inflammatory physiology and underscore the importance of cultural ideas and practices relevant to negative emotions for understanding of the interplay between psychology, physiology, and health. PMID:23911591

  7. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF6 at high pressures

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G; Hernandez-Avila, J L; Basurto, E

    2010-01-01

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF 6 are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF 6 over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10 -17 V cm 2 ). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  8. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  9. Negative Leadership

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  10. Investigations of a new, highly negative liposome with improved biodistribution for imaging

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Clancy, B.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive feature of liposomes is the wide range of lipid composition that can lead to liposome formation, coupled with the observation that liposome biodistribution may be altered by varying lipid composition. For instance, adding charged lipids to neutral lecithin will alter the biodistribution of the resulting charged liposomes. We have prepared highly negative liposomes by replacing lecithin with negatively charged cardiolipin. The liposomes have been labeled in the lipid phase with Ga-67 and Tc-99m oxine and their properties evaluated. The expected high negative charge of the resulting liposomes was confirmed by an ion-exchange chromatographic technique. Using paper chromatography, the stability of the label was determined during incubation in saline and serum. Finally, biodistributions were determined at 2 h in mice, and the results compared with those for negative lecithin liposomes. Accumulated activities in liver and spleen were reduced by factors of five and 20, respectively, over lecithin liposomes. Since preferential accumulation of activity in these organs constitutes the biggest limitation to the use of lecithin liposomes, cardiolipin liposomes may prove to be more useful carriers of radioactivity in imaging applications. More importantly, however, these results illustrate the value of studying novel liposome types as potential radiopharmaceuticals

  11. Negative-feedback control system of the high voltage power supply for ECRH

    Ding Tonghai; Liu Baohua; Jiang Shufang

    2001-01-01

    A kind of high accuracy negative high voltage power supply (HVPS) was introduced. The serial feedback was regulated according to the character of the high power tetrode and a new kind of integrator with preset value, which solved the key technological problem of the HVPS that the ECRH system required a voltage of -80 kV, a pulse width of 10 - 100 ms and a precision of 99.7%. The result using a PSPICE code simulation has shown that the method is practical

  12. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  13. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental status of high-spin states

    Stephens, F.S.

    1975-09-01

    Changes occurring in high spin nuclear states are discussed. Experimental methods for studying reduction and eventual quenching of pairing interactions, changes in nuclear shapes, and alignment of individual particle angular momenta with increasing spin are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the study of continuum gamma rays following heavy ion reactions. (12 figures)

  15. High-negative effective refractive index of silver nanoparticles system in nanocomposite films

    Altunin, Konstantin K.; Gadomsky, Oleg N.

    2012-03-01

    We have proved on the basis of the experimental optical reflection and transmission spectra of the nanocomposite film of poly(methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles that (PMMA + Ag) nanocomposite films have quasi-zero refractive indices in the optical wavelength range. We show that to achieve quasi-zero values of the complex index of refraction of composite materials is necessary to achieve high-negative effective refractive index in the system of spherical silver nanoparticles.

  16. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084596; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  17. Negative binomial multiplicity distributions, a new empirical law for high energy collisions

    Van Hove, L.; Giovannini, A.

    1987-01-01

    For a variety of high energy hadron production reactions, recent experiments have confirmed the findings of the UA5 Collaboration that charged particle multiplicities in central (pseudo) rapidity intervals and in full phase space obey negative binomial (NB) distributions. The authors discuss the meaning of this new empirical law on the basis of new data and they show that they support the interpretation of the NB distributions in terms of a cascading mechanism of hardron production

  18. A digital controlled negative high voltage power source for LINAC of HLS

    Gao Hui; Chen Jun; Hong Jun; Wang Weibing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of a 10-80 kV negative high voltage power source for the electronic gun of the 200 MeV LINAC of NSRL, especially how to realize the switch power, voltage/current sampling, feedback control and microcontroller module. The firmware design for the SOC microcontroller of ADuC8xx and the application software design for PC are also presented. (authors)

  19. Introducing Bayesian thinking to high-throughput screening for false-negative rate estimation.

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Qian, Hong; Rowan, Karen; Mark, David; Peng, Zhengwei; Huang, Kuo-Sen

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has been widely used to identify active compounds (hits) that bind to biological targets. Because of cost concerns, the comprehensive screening of millions of compounds is typically conducted without replication. Real hits that fail to exhibit measurable activity in the primary screen due to random experimental errors will be lost as false-negatives. Conceivably, the projected false-negative rate is a parameter that reflects screening quality. Furthermore, it can be used to guide the selection of optimal numbers of compounds for hit confirmation. Therefore, a method that predicts false-negative rates from the primary screening data is extremely valuable. In this article, we describe the implementation of a pilot screen on a representative fraction (1%) of the screening library in order to obtain information about assay variability as well as a preliminary hit activity distribution profile. Using this training data set, we then developed an algorithm based on Bayesian logic and Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the number of true active compounds and potential missed hits from the full library screen. We have applied this strategy to five screening projects. The results demonstrate that this method produces useful predictions on the numbers of false negatives.

  20. A comprehensive iterative approach is highly effective in diagnosing individuals who are exome negative.

    Shashi, Vandana; Schoch, Kelly; Spillmann, Rebecca; Cope, Heidi; Tan, Queenie K-G; Walley, Nicole; Pena, Loren; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Stong, Nicholas; Need, Anna C; Goldstein, David B

    2018-06-15

    Sixty to seventy-five percent of individuals with rare and undiagnosed phenotypes remain undiagnosed after exome sequencing (ES). With standard ES reanalysis resolving 10-15% of the ES negatives, further approaches are necessary to maximize diagnoses in these individuals. In 38 ES negative patients an individualized genomic-phenotypic approach was employed utilizing (1) phenotyping; (2) reanalyses of FASTQ files, with innovative bioinformatics; (3) targeted molecular testing; (4) genome sequencing (GS); and (5) conferring of clinical diagnoses when pathognomonic clinical findings occurred. Certain and highly likely diagnoses were made in 18/38 (47%) individuals, including identifying two new developmental disorders. The majority of diagnoses (>70%) were due to our bioinformatics, phenotyping, and targeted testing identifying variants that were undetected or not prioritized on prior ES. GS diagnosed 3/18 individuals with structural variants not amenable to ES. Additionally, tentative diagnoses were made in 3 (8%), and in 5 individuals (13%) candidate genes were identified. Overall, diagnoses/potential leads were identified in 26/38 (68%). Our comprehensive approach to ES negatives maximizes the ES and clinical data for both diagnoses and candidate gene identification, without GS in the majority. This iterative approach is cost-effective and is pertinent to the current conundrum of ES negatives.

  1. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  2. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  3. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  4. Prototype high current, high duty factor negative hydrogen ion source for LAMPF

    Lawrence, G.P.; Hayward, T.D.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Present plans for the high current proton storage ring at LAMPF incorporate charge changing (stripping) injection of H - ions in all modes of operation. Achievable stored current levels in this device will be strongly dependent on the maximum H - beam intensity which can be accelerated by the linac, consistent with acceptable beam spill. This requirement has stimulated a program to develop an H - ion source capable of providing a suitably high peak current (up to 25 mA) at high duty factor (up to 12 percent), with a normalized x,x' or y,y' emittance acceptable to the accelerating system. There are presently two main approaches which could lead to H - ion sources providing this kind of performance. These are (a) the charge exchange method, in which an intense proton beam is fractionally converted to H - beam in a suitable charge adding medium, and (b) the direct extraction method, in which H - ions are obtained by a surface emission process associated with a gas discharge plasma. While both approaches may eventually find optimum application in different situations, it is not obvious, at present, which scheme will turn out to be the most satisfactory for LAMPF. A prototype charge exchange H - ion source has been constructed as a first step in the development program and is presently being evaluated. Work on surface emission direct extraction techniques is in the planning stages. (U.S.)

  5. Relationships among Career and Life Stress, Negative Career thoughts, and Career Decision State: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Leierer, Stephen J.; Reed, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    According to cognitive information processing theory, career thoughts mediate the relationship between career and life stress and the ensuing career decision state. Using a sample of 232 college students and structural equation modeling, this study found that an increase in career and life stress was associated with an increase in negative career…

  6. Review on α-Fe2O3 based negative electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Nithya, V. D.; Arul, N. Sabari

    2016-09-01

    Supercapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device which has drawn attention of the researchers in recent years due to its high power density and long cycle life. Recently, an enormous effort has been imposed to improve the energy density of supercapacitor and might be attained through asymmetric cell configuration that offer wider potential window. Until now, a significant advancement has been achieved in the fabrication of positive electrodes for asymmetric cell. Nevertheless, the electrochemical performance of negative electrode materials is less explored, especially Hematite (α-Fe2O3). The α-Fe2O3 has been proved to be a promising negative electrode in supercapacitor application due to its wide operating potential, high redox activity, low cost, abundant availability and eco-friendliness. In this review, we have chosen α-Fe2O3 as the negative electrode and discussed its latest research progress with emphasis on various surface engineering synthesis strategies such as, carbon, polymer, metal-metal oxide, and ternary based α-Fe2O3 composites for supercapacitor. Besides, the importance of their synergistic effects over the supercapacitive performance in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, cycling life and rate capability are highlighted. Also, an extensive analysis of the literature about its symmetric/asymmetric cell performance is explored.

  7. Latent negative self-schema and high emotionality in well adolescents at risk for psychopathology.

    Kelvin, R G; Goodyer, I M; Teasdale, J D; Brechin, D

    1999-09-01

    Teasdale's (1988) differential activation hypothesis proposes that a tendency for negative mood to activate latent negative self-schemas characterises people at risk for depression. The current study tested predictions from this hypothesis in a community sample of 102 adolescents who were free from history of psychiatric illness, and who were subdivided according to level of emotionality, a temperamental style as assessed by parental questionnaire. A musical mood induction task was used to induce temporary mild dysphoria, and the effect of mood induction on self-schemas was assessed. There was no difference between high and low emotionality groups in the liability to sad mood induction. However, adolescents with high emotionality endorsed significantly more negative self-descriptors after dysphoric, but not after neutral, mood induction. This was not accounted for by level of self-reported depressive symptoms over the previous week. This suggests that a " dysphoric mood induction challenge" may provide important information about vulnerability to depression that is not identified by routine self-report of mood or cognitions.

  8. Status of quarkonia-like negative and positive parity states in a relativistic confinement scheme

    Bhavsar, Tanvi; Shah, Manan; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Properties of quarkonia-like states in the charm and bottom sector have been studied in the frame work of relativistic Dirac formalism with a linear confinement potential. We have computed the mass spectroscopy and decay properties (vector decay constant and leptonic decay width) of several quarkonia-like states. The present study is also intended to identify some of the unexplained states as mixed P-wave and mixed S-D-wave states of charmonia and bottomonia. The results indicate that the X(4140) state can be an admixture of two P states of charmonium. And the charmonium-like states X(4630) and X(4660) are the admixed state of S-D-waves. Similarly, the X(10610) state recently reported by Belle II can be mixed P-states of bottomonium. In the relativistic framework we have computed the vector decay constant and the leptonic decay width for S wave charmonium and bottomonium. The leptonic decay widths for the J^{PC} = 1^{-} mixed states are also predicted. Further, both the masses and the leptonic decay width are considered for the identification of the quarkonia-like states.

  9. Status of quarkonia-like negative and positive parity states in a relativistic confinement scheme

    Bhavsar, Tanvi; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Shah, Manan

    2018-01-01

    Properties of quarkonia-like states in the charm and bottom sector have been studied in the frame work of relativistic Dirac formalism with a linear confinement potential. We have computed the mass spectroscopy and decay properties (vector decay constant and leptonic decay width) of several quarkonia-like states. The present study is also intended to identify some of the unexplained states as mixed P-wave and mixed S-D-wave states of charmonia and bottomonia. The results indicate that the X(4140) state can be an admixture of two P states of charmonium. And the charmonium-like states X(4630) and X(4660) are the admixed state of S-D-waves. Similarly, the X(10610) state recently reported by Belle II can be mixed P-states of bottomonium. In the relativistic framework we have computed the vector decay constant and the leptonic decay width for S wave charmonium and bottomonium. The leptonic decay widths for the J PC = 1 -- mixed states are also predicted. Further, both the masses and the leptonic decay width are considered for the identification of the quarkonia-like states. (orig.)

  10. Prevalência e fatores associados a indicadores negativos de saúde mental em adolescentes estudantes do ensino médio em Pernambuco, Brasil The prevalence of and factors associated with negative mental health indicators in adolescents attending high school in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco

    Priscila Diniz de Carvalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a prevalência e fatores associados a indicadores negativos de saúde mental em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se um questionário previamente validado para coletar dados de 4.207 adolescentes (14-19 anos estudantes do ensino médio, selecionados através de amostragem por conglomerados em dois estágios. RESULTADOS: as prevalências de tristeza, sentimento de solidão, pensamento de suicídio, dificuldade para dormir devido à preocupação e planos de suicídio foram, respectivamente, 29,7%, 15,8%, 11,2%, 10,0% e 7,8%. A prevalência de todos os indicadores foi superior entre as moças, sendo a tristeza o indicador mais prevalente. Identificou-se que a cor da pele não foi um fator associado à ocorrência dos indicadores negativos de saúde mental, enquanto não morar com os pais apresentou associação significativa com sentimento de solidão e pensamento em suicídio. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de sentimento de solidão e de tristeza é alta e as moças representam um subgrupo de maior risco em relação a todos os indicadores negativos de saúde mental.OBJECTIVES: to identify the prevalence of and factors associated with negative mental health indicators among adolescents. METHODS: a previously validated questionnaire was used to gather data on 4,207 adolescents (aged between 14 and 19 years attending high school, selected by way of conglomerate sampling in two stages. RESULTS: the prevalence of sadness, feelings of loneliness, thoughts of suicide, difficulty sleeping because of anxiety, and plans to commit suicide was 29.7%, 15.8%, 11.2%, 10.0% and 7.8% respectively. The prevalence for all indicators was higher among girls, with sadness being the most prevalent indicator. It was identified that skin-color was not a factor associated with the occurrence of negative mental health indicators, while not living with parents showed a significant degree of association with feeling of loneliness and thoughts of suicide

  11. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  12. Negative schemata about the self and others and paranoid ideation in at-risk states and those with persisting positive symptoms.

    Müller, Hendrik; de Millas, Walter; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Hasan, Alkomiet; Janssen, Birgit; Juckel, Georg; Karow, Anne; Kircher, Tilo; Kiszkenow-Bäker, Stefanie; Klingberg, Stefan; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Krüger-Özgürdal, Seza; Lambert, Martin; Lautenschlager, Marion; Maier, Wolfgang; Michel, Tanja Maria; Mehl, Stefanie; Müller, Bernhard W; Pützfeld, Verena; Rausch, Franziska; Riedel, Michael; Sartory, Gudrun; Schneider, Frank; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wittorf, Andreas; Wobrock, Thomas; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Zink, Mathias; Bechdolf, Andreas

    2017-05-19

    The objective of this study is to test the conflicting theories concerning the association of negative self and other schemata and paranoid ideation. A risk-based approach, including risk stratification, is used to gain insight into the association of the negative self and other schemata that may be shared by individuals or differentiate between individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for a first-episode psychosis and those with full-blown psychosis. The dataset includes a sample of individuals at CHR (n = 137) and a sample of individuals with persisting positive symptoms (PPS, n = 211). The CHR sample was subdivided according to a prognostic index yielding 4 CHR sub-classes with increasing risk for transition to psychosis. Negative beliefs about the self were associated with paranoid ideation in CHR and a lower risk state. In the highest risk state and full-blown psychosis, there is an association with negative beliefs about others. These findings are in line with theories suggesting a switch from a predominantly activated negative self-schema to a malevolent others-schema in association with paranoid ideation along the risk-continuum. However, due to methodological limitations these results should be replicated by future studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Anxiety management training for anxiety states: positive compared with negative self-statements.

    Ramm, E; Marks, I M; Yuksel, S; Stern, R S

    1982-04-01

    Twelve patients complaining of chronic free-floating anxiety, usually also with panic attacks, were assigned at random to treatment by six hour-long sessions of anxiety-management training, either with positive or with negative self-statements, given over six weeks. Patients in both treatment conditions improved, with a small trend favouring positive over negative self-instruction, especially at follow-up. It is unclear how much self-instruction, rather than therapeutic attention or mere passage of time, accounted for the bulk of the modest improvement obtained.

  14. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  15. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  16. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based NBI in LHD

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar- and/or Ne-gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in the LHD plasmas heated with the high-energy negative-ion-based NBI. Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is much enhanced effectively in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionisation) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive Ne- and/or Ar-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with the wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density, and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with an addition of the centrally focused ECRH to the low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with the high-energy NBI heating indicate that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to the ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature would be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planed in near future in LHD. (author)

  17. Analytic continuation of scattering data to the region of negative energies for systems that have one and two bound states

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    An exactly solvable potential model is used to study the possibility of deducing information about the features of bound states for the system under consideration (binding energies and asymptotic normalization coefficients) on the basis of data on continuum states. The present analysis is based on an analytic approximation and on the subsequent continuation of a partial-wave scattering function from the region of positive energies to the region of negative energies. Cases where the system has one or two bound states are studied. The α+d and α+"1"2C systems are taken as physical examples. In the case of one bound state, the scattering function is a smooth function of energy, and the procedure of its analytic continuation for different polynomial approximations leads to close results, which are nearly coincident with exact values. In the case of two bound states, the scattering function has two poles—one in the region of positive energies and the other in the region of negative energies between the energies corresponding to the two bound states in question. Padéapproximants are used to reproduce these poles. The inclusion of these poles proves to be necessary for correctly describing the properties of the bound states.

  18. High-Level Synthesis of DSP Applications Using Adaptive Negative Cycle Detection

    Nitin Chandrachoodan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of detecting negative weight cycles in a graph is examined in the context of the dynamic graph structures that arise in the process of high level synthesis (HLS. The concept of adaptive negative cycle detection is introduced, in which a graph changes over time and negative cycle detection needs to be done periodically, but not necessarily after every individual change. We present an algorithm for this problem, based on a novel extension of the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm that allows us to adapt existing cycle information to the modified graph, and show by experiments that our algorithm significantly outperforms previous incremental approaches for dynamic graphs. In terms of applications, the adaptive technique leads to a very fast implementation of Lawlers algorithm for the computation of the maximum cycle mean (MCM of a graph, especially for a certain form of sparse graph. Such sparseness often occurs in practical circuits and systems, as demonstrated, for example, by the ISCAS 89/93 benchmarks. The application of the adaptive technique to design-space exploration (synthesis is also demonstrated by developing automated search techniques for scheduling iterative data-flow graphs.

  19. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  20. Petunia × hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions.

    Cna'ani, Alon; Mühlemann, Joelle K; Ravid, Jasmin; Masci, Tania; Klempien, Antje; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran; Vainstein, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing temperatures due to changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral colour and scent. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia × hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 °C (day/night). This decrease could be attributed to down-regulation of scent-related structural gene expression from both phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways, and up-regulation of a negative regulator of scent production, emission of benzenoids V (EOBV). To test whether the negative effect of increased temperature on scent production can be reduced in flowers with enhanced metabolic flow in the phenylpropanoid pathway, we analysed floral volatile production by transgenic 'Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions. Flowers of 35S:PAP1 transgenic plants produced the same or even higher levels of volatiles when exposed to a long-term high-temperature regime. This phenotype was also evident when analysing relevant gene expression as inferred from sequencing the transcriptome of 35S:PAP1 transgenic flowers under the two temperature regimes. Thus, up-regulation of transcription might negate the adverse effects of temperature on scent production. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. (Mutual Security Mutual Affluence) Negative Factors = Sustained Stability: A Framework for Establishing Stability Between Like States

    2017-03-31

    160-163. 2 The Concept of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) dates back to the post-WWFI em and the Cold War where the United States and Soviet Unions...United States. Following its defeat in W\\VH, Japan was in shambles. The bombing campaigns left nine million Japanese homeless and three million more...the United States, the Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris in 2015, and the bombings in Istanbul in 2016. Michael Bamier, “From Mutual Assistance to

  2. The negative influence of high-glucose ambience on neurogenesis in developing quail embryos.

    Yao Chen

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it is presented as high blood glucose levels during the onset pregnancy. This condition has an adverse impact on fetal development but the mechanism involved is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing quail embryo, especially its impact on the development of the nervous system. We established that high glucose altered the central nervous system mophologically, such that neural tube defects (NTDs developed. In addition, we found that high glucose impaired nerve differentiation at dorsal root ganglia and in the developing limb buds, as revealed by neurofilament (NF immunofluorescent staining. The dorsal root ganglia are normally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs, so we examine the delamination of NCCs from dorsal side of the neural tube. We established that high glucose was detrimental to the NCCs, in vivo and in vitro. High glucose also negatively affected neural differentiation by reducing the number and length of neurites emanating from neurons in culture. We established that high glucose exposure caused an increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS generation by primary cultured neurons. We hypothesized that excess ROS was the factor responsible for impairing neuron development and differentiation. We provided evidence for our hypothesis by showing that the addition of vitamin C (a powerful antioxidant could rescue the damaging effects of high glucose on cultured neurons.

  3. Demonstration of high performance negative central magnetic shear discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    Rice, B.W.; Burrell, K.H.; Lao, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reliable operation of discharges with negative central magnetic shear has led to significant increases in plasma performance and reactivity in both low confinement, L-mode, and high confinement, H-mode, regimes in the DIII-D tokamak. Using neutral beam injection early in the initial current ramp, a large range of negative shear discharges have been produced with durations lasting up to 3.2 s. The total non- inductive current (beam plus bootstrap) ranges from 50% to 80% in these discharges. In the region of shear reversal, significant peaking of the toroidal rotation [f φ ∼ 30-60 kHz] and ion temperature [T i (0) ∼ 15-22 keV] profiles are observed. In high power discharges with an L-mode edge, peaked density profiles are also observed. Confinement enhancement factors up to H ≡ τ E /τ ITER-89P ∼ 2.5 with an L-mode edge, and H ∼ 3.3 in an Edge Localized Mode (ELM)-free H-mode, are obtained. Transport analysis shows both ion thermal diffusivity and particle diffusivity to be near or below standard neoclassical values in the core. Large pressure peaking in L- mode leads to high disruptivity with Β N ≡ Β T /(I/aB) ≤ 2.3, while broader pressure profiles in H- mode gives low disruptivity with Β N ≤ 4.2

  4. Adaptive control strategy for ECRH negative high-voltage power supply based on CMAC neural network

    Luo Xiaoping; Du Pengying; Du Shaowu

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the negative high-voltage power supply in an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system can not satisfy the requirements because of the nonlinearity and sensitivity, the direct inverse model control strategy was proposed by using cerebellar model articulation controller(CMAC) for better control, and experiments were carried out to study the system performances with CMAC tracing dynamic signals. The results show that this strategy is strong in self-learning and self-adaptation and easy to be realized. (authors)

  5. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  6. Spin state of negative charge-transfer material SrCoO.sub.3./sub..

    Kuneš, Jan; Křápek, Vlastimil; Parragh, N.; Sangiovanni, G.; Toschi, A.; Kozhevnikov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2012), "117206-1"-"117206-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0284 Keywords : negative charge tranfer * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.117206

  7. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  8. High-spin states in 82Sr

    Baktash, C.; Halper, M.L.; Garcia Bermudez, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    As recent theoretical calculations that predicted the onset of superdeformation in the A ≅ 80 region, the 52 Cr( 34 S,2p2n) reaction at 130 MeV beam energy was employed to populate the high-spin states in 82 Sr. The detection system consisted of the ORNL Compton-Suppression Spectrometer System (18 Ge detectors), the Spin Spectrometer, and the 4 φ CsI Dwarf Ball of Washington University. Off-line analysis of the proton-gated data resulted in nearly 170 million Ge-Ge pairs, which were mostly due to the 2p2n channel. A decay scheme extending to spin I=27h has been established. No strong evidence for the presence of superdeformed states in 82 Sr was found in a preliminary analysis of the data. (Author) [es

  9. Do the Rich Flee from High State Taxes? Evidence from Federal Estate Tax Returns

    Jon Bakija; Joel Slemrod

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines how changes in state tax policy affect the number of federal estate tax returns filed in each state, utilizing data on federal estate tax return filings by state and wealth class for 18 years between 1965 and 1998. Controlling for state- and wealth-class specific fixed effects, we find that high state inheritance and estate taxes and sales taxes have statistically significant, but modest, negative impacts on the number of federal estate tax returns filed in a state. High p...

  10. Highly Nonclassical Quantum States and Environment Induced Decoherence

    Foldi, Peter

    2004-06-01

    In this thesis concrete quantum systems are investigated in the framework of the environment induced decoherence. The focus is on the dynamics of highly nonclassical quantum states, the Wigner function of which are negative over some regions of their domains. One of the chosen physical systems is a diatomic molecule, where the potential energy of the nuclei is an anharmonic function of their distance. A system of two-level atoms, which can be important from the viewpoint of quantum information technology, is also investigated. A method is described that is valid in both systems and can determine the characteristic time of the decoherence in a dynamical way. The direction of the decoherence and its relation to energy dissipation is also studied. Finally, a scheme is proposed that can prepare decoherence-free states using the experimental techniques presently available.

  11. Disordered carbon negative electrode for electrochemical capacitors and high-rate batteries

    Ogihara, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yoshiyuki; Kamakura, Ayumu; Naoi, Katsuhiko; Kusachi, Yuki; Utsugi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of high-rate capability and cycleability for a disordered carbon negative electrode in LiPF 6 /PC based electrolyte solution, the cell performance tests with various rates and depth of discharges (DODs) has been studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. From the charge-discharge measurements, a surface carbon-edge redox reaction occurring between a carbonyl (C edge =O) and a lithium alkoxide (C edge -OLi) that delivers a large capacity was found fast and high cycleability at only shallow DOD (2.0-0.4 V). The limited or shallow charge-discharge cycling utilizing such facile and reversible action of the C edge =O/C edge -OLi of the disordered carbon is suited to an application for an negative electrode of asymmetric hybrid capacitors. A deep DOD discharge (2.0-0.0 V) revealed the existence of some complex processes involving a lithium cluster deposition at pores or microvoids as well as a lithium ion intercalation at graphene layers. The cluster deposition at pores was found to be relatively fast and reproducible. The lithium ion intercalation at graphenes and the subsequent cluster deposition at microvoids were found to be slow and degrade the cycleability after 100 cycles because of the accumulation of a thick and low-ion-conductive solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on surface

  12. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-01-01

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, - (610 microA); F - (100 microA); Si - (500 microA); S - (500 microA); P - (125 microA); Cl - (200 microA); Ni - (150 microA); Cu - (230 microA); Ge - (125 microA); As - (100 microA); Se - (200 microA); Ag - (70 microA); Pt - (125 microA); Au - (250 microA). The normalized emittance var e psilon n of the source at the 80% contour is: var e psilon n = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV) 1/2 . The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  13. High temperature and high pressure equation of state of gold

    Matsui, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature and high-pressure equation of state (EOS) of Au has been developed using measured data from shock compression up to 240 GPa, volume thermal expansion between 100 and 1300 K and 0 GPa, and temperature dependence of bulk modulus at 0 GPa from ultrasonic measurements. The lattice thermal pressures at high temperatures have been estimated based on the Mie-Grueneisen-Debye type treatment with the Vinet isothermal EOS. The contribution of electronic thermal pressure at high temperatures, which is relatively insignificant for Au, has also been included here. The optimized EOS parameters are K' 0T = 6.0 and q = 1.6 with fixed K 0T = 167 GPa, γ 0 = 2.97, and Θ 0 = 170 K from previous investigations. We propose the present EOS to be used as a reliable pressure standard for static experiments up to 3000K and 300 GPa.

  14. Should Financial Support of Public Schools Be Assumed Completely by States? (In the Negative).

    Guthrie, James W.

    1980-01-01

    The position is presented that local property taxes provide a stable source of income during periods of economic downturn and that state taxes and disbursements for education are less likely to receive popular support. (CTM)

  15. Very high-spin states in nuclei

    Diamond, R.M.

    1977-03-01

    The continuum γ-ray spectrum following emission in a (HI,xn) reaction consists of a high-energy tail, the statistical cascade, and a lower-energy bump, the yrast cascade, which contains most of the intensity and consists mostly of stretched E2 transitions. Thus, a good approximation to the average angular momentum carried by the γ-ray is 2Nsub(γ). Under favourable conditions, effective moments of inertia can be deduced for states up to the top of the γ-ray cascade. The maximum angular momentum in the cascades is probably limited by α-emission for nuclei with A 150. (Author)

  16. The content of lexical stimuli and self-reported physiological state modulate error-related negativity amplitude.

    Benau, Erik M; Moelter, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Correct-Response Negativity (CRN) are brief event-related potential (ERP) components-elicited after the commission of a response-associated with motivation, emotion, and affect. The Error Positivity (Pe) typically appears after the ERN, and corresponds to awareness of having committed an error. Although motivation has long been established as an important factor in the expression and morphology of the ERN, physiological state has rarely been explored as a variable in these investigations. In the present study, we investigated whether self-reported physiological state (SRPS; wakefulness, hunger, or thirst) corresponds with ERN amplitude and type of lexical stimuli. Participants completed a SRPS questionnaire and then completed a speeded Lexical Decision Task with words and pseudowords that were either food-related or neutral. Though similar in frequency and length, food-related stimuli elicited increased accuracy, faster errors, and generated a larger ERN and smaller CRN than neutral words. Self-reported thirst correlated with improved accuracy and smaller ERN and CRN amplitudes. The Pe and Pc (correct positivity) were not impacted by physiological state or by stimulus content. The results indicate that physiological state and manipulations of lexical content may serve as important avenues for future research. Future studies that apply more sensitive measures of physiological and motivational state (e.g., biomarkers for satiety) or direct manipulations of satiety may be a useful technique for future research into response monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; and others

    1997-03-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)

  18. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    Davis, Anthony B.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  19. The Psychosis High-Risk State

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; De Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses. PMID:23165428

  20. Hylleraas-Configuration Interaction study of the 1S ground state of the negative Li ion.

    Sims, James S

    2017-12-28

    In a previous work Sims and Hagstrom [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224312 (2014)] reported Hylleraas-Configuration Interaction (Hy-CI) method variational calculations for the neutral atom and positive ion 1 S ground states of the beryllium isoelectronic sequence. The Li - ion, nominally the first member of this series, has a decidedly different electronic structure. This paper reports the results of a large, comparable calculation for the Li - ground state to explore how well the Hy-CI method can represent the more diffuse L shell of Li - which is representative of the Be(2sns) excited states as well. The best non-relativistic energy obtained was -7.500 776 596 hartree, indicating that 10 - 20 nh accuracy is attainable in Hy-CI and that convergence of the r 12 r 34 double cusp is fast and that this correlation type can be accurately represented within the Hy-CI model.

  1. High spin states of 141Pm

    Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Chanda, Somen; Bhattacharjee, Tumpa; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Ghugre, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The high spin states in the N=80 odd- A141Pm nucleus have been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic techniques following the reaction 133Cs( 12C, 4n) 141Pm at E=65 MeV using a modest γ detector array, consisting of seven Compton-suppressed high purity germanium detectors and a multiplicity ball of 14 bismuth germanate elements. Thirty new γ rays have been assigned to 141Pm on the basis of γ-ray singles and γγ-coincidence data. The level scheme of 141Pm has been extended upto an excitation energy of 5.2 MeV and spin {35}/{2}ℏ and 16 new levels have been proposed. Spin-parity assignments for most of the newly proposed levels have been made on the basis of the deduced directional correlation orientation ratios for strong transitions. The meanlives of a few excited states have been determined from the pulsed beam- γγ coincidence data using the generalised centroid-shift method. The level structure is discussed in the light of known systematics of neighbouring N=80 isotonic nuclei.

  2. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  3. MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy: role for diffusion tensor imaging in high field MRI.

    Chen, Qin; Lui, Su; Li, Chun-Xiao; Jiang, Li-Jun; Ou-Yang, Luo; Tang, He-Han; Shang, Hui-Fang; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhou, Dong

    2008-07-01

    Our aim is to use the high field MR scanner (3T) to verify whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could help in locating the epileptogenic zone in patients with MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy. Fifteen patients with refractory partial epilepsy who had normal conventional MRI, and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. DTI was performed on a 3T MR scanner, individual maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated, and Voxel-Based Analysis (VBA) was performed for individual comparison between patients and controls. Voxel-based analysis revealed significant MD increase in variant regions in 13 patients. The electroclinical seizure localization was concurred to seven patients. No patient exhibited regions of significant decreased MD. Regions of significant reduced FA were observed in five patients, with two of these concurring with electroclinical seizure localization. Two patients had regions of significant increase in FA, which were distinct from electroclinical seizure localization. Our study's results revealed that DTI is a responsive neuroradiologic technique that provides information about the epileptogenic areas in patients with MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy. This technique may also helpful in pre-surgical evaluation.

  4. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Panniculectomy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    2018-01-16

    Complications Wounds; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Wound Healing Delayed; Incisional; Panniculectomy; Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Incisional Vac; Wound Vac; Obese; Renal Failure; Kidney Transplant; Complications; Wound Healing Complication

  5. Theoretical description of high-lying two-electrons states

    Greene, C.H.; Cavagnero, M.; Sadeghpour, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Within the past two years, experiments on high-lying doubly-excited states in He and H- have shown spectra at energies near excited hydrogenic thresholds having principal quantum numbers in the range N=5--9. While they display some nontrivial complexities, the spectra are tremendously simpler than might be anticipated on the basis of independent electron models, in that only a small fraction of the total number of anticipated resonances are observed experimentally. Moreover, for principal quantum number N that are not too high, specifically N - , the resonance positions are described accurately by adiabatic calculations using hyperspherical coordinates and can be parametrized by a remarkably simple two-electron Rydberg formula. The observed propensity for excitation of only a small subset of the possible resonance states has been codified by several groups into approximate selection rules based on alternative (but apparently equivalent) classification schemes. Comparatively few attempts have been made at quantitative tests of the validity of these rules. The present review describes recent efforts to quantify their accuracy and limitations using R-matrix and quantum defect techniques, and Smith's delay-time matrix. Prospensity rules for exciting different degrees of freedom are found to differ greatly in their degree of validity

  6. Strain, negative emotions, and juvenile delinquency: the United States versus taiwan.

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Dembo, Richard; Sellers, Christine S; Cochran, John; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    General strain theory (GST) is an established criminological theory. Although the theory has been examined by many and enjoys empirical support, some limitations of previous studies need to be addressed. Many previous studies rely heavily on samples from Western countries, mostly the United States; thus, possible cultural influences are ignored. Although a few studies have moved forward by using subjects from Asia (e.g., China, Korea), these studies only provide empirical results regarding whether GST is applicable in other cultures. However, these studies do not directly compare Western and Eastern countries. The present study used two samples from the United States and Taiwan to directly compare and contrast central GST propositions. Although most of the GST propositions are found to be similar between the U.S. and Taiwanese juveniles, some differences were also discovered. Explanation of these similarities and differences from their cultural perspectives are offered in this study.

  7. Sarcopenia Is Negatively Related to High Gravitational Impacts Achieved From Day-to-day Physical Activity.

    Hartley, April; Gregson, Celia L; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Clark, Emma M; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-04-17

    Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function, and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria. Lower limb peak muscle power and force were assessed using Jumping Mechanography (JM). High vertical impacts were assessed by tri-axial accelerometry (at least 1.5g above gravity). Cross-sectional associations were analyzed by linear regression, adjusting for age, height and weight (or fat mass for models including appendicular lean mass index), comorbidities, smoking, alcohol, and Index of Multiple Deprivation. Our analyses included 380 participants, with mean age 76.7 (SD 3.0) years; 242 (64%) also completed JM. In age-adjusted analysis, a negative relationship was observed between severity of sarcopenia and high, but not medium or low, impacts (p = .03 for trend). Regarding components of sarcopenia underlying this relationship, multivariable analyses revealed that gait speed (β 1.47 [95% CI 1.14, 1.89], [β-1] reflects the proportionate increase in high impacts per SD increase in exposure) and peak force (1.40 [1.07, 1.84]) were independently associated with high impacts. Older women with sarcopenia experienced fewer bone-strengthening high impacts than those with presarcopenia or without sarcopenia. To increase bone strengthening activity in older women, interventions need to improve both lower limb muscle force and walking speed.

  8. Positron study of negative charge states in order-disorder ferroelectrics

    Troev, T.; Berovsky, K.; Peneva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    2001-07-01

    The positive positron charge opens the possibility for determining the changes in charge states in technologically important order-disorder ferroelectrics. Here we show that dipole polarization disordering within domains affects the positron annihilation mechanism. The positron lifetime parameters in triglycine sulphate (TGS) (NH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 3}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Rochelle salt (RS) NaKC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O and Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, at different temperatures and gamma-irradiation doses depend on the charge point defects. The increase of the positron long lifetime component {tau}{sub 2} is proportional to the temperature and gamma-irradiation dose. In gamma irradiated TGS positrons are trapped in defect electron states of oxigen ions of two radicals CH{sub 2}COO{sup -} and NH{sub 3}CHCOO{sup -}. In RS positrons are trapped also in defect electron states of oxygen ions and OH groups. (orig.)

  9. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  10. High heat flux (HHF) elements for negative ion systems on ITER

    Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Xue, Y.; Martin, D.; Waldon, C.

    2007-01-01

    Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. High heat fluxes (∼15-20 MW/m 2 ), pulse lengths in excess of 3000 s and high number of cycles pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The designs outlined in the Design Description Document for the ITER Neutral Beam System [N53 DDD 29 01-07-03 R 0.1. ITER Design Description Document, DDD 5.3, Neutral Beam H and CD system (including Appendices).], based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. A full thermo-mechanical analysis of all HHF components has also been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs are presented and recommendations for improvements discussed

  11. Highly adaptable triple-negative breast cancer cells as a functional model for testing anticancer agents.

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance.

  12. The positive bystander effect: passive bystanders increase helping in situations with high expected negative consequences for the helper.

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention in situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper in case of intervention were high (i.e., when the bike thief looks fierce) compared to situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper were low (i.e., when the bike thief does not look fierce). In contrast, no such effect for high vs. low expected negative consequences was observed when no additional bystander observed the critical situation. The results are discussed in light of previous laboratory findings on expected negative consequences and bystander intervention.

  13. High spin states in 143Sm

    Raut, R.; Ganguly, S.; Kshetri, R.; Banerjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Sarkar, M. Saha; Goswami, A.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Krishichayan,; Chakraborty, A.; Ghughre, S. S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    The high spin states of 143 Sm have been studied by in-beam γ-spectroscopy following the reaction 130 Te( 20 Ne,7n) 143 Sm at E lab =137 MeV, using a Clover detector array. More than 50 new gamma transitions have been placed above the previously known J π =23/2 - , 30 ms isomer at 2795 keV. The level scheme of 143 Sm has been extended up to 12 MeV and spin-parity assignments have been made to most of the newly proposed level. Theoretical calculation with the relativistic mean field approach using blocked BCS method, has been performed. A sequence of levels connected by M1 transitions have been observed at an excitation energy ∼8.6 MeV. The sequence appears to be a magnetic rotational band from systematics

  14. Very high-spin states in nuclei

    Diamond, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The continuum γ-ray spectrum following neutron emission in a (HI,xn) reaction consists of a high-energy tail, the statistical cascade, and a lower-energy bump, the yrast cascade, which contains most of the intensity and consists mostly of stretched E2 transitions. Thus, a good approximation to the average angular momentum carried by the γ-rays is 2N/sub γ/-bar. Under favourable conditions, effective moments of inertia can be deduced for states up to the top of the γ-ray cascade. The maximum angular momentum in the cascades is probably limited by α-emission for nuclei with A 150. 17 figures

  15. Ground state of high-density matter

    Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.

  16. High and highest spin states in nuclei

    Ploszajczak, M.

    1977-06-01

    A study of the following phenomena in rotating nuclei is presented, namely: 1) the destruction of the pair-correlation between the protons and the neutrons as well as decoupling and orientation of the particles along the rotation axis; 2) the formation of a nucleus with axial symmetry rotating around the symmetry axis, caused by the strong centrifugal and Coriolis forces; 3) the shell effects at low angular momentum, which led in some Pb, Hg and Pt isotopes to the formation of a prolate nucleus, rotating around the symmetry axis; 4) the formation of longliving states at very high angular momenta ('Yrast-traps'). At low angular momenta the nucleus is described by the Cranking-Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov theory (CHFB) with the pair-(P), quadrupole-(QQ) and hexade coupole force (HH) as residual interaction. (orig.) [de

  17. On the Calculation of Quantum Mechanical Ground States from Classical Geodesic Motion on Certain Spaces of Constant Negative Curvature

    Tomaschitz, R

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are bounded and recurrent in both directions of the time evolution a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schrodinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories.

  18. On the calculation of quantum mechanical ground states from classical geodesic motion on certain spaces of constant negative curvature

    Tomaschitz, R.

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are recurrent in both directions of the time evolution t → +∞, t → -∞ a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schroedinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories. (orig.)

  19. A study on negative and depressive symptom prevalence in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Azar, Marleine; Pruessner, Marita; Baer, Lawrence H; Iyer, Srividya; Malla, Ashok K; Lepage, Martin

    2016-09-21

    Negative symptoms are known to be present in the prodromal stage of psychotic disorders, yet little is known about their prevalence. Studies examining the presence of negative symptoms in ultra-high risk (UHR) populations have shown some limitations, notably failing to control depression. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of negative symptoms in the presence of significant levels of depression and in the absence of such symptoms (primary negative symptoms) over 1 year and to examine differences in negative symptoms in psychosis converters and non-converters. Participants were 123 individuals at UHR for the development of psychosis receiving follow-up for a period of 2 years. Negative symptoms and depression were measured using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-admission. At baseline, the prevalence of negative symptoms and primary negative symptoms was 76.4% and 32.7%, respectively. Whereas the prevalence of negative symptoms was significantly decreased at 6 months, the prevalence of primary negative symptoms was similar at all time points. Negative symptoms at baseline were not different between later converters and non-converters to psychosis. Our findings confirm the presence of secondary and primary negative symptoms in individuals at UHR, but suggest a differential trajectory of both measures over time. Future studies should include larger UHR groups and focus on the investigation of intra-individual changes in primary negative symptoms over time and further explore their potential role for psychosis conversion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The influence of organizational culture on negative work-home interference among highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    Blomme, R.J.; Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    An issue which has recently come to the fore in studies conducted among hospitality industry employees is the effect of negative work-home interference on the turnover of highly educated employees. This article examines the role of organizational culture with regard to negative work-home

  1. Psychosocial state of the adult evacuees and risk factors of negative change.

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K M; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyayev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T E

    2017-12-01

    Numerous scientific studies have been carried out since the ChNPP accident indicating that the last one has caused a severe psychosocial stress in survivors. Population of radioactively contaminated territories, people migrated from the areas of strict radiation control, and accident consequences clean up participants in 1986 1987 were covered by the conducted research projects. Nature of the stress herewith is polygenic and includes factors directly related to the Chernobyl catastrophe, and factors being a result of social and economic circumstances. This report is devot ed to the results of research on psychosocial state of population evacuated from the 30 km zone of the ChNPP. Study and evaluation of psychosocial state of population evacuated from the 30 km ChNPP zone at the age of 18 years and older; identification of potential psychosocial risk factors for the health loss. The sampling epidemiological study of psychosocial state of population aged 18-50 years evacuated from the 30 km zone of ChNPP was conducted at the NRCRM Radiation Registry Outpatient Clinic and Radiation Psychoneurology Department. The study subjects (n=258) were mostly (98%) females. Study was con ducted from October 2013 till May 2015. All the sample members were registered since 1992 in the system of life long health monitoring, i.e. the NRCRM Clinical and Epidemiological Registry. Study subjects were interviewed through the method using an original «Questioning Inventory». Mathematical processing of study results was held using the Epi Info 7 software package. According to the study results, a nuclear accident at the Chornobyl NPP has become a powerful psychoso cial stress for evacuated people. Psychosocial state of the evacuees, formed during the post accident period, with full reason can be defined as a state of stable, chronic psychosocial stress. Nature of factors that caused the stress development is polygenic. Block of stressors directly related to the accident was determined

  2. Positive ground state solutions to Schrodinger-Poisson systems with a negative non-local term

    Yan-Ping Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the Schrodinger-Poisson system $$\\displaylines{ -\\Delta u+u-\\lambda K(x\\phi(xu=a(x|u|^{p-1}u, \\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, \\cr -\\Delta\\phi=K(xu^{2},\\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, }$$ with $p\\in(1,5$. Assume that $a:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ and $K:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ are nonnegative functions and satisfy suitable assumptions, but not requiring any symmetry property on them, we prove the existence of a positive ground state solution resolved by the variational methods.

  3. Self-imagery in individuals with high body dissatisfaction: the effect of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the self-concept.

    Farrar, Stephanie; Stopa, Lusia; Turner, Hannah

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of eating disorders highlight low self-esteem as a maintaining factor. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-concept clarity) in individuals with high body dissatisfaction (an important aspect of eating disorders). The impact of these images on state body satisfaction and affect was also explored. A group of participants with high body dissatisfaction completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, state body satisfaction and affect prior to completing a negative (n = 33) or positive (n = 33) self-imagery retrieval task. Following this they completed the baseline measures and a measure of implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative self-image in mind had a negative effect on explicit self-esteem, whilst holding a positive self-image had a beneficial effect. There were no effects of imagery on implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative image in mind led to a significant reduction in self-concept clarity; however, positive self-imagery did not affect self-concept clarity. Holding a negative self-image in mind led to a decrease in body satisfaction and state affect. The opposite was found for the positive self-imagery group. Implicit self-esteem was not measured at baseline. Imagery techniques which promote positive self-images may help improve aspects of the working self, body satisfaction and affect in individuals with high levels of body dissatisfaction. As such, these imagery techniques warrant further investigation in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Percolation-induced plasmonic state and double negative electromagnetic properties of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu granular composite materials

    Massango, Herieta; Kono, Koji; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Kasagi, Teruhiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2018-05-01

    Complex permeability and permittivity spectra of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu hybrid granular composite materials have been studied in the RF to microwave frequency range. The electrical conductivity σ shows insulating properties in the volume fraction of Cu particles below φ = 0.14. A large jump in conductivity was observed between φ = 0.14 and 0.24 indicating that the Cu particles make metallic conduction between this interval. Hence, the percolation threshold φC, was estimated to be 0.14. A percolation-induced low frequency plasmonic state with negative permittivity spectrum was observed from φ = 0.14-0.24. Meanwhile the negative permeability was observed at φ = 0.16, 0.19 and 0.24. Hence the DNG characteristic was realized in these Cu volume content in the frequency range from 105 MHz to 2 GHz.

  5. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  6. High-average-power solid state lasers

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  8. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. OnabotulinumtoxinA effectiveness on chronic migraine, negative emotional states and sleep quality: a single-center prospective cohort study.

    Aydinlar, Elif Ilgaz; Dikmen, Pinar Yalinay; Kosak, Seda; Kocaman, Ayse Sagduyu

    2017-12-01

    OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) is considered effective in in patients with chronic migraine (CM) who failed on traditional therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of OnabotA injection series on migraine outcome, negative emotional states and sleep quality in patients with CM. A total of 190 patients with CM (mean (SD) age: 39.3 (10.2) years; 87.9% were female) were included. Data on Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), headache frequency and severity, number of analgesics used, Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. (MIDAS) scores and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were evaluated at baseline (visit 1) and 4 consecutive follow up visits, each conducted after OnabotA injection series; at week 12 (visit 2), week 24 (visit 3), week 36 (visit 4) and week 48 (visit 5) to evaluate change from baseline to follow up. From baseline to visit 5, significant decrease was noted in least square (LS) mean headache frequency (from 19.5 to 8.4, p = 0.002), headache severity (from 8.1 to 6.1, p = 0.017), number of analgesics (from 26.9 to 10.4, p = 0.023) and MIDAS scores (from 67.3 to 18.5, p migraine outcome leading to decrease in headache frequency and severity, number of analgesics used and MIDAS scores. While no significant change was noted in overall sleep quality and prevalence of negative emotional states, patients without negative emotional states at baseline showed improved sleep quality throughout the study.

  10. Negative ion formation in the scattering of state-selected NO+ on GaAs(110)

    Martin, J.S.; Greeley, J.N.; Morris, J.R.; Ferenchok, B.T.; Jacobs, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    A hyperthermal beam of state-selected NO + X 1 Σ + (v,j) impinges on a clean, well characterized GaAs(110) surface. The resulting two-electron transfer products NO-and O- are independently interrogated with a novel ion imaging technique as a function of NO + translational and vibrational energies. The products are shown to have different appearance thresholds, product translational energy distributions, and NO + vibrational energy dependencies. Most notably, vibrational energy is an order of magnitude more effective that translational energy in activating O- formation at a collision energy of 45 eV. The O- angular distribution exhibits a correlation with translational energy which is asymmetric about the surface normal. These results suggest that the probability of O- formation is dependent on the molecules point of impact with the GaAs (110) surface. The dynamical features of the NO + /GaAs(110) reaction will be discussed in terms of the three independent coordinates addressed in this experiment: the diatom internuclear separation, the molecule-surface distance, and the surface impact parameter

  11. Confinement improvement in high-ion temperature plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI in LHD

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2006-10-01

    The increase in the ion temperature due to transport improvement has been observed in plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI, in which electrons are dominantly heated, in Large Helical Device (LHD). When the centrally focused ECRH is superposed on the NBI plasma, the ion temperature is observed to rise, accompanied by formation of the electron-ITB. This is ascribed to the ion transport improvement with the transition to the neoclassical electron root with a positive radial electric field. In high-Z plasmas, the ion temperature is increased with an increase in the ion heating power, and reaches 13.5keV. The central ion temperature increases with an increase in a gradient of the electron temperature in an outer plasma region of ρ=0.8, suggesting the ion transport improvement in the outer plasma region induced by the neoclassical electron root. These results indicate the effectiveness of the electron-root scenario for obtaining high-ion temperature plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  12. Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow.

    Wathes, D C; Fenwick, M; Cheng, Z; Bourne, N; Llewellyn, S; Morris, D G; Kenny, D; Murphy, J; Fitzpatrick, R

    2007-09-01

    The peripartum period is of critical importance to subsequent health and fertility. Most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB) associated with many metabolic changes which have carry over effects on the resumption and normality of estrous cyclicity and the success of subsequent inseminations. A dataset on 500 lactations explored the relationships between metabolic traits measured before and after calving with fertility. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that longer calving to conception intervals were associated with altered profiles of IGF-I, urea and body condition score. These relationships between metabolic profiles and fertility differed between first lactation cows (which are still growing but produce less milk) and mature animals. Early postpartum the liver undergoes extensive biochemical and morphological modifications to adapt to NEB, the uterus is extensively remodeled and must clear bacterial infections, and the ovary must resume ovulatory cycles. RNA isolated from liver and uterine tissues harvested 2 weeks postpartum from cows in mild (MNEB) and severe (SNEB) energy balance was used to screen the Affymetrix 23K bovine microarray. In liver, SNEB resulted in differential expression of key genes involved in lipid catabolism, gluconeogenesis, and the synthesis and stability of IGF-I. This was accompanied by reduced systemic concentrations of IGF-I which is likely to impact on ovarian function and early embryo development. Within endometrium, cows in SNEB showed histological evidence for higher levels of inflammation and the microarray analysis identified groups of differentially expressed genes involved in tissue remodeling and immune response. This may delay uterine repair after calving, likely contributing to the observed reduction in fertility.

  13. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  14. Accessibility of high β tokamak states

    Hogan, J.T.

    1978-05-01

    Encouraging results with neutral beam heating and adiabatic compression of tokamak plasmas have prompted new experiments which will study the approach to high β states. As projected tokamak β values become nonnegligible (average β of 4% is the goal), the models previously used for transport calculations will become inadequate. These models will be required to account for the evolution of the magnetic geometry, along with the change in plasma parameters. We present an axisymmetric transport model which should be useful for studying the approach to higher β values in tokamak experiments. Results from transport calculations with this model allow us to draw a parallel between observed behavior in seemingly unrelated experiments: electron heating by neutral injection in the ORMAK device and adiabatic compression in the ATC experiment. Finally, we find that the nature of cross-field transport may be expected to change as significant β values are reached. Enhanced transport from ballooning instabilities is likely to play a role as important as that now played by sawtooth (m = 1) and saturated (m = 2) instabilities. New techniques for describing this transport are required

  15. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  16. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  18. High-performance Negative Database for Massive Data Management System of The Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph

    Shi, Congming; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Liu, Yingbo; Liu, Cuiyin; Wei, Shoulin

    2017-08-01

    As a dedicated synthetic aperture radio interferometer in China, the MingantU SpEctral Radioheliograph (MUSER), initially known as the Chinese Spectral RadioHeliograph (CSRH), has entered the stage of routine observation. More than 23 million data records per day need to be effectively managed to provide high-performance data query and retrieval for scientific data reduction. In light of these massive amounts of data generated by the MUSER, in this paper, a novel data management technique called the negative database (ND) is proposed and used to implement a data management system for the MUSER. Based on the key-value database, the ND technique makes complete utilization of the complement set of observational data to derive the requisite information. Experimental results showed that the proposed ND can significantly reduce storage volume in comparison with a relational database management system (RDBMS). Even when considering the time needed to derive records that were absent, its overall performance, including querying and deriving the data of the ND, is comparable with that of a relational database management system (RDBMS). The ND technique effectively solves the problem of massive data storage for the MUSER and is a valuable reference for the massive data management required in next-generation telescopes.

  19. Fully aligned high-spin states in 86Zr

    Doring, J.; Hohns, G.D.; Sylvan, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    To study multi-quasiparticle excitations and their interplay with collective degrees of freedom at very high spins, a new in-beam investigation of the even-even 86 Zr has been performed via the 58 Ni( 32 S,4p) reaction at 135 MeV using the early implementation of GAMMASPHERE combined with the 47π charged particle detector system MICROBALL. The yrast positive- and negative-parity sequences have been extended up to 30 + and 27 - levels, respectively. Calculations within the configuration-dependent shell-correction method using a cranked Nilsson potential have shown that the highest spins are built from the six g 9 /2 neutrons and at most four protons excited from the p 1/2 , p 3/2 , f 5/2 subshells to the g 9 /2 subshell at a small deformation. The 30 + and 27 - states are the highest possible fully-aligned states based on holes in the N = 3 shell. Higher spins can be built by promotion of one neutron from the g 9 /2 to the g 7 /2 subshell but with a quite high energy cost

  20. Stability of DIII-D high-performance, negative central shear discharges

    Hanson, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J.; Clement, M.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holcomb, C. T.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Strait, E. J.; Turco, F.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Tokamak plasma experiments on the DIII-D device (Luxon et al 2005 Fusion Sci. Tech. 48 807) demonstrate high-performance, negative central shear (NCS) equilibria with enhanced stability when the minimum safety factor {{q}\\text{min}} exceeds 2, qualitatively confirming theoretical predictions of favorable stability in the NCS regime. The discharges exhibit good confinement with an L-mode enhancement factor H 89  =  2.5, and are ultimately limited by the ideal-wall external kink stability boundary as predicted by ideal MHD theory, as long as tearing mode (TM) locking events, resistive wall modes (RWMs), and internal kink modes are properly avoided or controlled. Although the discharges exhibit rotating TMs, locking events are avoided as long as a threshold minimum safety factor value {{q}\\text{min}}>2 is maintained. Fast timescale magnetic feedback control ameliorates RWM activity, expanding the stable operating space and allowing access to {β\\text{N}} values approaching the ideal-wall limit. Quickly growing and rotating instabilities consistent with internal kink mode dynamics are encountered when the ideal-wall limit is reached. The RWM events largely occur between the no- and ideal-wall pressure limits predicted by ideal MHD. However, evaluating kinetic contributions to the RWM dispersion relation results in a prediction of passive stability in this regime due to high plasma rotation. In addition, the ideal MHD stability analysis predicts that the ideal-wall limit can be further increased to {β\\text{N}}>4 by broadening the current profile. This path toward improved stability has the potential advantage of being compatible with the bootstrap-dominated equilibria envisioned for advanced tokamak (AT) fusion reactors.

  1. Energy-extraction processes from a Kerr black hole immersed in a magnetic field. I. Negative-energy states

    Dhurandhar, S.V.; Dadhich, N.

    1984-01-01

    This is the first of two papers on the energy-extraction processes near a Kerr black hole immersed in a magnetic field. In this paper we shall consider the consequences of a dipole field extending to infinity matched on to a uniform field in the interior which contains the Kerr black hole. The magnetic fields considered are perturbative in nature. The matching of the fields is imperative owing to the ''no-hair theorem'' and the second law of black-hole physics. Two intriguing situations arising in this context are discussed, namely, (1) the second law of black-hole physics and (2) the law of conservation of energy in an energy-extraction process. At first sight both these laws seem to be violated. These issues arise basically because in the presence of the magnetic field there can exist negative-energy states even for L>0 particles. These issues get resolved by realizing that it is the sign of P/sub c/phi = L-eA/sub cphi/ and not L which determines a corotating or counterrotating orbit. It is also shown that negative-energy states can exist away from the horizon in the presence of either of the fields, the dipole and the uniform, thus favoring energy-extraction processes away from the black hole. This type of energy extraction is solely a consequence of the magnetic field. Also, a fairly detailed analysis of the effective-potential curves is provided, mainly relevant to the existence of negative energies and energy extraction. The formalism of the energy-extraction process will be considered in the second paper

  2. Predissociation of high-lying Rydberg states of molecular iodine via ion-pair states

    Bogomolov, Alexandr S. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaya Str. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Grüner, Barbara; Mudrich, Marcel [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kochubei, Sergei A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, ac. Lavrent' yev ave., 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Baklanov, Alexey V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaya Str. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    Velocity map imaging of the photofragments arising from two-photon photoexcitation of molecular iodine in the energy range 73 500–74 500 cm{sup −1} covering the bands of high-lying gerade Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g} has been applied. The ion signal was dominated by the atomic fragment ion I{sup +}. Up to 5 dissociation channels yielding I{sup +} ions with different kinetic energies were observed when the I{sub 2} molecule was excited within discrete peaks of Rydberg states and their satellites in this region. One of these channels gives rise to images of I{sup +} and I{sup −} ions with equal kinetic energy indicating predissociation of I{sub 2} via ion-pair states. The contribution of this channel was up to about 50% of the total I{sup +} signal. The four other channels correspond to predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states giving rise to excited iodine atoms providing I{sup +} ions by subsequent one-photon ionization by the same laser pulse. The ratio of these channels varied from peak to peak in the spectrum but their total ionic signal was always much higher than the signal of (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization of I{sub 2}, which was previously considered to be the origin of ionic signal in this spectral range. The first-tier E0{sub g}{sup +} and D{sup ′}2{sub g} ion-pair states are concluded to be responsible for predissociation of Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g}, respectively. Further predissociation of these ion-pair states via lower lying Rydberg states gives rise to excited I(5s{sup 2}5p{sup 4}6s{sup 1}) atoms responsible for major part of ion signal. The isotropic angular distribution of the photofragment recoil directions observed for all channels indicates that the studied Rydberg states are long-lived compared with the rotational period of the I{sub 2} molecule.

  3. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  4. High-capacity FeTiO3/C negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries with ultralong cycle life

    Ding, Changsheng; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2018-06-01

    The development of electrode materials which improve both the energy density and cycle life is one of the most challenging issues facing the practical application of sodium-ion batteries today. In this work, FeTiO3/C nanoparticles are synthesized as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance and charge-discharge mechanism of the FeTiO3/C negative electrode are investigated in an ionic liquid electrolyte at 90 °C. The FeTiO3/C negative electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 403 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 10 mA g-1, and exhibits high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for up to 2000 cycles. The results indicate that FeTiO3/C is a promising negative electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  5. High resistance rate against 15 different antibiotics in aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolates of cardiology intensive care unit patients

    Küçükates E

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic gram negative bacteria were isolated and examined microbiologically from various clinical samples of 602 patients hospitalized between January 1997 and December 2000 in surgical and coronary intensive care units (ICUs. A total of 827 isolates were obtained from 602 patients. The majority of microorganisms were isolated from the respiratory tract (50.3% and blood (39.9%. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram negative species (32.7%, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (24.0% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%. High resistance rates to all antibiotics studied were observed. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics against gram negatives.

  6. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  7. High Heat flux (HHF) elements for Negative Ion Systems on ITER

    Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Martin, D.; Waldon, Ch.; Yong Xue

    2006-01-01

    Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. In common with Positive Ion systems, flux densities in the order of 15-20 MW/m 2 are commonplace but with much longer pulses. A pulse length in excess of 3000 seconds and the anticipated beam breakdown rate pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The cooling system specification (up to 26 bar, 80 o C) adds further constraints impacting the material choice and operating temperature. The DDD designs, based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. Existing operational and design experience has been applied to give a simple, robust and low maintenance alternative. A full thermomechanical analysis of all HHF components has been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The results of this analysis will be presented, highlighting areas where further R(and)D is necessary to reach the operating limits set out in the functional specification. Extensive comparison of these analyses is made with the large operational database of existing JET beamline components for benchmarking purposes. A particular feature of the thermo-mechanical analyses is a fully self-consistent description in which ageing characteristics are related to the local temperature, and the components' power loading takes into account the thermal distortion. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs will be presented and

  8. Female college students' negative feelings toward their fathers : Comparison of present feelings with recollections of their junior high school days

    石丸, 綾子; Ishimaru, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent daughter’s relationship with her father is strained owing to her negative feelings, such as opposition, defiant attitude, and hatred, toward father. However, further details regarding these feelings and how they evolve during a daughter’s growing years have not been examined yet. In this study, a questionnaire survey was administered to female college students, asking about their negative feelings toward their fathers in the present and during their junior high school days. The ...

  9. Preliminary psychometric properties of the brief Negative Symptom Scale in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis.

    Strauss, Gregory P; Chapman, Hannah C

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High spin states in 33S

    Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, S.; Kshetri, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the neighbourhood of doubly closed 40 Ca usually exhibit characteristics of single particle excitations. The ground state and low lying excited states of several nuclei in this mass region have been reproduced by using untruncated shell model calculation over the sd space. In the present work, 33 S has been populated through heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and the level scheme has been extended

  11. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…

  12. 91Mo and 89Nb high-spin states

    Baktybaev, K.; Kojlyk, N.; Ramankulov, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the work the shell-model calculation for 91 Mo and 89 Nb nuclei high-spin states with several valente nucleons is worked out. The nucleons have been arranged in the {2p 1/2 1g 9 / 2 } configurations above the 88 Sr twice magic frame. Using of formalism of generalized quasi-spin with H=H 0 +H pp +H nn +H pn Hamiltonian in which H pp , H nn , H pn the residual nucleon interactions have being written through generalized quasi-spin operators. The obtained scheme well reproduces experimental data for examined nuclei up to 31/2 + , 33/2 - levels with seniority ν=3.5. Similarity of the spectroscopic structures of the nucleus levels with different protons and neutrons numbers above inert frame shows independence of nucleon-nucleon interactions from isotope spins of particles. There are analogous comparison of some negative yrast bands parity levels. The theory well transmits intensity values for electromagnet transitions between states. Besides the observed nuclei's properties does not give any indication on presence of valent nucleons collective motion in the both nuclei

  13. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  14. High symmetry versus optical isotropy of a negative-index metamaterial

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lliew, Rumen

    2010-01-01

    condition since it is usually assumed that light does not resolve the spatial details of MM but experiences the properties of an effective medium, which is then optically isotropic. In this work we challenge this assumption by analyzing the isofrequency surfaces of the dispersion relation of the split cube...... in carcass negative index MM. We show that this MM is basically optically isotropic but not in the spectral domain where it exhibits negative refraction. The primary goal of this contribution is to introduce a tool that allows to probe a MM against optical isotropy....

  15. High spin states in 106In

    Deo, A.Y.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Joshi, P.K.; Mazumdar, I.; Jain, H.C.; Sihotra, S.; Kumar, S.; Basu, Kausik; Chakrabarti, R.; Kshetri, R.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic study of isotopes to understand evolution of magnetic rotation bands from single particle states, with increasing neutron number, and subsequent interplay between the shears mechanism and collective rotation have not been understood properly. In the following, we present experimental work done in order to address the above aspects through the study of 106 In

  16. High spin states in 68Zn

    Bruandet, J.-F.; Berthet, B.; Morand, C.; Gironi, A.; Longequeue, J.-P.; Tsan Ung Chan.

    1976-01-01

    Yrast levels of 68 Zn have been investigated via measurements of excitation functions and angular distributions of single γ-rays and of γ-γ coincidences. Following the 65 Cu(α,pγ) 68 Zn reaction with α particle energies between 12-21MeV. Spin up to J=8 were assigned to observed states [fr

  17. High-spin states in 66Zn

    Bruandet, J.F.; Agard, M.; Giorni, A.; Longequeue, J.P.; Morand, C.; Tsan Ung Chan.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of 66 Zn has been investigated by studying the yield functions, angular distributions and coincidence relationships of the γ-rays emitted during bombardment of an enriched 64 Ni foil by α particles of medium energy 27MeV. Spins up to 10 h were assigned to observed states [fr

  18. Saturation and negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity in liquid iron-sulfur alloys at high densities from first-principles calculations

    Wagle, Fabian; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; de Koker, Nico

    2018-03-01

    We report results on electronic transport properties of liquid Fe-S alloys at conditions of planetary cores, computed using first-principle techniques in the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. We describe a combined effect of resistivity saturation due to temperature, compression, and chemistry by comparing the electron mean free path from the Drude response of optical conductivity to the mean interatomic distance. At high compression and high sulfur concentration the Ioffe-Regel condition is satisfied, and the temperature coefficient of resistivity changes sign from positive to negative. We show that this happens due to a decrease in the d density of states at the Fermi level in response to thermal broadening.

  19. Experimental determination of high angular momentum states

    Barreto, J.L.V.

    1985-01-01

    The current knowledge of the atomic nucleus structure is summarized. A short abstract of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum and a more detailed description of the experimental methods used in the study of high angular momenta is made. (L.C.) [pt

  20. High energy physics in the United States

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  1. High energy physics in the United States

    Month, M.

    1985-01-01

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range

  2. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  3. High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.

  4. Rapid, highly sensitive detection of Gram-negative bacteria with lipopolysaccharide based disposable aptasensor.

    Zhang, Jian; Oueslati, Rania; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang; Almeida, Raul; Wu, Jayne

    2018-07-30

    Gram-negative bacteria are one of the most common microorganisms in the environment. Their differential detection and recognition from Gram-positive bacteria has been attracting much attention over the years. Using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model, we demonstrated on-site detection of Gram-negative bacteria by an AC electrokinetics-based capacitive sensing method using commercial microelectrodes functionalized with an aptamer specific to lipopolysaccharides. Dielectrophoresis effect was utilized to enrich viable bacteria to the microelectrodes rapidly, achieving a detection limit of 10 2 cells/mL within a 30 s' response time. The sensor showed a negligible response to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a Gram-positive species. The developed sensor showed significant advantages in sensitivity, selectivity, cost, operation simplicity, and response time. Therefore, this sensing method has shown great application potential for environmental monitoring, food safety, and real-time diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of high energy electrons on H⁻ production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    Onai, M; Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Shibata, T; Mattei, S; Fujita, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H(-) production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H(-) extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  6. Therapeutic rationale to target highly expressed CDK7 conferring poor outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer

    Li, Bo; Chonghaile, Triona Ni; Fan, Yue; Madden, Stephen F.; Klinger, Rut; O'Connor, Aisling E.; Walsh, Louise; O'Hurley, Gillian; Udupi, Girish Mallya; Joseph, Jesuchristopher; Tarrant, Finbarr; Conroy, Emer; Gaber, Alexander; Chin, Suet-Feung; Bardwell, Helen A; Provenzano, Elena; Crown, John; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine; Jirstrom, Karin; Caldas, Carlos; O'Connor, Darran P; Gallagher, William M

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients commonly exhibit poor prognosis and high relapse after treatment, but there remains a lack of biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for this disease. Here, we report evidence highlighting the cell-cycle–related kinase CDK7 as a driver and candidate

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect in Children at High and Low Familial Risk for Depressive Disorder

    Olino, Thomas M.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Gentzler, Amy L.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although low positive affect (PA) and high negative affect (NA) have been posited to predispose to depressive disorders, little is known about the developmental trajectories of these affects in children at familial risk for mood disorders. Methods: We examined 202 offspring of mothers who had a history of juvenile-onset unipolar…

  8. BLACK AND HISPANIC IMMIGRANTS' RESILIENCE AGAINST NEGATIVE ABILITY RACIAL STEREOTYPES AT SELECTIVE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES*

    Owens, Jayanti; Lynch, Scott M

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat is a widely supported theory for understanding the racial achievement gap in college grade performance. However, today's minority college students are increasingly of immigrant origins, and it is unclear whether two dispositional mechanisms that may increase susceptibility to stereotype threat are applicable to immigrants. We use survey data to examine whether and how negative ability stereotypes affect the grades of 1,865 first, second, and third generation or higher (domestic) minority students at 28 selective American colleges. Structural equation model results indicate that first generation immigrants are highly-resistant to both dispositional identity threat mechanisms we consider. Second generation immigrants experience only certain dispositional elements of identity threat. Drawing on research in social psychology, we suggest immigrants tend to resist stereotype threat in part due to the primacy of their immigrant identities and their connectedness to the opportunity structure of mainstream society.

  9. Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy

    Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)

  10. A Quasi-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Capacitor with High Energy Density.

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zheng; Wu, Xiongwei; Liu, Xiang; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    A quasi-solid-state sodium-ion capacitor is demonstrated with nanoporous disordered carbon and macroporous graphene as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, using a sodium-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. It can operate at a cell voltage as high as 4.2 V with an energy density of record high 168 W h kg(-1). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  12. High Performance Negative Feedback Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors & Arrays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and high speed...

  13. Physics of high spin nuclear states

    Wyss, R [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); [MSI, Frescativ, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-08-01

    High spin physics is a vast topic addressing the variety of nuclear excitation modes. In the present paper, some general aspects related to recent highlights of nuclear spectroscopy are discussed. The relation between signature splitting and shape changes in the unique parity orbitals is elucidated. The relevance of the Pseudo SU(3) symmetry in the understanding of rotational band structure is addressed. Specific features of rotational bands of intruder configurations are viewed as a probe of the neutron-proton interaction. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Generalized time evolution of the homogeneous cooling state of a granular gas with positive and negative coefficient of normal restitution

    Khalil, Nagi

    2018-04-01

    The homogeneous cooling state (HCS) of a granular gas described by the inelastic Boltzmann equation is reconsidered. As usual, particles are taken as inelastic hard disks or spheres, but now the coefficient of normal restitution α is allowed to take negative values , which is a simple way of modeling more complicated inelastic interactions. The distribution function of the HCS is studied at the long-time limit, as well as intermediate times. At the long-time limit, the relevant information of the HCS is given by a scaling distribution function , where the time dependence occurs through a dimensionless velocity c. For , remains close to the Gaussian distribution in the thermal region, its cumulants and exponential tails being well described by the first Sonine approximation. In contrast, for , the distribution function becomes multimodal, its maxima located at , and its observable tails algebraic. The latter is a consequence of an unbalanced relaxation–dissipation competition, and is analytically demonstrated for , thanks to a reduction of the Boltzmann equation to a Fokker–Plank-like equation. Finally, a generalized scaling solution to the Boltzmann equation is also found . Apart from the time dependence occurring through the dimensionless velocity, depends on time through a new parameter β measuring the departure of the HCS from its long-time limit. It is shown that describes the time evolution of the HCS for almost all times. The relevance of the new scaling is also discussed.

  15. A first insight into high prevalence of undiagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian prisons: implications for greater investment and quality control.

    Fantahun Biadglegne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200. Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting.

  16. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D- / H-. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source

    Riz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm 2 of D - . The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm 2 have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H - /H + and of charge exchange H - /H 0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H - /D - and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author)

  17. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative Colonization in Hospitalized Cambodian Infants.

    Turner, Paul; Pol, Sreymom; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Neou, Leakhena; Chea, Phal; Day, Nicholas Pj; Cooper, Ben S; Turner, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections are a significant cause of mortality in young infants. We aimed to determine characteristics of, and risk factors for, colonization and invasive infection caused by 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) or carbapenem-resistant organisms in outborn infants admitted to a neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia. During the first year of operation, patients admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children NU, Siem Reap, Cambodia, underwent rectal swabbing on admission and twice weekly until discharge. Swabs were taken also from 7 environmental sites. Swabs were cultured to identify 3GC or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study included 333 infants with a median age at NU admission of 10 days (range, 0-43). Colonization by ≥1 3GC-resistant organism was detected in 85.9% (286/333). Admission swabs were collected in 289 infants: 61.9% were colonized by a 3GC-resistant organism at the time of admission, and a further 23.2% were colonized during hospitalization, at a median of 4 days [95% confidence interval: 3-5]. Probiotic treatment (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.98) was associated with delayed colonization. Colonization by a carbapenem-resistant organism occurred in 25 (7.5%) infants. Six infants had NU-associated K. pneumoniae bacteremia; phenotypically identical colonizing strains were found in 3 infants. Environmental colonization occurred early. Colonization by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative organisms occurred early in hospitalized Cambodian infants and was associated with subsequent invasive infection. Trials of potential interventions such as probiotics are needed.

  18. Identification of high-spin states in 235U

    Lorenz, A.; Makarenko, V.E.; Chukreev, F.E.

    1994-02-01

    The results of a 235 U high spin states study are analysed. A new way to assign newly observed gamma ray transitions is proposed. Such assignments deals with low spin parts of the level scheme without introducing high spin level states. (author)

  19. Yrast and high spin states in 22Ne

    Szanto, E.M.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1982-08-01

    High spin states in 22 Ne have been investigated by the reactions 11 B( 13 C,d) 22 Ne and 13 C( 11 B,d) 22 Ne up to E* approximately=19 MeV. Yrast states were observed at 11.02 MeV (8 + ) and 15.46 MeV (10 + ) excitation energy. A backbending in 22 Ne is observed around spin 8 + . The location of high spin states I [pt

  20. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  1. Mothering, fathering, and the regulation of negative and positive emotions in high-functioning preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Golan, Ofer; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Feldman, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in regulating emotions and authors have called to study the specific processes underpinning emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Yet, little observational research examined the strategies preschoolers with ASD use to regulate negative and positive emotions in the presence of their mothers and fathers. Forty preschoolers with ASD and 40 matched typically developing children and their mothers and fathers participated. Families were visited twice for identical battery of paradigms with mother or father. Parent-child interactions were coded for parent and child behaviors and children engaged in ER paradigms eliciting negative (fear) and positive (joy) emotions with each parent. ER paradigms were microcoded for negative and positive emotionality, ER strategies, and parent regulation facilitation. During free play, mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and warm discipline were comparable across groups; however, children with ASD displayed lower positive engagement and higher withdrawal. During ER paradigms, children with ASD expressed less positive emotionality overall and more negative emotionality during fear with father. Children with ASD used more simple self-regulatory strategies, particularly during fear, but expressed comparable levels of assistance seeking behavior toward mother and father in negative and positive contexts. Parents of children with ASD used less complex regulation facilitation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and emotional reframing, and employed simple tactics, such as physical comforting to manage fear and social gaze to maintain joy. Findings describe general and parent- and emotion-specific processes of child ER and parent regulation facilitation in preschoolers with ASD. Results underscore the ability of such children to seek parental assistance during moments of high arousal and the parents' sensitive adaptation to their children's needs. Reduced positive emotionality

  2. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  3. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  4. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to prouce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applicatiosn in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions effeciently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summariezed. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to produce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applications in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions efficiently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summarized. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Counting to ten milliseconds: low-anger, but not high-anger, individuals pause following negative evaluations.

    Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Meier, Brian P; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-01-01

    Low-anger individuals are less reactive, both emotionally and behaviourally, to a large variety of situational primes to anger and aggression. Why this is so, from an affective processing perspective, has been largely conjectural. Four studies (total N=270) sought to link individual differences in anger to tendencies exhibited in basic affective processing tasks. On the basis of motivational factors and considerations, it was hypothesised that negative evaluations would differentially activate a psychological alarm system at low levels of anger, resulting in a pause that should be evident in the speed of making subsequent evaluations. Just such a pattern was evident in all studies. By contrast, high-anger individuals did not pause following their negative evaluations. In relation to this affective processing tendency, at least, dramatically different effects were observed among low- versus high-anger individuals. Implications for the personality-processing literature, theories of trait anger, and fast-acting regulatory processes are discussed.

  7. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Morelli, Annamaria; Comeglio, Paolo; Sarchielli, Erica; Cellai, Ilaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella B.; Maggi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose...

  8. High-current negative-ion sources for pulsed spallation neutron sources: LBNL workshop, October 1994

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high-power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 kW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H- source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The I to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. The Workshop reported on here, held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H- source technologies, and identified necessary R ampersand D efforts to bridge the gap

  9. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Nakanishi, Masanori; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Yukio; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Itoh, Harumi; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  10. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  11. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  12. Addiction as an Attachment Disorder: White Matter Impairment Is Linked to Increased Negative Affective States in Poly-Drug Use

    Eva Z. Reininghaus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders (SUD have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19, recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20 as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20. For the behavioral assessment, we applied the Adult Attachment-Scale, the Affective Neuroscience Personality-Scale (short version and the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to investigate differences in WM neural connectivity. Analyses revealed decreased Fractional Anisotropy and decreased Mean Diffusivity in PUD patients as compared to RUC and NUC. No differences were found between RUC and NUC. Additional ROI analyses suggested that WM impairment in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and the superior corona radiata (SCR was linked to more insecure attachment as well as to more negative affectivity. No substantial correlation was observed with spirituality. These findings are mainly limited by the cross-sectional design of the study. However, our preliminary results support the idea of addiction as an attachment disorder, both at neuronal and behavioral levels. Further research might be focused on the changes of insecure attachment patterns in SUD treatment and their correlation with changes in the brain.

  13. The Effects of Anger, Sadness and Happiness on Persuasive Message Processing: A Test of the Negative State Relief Model.

    Mitchell, Monique M.; Brown, Kenneth M.; Morris-Villagran, Melinda; Villagran, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the strength of the effects of happiness and sadness on attitude change, and compares these effects with the effect of anger on attitude change and persuasive message processing. Finds that message strength was positively correlated with attitude, intention and behavior, but was negatively correlated with negative thoughts, and counter…

  14. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  15. Negative impact of high cumulative glucocorticoid dose on bone metabolism of patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Braz, Nayara Felicidade Tomaz; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Malheiro, Olívio Brito; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-08-01

    This current study aimed to evaluate the frequency of low bone mass, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and to investigate the possible association between bone mineral density (BMD) and plasma levels of bone metabolism markers. Eighty patients with MG and 62 controls BMD were measured in the right femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, dickkopf (DKK-1), sclerostin, insulin, leptin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-23) were analyzed by Luminex®. The mean age of patients was 41.9 years, with 13.5 years of length of illness, and a mean cumulative dose of glucocorticoids 38,123 mg. Patients had significant reduction in BMD of the lumbar, the femoral neck, and in the whole body when compared with controls. Fourteen percent MG patients had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and 2.5% at the femoral neck. In comparison with controls, patients with MG presented lower levels of osteocalcin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, parathyroid hormone, sclerostin, TNF-α, and DKK-1 and higher levels of FGF-23, leptin, and IL-6. There was a significant negative correlation between cumulative glucocorticoid dose and serum calcium, lumbar spine T-score, femoral neck BMD, T-score, and Z-score. After multivariate analysis, higher TNF-α levels increased the likelihood of presenting low bone mass by 2.62. MG patients under corticotherapy presented low BMD and altered levels of bone markers.

  16. Negative effects of transthyretin in high myopic vitreous on diabetic retinopathy

    Jun Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between vitreous transthyretin (TTR levels, high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR. METHODS: We selected 6722 individuals from the southern Jiangsu Province for diabetes and ophthalmic examinations. The TTR concentration in the vitreous of 50 patients with high myopia and diabetes, 50 patients with only DR, and 20 healthy controls were determined by ELISA. Key factors in Tie2 pathway in DR development including vascular endothecial growth factor (VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1 and VEGFR2 were also detected by ELISA. RESULTS: The prevalence of DR in patients with diabetes and myopia [6.00 D, and diabetes without myopia were 11.1%, 2.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. The vitreous TTR concentration of patients with diabetes and high myopia was approximately 6.5- and 4.2-times higher than those of patients with DR and healthy controls, respectively (P<0.05. Following the vitreous TTR concentration, the levels of VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in vitreous of diabetes and high myopia patients, DR patients and healthy controls were detected as dramatically fluctuated. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that TTR can affect the vitreous contents of key factors in Tie2 pathway for neovascularization, and there should be a protective association between abundant TTR levels in the vitreous of highly myopic patients and a decreased risk of DR.

  17. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  18. A modified Janus cassette (Sweet Janus to improve allelic replacement efficiency by high-stringency negative selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available The Janus cassette permits marker-free allelic replacement or knockout in streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus through sequential positive and negative selection. Spontaneous revertants of Janus can lead to high level of false-positives during negative selection, which necessitate a time-consuming post-selection screening process. We hypothesized that an additional counter-selectable marker in Janus would decrease the revertant frequency and reduce false-positives, since simultaneous reversion of both counter-selectable makers is much less likely. Here we report a modified cassette, Sweet Janus (SJ, in which the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis conferring sucrose sensitivity is added to Janus. By using streptomycin and sucrose simultaneously as selective agents, the frequency of SJ double revertants was about 105-fold lower than the frequency of Janus revertants. Accordingly, the frequency of false-positives in the SJ-mediated negative selection was about 100-fold lower than what was seen for Janus. Thus, SJ enhances negative selection stringency and can accelerate allelic replacement in pneumococcus, especially when transformation frequency is low due to strain background or suboptimal transformation conditions. Results also suggested the sacB gene alone can function as a counter-selectable marker in the Gram-positive pneumococcus, which will have the advantage of not requiring a streptomycin-resistant strain for allelic replacement.

  19. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    Samelink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term,

  20. Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2/neu-negative breast cancer

    Rodenhuis, S.; Bontenbal, M.; Hoesel, Q.G.C.M. van; Smit, W.M.; Nooij, M.A.; Voest, E.E.; Wall, E. van der; Hupperets, P.; Tinteren, H. van; Peterse, J.L.; Vijver, M.J. van de; Vries, E.G.E. de

    2006-01-01

    Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil,

  1. Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2/neu-negative breast cancer

    Rodenhuis, S; Bontenbal, M; van Hoesel, QGCM; Smit, WM; Nooij, MA; Voest, EE; van der Wall, E; Hupperets, P; van Tinteren, H; Peterse, JL; van de Vijver, MJ; de Vries, EGE

    Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil,

  2. Are children's views of the "enemy" shaped by a highly-publicized negative event?

    Oppenheimer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh,

  3. Are Children's Views of the "Enemy" Shaped by a Highly-Publicized Negative Event?

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh, bomb attacks in Bali and Madrid and other acts of…

  4. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    [13] Multiple studies agree that neutrophil CD64 has high diagnostic speci city and sensitivity.[13,18-20] In the light of the above information, we prospectively evaluated the usefulness of neutrophil CD64 expression in diagnosing neonatal infection. e main objective of the study was quantitation of neutrophil. CD64 by ow ...

  5. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  6. The Negative Impact of Community Stressors on Learning Time: Examining Inequalities between California High Schools

    Mirra, Nicole; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocated classroom time is not the same as time available for learning--a host of economic and social stressors undermine learning time in schools serving low-income students. When time is limited, it is hard to meet rigorous learning standards. The challenge is compounded in high-poverty schools where community stressors place additional demands…

  7. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  9. Protective coatings for high temperature alloys state of technology

    Goward, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings used on nickel- and cobalt-base superalloy blades and vanes in gas turbine engines typify the state of coating technology for high temperature alloys. Coatings formed by interdiffusion of aluminum with the alloys to form layers consisting mainly of intermetallic compounds, such as NiAl and CoAl, were the first systems used for protection of gas turbine airfoils. The protectivity of these systems is derived from the formation of protective alumina scales. In a general way, coating degradation occurs by cyclic oxidation, molten salt hot corrosion and, at higher temperatures, interdiffusion with the substrate. Thermal fatigue properties are governed by the brittle-ductile transition behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Both positive and negative effects occur, depending on the shapes of thermal strain-temperature curves for particular applications. Significant increases in hot corrosion and oxidation resistance have been obtained by the incorporation of noble metals, such as platinum, in aluminide coatings. The so-called MCrAlY overlay coatings, based on nickel, cobalt, iron and combinations thereof with chromium, aluminum and yttrium can be formulated over a wide range of compositions nominally independent of those of substrate alloys. Improved oxidation resistance and, in part, hot corrosion resistance is derived from yttrium which enhances protective oxide adherence. Mechanical properties, principally ductility, and therefore thermal fatigue resistance, can be adjusted to the requirements of specific applications. Incremental improvements in performance of the MCrAlY coatings are expected as research programs define degradation mechanisms in greater detail and more complex compositions are devised. More basic evaluations of mixed metal-ceramic insulative coatings have been initiated to determine if these systems are capable of effecting further increases in airfoil durability

  10. Dinamical polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like states

    Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Analytic expressions are derived for the dynamic polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like atomic states. It is shown that in the composite matrix element which determines the dynamic polarizability there is a strong compensation of the terms as a result of which the resulting magnitude of the dynamic polarizability is quasiclasically small compared to the individual terms of the composite matrix. It is concluded that the resonance behaviour of the dynamic polarizability of highly excited states differs significantly from the resonance behaviour of the polarizability for the ground and low-lying atomic states. The static limit and high-frequency limit of on electromagnetic field are considered

  11. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  12. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  13. Controlled teleportation of high-dimension quantum-states with generalized Bell-state measurement

    Zhan You-Bang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a scheme for controlled teleportation of arbitrary high-dimensional unknown quantum states is proposed by using the generalized Bell-basis measurement and the generalized Hadamard transformation. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled teleportation of an unknown single-qutrit state and an unknown two-qutrit state are investigated in detail. In the first scheme, a maximally entangled three-qutrit state is used as the quantum channel, while in the second scheme, an entangled two-qutrit state and an entangled three-qutrit state are employed as the quantum channels. In these schemes, an unknown qutrit state can be teleported to either one of two receivers, but only one of them can reconstruct the qutrit state with the help of the other. Based on the case of qutrits, a scheme of controlled teleportation of an unknown qudit state is presented.

  14. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  15. Striking Distance Determined From High-Speed Videos and Measured Currents in Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Visacro, Silverio; Guimaraes, Miguel; Murta Vale, Maria Helena

    2017-12-01

    First and subsequent return strokes' striking distances (SDs) were determined for negative cloud-to-ground flashes from high-speed videos exhibiting the development of positive and negative leaders and the pre-return stroke phase of currents measured along a short tower. In order to improve the results, a new criterion was used for the initiation and propagation of the sustained upward connecting leader, consisting of a 4 A continuous current threshold. An advanced approach developed from the combined use of this criterion and a reverse propagation procedure, which considers the calculated propagation speeds of the leaders, was applied and revealed that SDs determined solely from the first video frame showing the upward leader can be significantly underestimated. An original approach was proposed for a rough estimate of first strokes' SD using solely records of current. This approach combines the 4 A criterion and a representative composite three-dimensional propagation speed of 0.34 × 106 m/s for the leaders in the last 300 m propagated distance. SDs determined under this approach showed to be consistent with those of the advanced procedure. This approach was applied to determine the SD of 17 first return strokes of negative flashes measured at MCS, covering a wide peak-current range, from 18 to 153 kA. The estimated SDs exhibit very high dispersion and reveal great differences in relation to the SDs estimated for subsequent return strokes and strokes in triggered lightning.

  16. High Densities of Tumor-Associated Plasma Cells Predict Improved Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Joe Yeong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, but the heterogeneity of the condition is a significant obstacle to effective treatment. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs do not express HER2 or the receptors for estrogen or progesterone, and so often have a poor prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating T cells have been well-characterized in TNBC, and increased numbers are associated with better outcomes; however, the potential roles of B cells and plasma cells have been large. Here, we conducted a retrospective correlative study on the expression of B cell/plasma cell-related genes, and the abundance and localization of B cells and plasma cells within TNBCs, and clinical outcome. We analyzed 269 TNBC samples and used immunohistochemistry to quantify tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells, coupled with NanoString measurement of expression of immunoglobulin metagenes. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients bearing TNBCs with above-median densities of CD38+ plasma cells had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS (HR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.26–0.77; p = 0.004 but not overall survival (OS, after adjusting for the effects of known prognostic factors. In contrast, TNBCs with higher immunoglobulin gene expression exhibited improved prognosis (OS p = 0.029 and DFS p = 0.005. The presence of B cells and plasma cells was positively correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.558, while immunoglobulin gene IGKC, IGHM, and IGHG1 mRNA expression correlated specifically with the density of CD38+ plasma cells (IGKC p < 0.0001, R = 0.647; IGHM p < 0.0001, R = 0.580; IGHG1 p < 0.0001, R = 0.655. Interestingly, after adjusting the multivariate analysis for the effect of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density, the expression levels of all three genes lost significant prognostic value, suggesting a biologically important role of plasma cells. Last but not least, the addition of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell

  17. A state-independent network of depressive, negative and positive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    van Rooijen, Geeske; Isvoranu, Adela-Maria; Kruijt, Olle H; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Meijer, Carin J; Wigman, Johanna T W; Ruhé, Henricus G; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.

    Depressive symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia. Several factor analytical studies investigated the associations between positive, negative and depressive symptoms and reported difficulties differentiating between these symptom domains. Here, we argue that a network approach may

  18. Corrosion behaviour of high manganese austenitic stainless steels: positive and negative aspects

    Raja, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel 304 has found use as a most versatile engineering material in many industrial applications. Recently, the Indian industries have developed high Mn stainless steels with low C and Ni contents and simultaneously introduced N and Cu in the system. Composition of some of the alloys which are prevalent in the market are given. Individually, the effect of Ni, C, Mn, N and Cu on various forms of corrosion is reasonably understood. However, it will be worthwhile to review the response of these alloys, containing all these elements, towards various forms of corrosion. The objective of this paper is preciously to do this

  19. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High.

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity-a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others-are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target's trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the "trustworthy trickster"). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology.

  20. High plasma folate is negatively associated with leukocyte telomere length in Framingham Offspring cohort.

    Paul, Ligi; Jacques, Paul F; Aviv, Abraham; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Levy, Daniel; Selhub, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Shortening of telomeres, the protective structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, is associated with age-related pathologies. Telomere length is influenced by DNA integrity and DNA and histone methylation. Folate plays a role in providing precursors for nucleotides and methyl groups for methylation reactions and has the potential to influence telomere length. We determined the association between leukocyte telomere length and long-term plasma folate status (mean of 4 years) in Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1,044, females = 52.1 %, mean age 59 years) using data from samples collected before and after folic acid fortification. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by Southern analysis and fasting plasma folate concentration using microbiological assay. There was no significant positive association between long-term plasma folate and leukocyte telomere length among the Framingham Offspring Study participants perhaps due to their adequate folate status. While the leukocyte telomere length in the second quintile of plasma folate was longer than that in the first quintile, the difference was not statistically significant. The leukocyte telomere length of the individuals in the fifth quintile of plasma folate was shorter than that of those in the second quintile by 180 bp (P folate concentrations in the upper four quintiles of plasma folate (P for trend = 0.001). Multivitamin use was associated with shorter telomeres in this cohort (P = 0.015). High plasma folate status possibly resulting from high folic acid intake may interfere with the role of folate in maintaining telomere integrity.

  1. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  2. High charge state heavy ion production from a PIG source

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Flood, W.S.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.; Meriwether, J.R.; Morris, D.

    1975-03-01

    The comparison of pulsed vs. dc arc operation for nitrogen and argon shows a shift in charge distribution toward the higher charge states for the pulsed case. Tests with various magnetic field shapes along the arc column show a significant increase in high charge state output for a uniform field compared to the case with a field low at the cathodes. (U.S.)

  3. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  4. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks.

    Bassler, A W; Arnould, C; Butterworth, A; Colin, L; De Jong, I C; Ferrante, V; Ferrari, P; Haslam, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Blokhuis, H J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor's effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate

  5. A modified high-intensity Cs sputter negative-ion source with multi-target mechanism

    Si Houzhi; Zhang Weizhong; Zhu Jinhau; Du Guangtian; Zhang Tiaorong; Gao Xiang

    1993-01-01

    The source is based on Middleton's high-intensity mode, but modified to a multi-target version. It is equipped with a spherical molybdenum ionizer, a 20-position target wheel and a vacuum lock for loading and unloading sample batches. A metal-ceramic bonded section protected by a specially designed labyrinth shielding system results in reliable insulation of the cathode and convenient control of cesium vapor. The latter is particularly important when an oversupply of cesium occurs. The source was developed for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications. Recently, three versions based on the prototype of the source have been successfully tested to meet different requirements: (a) Single target version, (b) multi-target version with manual sample change, and (c) multi-target version with remote control sample change. Some details of the technical and operational characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  6. Ultra-long-pulse microwave negative high voltage power supply with fast protection

    Xu Weihua; Wu Junshuan; Zheng Guanghua; Huang Qiaolin; Yang Chunsheng; Zhou Yuanwei; Chen Yonghao

    1998-01-01

    Two 1.4 MW high voltage power supply (HVPS) modules with 3-5 s pulse duration have been developed for LHCD experiment in the HT-7 tokamak. The power source consists of a pulsed generator and the electric circuit. Duration of the ultra-long-pulse is controlled by switching-on dc relay immediately and switching-off ac contactor after a given time, and the fast protection is executed by a crowbar. Due to the soft starting of the power source, the problem of overvoltage induced by dc relay switching-on has been solved. Each power supply module outputs a rated power (-35 kV, 40 A) on the dummy load. With the klystrons connected as the load of the power supply modules, LHCD experiments have been conducted successfully in the HT-7 tokamak

  7. High nymphal host density and mortality negatively impact parasitoid complex during an insect herbivore outbreak.

    Hall, Aidan A G; Johnson, Scott N; Cook, James M; Riegler, Markus

    2017-08-26

    Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitization, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitization patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged. Then, we assessed host-parasitoid density relationships across three spatial scales (leaf, tree and site) over one year. We detected four endoparasitoid species of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera); two primary parasitoid and one heteronomous hyperparasitoid Psyllaephagus species (the latter with female development as a primary parasitoid and male development as a hyperparasitoid), and the hyperparasitoid Coccidoctonus psyllae. Parasitoid development was host-synchronized, although synchrony between sites appeared constrained during winter (due to temperature differences). Parasitization was predominantly driven by one primary parasitoid species and was mostly inversely host-density dependent across the spatial scales. Hyperparasitization by C. psyllae was psyllid-density dependent at the site scale, however, this only impacted the rarer primary parasitoid. High larval parasitoid mortality due to density-dependent nymphal psyllid mortality (a consequence of resource limitation) compounded by a summer heat wave was incorporated in the assessment and resulted in density independence of host-parasitoid relationships. As such, high larval parasitoid mortality during insect herbivore outbreaks may contribute to the absence of host density-dependent parasitization during outbreak events. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Dual inhibition of Wnt and Yes-associated protein signaling retards the growth of triple-negative breast cancer in both mesenchymal and epithelial states.

    Sulaiman, Andrew; McGarry, Sarah; Li, Li; Jia, Deyong; Ooi, Sarah; Addison, Christina; Dimitroulakos, Jim; Arnaout, Angel; Nessim, Carolyn; Yao, Zemin; Ji, Guang; Song, Haiyan; Gadde, Suresh; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Lisheng

    2018-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most refractory subtype of breast cancer to current treatments, accounts disproportionately for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths. This is largely due to cancer plasticity and the development of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently, distinct yet interconvertible mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like states have been revealed in breast CSCs. Thus, strategies capable of simultaneously inhibiting bulk and CSC populations in both mesenchymal and epithelial states have yet to be developed. Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP pathways are crucial in tumorigenesis, but importantly also possess tumor suppressor functions in certain contexts. One possibility is that TNBC cells in epithelial or mesenchymal state may differently affect Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP signaling and CSC phenotypes. In this report, we found that YAP signaling and CD44 high /CD24 -/low CSCs were upregulated while Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ALDH+ CSCs were downregulated in mesenchymal-like TNBC cells, and vice versa in their epithelial-like counterparts. Dual knockdown of YAP and Wnt/β-catenin, but neither alone, was required for effective suppression of both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC populations in mesenchymal and epithelial TNBC cells. These observations were confirmed with cultured tumor fragments prepared from patients with TNBC after treatment with Wnt inhibitor ICG-001 and YAP inhibitor simvastatin. In addition, a clinical database showed that decreased gene expression of Wnt and YAP was positively correlated with decreased ALDH and CD44 expression in patients' samples while increased patient survival. Furthermore, tumor growth of TNBC cells in either epithelial or mesenchymal state was retarded, and both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC subpopulations were diminished in a human xenograft model after dual administration of ICG-001 and simvastatin. Tumorigenicity was also hampered after secondary transplantation. These data suggest a new

  9. An in-situ investigation of the acute effects of Bikram yoga on positive- and negative affect, and state-anxiety in context of perceived stress.

    Szabo, Attila; Nikházy, Letícia; Tihanyi, Benedek; Boros, Szilvia

    2017-04-01

    Bikram yoga is a relatively new, but an increasingly popular form of exercise. Its health benefits were demonstrated on physical and psychological measures. The current field study tested the acute effects of Bikram yoga on practitioners' positive-/negative-affect and state-anxiety, and their link to the self-perceived stress, in Bikram yoga participants. Field study, within-participants design, testing perceived stress and its relation to changes in positive-/negative-affect and state-anxiety in 53 habitual Bikram yoga participants. Statistically significant positive changes emerged in all three psychological measures after the 90-min Bikram yoga session. The decrease in negative-affect and state-anxiety were significantly and positively related to the perceived stress. Estimated effort was unrelated to the magnitude of the changes recorded in the psychological measures. Heart rates and self-report measures indicated that physically Bikram yoga is only mildly challenging. The findings illustrate that, independently of the physical effort, Bikram yoga is a new mild form of exercise that reduces negative-affect and state-anxiety, and the reduction is directly related to the perceived stress. Therefore, Bikram yoga appears to be beneficial for all practitioners, but even more so for the individuals who experience substantial stress in the daily life.

  10. Quasiparticles in the superconducting state of high-Tc metals

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Shaginyan, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of quasiparticles in the superconducting state of high-T c metals within the framework of the theory of superconducting state based on the fermion condensation quantum phase transition is considered. It is shown that the behavior coincides with the behavior of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, whereas the maximum value of the superconducting gap and other exotic properties are determined by the presence of the fermion condensate. If at low temperatures the normal state is recovered by the application of a magnetic field suppressing the superconductivity, the induced state can be viewed as Landau-Fermi liquid. These observations are in good agreement with recent experimental facts [ru

  11. State investments in high-technology job growth.

    Leicht, Kevin T; Jenkins, J Craig

    2017-07-01

    Since the early 1970's state and local governments have launched an array of economic development programs designed to promote high-technology development. The question our analysis addresses is whether these programs promote long-term high-technology employment growth net of state location and agglomeration advantages. Proponents talk about an infrastructure strategy that promotes investment in public research and specialized infrastructure to attract and grow new high technology industries in specific locations, and a more decentralized entrepreneurial strategy that reinforces local agglomeration capacities by investing in new enterprises and products, promoting the development of local networks and partnerships. Our results support the entrepreneurial strategy, suggesting that state governments can accelerate high technology development by adopting market-supportive programs that complement private sector initiatives. In addition to positive direct benefits of technology deployment/transfer programs and SBIR programs, entrepreneurial programs affect change in high-technology employment in concert with existing locational and agglomeration advantages. Rural (i.e. low population density) states tend to benefit by technology development programs. Infrastructure strategy programs also facilitate high technology job growth in places where local advantages already exist. Our results suggest that critics of industrial policy are correct that high technology growth is organic and endogenous, yet state governments are able to "pick winners and losers" in ways that grow their local economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DECAY MODES OF HIGH-LYING SINGLE-PARTICLE STATES IN PB-209

    BEAUMEL, D; FORTIER, S; GALES, S; GUILLOT, J; LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; LAURENT, H; MAISON, JM; VERNOTTE, J; BORDEWIJK, JA; BRANDENBURG, S; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; CRAWLEY, GM; MASSOLO, CP; RENTERIA, M

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Pb-209 excited by means of the (alpha, He-3) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high-spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the

  13. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The first observation of EO transitions from negative parity states in even-even nucleus 160Dy

    Grigoriev, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    In even-even deformed nuclei up to now EO-transitions were found only between the states of the same spin belonging to Κ π = O + rotational bands. There is no forbidenness for EO-transitions between states belonging to bands with any other quantum number Κ provided both initial and final states have the same J π Κ values. EO-transitions may depopulate odd-parity states. In odd nuclei β-vibrational states are identified by transition with EO-components. Here transitions also proceed between states with the same J π K numbers. Even-even nuclide 160 Dy is the first nucleus where the EO-transitions between odd-parity states have been found

  15. Infant negative affect and maternal interactive behavior during the still-face procedure: the moderating role of adult attachment states of mind.

    Haltigan, John D; Leerkes, Esther M; Supple, Andrew J; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined associations between attachment state of mind measured prenatally (N = 259) and maternal behavior in the reunion episode of the still-face procedure when infants were six months of age both as a main effect and in conjunction with infant negative affect. Using a dimensional approach to adult attachment measurement, dismissing and preoccupied states of mind were negatively associated with maternal sensitivity, and each correlated with distinct parenting behaviors. Positive associations were found between dismissing states of mind and maternal monitoring and preoccupied states of mind and maternal withdraw. Maternal preoccupation moderated associations between infant negative affect and maternal intrusive, withdrawn, and monitoring behaviors, supporting the notion that maternal attachment influences parenting behavior via a modulatory process in which infant distress cues are selectively filtered and responded to. Analyses using a traditional AAI scale and classification approach also provided evidence for distinct parenting behavior correlates of insecure adult attachment representations. The importance of measuring global and stylistic differences in maternal behavior in contexts which allow for the activation of the entire range of infant affective states is discussed.

  16. Coherent Interlayer Tunneling and Negative Differential Resistance with High Current Density in Double Bilayer Graphene-WSe2 Heterostructures.

    Burg, G William; Prasad, Nitin; Fallahazad, Babak; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Kim, Kyounghwan; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J; Register, Leonard F; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-06-14

    We demonstrate gate-tunable resonant tunneling and negative differential resistance between two rotationally aligned bilayer graphene sheets separated by bilayer WSe 2 . We observe large interlayer current densities of 2 and 2.5 μA/μm 2 and peak-to-valley ratios approaching 4 and 6 at room temperature and 1.5 K, respectively, values that are comparable to epitaxially grown resonant tunneling heterostructures. An excellent agreement between theoretical calculations using a Lorentzian spectral function for the two-dimensional (2D) quasiparticle states, and the experimental data indicates that the interlayer current stems primarily from energy and in-plane momentum conserving 2D-2D tunneling, with minimal contributions from inelastic or non-momentum-conserving tunneling. We demonstrate narrow tunneling resonances with intrinsic half-widths of 4 and 6 meV at 1.5 and 300 K, respectively.

  17. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  18. High energy chemistry. Modern state and trends in development

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    In the review modern state of studies in the field of high energy chemistry is considered. The most important achievements and problems of further development of radiation chemistry, plasmochemistry, photochemistry, laser chemistry and some other branches of high energy chemistry are discussed

  19. Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions

    Gerla, D.J.; Mooij, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple

  20. Neuropilin-1highCD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Primary Negative Immunoregulation in Sepsis

    Yu-Lei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs appear to be involved in sepsis-induced immune dysfunction; neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1 was identified as a surface marker for CD4+CD25+Tregs. In the current study, we investigated the negative immunoregulation of Nrp-1highCD4+CD25+Tregs and the potential therapeutic value of Nrp-1 in sepsis. Splenic CD4+CD25+Tregs from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP mouse models were further segregated into Nrp-1highTregs and Nrp-1lowTregs; they were cocultured with CD4+CD25−  T cells. The expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor-3 (Foxp-3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βm+, apoptotic rate, and secretive ability [including TGF-β and interleukin-10 (IL-10] for various types of Tregs, as well as the immunosuppressive ability of Tregs on CD4+CD25−  T cells, were determined. Meanwhile, the impact of recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody on the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region was measured in in vitro study. Sepsis per se markedly promoted the expression of Nrp-1 of CD4+CD25+Tregs. Foxp-3/CTLA-4/TGF-βm+ of Nrp-1highTregs were upregulated by septic challenge. Nrp-1highTregs showed strong resilience to apoptosis and secretive ability and the strongest immunosuppressive ability on CD4+CD25−  T cells. In the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody reduced the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR. Nrp-1highTregs might reveal primary negative immunoregulation in sepsis; Nrp-1 could represent a new potential therapeutic target for the study of immune regulation in sepsis.

  1. Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: a study of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States.

    Diwan, Sadhna; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2004-10-01

    Using the life stress model of psychological well-being, in this study we examined risks and resources predicting the occurrence of both positive and negative affect among older Asian Indian immigrants who experienced stressful life events. We collected data through a telephone survey of 226 respondents (aged 50 years and older) in the Southeastern United States. We used hierarchical, negative binomial regression analyses to examine correlates of positive and negative affect. Different coping resources influenced positive and negative affect when stressful life events were controlled for. Being female was a common risk factor for poorer positive and increased negative affect. Satisfaction with friendships and a cultural or ethnic identity that is either bicultural or more American were predictive of greater positive affect. Greater religiosity and increased mastery were resources predicting less negative affect. Cognitive and structural interventions that increase opportunities for social integration, increasing mastery, and addressing spiritual concerns are discussed as ways of coping with stress to improve the well-being of individuals in this immigrant community.

  2. High spin states in 63Cu. 17/2+ isomeric yrast state

    Tsan Ung Chan; Bruandet, J.F.; Dauchy, A.; Giorni, A.; Glasser, F.; Morand, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.

    1979-01-01

    The 63 Cu nucleus has been studied via the reaction 61 Ni(α, pnγ), using different in beam γ spectroscopy techniques. An isomeric high-spin Yrast state 17/2 + (tau = 6.1 +- 0.6ns) is located at 4498 keV. The gsub(9/2) shell must be involved to explain positive high-spin states established in this work [fr

  3. Development of high performance negative ion sources and accelerators for MeV class neutral beam injectors

    Taniguchi, M.; Hanada, M.; Iga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Operation of accelerator at low pressure is an essential requirement to reduce stripping loss of the negative ions, which in turn results in high efficiency of the NB systems. For this purpose, a vacuum insulated beam source (VIBS) has been developed at JAERI, which reduces the gas pressure in the accelerator by enhanced gas conductance through the accelerator. The VIBS achieves the high voltage insulation of 1 MV by immersing the whole structure of accelerator in vacuum with long (∼ 1.8 m) insulation distance. Results of the voltage holding test using a long vacuum gap of 1.8 m indicate that a transition from vacuum discharge to gas discharge occurs at around 0.2 Pa m in the long vacuum gap. So far, the VIBS succeeded in acceleration of 20 mA (H - ) beam up to 970 keV for 1 s. The high voltage holding capability of the VIBS was drastically improved by installing a new large stress ring, which reduces electric field concentration at the triple junction of the accelerator column. At present the VIBS sustains 1 MV stably for more than 1200 s. Acceleration of ampere class H- beams at high current density is to be started soon to demonstrate ITER relevant beam optics. Operation of negative ion source at low pressure is also essential to reduce the stripping loss. However, it was not so easy to attain high current density H - ions at low pressure, since destruction cross section of the negative ions becomes large if the electron temperature is > 1 eV, in low pressure discharge. Using strong magnetic filter to lower the electron temperature, and putting higher arc discharge power to compensate reduction of plasma density through the filter, an H - ion beam of 310 A/m 2 was extracted at very low pressure of 0.1Pa. This satisfies the ITER requirement of current density at 1/3 of the ITER design pressure (0.3 Pa). (author)

  4. High-spin states in sd-shell nuclei

    Poel, C.J. van der.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic picture of the structure of high-spin states in the mass range A = 29 - 41 is developed on the basis of experimental results for the nuclei 34 Cl, 38 K and 39 K. It is shown that for 34 Cl the difficulties induced by the relatively low cross section can be overcome. Combination of the data obtained from a γ-γ coincidence experiment with the 24 Mg + 12 C reaction, using the LACSS, and from threshold measurements in the 31 P + α reaction, establishes an unambiguous level scheme. By means of accurate angular-distribution measurements unambiguous spin and parity assignments are made to the high-spin levels. From the results a rather simple shell-model picture for the structure of the high-spin states evolves. Several authors have published experimental work on high-spin states in 39 K, with seriously conflicting conclusions, however, for the spin-parity assignments. The powerful coincidence set-up with the LACSS enables a discrimination between the conflicting results from the previous studies. In this way, unambiguous, model-independent, spin-parity assignments to the high-spin levels are established. Highly selective experimental methods are used to identify the high-spin states of 38 K. It is shown that with a pulsed beam in the reaction 24 Mg + 16 O advantage can be taken of the presence of a long-lived high-spin isomeric level in this nucleus. The gamma-decay of the isomer is extensively studied. With the pulsed beam, also some states above the isomer could be located. The subsequent use of two Compton-suppression spectrometers in a γ-γ coincidence experiment reveals a number of high-spin levels at higher excitation energies. (Auth.)

  5. Damping mechanisms of high-lying single-particle states in 91Nb

    Molen, H. K. T. van der; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Hunyadi, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.; Ishibashi, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yosoi, M.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Jaenecke, J.; O'Donnell, T. W.; Laurent, H.; Lhenry, I.; Rodin, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    Decay by proton emission from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated in the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction at E α =180 MeV, has been investigated. Decay to the ground state and semidirect decay to the low-lying (2 + ,5 - , and 3 - ) phonon states in 90 Zr were observed. It was found that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. An optical-model coupled-channel approach was used successfully to describe the direct and semidirect parts of the decay

  6. High spin states and backbending in the light tungsten isotopes

    Walker, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Johnston, A.; Leigh, J.R.; Slocombe, M.G.; Wright, I.F.

    1976-09-01

    High spin states in 172 W, 174 W, 175 W and 176 W have been studied with ( 16 O,xn) reactions. The ground state bands in 174 W and 176 W backbend in contrast to the more regular gsb in the N = 98 nucleus 172 W. This behaviour and the anomalies in the odd nucleus 175 W are discussed in terms of the influence of neutrons on backbending. (author)

  7. Introduction to State Estimation of High-Rate System Dynamics.

    Hong, Jonathan; Laflamme, Simon; Dodson, Jacob; Joyce, Bryan

    2018-01-13

    Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer's convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems. A survey of applications and methods for estimators that have the potential to produce accurate estimations for a complex system experiencing highly dynamic events is presented. It is argued that adaptive observers are important to this research. In particular, adaptive data-driven observers are advantageous due to their adaptability and lack of dependence on the system model.

  8. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  9. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. > Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires through lead hydroxination. > The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. > Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. > The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd{sup 2+} with Pb{sup 2+} ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  11. Measurement of negative ion mobility in O2 at high pressures using a point plate gap as an ion detector

    Okuyama, Y; Kimura, T; Suzuki, S; Itoh, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for negative ion mobility in O 2 at 0.5-2.0 atm. The ion mobility is observed using a high-pressure ion drift tube with a positive corona gap (Geiger counter), which is constructed from a point plate gap and acts as a negative ion detector. The variation of waveforms in the burst pulse is observed by varying the voltage applied to the ion detector to find the optimum voltage that must be applied across the ion detector in O 2 . This is investigated carefully to ensure the precise determination of mobility. The distortion of the electric field near the mesh electrode, which operates as the cathode of the ion detector and as the anode of the ion drift gap, is then examined to determine the optimum applied voltage to suppress its effect on the measurement of mobility. The mobility is subsequently measured at a reduced electric field intensity of 2.83 × 10 -3 to 2.83. The observed mobility of 2.31 ± 0.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in O 2 is concluded to be that of O 2 - . This value is also obtained in experiments over a wide range of gas pressures (0.5-2.0 atm) and drift lengths (1.00-9.00 cm). The mobilities of O 3 - and O - are also obtained experimentally. (paper)

  12. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Sankapal, B.R.; Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K.; Gupta, V.; Chand, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. → Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH) 2 nanowires through lead hydroxination. → The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. → Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. → The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd 2+ with Pb 2+ ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  13. Marijuana usage in relation to harmfulness ratings, perceived likelihood of negative consequences, and defense mechanisms in high school students.

    Como-Lesko, N; Primavera, L H; Szeszko, P R

    1994-08-01

    This study investigated high school students' marijuana usage patterns in relation to their harmfulness ratings of 15 licit and illicit drugs, perceived negative consequences from using marijuana, and types of defense mechanisms employed. Subjects were classified into one of five pattern-of-use groups based on marijuana usage: principled nonusers, nonusers, light users, moderate users, and heavy users. Principled nonusers (individuals who have never used marijuana and would not do so if it was legalized) rated marijuana, hashish, cocaine, and alcohol as significantly more harmful than heavy users. A cluster analysis of the drugs' harmfulness ratings best fit a three cluster solution and were named medicinal drugs, recreational drugs, and hard drugs. In general, principled nonusers rated negative consequences from using marijuana as significantly more likely to occur than other groups. Principled nonusers and heavy users utilized reversal from the Defense Mechanism Inventory, which includes repression and denial, significantly more than nonusers, indicating some trait common to the two extreme pattern-of-use groups.

  14. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  15. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    2009-12-08

    announced that it will expand the capacity on its aging high speed line between Tokyo and Osaka, the most heavily traveled intercity rail segment in the...United States, in most of these countries intercity rail travel (including both conventional and high speed rail) represents less than 10% of all...that is sometimes mentioned by its advocates. Intercity passenger rail transport is relatively safe, at least compared with highway travel . And HSR in

  16. Density-dependent phonoriton states in highly excited semiconductors

    Nguyen Hong Quang; Nguyen Minh Khue; Nguyen Que Huong

    1995-09-01

    The dynamical aspects of the phonoriton state in highly-photoexcited semiconductors is studied theoretically. The effect of the exciton-exciton interaction and nonbosonic character of high-density excitons are taken into account. Using Green's function method and within the Random Phase Approximation it is shown that the phonoriton dispersion and damping are very sensitive to the exciton density, characterizing the excitation degree of semiconductors. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs

  17. Dynamics of the vortex state in high temperature superconductors

    Kapitulnik, A.

    1991-01-01

    The large thermal energy available, the strong anisotropy, and short coherence lengths of high temperature superconductors give rise to new phenomena in the mixed state. The author discusses transport and thermodynamic measurements of high-Tc materials and of model systems. In particular, he uses experiments on two dimensional films to compare and isolate two dimensional effects in the cuprates. By using multilayer systems with similar parameters, he identifies decoupling of the superconducting planes in magnetic fields at temperatures much above the irreversibility line. He shows that if the irreversibility line is to be considered a melting transition line, it implies melting of the solid state into a liquid of three dimensional flux lines. He further uses Monte Carlo simulations to study the structure of the vortex state as well as melting

  18. When negation is not negation

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  19. Cervical cancer screening by high risk HPV testing in routine practice: results at one year recall of high risk HPV-positive and cytology-negative women.

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Ferro, Antonio; Callegaro, Susanna; Del Sole, Annamaria; Stomeo, Anna; Cirillo, Emanuela; Fedato, Chiara; Pagni, Silvana; Barzon, Luisa; Zorzi, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires the use of additional triage and follow-up analyses. We evaluated women's compliance with and the performance of this strategy in a routine setting. Five cervical service screening programmes in North-East Italy. Eligible women aged 25-64 invited for a new screening episode underwent HPV testing for high risk types (hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2) and cytology triage. Women with positive HPV and cytology results were referred for colposcopy; women with positive HPV but negative cytology results were referred to 1-year repeat hrHPV testing. Of 46,694 women screened by HPV testing up to December 2011, 3,211 (6.9%) tested hrHPV positive; 45% of these had a positive triage cytology. Those with negative cytology were invited for 1-yr repeat testing. Compliance with invitation was 61.6% at baseline and 85.3% at 1-yr repeat. Rate of persistent hrHPV positivity was 58% (830/1,435). Colposcopy performed in women with a positive hrHPV test at 1-yr repeat accounted for 36% of all colposcopies performed within the screening programmes. Cumulatively, a histological high-grade lesion was detected in 276 women (5.9‰ detection rate), 234 at baseline (85%), and 42 (15%) at 1-yr repeat. Compliance with hrHPV-based screening programmes was high both at baseline and at 1-yr repeat. Compared with the randomized trials, a higher proportion of triage cytology was read as positive, and only a small number of high-grade lesions were detected among the group of hrHPV positive cytology negative women who repeated testing 1-yr after baseline.

  20. Culture and mixed emotions: co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Uchida, Yukiko; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2010-06-01

    Previous cross-cultural comparisons of correlations between positive and negative emotions found that East Asians are more likely than Americans to feel dialectical emotions. However, not much is known about the co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in a given situation. When asked to describe situations in which they felt mixed emotions, Japanese and American respondents listed mostly similar situations. By presenting these situations to another group of respondents, we found that Japanese reported more mixed emotions than Americans in the predominantly pleasant situations, whereas there were no cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly unpleasant situations or the mixed situations. The appraisal of self-agency mediated cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly pleasant situations. Study 2 replicated the findings by asking participants to recall how they felt in their past pleasant, unpleasant, and mixed situations. The findings suggest that both Americans and Japanese feel mixed emotions, but the kinds of situation in which they typically do so depends on culture.

  1. 3 QP plus rotor model and high spin states

    Mathur, Tripti

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear models are approximate methods to describe certain properties of a large number of nuclei. In this paper details of 3 QP (three quasi particle) plus rotor model and high spin state are discussed. The band head energies for the 3 QP rotational bands for 157 Ho and 159 Tm are also given. 5 refs., 8 figs

  2. Affective processing within 1/10th of a second: High arousal is necessary for early facilitative processing of negative but not positive words.

    Hofmann, Markus J; Kuchinke, Lars; Tamm, Sascha; Võ, Melissa L-H; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2009-12-01

    Lexical decisions to high- and low-arousal negative words and to low-arousal neutral and positive words were examined in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. Reaction times to positive and high-arousal negative words were shorter than those to neutral (low-arousal) words, whereas those to low-arousal negative words were longer. A similar pattern was observed in an early time window of the ERP response: Both positive and high-arousal negative words elicited greater negative potentials in a time frame of 80 to 120 msec after stimulus onset. This result suggests that arousal has a differential impact on early lexical processing of positive and negative words. Source localization in the relevant time frame revealed that the arousal effect in negative words is likely to be localized in a left occipito-temporal region including the middle temporal and fusiform gyri. The ERP arousal effect appears to result from early lexico-semantic processing in high-arousal negative words.

  3. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  4. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  5. Neutron and gamma emission from highly excited states and states with high spin. Annual progress report

    Sperber, D.

    1976-08-01

    Both classical and quantum models for the collision between heavy ions were studied. Classical models were used to account for the possibility of strong damping. Two models which account for side peaking and considerable energy loss were proposed. According to the first, the ions clutch at the distance of closest approach and the radial energy is dissipated fast in the entrance channel. This is followed by a slow motion in the exit channel up to the snapping point. According to the second model, there is an asymmetry in the conservative potential between the entrance and exit channels. The exit channel potential includes deformations. A dynamical model including transfer was developed. The trajectories are determined dynamically whereas the transfer is considered as a random process. Semi-classical calculations (first order quantum calculation) were performed to test the validity of the classical model or the sharp cut-off approximation. The main conclusion is that for energies high above the Coulomb barrier, the classical approximation is adequate but close to the barrier, it is insufficient, and quantum effects are important. It was shown that a quantum mechanical model using time dependent perturbation accounts very well for the angular distribution in strongly damped collisions. A list of publications is included

  6. Nonlinear phenomena in the highly excited state of C60

    Byrne, H.J.; Maser, W.K.; Kaiser, M.; Akselrod, L.; Anders, J.; Ruehle, W.W.; Zhou, X.Q.; Mittelbach, A.; Roth, S.

    1993-01-01

    Under high intensity illumination, the optical and electronic properties of fullerenes are seen to undergo dramatic, nonlinear changes. The photoluminescence emission is seen to increase with approximately the third power of the input intensity above an apparent threshold intensity. Associated with this nonlinear increase is the emergence of a long lifetime emission component and a redshifting of the emission spectrum. Above the threshold intensity the photoconductive response increases with approximately the cube of the input power. In the highly excited state, the photoconductive response becomes relatively temperature independent compared to the thermally activated behaviour observed at low intensities. The characteristics of the temperature dependence are associated with a metallic-like phase in the highly excited state and therefore an optically driven insulator to metal transition is proposed as a description of the observed phenomena. (orig.)

  7. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    Huaming Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  8. Laser diagnostics of high vibrational and rotational H2-states

    Mosbach, Th.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    We report on measurements of vibrational and rotational excited electronic-ground-state hydrogen molecules in a magnetic multipole plasma source by LIF with VUV radiation. The measurements are taken after rapid shut-off of the discharge current. Absolute level populations are obtained using Rayleigh scattering calibration with Krypton. The theoretically predicted suprathermal population of the vibrational distribution is clearly identified. We found also non-Boltzmann rotational distributions for the high vibrational states. The addition of noble gases (Argon and Xenon) to hydrogen leads to a decrease of the vibrational population. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. The exponential critical state of high-Tc ceramics

    Castro, H.; Rinderer, L.

    1994-01-01

    The critical current in high-Tc materials is strongly reduced by a magnetic field. We studied this dependency for tubular YBCO samples. We find an exponential drop as the field is increased from zero up to some tens of oersted. This behavior was already observed by others, however little work has been done in this direction. We define what we call the ''exponential critical state'' of HTSC and compare the prediction for the magnetization with experimental data. Furthermore, the ''Kim critical state'' is obtained as the small field limit. (orig.)

  10. A steady state analysis indicates that negative feedback regulation of PTP1B by Akt elicits bistability in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation

    Giri Lopamudra

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenomenon of switch-like response to graded input signal is the theme involved in various signaling pathways in living systems. Positive feedback loops or double negative feedback loops embedded with nonlinearity exhibit these switch-like bistable responses. Such feedback regulations exist in insulin signaling pathway as well. Methods In the current manuscript, a steady state analysis of the metabolic insulin-signaling pathway is presented. The threshold concentration of insulin required for glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation was studied with variation in system parameters and component concentrations. The dose response curves of GLUT4 translocation at various concentration of insulin obtained by steady state analysis were quantified in-terms of half saturation constant. Results We show that, insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation can operate as a bistable switch, which ensures that GLUT4 settles between two discrete, but mutually exclusive stable steady states. The threshold concentration of insulin required for GLUT4 translocation changes with variation in system parameters and component concentrations, thus providing insights into possible pathological conditions. Conclusion A steady state analysis indicates that negative feedback regulation of phosphatase PTP1B by Akt elicits bistability in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. The threshold concentration of insulin required for GLUT4 translocation and the corresponding bistable response at different system parameters and component concentrations was compared with reported experimental observations on specific defects in regulation of the system.

  11. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  12. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host.

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ(13)C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Photoinduced Field-Effect Passivation from Negative Carrier Accumulation for High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Liu, Zhaolang; Yang, Zhenhai; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Guo, Wei; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2017-12-26

    Carrier recombination and light management of the dopant-free silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the critical factors in developing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the traditional passivation technologies can hardly provide efficient surface passivation on the front surface of Si. In this study, a photoinduced electric field was induced in a bilayer antireflective coating (ARC) of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) films, due to formation of an accumulation layer of negative carriers (O 2 - species) under UV (sunlight) illumination. This photoinduced field not only suppressed the silicon surface recombination but also enhanced the built-in potential of HSCs with 84 mV increment. In addition, this photoactive ARC also displayed the outstanding light-trapping capability. The front PEDOT:PSS/Si HSC with the saturated O 2 - received a champion PCE of 15.51% under AM 1.5 simulated sunlight illumination. It was clearly demonstrated that the photoinduced electric field was a simple, efficient, and low-cost method for the surface passivation and contributed to achieve a high efficiency when applied in the Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs.

  14. Cantilever-type electrode array-based high-throughput microparticle sorting platform driven by gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic force

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, Byungkyu; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Younggeun; Shin, Sang-Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (10 7 beads ml −1 ) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.

  15. A high efficiency gene disruption strategy using a positive-negative split selection marker and electroporation for Fusarium oxysporum.

    Liang, Liqin; Li, Jianqiang; Cheng, Lin; Ling, Jian; Luo, Zhongqin; Bai, Miao; Xie, Bingyan

    2014-11-01

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex consists of fungal pathogens that cause serial vascular wilt disease on more than 100 cultivated species throughout the world. Gene function analysis is rapidly becoming more and more important as the whole-genome sequences of various F. oxysporum strains are being completed. Gene-disruption techniques are a common molecular tool for studying gene function, yet are often a limiting step in gene function identification. In this study we have developed a F. oxysporum high-efficiency gene-disruption strategy based on split-marker homologous recombination cassettes with dual selection and electroporation transformation. The method was efficiently used to delete three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. The gene-disruption cassettes of three genes can be constructed simultaneously within a short time using this technique. The optimal condition for electroporation is 10μF capacitance, 300Ω resistance, 4kV/cm field strength, with 1μg of DNA (gene-disruption cassettes). Under these optimal conditions, we were able to obtain 95 transformants per μg DNA. And after positive-negative selection, the transformants were efficiently screened by PCR, screening efficiency averaged 85%: 90% (RdRP1), 85% (RdRP2) and 77% (RdRP3). This gene-disruption strategy should pave the way for high throughout genetic analysis in F. oxysporum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of acoustically measured tongue/jaw movements and portion of time speaking with negative symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia in Italy and the United States.

    Bernardini, Francesco; Lunden, Anya; Covington, Michael; Broussard, Beth; Halpern, Brooke; Alolayan, Yazeed; Crisafio, Anthony; Pauselli, Luca; Balducci, Pierfrancesco M; Capulong, Leslie; Attademo, Luigi; Lucarini, Emanuela; Salierno, Gianfranco; Natalicchi, Luca; Quartesan, Roberto; Compton, Michael T

    2016-05-30

    This is the first cross-language study of the effect of schizophrenia on speech as measured by analyzing phonetic parameters with sound spectrography. We hypothesized that reduced variability in pitch and formants would be correlated with negative symptom severity in two samples of patients with schizophrenia, one from Italy, and one from the United States. Audio recordings of spontaneous speech were available from 40 patients. From each speech sample, a file of F0 (pitch) and formant values (F1 and F2, resonance bands indicating the moment-by-moment shape of the oral cavity), and the portion of the recording in which there was speaking ("fraction voiced," FV), was created. Correlations between variability in the phonetic indices and negative symptom severity were tested and further examined using regression analyses. Meaningful negative correlations between Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) total score and standard deviation (SD) of F2, as well as variability in pitch (SD F0) were observed in the Italian sample. We also found meaningful associations of SANS affective flattening and SANS alogia with SD F0, and of SANS avolition/apathy and SD F2 in the Italian sample. In both samples, FV was meaningfully correlated with SANS total score, avolition/apathy, and anhedonia/asociality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton radioactivity at non-collective prolate shape in high spin state of 94Ag

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2010-01-01

    We predict proton radioactivity and structural transitions in high spin state of an excited exotic nucleus near proton drip line in a theoretical framework and investigate the nature and the consequences of the structural transitions on separation energy as a function of temperature and spin. It reveals that the rotation of the excited exotic nucleus 94 Ag at excitation energies around 6.7 MeV and angular momentum near 21h generates a rarely seen prolate non-collective shape and proton separation energy becomes negative which indicates proton radioactivity in agreement with the experimental results of Mukha et al. for 94 Ag.

  18. Proton radioactivity at non-collective prolate shape in high spin state of {sup 94}Ag

    Aggarwal, Mamta, E-mail: mamta.a4@gmail.co [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Mumbai 400 098 (India)

    2010-10-11

    We predict proton radioactivity and structural transitions in high spin state of an excited exotic nucleus near proton drip line in a theoretical framework and investigate the nature and the consequences of the structural transitions on separation energy as a function of temperature and spin. It reveals that the rotation of the excited exotic nucleus {sup 94}Ag at excitation energies around 6.7 MeV and angular momentum near 21h generates a rarely seen prolate non-collective shape and proton separation energy becomes negative which indicates proton radioactivity in agreement with the experimental results of Mukha et al. for {sup 94}Ag.

  19. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression.

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.

  20. Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states

    Ducas, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)

  1. Fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n Rydberg states of molecules

    Dietrich, H.; Mueller-Dethlefs, K.; Baranov, L.Y.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n (n approx-gt 250) molecular Rydberg states is observed. An open-quote open-quote offset close-quote close-quote electric pulse selectively ionizes the more fragile open-quote open-quote red close-quote close-quote (down shifted in energy) Stark states. The more resilient open-quote open-quote bluer close-quote close-quote, or up-shifted, ones survive and are shifted down in energy upon application of a second (open-quote open-quote probe close-quote close-quote) pulse of opposite direction (diabatic Stark states close-quote inversion). Hence, even for smaller probe than offset fields ionization is observed. The offset/probe ratio allows one to control spectral peak shapes in zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  2. Glassy-state stabilization of a dominant negative inhibitor anthrax vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A adjuvants.

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Vance, David J; Jain, Nishant K; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A; Cousins, Megan C; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2015-02-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40°C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40°C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40°C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40°C were observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. The Psychosis High-Risk State A Comprehensive State-of-the-Art Review

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; de Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Context: During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms.

  4. All in Its Proper Time: Monitoring the Emergence of a Memory Bias for Novel, Arousing-Negative Words in Individuals with High and Low Trait Anxiety

    Eden, Annuschka Salima; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Keuper, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arou...

  5. The role of negative maternal affective states and infant temperament in early interactions between infants with cleft lip and their mothers.

    Montirosso, Rosario; Fedeli, Claudia; Murray, Lynne; Morandi, Francesco; Brusati, Roberto; Perego, Guenda Ghezzi; Borgatti, Renato

    2012-03-01

    The study examined the early interaction between mothers and their infants with cleft lip, assessing the role of maternal affective state and expressiveness and differences in infant temperament. Mother-infant interactions were assessed in 25 2-month-old infants with cleft lip and 25 age-matched healthy infants. Self-report and behavioral observations were used to assess maternal depressive symptoms and expressions. Mothers rated infant temperament. Infants with cleft lip were less engaged and their mothers showed more difficulty in interaction than control group dyads. Mothers of infants with cleft lip displayed more negative affectivity, but did not report more self-rated depressive symptoms than control group mothers. No group differences were found in infant temperament. In order to support the mother's experience and facilitate her ongoing parental role, findings highlight the importance of identifying maternal negative affectivity during early interactions, even when they seem have little awareness of their depressive symptoms.

  6. Fluid dynamics of giant resonances on high spin states

    Di Nardo, M.; Di Toro, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Russo, G.

    1983-01-01

    We describe giant resonances built on high spin states along the yrast line as scaling solutions of a linearized Vlasov equation in a rotating frame obtained from a TDHF theory in phase space. For oblate cranked solutions we get a shift and a splitting of the isoscalar giant resonances in terms of the angular velocity. Results are shown for 40 Ca and 168 Er. The relative CM strengths are also calculated. (orig.)

  7. The Czech labour market after the crisis of a real economy: negative development or return to steady-state?

    Pavel Tuleja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the Czech economy before, during and after the economic crisis. Consequences on the labour market, respectively on unemployment are also discussed in the paper. According to most economists the cause of the economic crisis was the financial crisis which was triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the United States banking system. It has resulted in the collapse of large financial institutions, the “bail out” of banks by national governments and downturns in stock markets around the world. Real gross domestic product decreased in almost all EU countries including the Czech economy. Massive drop of gross domestic product led to increase in the unemployment rate. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to discussion about consequences of this crisis. The paper provides also an analysis of gross domestic product and its components. The empirical analysis also tried to answer the question if it is more a return to steady–state than the deterioration of economic performance in the case of the Czech economy. In other words, it means that economic performance of the Czech economy was above the level of potential output. Research in this study is based on basic macroeconomic quarterly data between the years 2000 and 2010 which were published by the Czech Statistical Office and Eurostat. We found out that the Czech labour market had to cope with the consequences of the economic crisis and now it is going to reach a long-term equilibrium.

  8. High infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Yuan ZY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3* Rong-Zhen Luo,1,2,4,* Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Cong Xue1–3 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 3Departments of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 4Departments of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and high probability of distant metastases. Tumor microenvironments play a pivotal role in tumor metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are one of the main cell components, and they are correlated with increasing metastatic risk. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of the infiltration of TAMs in patients with TNBC. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD68 (a marker for macrophages was performed on tissue microarrays of operable breast cancer among 287 patients with TNBC, and the number of infiltrating TAMs was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Results: We found that TNBC with a large number of infiltrating TAMs had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis, as well as lower rates of disease-free survival and overall survival than those with a smaller number of infiltrating TAMs. Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of infiltrating TAMs was a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (P=0.001 in all patients. Conclusion: Our results suggested that high infiltrating TAMs are a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with TNBC, and they could become a potentially useful prognostic marker for TNBC. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, tumor-associated macrophages, prognosis

  9. Backbending in high spin states of 80Kr

    Kaushik, M.; Saxena, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study of high-spin states in Kr isotopes near A = 80 region has attracted a considerable interest in recent years. A variety of shapes, shape coexistence as well as backbending phenomenon have been studied in the many of Kr isotopes. In the case of 80 Kr, the high spin structure has been studied by Doring et al. rather extensively and has provided considerable insight into the structure of f-p-g shell nuclei and the competition between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom. Backbending phenomenon is reported in 80 Kr at ω = 0.5 MeV

  10. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  11. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  12. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  13. Negative mass

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  14. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    We present a new cladding design for photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on a decagonal structure to simultaneously achieve ultra-flattened large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence. Numerical results confirm that the proposed PCFexhibits ultra-flattened large negative dispersion over the S ...

  15. Positive and negative feedback in the earthquake cycIe: the role of pore fluids on states of criticality in the crust

    P. R. Sammonds

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluids exert a strong physical and chemical control on local processes of rock fracture and friction. For example they may accelerate fracture by stress corrosion reactions or the development of overpressure (a form of positive feedback, or retard fracture by time-dependent stress relaxation or dilatant hardening (negative feed-back, thereby introducing a variable degree of local force conservation into the process. In particular the valve action of dynamic faulting may be important in tuning the Earth to a metastable state of incipient failure on all scales over several cycles, similar to current models of Self-Organised Criticality (SOC as a paradigm for eartiquakes However laboratory results suggest that ordered fluctuations about this state may occur in a single cycle due to non conservative processes involving fluids which have the potential to be recognised, at least in the short term, in the scaling properties of earthquake statistics. Here we describe a 2-D cellular automaton which uses local rules of positive and negative feedback to model the effect of fluids on failure in a heterogeneous medium in a single earthquake cycle. The model successfully predicts the observed fractal distribution of fractures, with a negative correlation between the predicted seismic b-value and the local crack extension force G. Such a negative correlation is found in laboratory tests involving (a fluid-assisted crack growth in tension (b water-saturated compressional deformation, and (c in field results on an intermediate scale from hydraulic mining-induced seismicity all cases where G can be determined independently, and where the physical and chemical action of pore fluids is to varying degrees a controlled variable. For a finite local hardening mechanism (negative feedback, the model exhibits a systematic increase followed by a decrease in the seismic b-value as macroscopic failure is approached, similar to that found in water-saturated laboratory tests

  16. Characteristics of the scrape-off layer in DIII-D high-performance negative central magnetic shear discharges

    Lasnier, C.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Allen, S.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Buchenauer, D.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Burrell, K.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Casper, T.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cuthbertson, J.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jong, R.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Moyer, R.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Porter, G.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Rice, B.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Stallard, B.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Taylor, T.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Watkins, J.G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the global power and particle balance in the high-performance phase of negative central magnetic shear (NCS) discharges and compare with reference VH-mode discharges. The principal differences observed are that NCS has a much lower fraction of the total input power flowing into the boundary, less core radiation, and larger rate of stored energy increase as a fraction of total power. Scrape-off layer (SOL) temperature and divertor heat flux profiles, and radiation profiles at the midplane, are similar to VH-mode. Due to the good core particle confinement and efficient fueling by neutral beam injection (NBI), with little gas puffing, the gas load on the walls and the recycling are very low during the NCS discharges. This results in a rate of density rise relative to beam fueling at the L to H transition time which is 1/3 of the value for VH transitions, which is in turn 1/2 that for L-to-ELMing-H-mode transitions. (orig.).

  17. A highly-sensitive label-free biosensor based on two dimensional photonic crystals with negative refraction

    Malmir, Narges; Fasihi, Kiazand

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a novel high-sensitive optical label-free biosensor based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC). The suggested structure is composed of a negative refraction structure in a hexagonal lattice PC, along with a positive refraction structure which is arranged in a square lattice PC. The frequency shift of the transmission peak is measured respect to the changes of refractive indices of the studied materials (the blood plasma, water, dry air and normal air). The studied materials are filled into a W1 line-defect waveguide which is located in the PC structure with positive refraction (the microfluidic nanochannel). Our numerical simulations, which are based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, show that in the proposed structure, a sensitivity about 1100 nm/RIU and a transmission efficiency more than 75% can be achieved. With this design, to the best of our knowledge, the obtained sensitivity and the transmission efficiency are one of the highest values in the reported PC label-free biosensors.

  18. A Stewart isolator with high-static-low-dynamic stiffness struts based on negative stiffness magnetic springs

    Zheng, Yisheng; Li, Qingpin; Yan, Bo; Luo, Yajun; Zhang, Xinong

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the isolation performance of passive Stewart platforms, the negative stiffness magnetic spring (NSMS) is employed to construct high static low dynamic stiffness (HSLDS) struts. With the NSMS, the resonance frequencies of the platform can be reduced effectively without deteriorating its load bearing capacity. The model of the Stewart isolation platform with HSLDS struts is presented and the stiffness characteristic of its struts is studied firstly. Then the nonlinear dynamic model of the platform including both geometry nonlinearity and stiffness nonlinearity is established; and its simplified dynamic model is derived under the condition of small vibration. The effect of nonlinearity on the isolation performance is also evaluated. Finally, a prototype is built and the isolation performance is tested. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate that, by using the NSMS, the resonance frequencies of the Stewart isolator are reduced and the isolation performance in all six directions is improved: the isolation frequency band is increased and extended to a lower-frequency level.

  19. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from a university environment in Thailand.

    Seng, Rathanin; Leungtongkam, Udomluk; Thummeepak, Rapee; Chatdumrong, Wassana; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes. The susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance genes, together with SCCmec types, were detected by the PCR method. The methicillin resistant-staphylococci were isolated from 41 of 200 samples (20.5%), and all of them were found to be methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). The library had the highest percentage of contamination, with 43.3% of the samples found to be contaminated. All isolates belonged to 6 different species including S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, S. saprophyticus and S. hominis. The antimicrobial resistance rates were highest against penicillin (100%), then cefoxitin (73.1%), erythromycin (73.1%) and oxacillin (68.3%). Altogether, the isolates were approximately 61.0% multidrug resistant (MDR), with the S. epidermidis isolates being the most multidrug resistant. The prevalence of the qacA/B gene was detected in 63.4% of the isolates, and SCCmec could be typed in 43.9% (18/41) of the isolates. The type range was: II (n = 1), IVd (n = 1), I (n = 2), V (n = 6), IVa (n = 8) and untypeable (n = 23). This result indicates that these university environments are contaminated with methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci that carry various SCCmec types and

  20. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C.E.; Park, J.M.; Yi, Sumin; Kim, J.Y.; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; β N above 3, H 98 (y, 2) up to 2.0, f BS up to 0.76 and f NI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q min is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work

  1. Negative liability

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  2. Negative ... concord?

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  3. Identification of Raman peaks of high-Tc cuprates in normal state through density of states

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P 1 -P 4 ) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained

  4. Safe Maritime Autonomous Path Planning in a High Sea State

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a path planning method for sea surface vehicles that prevents capsizing and bow-diving in a high sea-state. A key idea is to use response amplitude operators (RAOs) or, in control terminology, the transfer functions from a sea state to a vessel's motion, in order to find a set of speeds and headings that results in excessive pitch and roll oscillations. This information is translated to arithmetic constraints on the ship's velocity, which are passed to a model predictive control (MPC)-based path planner to find a safe and optimal path that achieves specified goals. An obstacle avoidance capability is also added to the path planner. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulations.

  5. Squeezing and other non-classical features in k-photon anharmonic oscillator in binomial and negative binomial states of the field

    Joshi, A.; Lawande, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of squeezing obtained from k-photon anharmonic oscillator (with interaction hamiltonian of the form (a † ) k , k ≥ 2) interacting with light whose statistics can be varied from sub-Poissonian to poissonian via binomial state of field and super-Poissonian to poissonian via negative binomial state of field is presented. The authors predict that for all values of k there is a tendency increase in squeezing with increased sub-Poissonian character of the field while the reverse is true with super-Poissonian field. They also present non-classical behavior of the first order coherence function explicitly for k = 2 case (i.e., for two-photon anharmonic oscillator model used for a Kerr-like medium) with variation in the statistics of the input light

  6. Highly automated driving, secondary task performance, and driver state.

    Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A Hamish; Lai, Frank C H; Carsten, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    A driving simulator study compared the effect of changes in workload on performance in manual and highly automated driving. Changes in driver state were also observed by examining variations in blink patterns. With the addition of a greater number of advanced driver assistance systems in vehicles, the driver's role is likely to alter in the future from an operator in manual driving to a supervisor of highly automated cars. Understanding the implications of such advancements on drivers and road safety is important. A total of 50 participants were recruited for this study and drove the simulator in both manual and highly automated mode. As well as comparing the effect of adjustments in driving-related workload on performance, the effect of a secondary Twenty Questions Task was also investigated. In the absence of the secondary task, drivers' response to critical incidents was similar in manual and highly automated driving conditions. The worst performance was observed when drivers were required to regain control of driving in the automated mode while distracted by the secondary task. Blink frequency patterns were more consistent for manual than automated driving but were generally suppressed during conditions of high workload. Highly automated driving did not have a deleterious effect on driver performance, when attention was not diverted to the distracting secondary task. As the number of systems implemented in cars increases, an understanding of the implications of such automation on drivers' situation awareness, workload, and ability to remain engaged with the driving task is important.

  7. New high spin states and band termination in 83Y and 84Zr

    Johnson, T.D.; Aprahamian, A.; Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Crowell, B.; Chowdhury, P.; Fallon, P.; Machiavelli, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma decay of high spin yrast states in 83 Y up to I π =59/2 + and 53/2 - have been observed using the reaction 58 Ni( 29 Si,3p) at 110 MeV and the Gammasphere Early Implementation Array. The level scheme has been substantially extended due to the observations of several new transitions in all of the bands. A sequence of transitions feeding into the positive parity yrast band above I π =47/2 + seems to be consistent with a noncollective oblate structure expected at these high spins. A similar cascade is found in the data for 84 Zr. A new forking of the favored negative parity band is found which may be due to neutron alignment polarizing the core to a different shape. This suggests that the open-quotes isomeric close-quote close-quote band in 83 Y, for which one more connecting transition was found, is of a similar nature to other high-K bands found in this region. Lifetime measurements in the unfavored negative parity band are consistent with cranking calculations which predict a nearly oblate shape with a deformation parameter β 2 ∼0.2. A qualitative analysis of line shapes at very high spins suggests the persistence of collectivity in the yrast sequence to the highest excitations seen. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. New high spin states and band termination in {sup 83}Y and {sup 84}Zr

    Johnson, T.D.; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Crowell, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chowdhury, P. [University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Fallon, P.; Machiavelli, A.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The gamma decay of high spin yrast states in {sup 83}Y up to I{sup {pi}}=59/2{sup +} and 53/2{sup {minus}} have been observed using the reaction {sup 58}Ni({sup 29}Si,3p) at 110 MeV and the Gammasphere Early Implementation Array. The level scheme has been substantially extended due to the observations of several new transitions in all of the bands. A sequence of transitions feeding into the positive parity yrast band above I{sup {pi}}=47/2{sup +} seems to be consistent with a noncollective oblate structure expected at these high spins. A similar cascade is found in the data for {sup 84}Zr. A new forking of the favored negative parity band is found which may be due to neutron alignment polarizing the core to a different shape. This suggests that the {open_quotes}isomeric{close_quote}{close_quote} band in {sup 83}Y, for which one more connecting transition was found, is of a similar nature to other high-K bands found in this region. Lifetime measurements in the unfavored negative parity band are consistent with cranking calculations which predict a nearly oblate shape with a deformation parameter {beta}{sub 2}{approx}0.2. A qualitative analysis of line shapes at very high spins suggests the persistence of collectivity in the yrast sequence to the highest excitations seen. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. RESTING SYMPATHETIC BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY IN SUBJECTS WITH LOW AND HIGH TOLERANCE TO CENTRAL HYPOVOLEMIA INDUCED BY LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE

    Carmen eHinojosa-Laborde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock. The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and physiological factors contributing to tolerance are emerging. We tested the hypothesis that resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS are attenuated in male and female subjects who have low tolerance (LT to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP. MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP were recorded in 47 human subjects who subsequently underwent LBNP to tolerance (onset of presyncopal symptoms. LT subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms prior to completing LBNP of -60 mm Hg, and subjects with high tolerance (HT experienced presyncopal symptoms after completing LBNP after -60 mmHg. Contrary to our hypothesis, resting MSNA burst incidence was not different between LT and HT subjects, and was not related to time to presyncope. BRS was assessed as the slope of the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in DAP and MSNA during 5 min of supine rest. MSNA burst incidence/DAP correlations were greater than or equal to 0.5 in 37 subjects (LT: n= 9; HT: n=28, and BRS was not different between LT and HT (-1.8 ± 0.3 vs. -2.2 ± 0.2 bursts•(100 beats-1•mmHg-1, p=0.29. We conclude that tolerance to central hypovolemia is not related to either resting MSNA or sympathetic BRS.

  10. High-resolution melt analysis for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci derived from bovine milk.

    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative tunneling magnetoresistance of Fe/MgO/NiO/Fe magnetic tunnel junction: Role of spin mixing and interface state

    Zhang, Y.; Yan, X. H.; Guo, Y. D.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by a recent tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) measurement in which the negative TMR is observed in MgO/NiO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), we have performed systematic calculations of transmission, current, and TMR of Fe/MgO/NiO/Fe MTJ with different thicknesses of NiO and MgO layers based on noncollinear density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function theory. The calculations show that, as the thickness of NiO and MgO layers is small, the negative TMR can be obtained which is attributed to the spin mixing effect and interface state. However, in the thick MTJ, the spin-flipping scattering becomes weaker, and thus, the MTJs recover positive TMR. Based on our theoretical results, we believe that the interface state at Fe/NiO interface and the spin mixing effect induced by noncollinear interfacial magnetization will play important role in determining transmission and current of Fe/MgO/NiO/Fe MTJ. The results reported here will be important in understanding the electron tunneling in MTJ with the barrier made by transition metal oxide.

  12. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High spin states in the f-p shell

    Delaunay, J.

    1975-01-01

    The high spin states (HSS) in Fe, Co, Ni (Z=26,27,28) isotopes exhibit features characteristics of soft or transition nuclei, 56 Fe being as well deformed prolate nucleus and the Ni isotopes often throught of as spherical. The methodology used to identify these HSS is the so called DCO (directional correlation of oriented nuclei) or ratio method which, by combining the angular distribution data plus one point of a triple γ-γ correlation in an asymmetric geometry, gives result that is found equivalent to a complete angular correlation to assign spin and mixing ratios. Some results collected with this methodology are presented [fr

  14. Numerical simulation of SU(2)c high density state

    Muroya, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nonaka, Chiho

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the high baryon number density system with use of the two-color lattice QCD with Wilson fermions[1]. First we investigate thermodynamical quantities such as the Polyakov line, gluon energy density, and baryon number density in the (κ, μ) plane, where κ and μ are the hopping parameter and chemical potential, respectively. Then we calculate propagators of meson (q-barΓq) and baryon (qΓq) states in addition to the potential between quark lines. (author)

  15. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  16. Search for high mass resonances in dielectron final state

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A search for high mass resonances in the dielectron final state is performed using proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2017. The integrated luminosity corresponds to $41~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. No evidence for a significant deviation from standard model expectation is observed. The sensitivity of the search is increased by combining these data with a previously analysed set of data obtained in 2016 and corresponding to a luminosity of $36~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. Upper bounds are set on the masses of hypothetical particles that arise in new-physics scenarios.

  17. Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures

    McMahon, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    \\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to s...

  18. Autoionizing states in highly ionized oxygen, fluorine and silicon

    Forester, J.P.; Peterson, R.S.; Griffin, P.M.; Pegg, D.J.; Haselton, H.H.; Liao, K.H.; Sellin, I.A.; Mowat, J.R.; Thoe, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Autoionizing states in high Z 3-electron ions associated with core excited configurations of the type 1s2snl and 1s2pnl are reported. The electron decay-in-flight spectra of lithium-like oxygen, fluorine, and silicon ions are presented. Initial beam energies of 6.75-MeV oxygen and fluorine ions and 22.5-MeV silicon ions were used. Stripping and excitation were done by passing the beams through a thin carbon foil. The experimental technique is described. 4 figs, 1 table, 7 refs

  19. High Efficiency Boost Converter with Three State Switching Cell

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    is on performance improvement of this type of the converter. Use of foil windings helps to reduce conduction losses in magnetic components and to reduce size of these components. Also it has been demonstrated that the regulation range of this type of converter can be increased by operation with duty cycle lower......The boost converter with the three-state switching cell seems to be a good candidate for a dc-dc stage for non-isolated generators based on alternative energy sources. It provides a high voltage gain, a reduced voltage stress on transistors and limited input current ripples. In this paper the focus...

  20. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Annuschka Salima Eden; Annuschka Salima Eden; Vera eDehmelt; Vera eDehmelt; Matthias eBischoff; Pienie eZwitserlood; Harald eKugel; Kati eKeuper; Peter eZwanzger; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...

  1. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...

  2. Decay modes of high-lying single-particle states in [sup 209]Pb

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijk, J.A.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M. (Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France) Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States) Departamento de Fisica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC No. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina))

    1994-05-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in [sup 209]Pb excited by means of the ([alpha],[sup 3]He) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the present data involving angular correlation measurements and the determination of branching ratios to low lying levels in [sup 208]Pb. The structure located between 8.5 and 12 MeV excitation energy in [sup 209]Pb displays large departures from a pure statistical decay with significant direct feeding of the low-lying collective states (3[sup [minus

  3. Decay modes of high-lying single-particle states in 209Pb

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.

    1993-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 209 Pb excited by means of the (α, 3 He) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using the multidetector array EDEN. The high spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the present data involving angular correlation measurements and the determination of branching ratios to low lying levels in 208 Pb. The structure located between 8.5 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209 Pb displays large departures from a pure statistical decay with significant direct feeding of the low-lying collective states (3 - ,5 - ) of 208 Pb. At higher excitation energy up to 20 MeV, the measured neutron decay is in agreement with the predictions of the statistical model. (authors). 24 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in Washington state public high schools.

    Reder, Sheri; Quan, Linda

    2003-03-01

    To determine the best approaches for increasing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training opportunities for public high school students, we conducted a statewide survey of all 310 public high schools in Washington State. The findings describe CPR student training currently provided by high schools, barriers to providing, and strategies to increase CPR training of high school students. The response rate was 89% (276 schools) from a combination of mail and telephone surveys; 35% (n=97) reported that they did not provide any CPR student training. Of the 132 schools that provided CPR student training, 23% trained less than 10% of their students, and 39% trained more than 90% of their students. The majority of public high schools, 70%, did not have any teacher trained to teach CPR or had only one teacher with such training. Yet 80% of schools felt that CPR training is best provided in school settings. Schools perceived the greatest benefit of CPR training as providing students with the skill to save a life (43%). The most frequently identified barriers were logistical: limited time to teach the curriculum (24%), lack of funds (16%), and instructor scheduling difficulties (17%). Less than 5% of respondents voiced any opposition to CPR training, and that opposition was for logistical reasons. To increase CPR training, the single best strategies suggested were: increase funding, provide time in the curriculum, have more certified instructors, and make CPR student training a requirement.

  5. Refractive Errors in State Junior High School Students in Bandung

    Sabila Tasyakur Nikmah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractive error is one of the avoidable causes of vision impairment in children and adults. Vision problem in children has been shown to affect their psychological and academic performance. This study aims at identifying and gaining more insights on the characteristic of the refractive errors in state junior high school students in Bandung to avoid uncorrected refractive errors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in September–November 2015 in state junior high schools in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Sample was selected using multistage random sampling technique. Children were examined using tumbling E examination; then students with visual acuity worse than 6/12 underwent Snellen Chart test, refractometry without pupil dilatation, correction with trial lens, then was followed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Results: From a total of 435 children who completed all the examination, 80 children (18.39% had refractive errors; consisted of 151 eyes (94.38% with myopia and 9 eyes (5.62% with astigmatism. Refractive errors were found to be more common in female children (73.7% than male children (26.3%. Among those with refractive errors, 45 children (56.3% did not use any corrective glasses before the examination. Conclusions: Routine refractive error test in vision screening examination is needed for students. It is equally important to raise more awareness toward eye disease in community.

  6. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  7. Prioritization of K-12 World Language Education in the United States: State Requirements for High School Graduation

    O'Rourke, Polly; Zhou, Qian; Rottman, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    In view of the importance of increasing multilingualism in the United States, the current study examined state policy for high school graduation requirements in the 50 states and the District of Columbia as an index of the way in which the study of world language is positioned and prioritized in K--12 education. Only seven states require the study…

  8. Solid State Track Recorder fission rate measurements at high neutron fluence and high temperature

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.

    1985-01-01

    Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) techniques have been used to measure 239-Pu, 235-U, and 237-Np fission rates for total neutron fluences approaching 5 x 10 17 n/cm 2 at temperatures in the range 680 to 830 0 F. Natural quartz crystal SSTRs were used to withstand the high temperature environment and ultra low-mass fissionable deposits of the three isotopes were required to yield scannable track densities at the high neutron fluences. The results of these high temperature, high neutron fluence measurements are reported

  9. Lifetimes of high-spin states in {sup 162}Yb

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A measurement on lifetimes of high-spin states in the yrast and near-yrast rotational bands in {sup 162}Yb was carried out at ATLAS in order to determine the evolution of collectivity as a function of angular momentum using the {sup 126}Te({sup 40}Ar,4n){sup 162}Yb reaction at 170 MeV. Previous lifetime measurements in the {sup 164,166,168}Yb isotopes showed a dramatic decrease in the transition quadrupole moment Q{sub t} with increasing spin. It was suggested that this decrease in Q{sub t} is brought about by the rotationally-induced deoccupation of high-j configurations, mainly i{sub 13/2} neutrons. If this interpretation is correct, the heavier isotopes should have a larger decrease in Q{sub t} than the lighter mass nuclides due to the position of the Fermi surface in the i{sub 13/2} subshell. Indeed, {sup 160}Yb does not show a clear decrease in Q{sub t} at high spin. No high spin lifetime information exists for {sup 162}Yb, thus this experiment fills the gap of measured Q{sub t}`s in the light Yb series. The data is currently being analyzed.

  10. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  11. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  12. Oxygen-deficient hematite nanorods as high-performance and novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Yinxiang; Yu, Minghao; Zhai, Teng; Liang, Chaolun; Xie, Shilei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Tong, Yexiang

    2014-05-21

    Oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorods with outstanding capacitive performance are developed and demonstrated as novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The asymmetric-supercapacitor device based on the oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorod negative electrode and a MnO2 positive electrode achieves a maximum energy density of 0.41 mW·h/cm(3) ; it is also capable of charging a mobile phone and powering a light-emitting diode indicator. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    RNA and protein levels of the StAR and 3β-HSD in group HFPD+CS were both higher than those of in group ND+CS. These results indicated that Kunming male mice with high-fat, high-protein diet and casein injection for 8weeks can be used to establish a diet-induced obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The sperm parameters in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI decreased accompanied by pathological changes of testicular tissue. This resultant effect of reduced serum testosterone levels was associated with the overproduction of TNF-α and IL-10 and down-regulation of StAR and CYP11A1. Under the same casein-induced chronic inflammation condition, the mice with high-fat, high-protein diet had better testicular steroidogenesis activity and sperm parameters compared with the mice in normal diet, indicating that the mice with casein-induced inflammatory injury consuming a high-fat, high-protein diet gained weight normally, reduced serum adiponectin level and increased testosterone production by an upregulation of 3β-HSD expression. High-fat, high-protein diet attenuated the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  15. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  16. Study of highly excited high spin states via the (HI, α) reaction

    Kubono, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three subjects are discussed in this paper. 1) The mechanism of (HI, α) reactions is briefly studied. 2) Possible excitation of molecular resonance states of 12 C- 12 C in 24 Mg through the 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg reaction were investigated. A precise measurement of the level widths in 24 Mg did not support the previous report that the molecular states seen in 12 C + 12 C scattering had been excited in the transfer reaction 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg. 3) Highly excited states in 28 Si, which have a large parentage of 12 C- 16 O, were also studied via the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) 28 Si reaction. An angular correlation measurement revealed the lowest 8 + and 10 + states at 14.00 and 15.97 MeV, respectively, which were selectively excited in the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) reaction. These results suggest a possible new band in 28 Si. (author)

  17. Deep-hole and high-lying particle states in heavy nuclei

    Gales, S.

    1985-01-01

    Our present knowledge on single-particle strength functions from one nucleon transfer reactions is reviewed. Results on deeply-bound neutron hole states in the Sn and Pb region are discussed with emphasis on the investigation of a very large excitation energy range. The first measurements on the γ-decay of deeply-bound hole states in the Sn isotopes are reported. High energy neutron and proton stripping reactions are used to study the particle response function. These reactions are particularly well suited to the study of high-spin outer subshells. For the proton states, the behaviour of the 1h 11/2 and 1i 13/2 strength distributions, as a function of deformation in the Sm region, is discussed. Strong transitions to high-lying neutron states are observed in the 112, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124 Sn and 208 Pb nuclei. The empirical systematics for both proton and neutron particle strength distributions are compared to the predictions from the quasi particle-phonon and the single-particle vibration coupling nuclear models. (orig.)

  18. Influence of Peer Social Experiences on Positive and Negative Indicators of Mental Health among High School Students

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Gelley, Cheryl D.; Roth, Rachel A.; Bateman, Lisa P.

    2015-01-01

    Modern definitions of complete mental health include both positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning. We examined the associations between peer relationships (victimization and receipt of prosocial acts) and multiple indicators of mental health that represent subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative…

  19. Dustborne and airborne gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes

    The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified...

  20. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  1. Stabilization of actinides and lanthanides in unusually high oxidation states

    Eller, P.G.; Penneman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical environments can be chosen which stabilize actinides and lanthanides in unusually high or low oxidation states and in unusual coordination. In many cases, one can rationalize the observed species as resulting from strong charge/size influences provided by specific sites in host lattices (e.g., Tb(IV) in BaTbO 3 or Am(IV) in polytungstate anions). In other cases, the unusual species can be considered from an acid-base viewpoint (e.g., U(III) in AsF 5 /HF solution or Pu(VII) in Li 5 PuO 6 ). In still other cases, an interplay of steric and redox effects can lead to interesting comparisons (e.g., instability of double fluoride salts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) relative to U, Np, and Am analogues). Generalized ways to rationalize compounds containing actinides and lanthanides in unusual valences (particularly high valences), including the above and numerous other examples, will form the focus of this paper. Recently developed methods for synthesizing high valent f-element fluorides using superoxidizers and superacids at low temperatures will also be described. 65 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Normal state Raman spectra of high-Tc cuprates

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain Raman spectra of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. Parameter dependence of Raman active phonon frequencies are studied by varying model parameters of the system i.e. the position of f-level (ε f ), the effective electron-phonon coupling strength (g), the staggered magnetic field (h 1 ), and the hybridization parameter (v). The four Raman active peaks (P 1 to P 4 ) represent the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate systems. They show up as phonon excitations due to the coupling of the phonon to the electrons and the anti-ferromagnetic gap. (author)

  3. Observations of high spin states in {sup 179}Au

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    As part of a current study on the properties of the {pi} i{sub 13/2} intruder state in the A = 175-190 region, we conducted an experiment at ATLAS to observe high spin states in {sup 179}Au utilizing the reaction {sup 144}Sm({sup 40}Ar,p4n) at beam energies of 207 MeV and 215 MeV. To aid in the identification of {sup 179}Au, and to filter out the large amount of events from fission by-products, the Fragment Mass Analyzer was utilized in conjunction with ten Compton-suppression germanium detectors. In total, 11 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}-{gamma} and 4 x 10{sup 5} {gamma}-recoil events were collected. By comparing {gamma}-rays in coincidence with an A = 179 recoil mass gate and {gamma}-rays in coincidence with Au K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays, ten {gamma}-rays were identified as belonging to {sup 179}Au. Based on {gamma}-ray coincidence relationships and on comparisons with neighboring odd-A Au nuclei, we constructed a tentative level scheme and assigned a rotational-like sequence to the {pi} i{sub 13/2} proton configuration.

  4. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  6. High spin states in 66,68Ge

    Hermkens, U.; Becker, F.; Eberth, J.; Freund, S.; Mylaeus, T.; Skoda, S.; Teichert, W.; Werth, A. v.d.

    1992-01-01

    High spin states of 66,68 Ge have been investigated at the FN Tandem accelerator of the University of Koeln via the reactions 40 Ca( 32 S,α2p,4p) 66,68 Ge at a beam energy of 100 MeV and 58 Ni( 16 O,α2p) 68 Ge at 65 MeV. The OSIRIS spectrometer with 12 escape suppressed Ge detectors was used to measure γγ coincidences and γ-ray angular distributions. In 66 Ge ( 68 Ge) 33 (22) new levels were found and 63 (62) new γ-transitions were placed in the level scheme. Both nuclei show a rather complicated but similar excitation pattern, ruled by the interplay of quasiparticle and collective degrees of freedom. The results are compared to the recently published EXVAM calculations for 68 Ge. (orig.)

  7. Observation of high spin states in 117Xe

    Liu, Z.; Yuan, G.J.; Li, G.S.; Yang, C.X.; Luo, W.D.; Chen, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    High spin states of 117 Xe have been investigated by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the reaction 92 Mo( 28 Si, 2pn) at beam energies of 100 to 120 MeV. The previously known νh 11/2 bands are confirmed and the νg 7/2 favored-signature band is extended up to 47/2 + , in which two band crossings are observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44 MeV, respectively. Two new positive-parity bands have been established, one of which is most likely the νg 7/2 unfavored-signature band. A new transition cascade with irregular level spacings is also observed. (orig.)

  8. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microwave spectroscopy of high-L Rydberg states of nickel

    Lindsay, Mark D.; Keele, Julie A.; Woods, Shannon L.; Lundeen, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    High-L non-penetrating Rydberg levels of nickel display a fine structure pattern consisting of six levels for each value of L. This pattern was studied recently with the optical RESIS technique, determining initial values of the quadrupole moment and polarizabilities of the ^2D5/2 ground state of Ni^+ [1]. Measurements are now in progress using the microwave RESIS technique [2], which promises much more precise measurements of the fine structure and of the related core properties, including the permanent hexadecapole moment.[4pt] [1] Julie A. Keele, et. al., to be published, Phys. Rev. A[0pt] [2] M.E. Hanni, et. al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 062510 (2008)

  10. All in its proper time: monitoring the emergence of a memory bias for novel, arousing-negative words in individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Eden, Annuschka Salima; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Keuper, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.

  11. All in its proper time: monitoring the emergence of a memory bias for novel, arousing-negative words in individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    Full Text Available The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.

  12. Fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p 4P state of the helium negative ion He-.

    Wang, Liming; Li, Chun; Yan, Zong-Chao; Drake, G W F

    2014-12-31

    The fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p (4)P state of the helium negative ion He(-) are calculated in Hylleraas coordinates, including relativistic and QED corrections up to O(α(4)mc(2)), O((μ/M)α(4)mc(2)), O(α(5)mc(2)), and O((μ/M)α(5)mc(2)). Higher order corrections are estimated for the ionization energy. A comparison is made with other calculations and experiments. We find that the present results for the fine structure splittings agree with experiment very well. However, the calculated ionization energy deviates from the experimental result by about 1 standard deviation. The estimated theoretical uncertainty in the ionization energy is much less than the experimental accuracy.

  13. High temperature equation of state of metallic hydrogen

    Shvets, V. T.

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state of liquid metallic hydrogen is solved numerically. Investigations are carried out at temperatures from 3000 to 20 000 K and densities from 0.2 to 3 mol/cm 3 , which correspond both to the experimental conditions under which metallic hydrogen is produced on earth and the conditions in the cores of giant planets of the solar system such as Jupiter and Saturn. It is assumed that hydrogen is in an atomic state and all its electrons are collectivized. Perturbation theory in the electron-proton interaction is applied to determine the thermodynamic potentials of metallic hydrogen. The electron subsystem is considered in the randomphase approximation with regard to the exchange interaction and the correlation of electrons in the local-field approximation. The proton-proton interaction is taken into account in the hard-spheres approximation. The thermodynamic characteristics of metallic hydrogen are calculated with regard to the zero-, second-, and third-order perturbation theory terms. The third-order term proves to be rather essential at moderately high temperatures and densities, although it is much smaller than the second-order term. The thermodynamic potentials of metallic hydrogen are monotonically increasing functions of density and temperature. The values of pressure for the temperatures and pressures that are characteristic of the conditions under which metallic hydrogen is produced on earth coincide with the corresponding values reported by the discoverers of metallic hydrogen to a high degree of accuracy. The temperature and density ranges are found in which there exists a liquid phase of metallic hydrogen

  14. Potential Predictors for Serofast State after Treatment among HIV-Negative Persons with Syphilis in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Qin, Jiabi; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Hua; Feng, Tiejian; Liu, Xiaoying

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have been conducted in China in order to investigate the potential predictors of serofast state after treatment among syphilitic patients. However, there is a remarkable diversity among the results. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess potential predictors of serofast among syphilitic patients in China. International and national electronic databases were searched up to September 2013. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors of serofast among syphilitic patients were included in this study. We assessed 27 separate studies involving overall 6682 HIV-negative participants with syphilis of which 1962 remained in the serofast state. The serofast was positively associated with older age(P trend=0.001), female(summary risk ratio[sRR]=1.50, 95%CI:1.34-;1.68), latent syphilis(sRRlatent vs primary=3.17, 95%CI: 2.66-;3.77; sRRlatent vs secondary=2.00, 95%CI: 1.48-;2.69) as well as non-penicillin treatment(sRR =2.99, 95%CI:2.45-;3.67), but negatively associated with higher baseline titers(sRR>1:32 vs ≤1:32=0.63, 95%CI: 0.54-;0.75). Compared with healthy group and serological cure group, respectively, the levels of CD4 (+), IL-2, and IL-6 among serofast patients were decreased (standardized mean difference[SMD]SMD>0, Pinfection. The age, gender, stage of infection, baseline titers, treatment drug, cellular immune suppression and disorders, TP occult infection and subtypes i of TP repeat gene should be considered as important predictors of serofast. However, until now the definition and mechanism of serofast has still been not clear.

  15. Negative CO

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  16. Negative Certainty

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  17. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes.

    Richard A Anderson

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain.

  18. Photometry of the SW Sextantis-type nova-like BH Lyncis in high state

    Stanishev, V.; Kraicheva, Z.; Genkov, V.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.We present a photometric study of the deeply eclipsing SW Sex-type nova-like cataclysmic variable star BH Lyn. Methods: .Time-resolved V-band CCD photometry was obtained for seven nights between 1999 and 2004. Results: .We determined 11 new eclipse timings of BH Lyn and derived a refined orbital ephemeris with an orbital period of 0.155875577(14) °. During the observations, BH Lyn was in high-state with V≃15.5 mag. The star presents ~1.5 mag deep eclipses with mean full-width at half-flux of 0.0683(±0.0054)P_orb. The eclipse shape is highly variable, even changing form cycle to cycle. This is most likely due to accretion disc surface brightness distribution variations, most probably caused by strong flickering. Time-dependent accretion disc self-occultation or variations of the hot spot(s) intensity are also possible explanations. Negative superhumps with period of ˜0.145 ° are detected in two long runs in 2000. A possible connection between SW Sex and negative superhump phenomena through the presence of tilted accretion disc is discussed, and a way to observationally test this is suggested.

  19. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    2012-05-01

    metastatic process (Condeelis and Pollard 2006), we quantitated macrophage recruitment in the lungs of mice injected with 231-Empty or 231-GATA3 cells by...image quantitation of Ki-67 expression and H&E staining of metastatic lung lesions using Apirio Image Analysis software (Figure 9) which demonstrated...expression in MD A-MB-231 and in another triple negative breast cancer cell line, Hs578T Transient knock down of GATA3 in the lum inal GATA3 positiv

  20. Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies

    Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.

    2005-01-01

    High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields

  1. The value of repeat scintigraphy in patients with a high clinical suspicion for Meckel diverticulum after a negative or equivocal first Meckel scan

    Vali, Reza; Daneman, Alan; McQuattie, Susan; Shammas, Amer [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Technetium {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is the most common and accurate noninvasive method of preoperative investigation for Meckel diverticulum. Despite introducing various methods to increase the sensitivity of the study, there are many case reports of false-negative Meckel scans. A repeat scan is sometimes requested in patients with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum and negative or equivocal first Meckel scan. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the value of repeat scintigraphy for these patients. Seven hundred fifty-three Meckel scans were recorded retrospectively. In 33 cases (22 male and 11 female; mean age: 6.8 years), the Meckel scintigraphy was repeated either due to a high clinical suspicion of Meckel diverticulum and a negative study (n = 21) or due to equivocal findings in the first scan (n = 12). The study was interpreted as positive if an abnormal focal activity was identified in the abdomen and pelvis during the procedure. The results were correlated with pathology and clinical symptoms. Seven out of 12 (58%) equivocal studies were positive on the second study. Six of them were proven to be positive at operation (confirmed by pathology) while one of them was negative on laparoscopy. From 21 negative first scans with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum, three (14%) were positive on the second study. All three were proven to be Meckel diverticulum on pathology. Repeat Meckel scans in patients with equivocal findings on the first study or a negative result with a high clinical suspicion for a Meckel diverticulum are useful especially in cases in which the first study had been done without appropriate preparation. (orig.)

  2. Design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators

    Narro, R.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.

    2009-01-01

    Methods and configurations for the design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators, operating in free running, are presented. For fundamental mode high power resonators, a method is proposed for the design of a resonator with joined stability zones. In the case of multimode resonators, two configurations are introduced for maximizing the laser overall efficiency due to the compensation of the astigmatism induced by the excitation. The first configuration consists in a triangular ring resonator. The results for this configuration are discussed theoretically, showing that it is possible to compensate the astigmatism of the thermal lens virtually in a 100%; however this is only possible for a specific pumping power. The second configuration proposes a dual-active medium resonator, rotated 90 degree one from the other around the optical axis, where each active medium acts as an astigmatic lens of the same dioptric power. The reliability of this configuration is corroborated experimentally using a Nd:YAG dual-active medium resonator. It is found that in the pumping power range where the astigmatism compensation is possible, the overall efficiency is constant, even when increasing the excitation power with the consequent increase of the thermal lens dioptric power. (Author)

  3. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  4. Collectivity of high spin states in {sup 84}Zr

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    {sup 84}Zr is one of the most extensively studied of the A {approximately} 80 rotors, both from theoretical and experimental approaches. It was predicted to be a good candidate to support superdeformation, and to show interesting spectroscopic properties including saturation of its shell-model space at lower spin. We performed an experiment using Gammasphere in its early implementation phase. The reaction of {sup 29}Si on {sup 58}Ni was used to strongly populate {sup 84}Zr at high spin. Thin and thick targets were used to allow the extraction of transitional matrix elements at very high spin, and to allow a sensitive search for superdeformed states. Data analysis is in progress. The large data set allowed us to extend the previously known bands considerably. Candidates for a staggered M1-band, found previously {sup 86}Zr, were located. To date, no evidence for superdeformed bands was found. Analysis was slowed by the relocation of all the participants in this experiment, but we hope to complete the lifetime analysis this year. This analysis has become especially topical, due to reported measurements of superdeformation in this region.

  5. Early stage cost-effectiveness analysis of a BRCA1-like test to detect triple negative breast cancers responsive to high dose alkylating chemotherapy

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Retel, Valesca P.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like profile may benefit from high dose alkylating chemotherapy (HDAC). This study examines whether BRCA1-like testing to target effective HDAC in TNBC patients can be more cost-effective than treating all patients with standard

  6. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.S.; Diem, S.J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Garstka, G.D.; Gates, D.A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.H.; Kissick, M.W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.G.; Lewicki, B.T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C.N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P.H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Sontag, A.C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K.L.; Unterberg, E.A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S.J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carter, M.D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L.L.; Levinton, F.M.; Luhmann, N.C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M.M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G.D.; Ram, A.K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Wurden, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted

  7. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  8. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons.

    Eden, Annuschka S; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  9. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  10. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  11. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal.

    Outten, H Robert; Lee, Timothy; Costa-Lopes, Rui; Schmitt, Michael T; Vala, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the "majority" group), or fake projections for 2060-that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline). In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear) toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  12. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal

    H. Robert Outten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979, we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the “majority” group, or fake projections for 2060—that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline. In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  13. Statistical dynamic image reconstruction in state-of-the-art high-resolution PET

    Rahmim, Arman; Cheng, J-C; Blinder, Stephan; Camborde, Maurie-Laure; Sossi, Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Modern high-resolution PET is now more than ever in need of scrutiny into the nature and limitations of the imaging modality itself as well as image reconstruction techniques. In this work, we have reviewed, analysed and addressed the following three considerations within the particular context of state-of-the-art dynamic PET imaging: (i) the typical average numbers of events per line-of-response (LOR) are now (much) less than unity (ii) due to the physical and biological decay of the activity distribution, one requires robust and efficient reconstruction algorithms applicable to a wide range of statistics and (iii) the computational considerations in dynamic imaging are much enhanced (i.e., more frames to be stored and reconstructed). Within the framework of statistical image reconstruction, we have argued theoretically and shown experimentally that the sinogram non-negativity constraint (when using the delayed-coincidence and/or scatter-subtraction techniques) is especially expected to result in an overestimation bias. Subsequently, two schemes are considered: (a) subtraction techniques in which an image non-negativity constraint has been imposed and (b) implementation of random and scatter estimates inside the reconstruction algorithms, thus enabling direct processing of Poisson-distributed prompts. Both techniques are able to remove the aforementioned bias, while the latter, being better conditioned theoretically, is able to exhibit superior noise characteristics. We have also elaborated upon and verified the applicability of the accelerated list-mode image reconstruction method as a powerful solution for accurate, robust and efficient dynamic reconstructions of high-resolution data (as well as a number of additional benefits in the context of state-of-the-art PET)

  14. High-spin states and coexisting states in the Pt-Au transition region

    Riedinger, L.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Courtney, L.H.; Janzen, V.P.; Schmitz, W.

    1986-01-01

    High-spin states in the N = 104 to 108 region have been studied by in-beam spectroscopy techniques in a number of Ir, Pt, and Au nuclei. These measurements have been performed at tandem Van de Graaff facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at McMaster University. Through comparison of band crossings in a variety of odd-A and even-A nuclei, we are able to assign the first neutron and first proton alignment processes, which are nearly degenerate for 184 Pt. These measurements yield the trend of these crossing frequencies with N and Z in this region. Knowledge of this trend is important, since these crossing frequencies can give an estimate of how the shape parameters vary across this transitional region. 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) γ-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE γ-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F X >2 μJy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z X-γ between the X-ray range at 1 keV and the VHE γ-ray regime at 200 GeV were calculated. The majority of objects show a spectral behaviour as expected from the source class of HBLs: The energy output in the VHE regime is in general lower than in X-rays. For the stacked blazar sample the broad-band spectral index was calculated to α X-γ =1.09, confirming the result found for the individual objects. Another evidence for the revelation of the baseline emission is the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) comprising archival as well as contemporaneous multi-wavelength data from the radio to the VHE band. The SEDs of known VHE γ-ray sources in low flux states matches well the SED of the stacked blazar sample. (orig.)

  16. Very high flux steady state reactor and accelerator based sources

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Simos, N.; Shapiro, S.; Hastings, J.

    2004-01-01

    With the number of steady state neutron sources in the US declining (including the demise of the Bnl HFBR) the remaining intense sources are now in Europe (i.e. reactors - ILL and FMR, accelerator - PSI). The intensity of the undisturbed thermal flux for sources currently in operation ranges from 10 14 n/cm 2 *s to 10 15 n/cm 2 *s. The proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) was to be a high power reactor (about 350 MW) with a projected undisturbed thermal flux of 7*10 15 n/cm 2 *s but never materialized. The objective of the current study is to explore the requirements and implications of two source concepts with an undisturbed flux of 10 16 n/cm 2 *s. The first is a reactor based concept operating at high power density (10 MW/l - 15 MW/l) and a total power of 100 MW - 250 MW, depending on fissile enrichment. The second is an accelerator based concept relying on a 1 GeV - 1.5 GeV proton Linac with a total beam power of 40 MW and a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic target. In the reactor source study, the effects of fissile material enrichment, coolant temperature and pressure drop, and estimates of pressure vessel stress levels will be investigated. The fuel form for the reactor will be different from all other operating source reactors in that it is proposed to use an infiltrated graphitic structure, which has been developed for nuclear thermal propulsion reactor applications. In the accelerator based source the generation of spallation products and their activation levels, and the material damage sustained by the beam window will be investigated. (authors)

  17. Gyromagnetic factors for high spin states in the actinides

    Ring, P.

    1984-01-01

    The cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory was used for a systematic investigation of gyromagnetic factors in the yrast states of even-even actinide nuclei. The theory used was the most simplified version with fixed deformation and gap parameters, that is, so-called rotating shell model. The gyromagnetic factor g and the contribution gsub(p) and gsub(n) were obtained for a large number of nuclei in the actinide region. The aligned angular momenta for protons and for neutrons are shown in the same actinide region. The general behaviour of g-factor was able to be understood in terms of simple rules: (i) For fixed proton number, neutron alignment becomes more difficult with increasing the neutron number, and vice versa. (ii) A sudden neutron alignment was observed for N=140 and N=146, and a sudden proton alignment was also observed for Z=94. The alignment between these critical numbers was smooth. The pattern obtained for the values of the aligned angular momentum was clearly reflected to the g-factor, and it provided an excellent tool to study the structure of level in the high spin region. (Asami, T.)

  18. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  19. Prediabetes: a high-risk state for diabetes development.

    Tabák, Adam G; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-06-16

    Prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycaemia) is a high-risk state for diabetes that is defined by glycaemic variables that are higher than normal, but lower than diabetes thresholds. 5-10% of people per year with prediabetes will progress to diabetes, with the same proportion converting back to normoglycaemia. Prevalence of prediabetes is increasing worldwide and experts have projected that more than 470 million people will have prediabetes by 2030. Prediabetes is associated with the simultaneous presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction-abnormalities that start before glucose changes are detectable. Observational evidence shows associations between prediabetes and early forms of nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, small fibre neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and increased risk of macrovascular disease. Multifactorial risk scores using non-invasive measures and blood-based metabolic traits, in addition to glycaemic values, could optimise estimation of diabetes risk. For prediabetic individuals, lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention, with evidence of a 40-70% relative-risk reduction. Accumulating data also show potential benefits from pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediabetes: A high-risk state for developing diabetes

    Tabák, Adam G.; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Brunner, Eric J.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prediabetes (or “intermediate hyperglycaemia”), based on glycaemic parameters above normal but below diabetes thresholds is a high risk state for diabetes with an annualized conversion rate of 5%–10%; with similar proportion converting back to normoglycaemia. The prevalence of prediabetes is increasing worldwide and it is projected that >470 million people will have prediabetes in 2030. Prediabetes is associated with the simultaneous presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, abnormalities that start before glucose changes are detectable. Observational evidence shows associations of prediabetes with early forms of nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, small fibre neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and increased risk of macrovascular disease. Multifactorial risk scores could optimize the estimation of diabetes risk using non-invasive parameters and blood-based metabolic traits in addition to glycaemic values. For prediabetic individuals, lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention with evidence of a 40%–70% relative risk reduction. Accumulating data also suggests potential benefits from pharmacotherapy. PMID:22683128

  1. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    Persson, E.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Gorin, T.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1996-05-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it is proportional to t -b with b∼3/2 in all cases considered, including the critical region of overlapping where the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions is large. Starting from the shell model, we get b∼2 for 2 and 4 open decay channels and all coupling strengths to the continuum. When the closed system is described by a random matrix, b∼1+K/2 for K=2 and 4 channels. This law holds in a limited time interval. The distribution of the widths is different in the two models when more than one channel are open. This leads to the different exponents b in the power law. Our calculations are performed with 190 and 130 states, respectively, most of them in the critical region. The theoretical results should be proven experimentally by measuring the time behaviour of de-excitation of a realistic quantum system. (orig.)

  2. Anomalous thermal expansion, negative linear compressibility, and high-pressure phase transition in ZnAu2(CN) 4 : Neutron inelastic scattering and lattice dynamics studies

    Gupta, Mayanak K.; Singh, Baltej; Mittal, Ranjan; Zbiri, Mohamed; Cairns, Andrew B.; Goodwin, Andrew L.; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L.

    2017-12-01

    We present temperature-dependent inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements, accompanied by ab initio calculations of the phonon spectra and elastic properties as a function of pressure to quantitatively explain an unusual combination of negative thermal expansion and negative linear compressibility behavior of ZnAu2(CN) 4 . The mechanism of the negative thermal expansion is identified in terms of specific anharmonic phonon modes that involve bending of the -Zn-NC-Au-CN-Zn- linkage. The soft phonon at the L point at the Brillouin zone boundary quantitatively relates to the high-pressure phase transition at about 2 GPa. The ambient pressure structure is also found to be close to an elastic instability that leads to a weakly first-order transition.

  3. Using high-level construal and perceptions of changeability to promote self-change over self-protection motives in response to negative feedback.

    Belding, Jennifer N; Naufel, Karen Z; Fujita, Kentaro

    2015-06-01

    Diagnostic negative information presents people with a motivational dilemma. Although negative feedback can provide useful information with which to guide future self-improvement efforts, it also presents short-term affective costs. We propose that construal level, jointly with the perceived changeability of the feedback domain, determines whether people choose to accept or dismiss such information. Whereas low-level construal promotes short-term self-protection motivation (promoting dismissal), high-level construal promotes long-term self-change motivation (promoting acceptance)--to the extent that change is perceived as possible. Four studies support this hypothesis and examine underlying cognitive and motivational mechanisms. The present work may provide an integrative theoretical framework for understanding when people will be open to and accept negative diagnostic information, and has important practical implications for promoting self-change efforts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  5. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  6. A complete carbon counter electrode for high performance quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cell

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    The proposed research describes the design and fabrication of a quasi-solid state dye sensitized solar cells (Q-DSSCs) with a complete carbon based counter electrode (CC-CE) and gel infused membrane electrolyte. For CE, the platinized fluorinated tin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) was replaced by the soft cationic functioned multiwall carbon nanotubes (SCF-MWCNT) catalytic layer coated on woven carbon fiber fabric (CFF) prepared on handloom by interlacing of carbon filament tapes. SCF-MWCNT were synthesized by functionalization of cationised lipase from Candida Ragusa. Cationised enzyme solution was prepared at pH ∼3 by using acetic acid. The cationic enzyme functionalization of MWCNT causes the minimum damage to the tubular morphology and assist in fast anchoring of negative iodide ions present in membrane electrolyte. The high electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance (RCT = 2.12 Ω) of our proposed system of CC-CE shows that the woven CFF coated with cationised lipase treated carbon nanotubes enriched with positive surface ions. The Q-DSSCs fabricated with CC-CE and 5 wt% PEO gel infused PVDF-HFP membrane electrolyte exhibit power conversion efficiency of 8.90% under masking. Our suggested low cost and highly efficient system of CC-CE helps the proposed quasi-solid state DSSCs structure to stand out as sustainable next generation solar cells.

  7. Toward high brightness, multi-kilowatt solid state lasers

    Zapata, L.E.; Manes, K.R.

    1990-11-01

    High average power (HAP) solid state laser output with improved beam quality has introduced new capabilities in materials processing. At the 500 W level and with a beam quality of a ''few'' times the diffraction limit, the General Electric NY slab is able to drill 5 cm of stainless steel in a few seconds. We expect that 2--3 kW of near infrared laser output in a low order spatial mode would enable metal working now unknown to industry. The HAP output of slab lasers is limited by the size of the available laser crystals and the pump power. Core free, six cm diameter NY boules have been grown on an experimental basis. High optical quality NG can be obtained up to 10 cm in diameter. We present the results of our modeling based on these crystals pumped by advanced arc-lamps or laser diode arrays. We project HAP laser outputs of 1.6 kW from an existing Vortek pumped NG oscillator and about 2 kW from diode pumped NY device. Several kW of laser output can be expected from two such slabs in a MOPA configuration before optical damage limits are reached. The three dimensional stress-optic code which we used to optimize our designs, was normalized to available experimental data obtained with the above NG slab at the 500 W level and a 40 W diode pumped NY test bed. Our calculations indicate the essential parameters for attainment of high beam quality. Cooling uniformity across the pumped faces of the slab is critical and the location of the transition between pumped and un-pumped regions towards the slab tips is very important. A flat pumping profile was found to be desirable and predicted one wave of distortion which should be correctable over about 75% of the aperture however, an even better wavefront was predicted over 90% of the aperture when the regions near the edges of the slab were slightly over-pumped relative to the central regions and the regions near to the ends were tapered to compensate for transition effects

  8. Dipole bands in high spin states of {sub 57}{sup 135}La{sub 78}

    Garg, Ritika; Kumar, S.; Saxena, Mansi; Goyal, Savi; Siwal, Davinder; Verma, S.; Mandal, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007 (India); Palit, R.; Saha, Sudipta; Sethi, J.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Trivedi, T.; Jadav, S. K.; Donthi, R.; Naidu, B. S. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai - 400005 (India)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states of {sup 135}La have been investigated using the reaction {sup 128}Te({sup 11}B,4n){sup 135}La at a beam energy of 50.5 MeV. Two negative parity dipole bands (ΔI = 1) have been established. Crossover E2 transitions have been observed for the first time in one of the dipole bands. For the Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) calculations, a three-quasiparticle (3qp) configuration π(h{sub 11/2}){sup 1}⊗ν(h{sub 11/2}){sup −2} and a five-quasiparticle (5qp) configuration π(h{sub 11/2}){sup 1}(g{sub 7/2}/d{sub 5/2}){sup 2}⊗ν(h{sub 11/2}){sup −2} have been taken for the two negative parity dipole bands. The comparison of experimental observables with TAC calculations supports the configuration assignments for both the dipole bands.

  9. Inclusive negative-hadron production from high-energy nu-bar-nucleus charged-current interactions

    Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; Endorf, R.; Hanft, R.; Malko, J.A.; Moffatt, G.; Nezrick, F.A.; Scott, W.; Smart, W.; Wolfson, J.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amrakhov, A.H.; Denisov, A.G.; Ermolov, P.F.; Gapienko, V.A.; Klukhin, V.I.; Koreshev, V.I.; Pitukhin, P.V.; Rjabov, V.G.; Slobodyuk, E.A.; Sirotenko, V.I.; Efremenko, V.I.; Gorichev, P.A.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovansky, V.D.; Kliger, G.K.; Kolganov, V.Z.; Krutchinin, S.P.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Rosanov, A.N.; Savitsky, M.M.; Shevchenko, V.G.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Seidl, A.A.; Sinclair, D.

    1978-01-01

    We present data on inclusive negative-hadron production from charged-current antineutrino interactions in a 21% Ne--H mixture. Inclusive single-particle distributions are presented and are shown to be insensitive to the momentum transferred to the hadron vertex. Comparisons made to inclusive data from π - p and π - n interactions indicate a close similarity between the hadrons resulting from π-nucleon and nu-bar-nucleus interactions. The general features of the nu-bar-nucleus data are found to be similar to those seen in nu-barp interactions. This last observation implies that nu-barp and nu-barn interactions are similar and that nuclear effects are small

  10. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  11. High spin states and the competition of spherical and strongly deformed shapes in the A = 70 to 80 region

    Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Piercey, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    A wide variety of collective band structures are seen in Ge to Sr nuclei to make this an important new testing ground for nuclear models. These include bands built on coexisting and competing near-spherical and deformed shapes, γ vibrational bands and multiple positive and negative parity bands. Ground state bands in Ge and Kr but not 78 80 Sr are crossed at the 8 + to 12 + levels. Gaps in the Nilsson levels for both N and Z = 38 at large deformation lead to large ground state deformation in Kr and Sr around N = 38. The crossing of rotation aligned bands based on (g/sub 9/2/) 2 configuration are correlated with the ground state deformations. A second high spin crossing is seen in 74 Kr. Measured g factors in 68 Ge yield a two-quasineutron structure for the 8 2 + state. 30 references

  12. Direct growth of vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as novel negative electrodes for high-energy-density wearable fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors

    Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qichong; Sun, Juan; Li, Chaowei; Zhao, Jingxin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Wang, Xiaona; Man, Ping; Li, Qiulong; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Liyan; Li, Mingxing; Yao, Yagang

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts have been recently devoted to constructing high-performance fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors. However, it is still a paramount challenge to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors for practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. This work reports a simple and efficient method to directly grow vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as advanced negative electrodes with a high specific capacitance of 188 F/cm3 (564 mF/cm2). Taking advantage of their attractive structure, we successfully fabricated a fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V by assembling the vanadium nitride/carbon nanotube fiber negative electrode with the Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt ternary oxides nanowire arrays positive electrode. Due to the excellent synergistic effects between positive and negative electrodes, a remarkable specific capacitance of 50 F/cm3 (150 mF/cm2) and an outstanding energy density of 17.78 mWh/cm3 (53.33 μWh/cm2) for our fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor can be achieved. Furthermore, the as-assembled fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device has excellent mechanical flexibility in that 91% of the capacitance retained after bending 90° for 3000 times. Thus, this work exploits a pathway to construct high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor for next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  13. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  14. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  15. Symptom Prevalence and the Negative Emotional States in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients with or without Renal Replacement Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Wan Zukiman, Wan Zul Haikal; Yaakup, Hayati; Zakaria, Nor Fadhlina; Shah, Shamsul Azhar Bin

    2017-10-01

    Limited comparative data are available on the symptom severity and burden of dialyzed versus nondialyzed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and their association with negative emotional states. To investigate the prevalence of symptom burden and severity of ESRD patients and correlate the findings with their psychological status. This was a cross-sectional study of dialyzed (N = 87) and nondialyzed (N = 100) patients. The symptom burden and severity were determined using the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI) and the psychological assessment using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). Symptom severity evaluated using the DSI was comparable in both groups with fatigue as the most common symptom (n = 141, 75.4%), followed by sleep-related, sexual dysfunction, and dry skin problems. The symptom burden for worrying, dry skin and mouth, decreased appetite, numbness, and leg swelling were significant in not dialyzed group (p symptom burden regardless of their treatment options (p symptom burden and severity, irrespective of the type of treatment. Psychological disturbances were associated with higher symptom burden and severity and, therefore, should be screened thoroughly to achieve optimal ESRD management.

  16. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Lee, Dong Soon

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  19. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    1007 aTBneg individuals who were enrolled from 2004 to 2006; 4983 age-matched controls were followed for comparison. Plasma suPAR levels were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA. Survival was analysed using Cox regression, ROC curves and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: After 3 months of follow......-up, mortality was 21 per 100 person-year-observation (PYO) among aTBneg individuals and three per 100 PYO among the control population [mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 6.92 (95% CI 4.48-10.7)]. SuPAR values ranged between 0.9 and 45 ng/ml in aTBneg individuals. A log-linear relationship was found between su......PAR levels linear range, a 1 ng/ml increase was associated with a 46% increase in the mortality rate: MRR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.34-1.59). The area under the ROC curves was 0.88 for HIV-positive individuals and 0.79 for HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed...

  20. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

    Pierfilippo De Sanctis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  1. Resonant States in High-Temperature Superconductors with Impurities

    Kovacevic, Z L; Hayn, R

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic theory of resonant states for the Zn-doped CuO_2 plane in superconducting phase is formulated within the effective t-J model. In the model derived from the original p-d model Zn impurities are considered as vacancies for the d states on Cu sites. In the superconducting phase in addition to the local static perturbation induced by the vacancy a dynamical perturbation appears which results in frequency-dependent perturbation matrix. By employing the T-matrix formalism for the Green functions in terms of the Hubbard operators the local density of electronic states with d-, p- and s-symmetry is calculated.

  2. Fluorescence-guided surgery of a highly-metastatic variant of human triple-negative breast cancer targeted with a cancer-specific GFP adenovirus prevents recurrence

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Miwa, Shinji; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously developed a genetically-engineered GFP-expressing telomerase-dependent adenovirus, OBP-401, which can selectively illuminate cancer cells. In the present report, we demonstrate that targeting a triple-negative high-invasive human breast cancer, orthotopically-growing in nude mice, with OBP-401 enables curative fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). OBP-401 enabled complete resection and prevented local recurrence and greatly inhibited lymph-node metastasis due to the ability of the virus to selectively label and subsequently kill cancer cells. In contrast, residual breast cancer cells become more aggressive after bright (white)-light surgery (BLS). OBP-401-based FGS also improved the overall survival compared with conventional BLS. Thus, metastasis from a highly-aggressive triple-negative breast cancer can be prevented by FGS in a clinically-relevant mouse model. PMID:27689331

  3. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  4. A mechanical model of stereocilia that demonstrates a shift in the high-sensitivity region due to the interplay of a negative stiffness and an adaptation mechanism

    Lee, Changwon; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia are the basic sensory units of nature's inertial sensors and are highly sensitive over broad dynamic ranges, which is a major challenge in the design of conventional engineering sensors. The high sensitivity that is maintained by stereocilia was hypothesized to exist due to a combination of adaptation and negative stiffness mechanisms, which shift the region of highest sensitivity toward the active operation range of the stereocilia bundle. To examine the adaptation hypothesis in terms of its potential applicability to future applications regarding the design of inertial sensors, we developed a mechanical mimicry of the interplay between negative stiffness and the adaptation of the stereocilia that produces spontaneous oscillation of the hair bundle. The mechanical model consists of an inverted pendulum and a fixed T-bar that mimic the interaction of two adjacent stereocilia. To focus on the interaction of one gating spring and the corresponding adaptation motor without the effect of coupling from the other gating springs attached to the neighboring stereocilia, we fixed one bar that contains the adaptation motor. To emulate the negative resistance of the tip-link due to the transient stiffness softening by the gating ion channel, a magnet pair was attached to the top of the inverted pendulum and the fixed T-bar. Readjustment of the tip-link tension by the ‘slipping down and climbing up’ motion of the adaptation molecular motors was demonstrated by the side-to-side movement of the magnet by a step motor. The negative stiffness region was observed near the equilibrium position and shifted with the activation of the adaptation motor. The temporal demonstration of the stiffness shift was measured as a spontaneous oscillation. The results showed that the interplay between the negative stiffness and the adaptation mechanism was mechanically produced by the combination of a repulsive force and its continuous readjustment and is better understood through a

  5. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  6. Multiphoton Rabi oscillations between highly excited Stark states of potassium

    He Yonglin

    2011-01-01

    We have applied a nonperturbative resonant theory to study the Rabi frequency of microwave multiphoton transitions between two Rydberg states of potassium in a static electric field. The Stark electric dipole moments used to calculate the Rabi frequency are determined by the Stark states' wave functions, which are obtained by the diagonalization method. The frequencies of the Rabi oscillations are in good agreement with either experimental ones or ones calculated by the time-dependent close-coupling method and the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we are able to show that the size of avoided crossings between the (n+2)s and (n,3) states can be predicted from the Stark electric dipole moment and the difference of the two Stark states' energy at a given resonance.

  7. Effect of high energy electrons on H{sup −} production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Onai, M., E-mail: onai@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Fujita, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Etoh, H.; Aoki, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [CERN Rte de Meyrin, 1200 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H{sup −} production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H{sup −} extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  8. Reverse convection in helium and other fluids in the high speed rotating frame: negative and positive buoyancy effects

    Igra, R.; Scurlock, R.G.; Wu, Y.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies of thermo-syphon flows in radial tubes and loops between the axis and the periphery of a rotating helium cryostat have shown that when heat is supplied at an intermediate radius, the heat is carried radially inwards as A flow and radially outwards as B flow. The results with helium suggest that while the steady state patterns of the A and B flows are complex, the heat is divided approximately equally between the conventional A flow and the reverse B flow. A model of convective heating in the rotating frame is presented and two necessary conditions for reverse convection are identified and discussed. The model predicts reverse convection in liquid nitrogen and this is confirmed by experimental measurement. An array of radial ducts is proposed for the cooling of a superconducting AC generator in order to counter the effects of reverse convection in the helium refrigerant

  9. Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were

  10. Seroepidemiology of high-risk HPV in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM: the H2M study

    Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Schepp, Rutger M.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; de Melker, Hester E.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), in particular HIV-infected MSM, are at increased risk for diseases related to human papilloma virus (HPV). Our goal was to assess the effect of HIV status on the presence of type-specific antibodies against seven high-risk HPV types in HPV-unvaccinated MSM. Moreover,

  11. Mechanical properties of ground state structures in substitutional ordered alloys: High strength, high ductility and high thermal stability

    Tawancy, H.M.; Aboelfotoh, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of atom arrangements in the ground state structures of substitutional ordered alloys on their mechanical properties using nickel–molybdenum-based alloys as model systems. Three alloys with nominal compositions of Ni–19.43 at% Mo, Ni–18.53 at% Mo–15.21 at% Cr and Ni–18.72 at% Mo–6.14 at% Nb are included in the study. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the closely related Pt 2 Mo-type, DO 22 and D1 a superlattices with similar energies are identified by electron diffraction of ground state structures, which can directly be derived from the parent disordered fcc structure by minor atom rearrangements on {420} fcc planes. The three superlattices are observed to coexist during the disorder–order transformation at 700 °C with the most stable superlattice being determined by the exact chemical composition. Although most of the slip systems in the parent disordered fcc structure are suppressed, many of the twinning systems remain operative in the superlattices favoring deformation by twinning, which leads to considerable strengthening while maintaining high ductility levels. Both the Pt 2 Mo-type and DO 22 superlattices are distinguished by high strength and high ductility due to their nanoscale microstructures, which have high thermal stability. However, the D1 a superlattice is found to exhibit poor thermal stability leading to considerable loss of ductility, which has been correlated with self-induced recrystallization by migration of grain boundaries

  12. State Estimation for Landing Maneuver on High Performance Aircraft

    Suresh, P. S.; Sura, Niranjan K.; Shankar, K.

    2018-01-01

    State estimation methods are popular means for validating aerodynamic database on aircraft flight maneuver performance characteristics. In this work, the state estimation method during landing maneuver is explored for the first of its kind, using upper diagonal adaptive extended Kalman filter (UD-AEKF) with fuzzy based adaptive tunning of process noise matrix. The mathematical model for symmetrical landing maneuver consists of non-linear flight mechanics equation representing Aircraft longitudinal dynamics. The UD-AEKF algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the states with bias is considered to be the initial conditions just prior to the flare. The measurement data is obtained from a non-linear 6 DOF pilot in loop simulation using FORTRAN. These simulated measurement data is additively mixed with process and measurement noises, which are used as an input for UD-AEKF. Then, the governing states that dictate the landing loads at the instant of touch down are compared. The method is verified using flight data wherein, the vertical acceleration at the aircraft center of gravity (CG) is compared. Two possible outcome of purely relying on the aircraft measured data is highlighted. It is observed that, with the implementation of adaptive fuzzy logic based extended Kalman filter tuned to adapt for aircraft landing dynamics, the methodology improves the data quality of the states that are sourced from noisy measurements.

  13. The use of isoprene as a novel dopant in negative ion atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Dousty, Faezeh; O'Brien, Rob

    2015-06-15

    As in the case with positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (PI-APPI), the addition of dopants significantly improves the sensitivity of negative ion APPI (NI-APPI). However, the research on dopant-assisted-NI-APPI has been quite limited compared to the studies on dopant-assisted PI-APPI. This work presents the potential of isoprene as a novel dopant for NI-APPI. Thirteen compounds, possessing suitable gas-phase ion energetic properties in order to make stable negative ions, were selected. Dopants were continuously introduced into a tee junction prior to the ion source through a fused-silica capillary, while analytes were directly injected into the same tee. Then both were mixed with the continuous solvent from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nebulized, and entered the source. The nebulized stream was analyzed by APPI tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. The results obtained using isoprene were compared with those obtained by using toluene as a dopant and dopant-free NI-APPI. Isoprene enhanced the ionization intensities of the studied compounds, which were found to be comparable and, in some cases, more effective than toluene. The mechanisms leading to the observed set of negative analyte ions were also discussed. Because in NI-APPI, thermal electrons, which are produced during the photoionization of a dopant, are considered the main reagent ions, both isoprene and toluene promoted the ionization of analytes through the same mechanisms, as expected. Isoprene was shown to perform well as a novel dopant for NI-APPI. Isoprene has a high photoabsorption cross section in the VUV region; therefore, its photoionization leads to a highly effective production of thermal electrons, which further promotes the ionization of analytes. In addition, isoprene is environmentally benign and less toxic compared to currently used dopants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. On the use of distributions of stopping pions as an indicator of the spatial distribution of the high-LET dose in negative pion radiotherapy

    Brenner, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A semi-empirical across the treatment volume of a therapeutic negative pion beam. Such beams deliver dose partially at high LET (through alphas and heavier particles produced both directly in pion stars and via intermediate star-produced neutrons), and partially at low LET (through scattering of pions, electrons and muons, as well as protons produced directly from pion stars and via intermediate neutrons). The problem is how to understand the spatial distribution of the high-LET dose, which is responsible for the potentially improved biological response in the treatment volume

  15. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  16. Study of fp States in Nuclei with High Neutron Excess

    2002-01-01

    Previous results obtained at ISOLDE on GT transitions in n-rich Na and Mg nuclei have shown the sharp decrease of excitation energy for fp states when A$>$29. \\\\ \\\\ Independently, shell model calculations have revealed that the onset of a deformation region near N=20 for Ne, Na and Mg nuclei was related to a sudden transition in the ground state properties with the appearance of a major (sd)$^{-2}$(fp)$^2$ component. \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use the new possibilities of producing and detecting n-rich nuclei to study by $\\gamma$ and n spectroscopy the properties of fp states with different cores: around N=20 (Na, Mg and Al) and N=28 (Ar, K and Ca). In particular, the cases of $^3

  17. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  18. When do ego threats lead to self-regulation failure? Negative consequences of defensive high self-esteem.

    Lambird, Kathleen Hoffman; Mann, Traci

    2006-09-01

    High self-esteem (HSE) is increasingly recognized as heterogeneous. By measuring subtypes of HSE, the present research reevaluates the finding that HSE individuals show poor self-regulation following ego threat (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1993). In Experiment 1, participants with HSE showed poor self-regulation after ego threat only if they also were defensive (high in self-presentation bias). In Experiment 2, two measures--self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem--were used to subtype HSE individuals as defensive. Both operationalizations of defensive HSE predicted poor self-regulation after ego threat. The results indicate that (a) only defensive HSE individuals are prone to self-regulation failure following ego threat and (b) measures of self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem can both be used to detect defensiveness.

  19. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  20. A prospective study to evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in sputum smear negative patients with high suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Ritesh Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL by flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB in sputum smear negative patients with clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 30 sputum smear negative patients of age group 20 to 70 years, who were highly suspicious for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria. All patients were subjected to sputum culture, BAL stains and cultures, and cytopathology. Patients with moderate to massive pleural effusion, obvious accessible lymph node, history of antitubercular therapy (ATT, and contraindication to FOB were excluded. Results: Sputum culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB was positive in four (12% patients, BAL fluid was positive for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN stain in nine (27% patients, including four sputum culture patients, while BAL culture for AFB on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium was positive in 18 (60%, including 9 BAL fluid ZN stain positive patients. Six (20% patients had growth on pyogenic culture, while two (7% patients had malignant cell on cytological examination of BAL fluid. Remaining four (13% patients were empirically started on ATT. They had complete response to ATT at 2 months and were retrospectively diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. All the bacteriologically confirmed PTB patients were given ATT for 6 months and all patients had complete response. Conclusion: We concluded that FOB guided BAL is extremely useful for establishing diagnosis of PTB or other pulmonary diseases in sputum smear negative patients, who have high suspicion for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria.

  1. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    SCCl2) is made in order to gain insights into some of the experimental observations and spectral features. The states analysed here lie in a spectrally complex region where strong mode mixings are expected due to the overlap of several ...

  2. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  3. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  4. XES studies of density of states of high temperature superconductors

    Jasiolek, Gabriel

    1991-01-01

    X-ray emission spectroscopic studies concerning the superconducting crystals, thin films, and ceramics of the Y-Ba-Cu-O, Tm-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O types are presented. The contributions of the 13d(9)L, 13d(10)L, 13d(10)LL, and 13d(10)L(2) configurations, where L denotes a ligand hole at the oxygen orbitals in the spectroscopic pattern of these superconductors are discussed. An attempt to connect the x-ray 'as registered' Cu L(alpha) emission spectra with the density of states close to the Fermi level, considering an influence of the CuL3 absorption edge, is presented. The corrected intensity distributions below the Fermi level are found to correspond to the theoretical density of states. Furthermore, an approach to the average valence of copper basing on the account of the self-absorption and fluorescence effects and on the configurations listed above is shown. The average valence of copper in the materials investigated is estimated to lie in the range of +2.10 to 2.32 when the formal trivalent copper is considered as that characterized by the 13d(9)L configuration. The density of states at the Fermi level was estimated to be 2.4 states/eV-cell for a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O crystal and 3.6 states/eV-cell for a Tl-Ba-Ca-CU-O ceramic.

  5. [Oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Rigatti, Fabiane; Tizotti, Maísa Kraulich; Hörner, Rosmari; Domingues, Vanessa Oliveira; Martini, Rosiéli; Mayer, Letícia Eichstaedt; Khun, Fábio Teixeira; de França, Chirles Araújo; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and susceptibility profile to oxacillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains isolated from blood cultures in a teaching hospital, located in Santa Maria, RS. In addition, different methodologies for phenotypic characterization of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance were compared with genotypic reference testing. After identification (MicroScan - Siemens), the isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using disk diffusion and automation (MicroScan - Siemens). The presence of mecA gene was identified by the polymerase chain reaction molecular technique. The most common species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=40, 67%). The mecA gene was detected in 54 (90%) strains, while analysis of the sensitivity profiles revealed a high rate of resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs. However, all isolates were uniformly sensitive to vancomycin and tigecycline. The cefoxitin disk was the phenotypic method that best correlated with the gold standard. Analysis of the clinical significance of CoNS isolated from hemocultures and the precise detection of oxacillin resistance represent decisive factors for the correct choice of antibiotic therapy. Although vancomycin constitutes the normal treatment in most Brazilian hospitals, reduction in its use is recommended.

  6. Eta Production at High Transverse Momentum by Negative 520 GeV/c Pions Incident on Beryllium and Copper Targets

    Roser, Robert Martin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the production of high transverse momentum 17 mesons by a 520 GeV /c $\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.2) $\\pi^-$ beam using data collected during the 1990 fixed target run of Fermilab experiment E706. E706 is a second generation fixed target experiment designed to measure direct-photon production in hadron-nucleus collisions. These data provide a clean test of perturbative QCD and serve as a valuable tool for probing hadronic structure. The $\\gamma\\gamma$ decay mode of the $\\eta$ meson was studied using data from a highly segmented electromagnetic lead liquid argon sampling calorimeter. Results are presented for inclusive $\\eta$ production by $\\pi^-$ beams on both beryllium and copper targets. The $\\eta$ to $\\pi^0$ production ratio and the nuclear dependence of the $\\eta$ production cross section are also reported. These results are for $\\eta$'s in the transverse momentum range 3.5 to 9 Ge V / c and the center of mass rapidity range -0.75 to 0.75, and are the highest energy results ever obtained for inclusive $\\eta$ production using a $\\pi^-$ beam.

  7. Ecological context of infant mortality in high-focus states of India

    Laishram Ladusingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This goal of this study was to shed light on the ecological context as a potential determinant of the infant mortality rate in nine high-focus states in India. METHODS: Data from the Annual Health Survey (2010-2011, the Census of India (2011, and the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08 were used in this study. In multiple regression analysis explanatory variable such as underdevelopment is measured by the non-working population, and income inequality, quantified as the proportion of households in the bottom wealth quintile. While, the trickle-down effect of education is measured by female literacy, and investment in health, as reflected by neonatal care facilities in primary health centres. RESULTS: A high spatial autocorrelation of district infant mortality rates was observed, and ecological factors were found to have a significant impact on district infant mortality rates. The result also revealed that non-working population and income inequality were found to have a negative effect on the district infant mortality rate. Additionally, female literacy and new-born care facilities were found to have an inverse association with the infant mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions at the community level can reduce district infant mortality rates.

  8. Characterization of a high-intensity three-qubit GHZ state using state tomography and Gisin's inequality

    Lu Huaixin, E-mail: huaixinlu@wfu.edu.c [Department of Physics and Electronic Science, Weifang University, Weifang, Shandong 261061 (China); Zhao Jiaqiang; Wang Xiaoqin [Department of Physics and Electronic Science, Weifang University, Weifang, Shandong 261061 (China)

    2011-05-02

    We experimentally characterized a high-intensity optical three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states with a count of {approx}25/s by using the method of over-complete state tomography. Furthermore, based on the state, a convincing, 3.5 standard deviations, violation of Gisin's inequality has been measured, thus confirming the validity of Gisin's inequality for three-qubit GHZ states. From the data, we verified the good agreement of the experimental violation with the value predicted by quantum mechanics given the reconstructed density matrix. This result represents the first step towards the experimental implementation of Gisin's theorem. - Highlights: We have characterized a high-intensity three-qubit GHZ states. We have achieved convincing results of the violation of Gisin's inequalities. We verified the agreement of the experimental violation with theoretical value.

  9. Significant relaxation of residual negative carrier in polar Alq3 film directly detected by high-sensitivity photoemission

    Kinjo, Hiroumi; Lim, Hyunsoo; Sato, Tomoya; Noguchi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Yasuo; Ishii, Hisao

    2016-02-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been widely applied as a good electron-injecting layer (EIL) in organic light-emitting diodes. High-sensitivity photoemission measurement revealed a clear photoemission by visible light, although its ionization energy is 5.7 eV. This unusual photoemission is ascribed to Alq3 anions captured by positive polarization charges. The observed electron detachment energy of the anion was about 1 eV larger than the electron affinity reported by inverse photoemission. This difference suggests that the injected electron in the Alq3 layer is energetically relaxed, leading to the reduction in injection barrier. This nature is one of the reasons why Alq3 worked well as the EIL.

  10. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  11. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wen, Ting [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  12. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na3OBr and Na4OI2

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng; Yang, Wenge

    2016-01-01

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , respectively. The cubic Na 3 OBr structure and tetragonal Na 4 OI 2 with intergrowth K 2 NiF 4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na 4 OI 2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications

  13. High spin states and Yrast isomers in 211Rn

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1981-01-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2 - . Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  14. High spin states and yrast isomers in 211Rn

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1980-12-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2. Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  15. Multimuon final states in high energy muon interactions

    Chen, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Multimuon final states observed in the MSU-Fermilab deep inelastic muon scattering apparatus are presented. These events, observed at both 150 and 275-GeV, are more numerous and the extra muons have qualitative different production characteristics than muons expected from conventional sources. Origin of these events are examined. The implication of the data on the understanding of scaling violation observed in muon scattering is discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Light relativistic bound states in high temperature QCD

    Zahed, Ismail

    1991-01-01

    The nonperturbative structure of high temperature QCD is combined with generalized sum-rules arguments to analyse gauge invariant correlation functions in real time. It is shown that for a plausible choice of condensates, QCD at high temperature exhibits color singlet excitations as opposed to merely screened quarks and gluons. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs

  17. A thymidine kinase-negative bovine herpesvirus 5 is highly attenuated for rabbits, but is neuroinvasive and establishes latent infection

    Sara Campos da Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutant viral strains deleted in non-essential genes represent useful tools to study the function of specific gene products in the biology of the virus. We herein describe an investigation on the phenotype of a bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 recombinant deleted in the gene encoding the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK in rabbits, with special emphasis to neuroinvasiveness and the ability to establish and reactivate latent infection. Rabbits inoculated with the parental virus (SV-507/99 (n=18 at a low titer (10(5.5TCID50 shed virus in nasal secretions in titers up to 10(4.5TCID50 for up to 12 days (average: 9.8 days [5-12] and 5/ 16 developed neurological disease and were euthanized in extremis. Rabbits inoculated with the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ at a high dose (10(7.1TCID50 also shed virus in nasal secretions, yet to lower titers (maximum: 10(2.3TCID50 and for a shorter period (average: 6.6 days [2-11] and remained healthy. PCR examination of brain sections of inoculated rabbits at day 6 post-infection (pi revealed a widespread distribution of the parental virus, whereas DNA of the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ-was detected only in the trigeminal ganglia [TG] and olfactory bulbs [OB]. Nevertheless, during latent infection (52pi, DNA of the recombinant virus was detected in the TGs, OBs and also in other areas of the brain, demonstrating the ability of the virus to invade the brain. Dexamethasone (Dx administration at day 65 pi was followed by virus reactivation and shedding by 5/8 rabbits inoculated with the parental strain (mean duration of 4.2 days [1 - 9] and by none of seven rabbits inoculated with the recombinant virus. Again, PCR examination at day 30 post-Dx treatment revealed the presence of latent DNA in the TGs, OBs and in other areas of the brain of both groups. Taken together, these results confirm that the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ is highly attenuated for rabbits. It shows a reduced ability to replicate in the nose but retains the ability to invade

  18. The negative effect of Zr addition on the high temperature strength in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    Moon, Joonoh; Jang, Min-Ho; Kang, Jun-Yun; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a Zr addition on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties in Nb-containing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels was investigated using tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis. The TEM observation showed that a Zr addition led to the formation of a (Nb,Zr)(C,N) complex particle, which coarsened the Nb-rich carbonitride. Tensile tests were performed at an elevated temperature (700 °C), and both the tensile and yield strengths decreased with a Zr addition. This unexpected result of a Zr addition was due to the reduction of the precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. - Highlights: • The effect of Zr on high temperature strength in AFA steel containing Nb was studied. • Both the tensile and yield strengths of an AFA steel decreased with Zr-addition. • This is due to the reduction of precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. • Nb(C,N) and (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particles were precipitated in an AFA and Zr-added AFA steel. • The size of (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particle is much bigger than that of Nb(C,N) particle

  19. iVCJ: A tool for Interactive Visualization of high explosives CJ states

    Wooten, Hasani Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-12

    A graphical user interface (GUI) tool has been developed that facilitates the visualization and analysis of the Chapman-Jouguet state for high explosives gaseous products using the Jones- Wilkins-Lee equation of state.

  20. Controlled functionalization of carbonaceous fibers for asymmetric solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high volumetric energy density.

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Li; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Wenchao; Chen, Yuan

    2014-10-22

    A 1.8 V asymmetric solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor is designed with one MnO2 -coated reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (rGO/SWCNT) composite fiber as positive electrode and one nitrogen-doped rGO/SWCNT fiber as negative electrode, which demonstrates ultrahigh volumetric energy density, comparable to some thin-film lithium batteries, along with high power density, long cycle life, and good flexibility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.