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Sample records for high natural incidence

  1. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

    Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno

    Full Text Available Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females.We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula, a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females.In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these

  2. Creative accounting: Nature, incidence and ethical issues

    Oriol Amat; Catherine Gowthorpe

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and incidence of creative accounting practices within the context of ethical considerations.It explores several definitions of creative accounting and the potential and the range of reasons for a company's directors to engage in creative accounting. Later the paper considers the various ways in which creative accounting can be undertaken and summarizes some empirical research on the nature and incidence of creative accounting. The ethical dimension of creative a...

  3. INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INJURIES TO ...

    ELITE SOUTlI AFRICAN CRICKET. PLAYERS. R A Stretch. Objectives. The study investigated the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite cricketers during a season and the possible risk factors associated with these injuries. Methods. Fourteen physiotherapists and three doctors recorded 163 injuries sustained ...

  4. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  5. Incidence and nature of karate injuries.

    Destombe, Claire; Lejeune, Laurent; Guillodo, Yannick; Roudaut, Anne; Jousse, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valérie; Saraux, Alain

    2006-03-01

    To determine the incidence and nature of karate injuries sustained in karate clubs and to identify risk factors for injuries. One hundred eighty-six individuals from three karate clubs in Brest, France, were entered in a retrospective study extending from September 2002 to June 2003. Each athlete was asked to complete a questionnaire on karate injuries sustained during the previous year (type, location, mechanism, exercise during which the injury occurred, number of days off training and work, and medical care). Injury types were described by number of injuries and risk factors per number of injured athletes. Forty-eight (28.8%) of the 186 athletes sustained 83 injuries (63 while training and 20 while competing). The annual injury rate was 44.6 per 100 athletes. Incidence rates were similar in males and females and across the three clubs but increased with age, time spent training (3.6+/-1.7 vs. 2.9+/-1.5 h/week; P=0.001), rank (lower ranks vs. brown and black belts, P=0.015), and years of practice (7.3+/-5.5 years in athletes with injuries vs. 5.1+/-4.8 in those without injuries; P=0.03). Injuries consisted of 43 (53%) hematomas, 16 (19%) sprains, seven (7%) muscle lesions, six (7%) fractures, four (5%) malaise episodes, and seven (7%) miscellaneous lesions. Time off training occurred for 26 (31.3%) injuries and ranged from 8 to >30 days. The body region involved was the head in 22 (26.5%) injuries, the torso in eight injuries (9.6%), the upper limb in 24 (28.9%) injuries, and the lower limb in 29 (35%) injuries. Karate injuries are fairly common but usually minor. They are more likely to occur during competitions than while training. The head and limbs are the main regions involved. Longer training times per week and higher rank are associated with an increased risk of injury. Prevention seems crucial.

  6. Incidence and nature of epidemiological injuries to elite South ...

    Objectives. The study investigated the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite cricketers during a season and the possible risk factors associated with these injuries. Methods. Fourteen physiotherapists and three doctors recorded 163 injuries sustained by 88 cricketers. Results. Bowling accounted for 40.5% of the ...

  7. Low-Incidence, High-Consequence Pathogens

    2014-02-21

    Dr. Stephan Monroe, a deputy director at CDC, discusses the impact of low-incidence, high-consequence pathogens globally.  Created: 2/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  8. An evaluation of the effect of natural background radiation on cancer incidence

    Cohen, Jerry J.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between levels of natural background radiation and cancer incidence indicate no significant correlation. This observation is shown to be consistent with certain predicted effect levels of ionizing radiation on malignancy production (BEIR, ICRP). Other theoretical predictions on the effects of ionizing radiation indicate induction rates to be as high as 8 x 10 -3 cancers/person-rem. Assuming this factor were correct, then roughly one-half of the cancer incidence in the USA could be attributed to exposure to natural background radiation. By statistically testing various hypothetically assigned cancer induction rates against observed data, it is possible to develop a probabilistic perspective on the cause-effect relationship. Tests have been performed using normalized (by age, death rate, etc.) cancer incidence by state against levels of background radiation. This evaluation allows for the determination of the probability of observing the actual data given that the hypotheses were correct. Graphic relationships between hypothetically assigned radiation induced cancer rates vs. the probability of observing the actual incidence are developed and presented. It is shown that if the cancer induction rate were in excess of ∼10 -3 cancers/person-rem, it would be highly improbable that there would, in fact, be a lack of correlation between the rates of natural background radiation and cancer incidence. (author)

  9. Nature of Blame in Patient Safety Incident Reports: Mixed Methods Analysis of a National Database.

    Cooper, Jennifer; Edwards, Adrian; Williams, Huw; Sheikh, Aziz; Parry, Gareth; Hibbert, Peter; Butlin, Amy; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A culture of blame and fear of retribution are recognized barriers to reporting patient safety incidents. The extent of blame attribution in safety incident reports, which may reflect the underlying safety culture of health care systems, is unknown. This study set out to explore the nature of blame in family practice safety incident reports. We characterized a random sample of family practice patient safety incident reports from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. Reports were analyzed according to prespecified classification systems to describe the incident type, contributory factors, outcomes, and severity of harm. We developed a taxonomy of blame attribution, and we then used descriptive statistical analyses to identify the proportions of blame types and to explore associations between incident characteristics and one type of blame. Health care professionals making family practice incident reports attributed blame to a person in 45% of cases (n = 975 of 2,148; 95% CI, 43%-47%). In 36% of cases, those who reported the incidents attributed fault to another person, whereas 2% of those reporting acknowledged personal responsibility. Blame was commonly associated with incidents where a complaint was anticipated. The high frequency of blame in these safety, incident reports may reflect a health care culture that leads to blame and retribution, rather than to identifying areas for learning and improvement, and a failure to appreciate the contribution of system factors in others' behavior. Successful improvement in patient safety through the analysis of incident reports is unlikely without achieving a blame-free culture. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  11. The causes and circumstances of drinking water incidents impact consumer behaviour: Comparison of a routine versus a natural disaster incident.

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-11-18

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two "Boil Water" notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine "Boil Water" notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a "Boil Water" notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  12. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Gabriella Rundblad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3% than the routine incident (35.4%. For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  13. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food. PMID:25411725

  14. Relationship of natural incidence and radiosensitivity for bone cancer in dogs

    Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the risk coefficients for 239 Pu- or 226 Ra-induced bone cancer in two canine breeds, one with a relatively low (beagle) and the other with a very high (St. Bernard) natural incidence, indicated only slightly higher risk in the giant breed. The differences in risk for skeletal malignancy in 239 Pu and 226 Ra dogs were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Likewise, the values of the 239 Pu: 226 Ra open-quotes toxicity ratiosclose quotes for these respective breeds, using bone cancer as the endpoint, were not significantly different at the 0.05 level. The anatomical distribution of the radiation-induced bone tumors tended to be a function of both the bone mass and the skeletal distribution of the radio nuclide, not the site of predilection for naturally occurring bone neoplasia. Although the etiology of the higher natural incidence of bone cancer in the St. Bernard was not determined, several possible factors, including a higher osteoblastic activity level in the St. Bernards, are presented. These data suggest that making extrapolations of radiation-induced bone cancer risk from animals to humans is valid. 26 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    including cold-chain maintenance.[5] ... Methods. Households were consecutively sampled in high-incidence areas identified using measles epidemic surveillance data. ... ratio in under-5s was 6.9/1 000 (Department of Health, Provincial.

  16. The seasonal incidence and nature of injuries in schoolboy cricketers

    The dramatic increase in sports participation has resulted in many more .... These players all represented their school's first team during the .... physical factors on radiologic features in high periormance young fast bowlers. Sports. Medicine ...

  17. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10 5 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  18. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  19. High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating ...

    High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating hearing impaired families in Kerala: future implications. Amritkumar Pavithra, Justin Margret Jeffrey, Jayasankaran Chandru, Arabandi Ramesh and C. R. Srikumari Srisailapathy. J. Genet. 93, 207–213. Table 1. Consolidated table of GJB2 mutation status ...

  20. cricket: nature and incidence of fast-bowling injuries at an elite ...

    . T3. TT. Fig. 1. Seasonal injury incidence per anatomical area. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50 strain other sprain tear fracture bruise break dislocation. T1. T2. T3. TT. Fig. 2. The nature of injuries to fast bowlers. saJsM Vol 20 no. 2 2008.

  1. Incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic acidosis in dogs and cats.

    Hopper, K; Epstein, S E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is an important abnormality in ill and injured dogs and cats. To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic acidosis in dogs and cats that had arterial or venous blood gases measured for any reason at a university teaching hospital. Dogs and cats at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Acid base parameters and electrolyte and lactate concentrations in dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively retrieved from a computer database. Metabolic acidosis was defined as a standardized base excess (SBE) in dogs of acidosis (753 dogs and 134 cats). Primary metabolic acidosis was the most common disorder in dogs, whereas mixed acid base disorder of metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis was most common in cats. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis was more common than a high anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis; 25% of dogs and 34% of cats could not be classified as having either a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis or a high AG metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis was found commonly in this patient population and was associated with a wide variety of disease processes. Mixed acid base disorders occur frequently and routine categorization of metabolic acidosis based on the presence of high AG or hyperchloremia may be misleading in a large proportion of cases. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Ecology, feeding and natural infection by Leishmania spp. of phlebotomine sand flies in an area of high incidence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    de Ávila, Márcia Moreira; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2018-01-26

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques. The sand fly fauna was studied in different environments (i.e. forest and peridomestic environments in a rural area, and an urban forest) using Shannon traps and HP light traps to collect sand fly specimens over 13 consecutive months (December 2014 to January 2016). For investigating natural infection by Leishmania and the source of sand fly blood meals, DNA samples were extracted from female sand flies and subjected to polymerase chain reaction targeting ITS1 and cytb genes. DNA sequencing was subsequently used to identify species of Leishmania and the source of blood meals. A total of 2515 individual sand flies of 43 species were collected and identified, Trichophoromyia auraensis (839; 33.35%), Trichophoromyia spp. (537; 21.35%) and Evandromyia saulensis (187; 7.43%) were more abundant in the rural area (S = 41 species) than in the urban forest. No significant differences were found in species richness between forest and peridomestic environments in the rural area (H = 0.04; P > 0.05), but a larger number of species was found in the forest. Leishmania DNA was sequenced in 13 samples, confirming the presence of L. (V.) braziliensis in Th. auraensis (n = 1), Ev. saulensis (n = 2), Ev. walkeri (n = 1), Ps. llanosmartinsi (n = 1), Pi. nevesi (n = 2), Ps. davisi (n = 1), Ps. ayrozai (n = 1), Pa. aragaoi (n = 1), Ny. antunesi (n = 1) and Ev. infraspinosa (n

  3. Incidence of injuries in high school softball and baseball players.

    Shanley, Ellen; Rauh, Mitchell J; Michener, Lori A; Ellenbecker, Todd S

    2011-01-01

    Participation in high school sports has grown 16.1% over the last decade, but few studies have compared the overall injury risks in girls' softball and boys' baseball. To examine the incidence of injury in high school softball and baseball players. Cohort study. Greenville, South Carolina, high schools. Softball and baseball players (n = 247) from 11 high schools. Injury rates, locations, types; initial or subsequent injury; practice or game setting; positions played; seasonal trends. The overall incidence injury rate was 4.5/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), with more injuries overall in softball players (5.6/1000 AEs) than in baseball players (4.0/1000 AEs). Baseball players had a higher initial injury rate (75.9/1000 AEs) than softball players (66.4/1000 AEs): rate ratio (RR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 1.7. The initial injury rate was higher than the subsequent injury rate for the overall sample (P softball (P Softball players were more likely to be injured in a game than were baseball players (RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 0.8, 4.3). Most injuries (77%) were mild (3.5/1000 AEs). The upper extremity accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (63.3%). The incidence of injury for pitchers was 37.3% and for position players was 15.3%. The rate of injury was highest during the first month of the season (7.96/1000 AEs). The incidence of injury was low for both softball and baseball. Most injuries were minor and affected the upper extremity. The injury rates were highest in the first month of the season, so prevention strategies should be focused on minimizing injuries and monitoring players early in the season.

  4. Evolution of the ischio-iliac lordosis during natural growth and its relation with the pelvic incidence.

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Janssen, Michiel M A; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Oner, F Cumhur; Viergever, Max A; Vincken, Koen L; Castelein, René M

    2014-07-01

    Human fully upright ambulation, with fully extended hips and knees, and the body's center of gravity directly above the hips, is unique in nature, and distinguishes humans from all other mammalians. This bipedalism is made possible by the development of a lordosis between the ischium and ilium; it allows to ambulate in this unique bipedal manner, without sacrificing forceful extension of the legs. This configuration in space introduces unique biomechanical forces with relevance for a number of spinal conditions. The aim of this study was to quantify the development of this lordosis between ischium and ilium in the normal growing and adult spine and to evaluate its correlation with the well-known clinical parameter, pelvic incidence. Consecutive series of three-dimensional computed tomography scans of the abdomen of 189 children and 310 adults without spino-pelvic pathologies were used. Scan indications were trauma screening or acute abdominal pathology. Using previously validated image processing techniques, femoral heads, center of the sacral endplate and the axes of the ischial bones were semi-automatically identified. A true sagittal view of the pelvis was automatically reconstructed, on which ischio-iliac angulation and pelvic incidence were calculated. The ischio-iliac angle was defined as the angle between the axes of the ischial bones and the line from the midpoint of the sacral endplate to the center of the femoral heads. A wide natural variation of the ischio-iliac angle (3°-46°) and pelvic incidence (14°-77°) was observed. Pearson's analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the ischio-iliac angle and pelvic incidence (r = 0.558, P lordosis is unique in nature, is in harmonious continuity with the highly individual lumbar lordosis and defines the way the human spine is biomechanically loaded. The practical parameter that reflects this is the pelvic incidence; both values increase during growth and remain stable in adulthood.

  5. Cancer incidence following long-term consumption of drinking water with high inorganic selenium content.

    Vinceti, Marco; Vicentini, Massimo; Wise, Lauren A; Sacchettini, Claudio; Malagoli, Carlotta; Ballotari, Paola; Filippini, Tommaso; Malavolti, Marcella; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2018-04-16

    Selenium, a trace element to which humans are exposed mainly through diet, has been involved in the etiology of human cancer. We investigated the long-term effects of selenium exposure on cancer incidence using data from a natural experiment in Northern Italy. During the 1970s-1980s, in a part of the Italian municipality of Reggio Emilia, residents were inadvertently exposed to unusually high levels of inorganic hexavalent selenium (selenate) through drinking water. We followed the exposed residents for 28years, generating data on incidence (when available) and mortality rates for selected cancer sites; the remaining municipal residents comprised the unexposed (reference) group. We observed no substantial difference in overall cancer incidence comparing exposed and unexposed cohorts. We detected, however, a higher incidence of cancer at some sites, and for a few of them, namely cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, melanoma, urinary tract and lymphoid tissue, the excess incidence was particularly evident in the first period of follow-up but decreased over time. Overall, these results suggest that consumption of water with levels of selenium in its inorganic hexavalent form close to the European standard, 10μg/L, may have unfavourable effects on cancer incidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Video incident analysis of concussions in boys' high school lacrosse.

    Lincoln, Andrew E; Caswell, Shane V; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2013-04-01

    Boys' lacrosse has one of the highest rates of concussion among boys' high school sports. A thorough understanding of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with concussions in boys' high school lacrosse is necessary to target injury prevention efforts. To characterize common game-play scenarios and mechanisms of injury associated with concussions in boys' high school lacrosse using game video. Descriptive epidemiological study. In 25 public high schools of a single school system, 518 boys' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of concussion incidents was examined to identify game characteristics and injury mechanisms using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. A total of 34 concussions were captured on video. All concussions resulted from player-to-player bodily contact. Players were most often injured when contact was unanticipated or players were defenseless (n = 19; 56%), attempting to pick up a loose ball (n = 16; 47%), and/or ball handling (n = 14; 41%). Most frequently, the striking player's head (n = 27; 79%) was involved in the collision, and the struck player's head was the initial point of impact in 20 incidents (59%). In 68% (n = 23) of cases, a subsequent impact with the playing surface occurred immediately after the initial impact. A penalty was called in 26% (n = 9) of collisions. Player-to-player contact was the mechanism for all concussions. Most commonly, injured players were unaware of the pending contact, and the striking player used his head to initiate contact. Further investigation of preventive measures such as education of coaches and officials and enforcement of rules designed to prevent intentional head-to-head contact is warranted to reduce the incidence of concussions in boys' lacrosse.

  7. The high incidence of intestinal volvulus in Iran 1

    Saidi, Farrokh

    1969-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal volvulus gleaned from the world's medical literature spread over the past seven decades supports the contention that this bowel disorder has distinct geographical predilections. Sigmoid volvulus, invariably superimposed upon a redundancy of this part of the bowel, probably results from a functional disturbance of the colon mediated perhaps by a high-residue vegetable diet. The same factors appear to hold for small bowel volvulus, though caecal volvulus occurs strictly on the basis of preexisting anatomical abnormalities. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5350109

  8. Tax incidence on services rendered on the high seas; Incidencia de ISS sobre servicos prestados em aguas maritimas

    Paco, Daniel Hora do; Giamattey, Ricardo Henrique Dionisio; Miranda, Thales Ribamar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyze the legal aspects of the incidence of ISSQN tax (Tax on Services of any Nature), on the services provide on the high seas. Also comment the controversy surrounding the active tax competency (municipality who may be due to the tax) for the charging of the incident ISSQN on the services provided on the high seas, if overcome the arguments in favor of non-levy of the tax.

  9. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  10. Hip fracture incidence is decreasing in the high incidence area of Oslo, Norway.

    Støen, R O; Nordsletten, L; Meyer, H E; Frihagen, J F; Falch, J A; Lofthus, C M

    2012-10-01

    This study reports a significant decrease in age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture for women in Oslo, Norway, even compared with data from 1978/1979. Use of bisphosphonate may explain up to one third of the decline in the incidence. The aims of the present study were to report the current incidence of hip fractures in Oslo and to estimate the influence of bisphosphonates on the current incidence. Using the electronic diagnosis registers and lists from the operating theaters of the hospitals of Oslo, all patients with ICD-10 codes S72.0 and S72.1 (hip fracture) in 2007 were identified. Medical records of all identified patients were reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Age- and gender-specific annual incidence rates were calculated using the population of Oslo on January 1, 2007 as the population at risk. Data on the use of bisphosphonates were obtained from official registers. A total number of 1,005 hip fractures, 712 (71%) in women, were included. The age-adjusted fracture rates per 10,000 for the age group >50 years were 82.0 for women and 39.1 for men in 2007, compared with 110.8 and 41.4 in 1996/1997, 116.5 and 42.9 in 1988/1989, and 97.5 and 34.5 in 1978/1979, respectively. It was estimated that the use of bisphosphonates may explain up to 13% of the decline in incidence in women aged 60-69 years and up to 34% in women aged 70-79 years. The incidence of hip fractures in women in Oslo has decreased significantly during the last decade and is now at a lower level than in 1978/1979. This reduction was not evident in men. The incidence of hip fractures in Oslo is, however, still the highest in the world.

  11. High fall incidence and fracture rate in elderly dialysis patients.

    Polinder-Bos, H A; Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Gansevoort, R T; Diepenbroek, A; Gaillard, C A J M

    2014-12-01

    Although it is recognised that the dialysis population is ageing rapidly, geriatric complications such as falls are poorly appreciated, despite the many risk factors for falls in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, complications and risk factors for falls in an elderly dialysis population. A one-year observational study of chronic dialysis patients aged ≥ 70 years. At baseline, patient characteristics were noted and during follow-up the vital parameters and laboratory values were recorded. Patients were questioned weekly about falls, fall circumstances and consequences by trained nurses. 49 patients were included with a median age of 79.3 years (70-89 years). During follow-up 40 fall accidents occurred in 27 (55%) patients. Falls resulted in fractures in 15% of cases and in hospital admissions in 15%. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) before HD was lower in fallers compared with non-fallers (130 vs. 143 mmHg). Several patients in the lower blood pressure category received antihypertensive medication. For every 5 mmHg lower SBP (before HD) the fall risk increased by 30% (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.65, p = 0.03). Furthermore, fall risk increased by 22% for every 10 pmol/l rise of parathyroid hormone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.39, p = 0.004). Elderly dialysis patients have a high incidence of falls accompanied by a high fracture rate. Given the high complication rate, elderly patients at risk of falling should be identified and managed. Reduction of blood pressure-lowering medication might be a treatment strategy to reduce falls.

  12. High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis persists a decade after immigration, The Netherlands

    Vos, Annelies M.; Meima, Abraham; Verver, Suzanne; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Bos, Vivian; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2004-01-01

    Incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis among immigrants from high incidence countries remain high for at least a decade after immigration into the Netherlands. Possible explanations are reactivation of old infections and infection transmitted after immigration. Control policies should be

  13. Public transportation and tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence setting.

    Zamudio, Carlos; Krapp, Fiorella; Choi, Howard W; Shah, Lena; Ciampi, Antonio; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Heymann, Jody; Seas, Carlos; Brewer, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission may occur with exposure to an infectious contact often in the setting of household environments, but extra-domiciliary transmission also may happen. We evaluated if using buses and/or minibuses as public transportation was associated with acquiring TB in a high incidence urban district in Lima, Peru. Newly diagnosed TB cases with no history of previous treatment and community controls were recruited from August to December 2008 for a case-control study. Crude and adjusted odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression to study the association between bus/minibus use and TB risk. One hundred forty TB cases and 80 controls were included. The overall use of buses/minibuses was 44.9%; 53.3% (72/135) among cases and 30.4% (24/79) among controls [OR: 3.50, (95% CI: 1.60-7.64)]. In the TB group, 25.7% (36/140) of subjects reported having had a recent household TB contact, and 13% (18/139) reported having had a workplace TB contact; corresponding figures for controls were 3.8% (3/80) and 4.1% (3/73), respectively[OR: 8.88 (95% CI: 2.64-29.92), and OR: 3.89 (95% CI: 1.10-13.70)]. In multivariate analyses, age, household income, household contact and using buses/minibuses to commute to work were independently associated with TB [OR for bus/minibus use: 11.8 (95% CI: 1.45-96.07)]. Bus/minibus use to commute to work is associated with TB risk in this high-incidence, urban population in Lima, Peru. Measures should be implemented to prevent TB transmission through this exposure.

  14. Natural gas : a highly lucrative commodity

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration and production of natural gas has become highly profitable as natural gas is becoming a leading future commodity. With new technology, high demand and environmental benefits, natural gas is the preferred choice over petroleum as the leading source of energy to heat home and businesses. Canada is the world's third largest producer of natural gas with its Sable Offshore Energy Project being the fourth largest producing natural gas basin in North America. The basin will produce high quality sweet natural gas from 28 production wells over the course of the next 20 to 25 years. The gas will be transported to markets through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and into the Northeastern United States via the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline. The 1051 kilometer underground gas pipeline is currently running laterals to Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick. Market studies are being conducted to determine if additional lines are needed to serve Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and northern New Brunswick. A recent survey identified the following 5 reasons to convert to natural gas: (1) it is safe, (2) it is reliable, (3) it is easy to use, (4) it is cleaner burning and environmentally friendly compared to other energy sources, and (5) it saves the consumer money

  15. Incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats.

    Ha, Y-S; Hopper, K; Epstein, S E

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine; Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin; Draper, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  17. Nature and incidence of severe limbal stem cell deficiency in Australia and New Zealand.

    Bobba, Samantha; Di Girolamo, Nick; Mills, Richard; Daniell, Mark; Chan, Elsie; Harkin, Damien G; Cronin, Brendan G; Crawford, Geoffrey; McGhee, Charles; Watson, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the nature and incidence of severe limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) in Australia and New Zealand. A 1-year pilot surveillance study with a 1-year follow-up period was conducted in association with the Australian and New Zealand Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit. The study included patients reported by practising ophthalmologists on the Surveillance Unit's database. Ophthalmologists were provided with a definition of severe limbal stem cell deficiency, contacted on a monthly basis by the Unit and asked to report newly diagnosed cases. Severe LSCD was defined as at least 6 clock hours of whorl-like epitheliopathy, an opaque epithelium arising from the limbus, late fluorescein staining of the involved epithelium and superficial corneal neovascularization or conjunctivalization. On average, 286 report cards were sent by the Surveillance Unit to practising ophthalmologists each month (total 3429 over 12 months) and the Unit received an average of 176 responses per month (total 2111; 62% response rate). During the 1-year study period from April 2013 to March 2014, 14 positive cases were reported to the Unit. A range of underlying aetiologies were implicated, with contact lens over-wear and cicatrizing conjunctivitis being the most common (n = 3). This surveillance study is the first worldwide to document the incidence of limbal stem cell deficiency; however, because of study design limitations, it is likely to have been under-reported. It provides novel data on the demographics, clinical conditions and management of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency as reported by treating ophthalmologists. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. High fall incidence and fracture rate in elderly dialysis patients

    Polinder-Bos, H. A.; Emmelot-Vonk, M. H.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Diepenbroek, A.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although it is recognised that the dialysis population is ageing rapidly, geriatric complications such as falls are poorly appreciated, despite the many risk factors for falls in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, complications and risk factors

  19. High incidence of acute and recurrent patellar dislocations

    Gravesen, Kasper Skriver; Kallemose, Thomas; Blønd, Lars

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the Danish population as a whole from 1994 to 2013 to find the incidence of acute and recurrent patellar dislocation. METHODS: The study was performed as a descriptive epidemiological study. The Danish National Patient Registry was retrospecti...

  20. The incidence and nature of injuries in South African rugby players in the rugby Super 12 competition.

    Holtzhausen, Louis J; Schwellnus, Martin P; Jakoet, Ismail; Pretorius, A L

    2006-12-01

    There are sparse scientific data concerning the aetiology and incidence of injuries in the Super 12 rugby competition. Aim. The aim of the study was to document the incidence, nature and risk factors associated with injuries during a Super 12 rugby competition. Injuries, defined as injuries preventing playing or training, or requiring medical treatment, were recorded in a cohort of 75 South African Super 12 players over one season. Injury severity was graded according to sessions missed: minor (1 - 3 missed), intermediate (4 - 9) and severe (> 9). During the tournament, a total of 740 player game hours and 4 900 player training hours were recorded. The overall incidence of injuries was 55.4 injuries/1,000 player game hours, and 4.3 injuries/1,000 player training hours. The most common injury types were: ligament sprains (25.8%), musculotendinous strains/tears (24.2%). The most common injured sites were: pelvis, hip (19.3%), head and knee (12.9% each). The tackle caused 40.3%, and rucks and mauls 11.3% of injuries. Injuries sustained during training accounted for 34%, and chronic overuse injuries 9.7% of injuries. There is a high injury rate during a Super 12 rugby competition. However, the majority of injuries were minor injuries. The most dangerous phase of play was the tackle. Training in tackling and rucking techniques, and rule enforcement are therefore recommended to reduce risk of injury. Injuries tended to occur late in games and early in the season, suggesting lack of physical conditioning and fatigue as possible causes of injury.

  1. Natural biostimulants reduce the incidence of BER in sweet yellow pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse pepper production should evolve towards more sustainable systems. The growing technique which combines soilless culture and biostimulants may reduce nutrient and water use with beneficial impact on the environment. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate effects of biostimulants application on hydroponically produced pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. in conditions of reduced fertilization. Positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed along with significant decrease in incidence of blossom-end rot (BER in two pepper cultivars. Biostimulants application resulted in overall increase in macro- and microelement content in fruits of treated pepper cultivars. Generally, biostimulants improved the yield of pepper plants grown hydroponically by increasing the nutrient uptake and decreasing the occurrence of BER. Thus, the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment.

  2. The incidence and characteristics of supraventricular tachycardia in left atrial isomerism: a high incidence of atrial fibrillation in young patients.

    Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Ohuchi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Takehiro; Negishi, Jun; Toyota, Naoki; Kagisaki, Koji; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Yamada, Osamu

    2013-06-20

    In left atrial isomerism (LAI), both atria show left atrial morphology. Although bradyarrhythmias are frequent and highly complex in LAI patients, previous studies have reported a low incidence of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of SVT in LAI, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics of SVTs in 83 patients with LAI (age at last follow-up, 15.3±10.5 years). There were 27 SVTs in 19 patients (23%), including nine episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF) and eight non-reentrant SVTs. Sixteen of the 19 patients with SVT had histories of atriotomy, but the three patients with AF or non-reentrant tachycardia had no history of atriotomy. The rates of freedom from SVT were 66% and 59% at ages of 20 and 30 years, respectively; the corresponding rates for freedom from AF were 89% and 74%. In multivariate analysis, the predictors of SVT were age (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26; p=0.003) and sinus node dysfunction (SND) (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.57-13.34; p=0.01). In patients with LAI, SVTs are common, and AF and non-reentrant SVTs are the major type of SVTs. The incidence of AF was high in young patients with LAI. The lack of anatomical barriers in the atria that allow the formation of macro-reentrant circuits may account for the higher incidence of AF and non-reentrant SVT than macro-reentrant tachycardia. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of SND with age should contribute to a higher incidence of SVT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  4. 75 FR 80735 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    2010-12-23

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-10-03-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes associated with the use of high incidence protection... transport airplane with an executive cabin interior. The maximum takeoff weight will be 99,600 pounds, with...

  5. 76 FR 17022 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    2011-03-28

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-423-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... for transport category airplanes associated with the use of high incidence protection. The applicable... with an executive cabin interior. The maximum takeoff weight will be 99,600 pounds, with a maximum...

  6. 77 FR 32006 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    2012-05-31

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-423-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... pertaining to a high incidence protection system that replaces the stall warning system during normal... the condition existing in the test or performance standard in which V SR is being used. (3) The weight...

  7. Insomnia and incident depression: role of objective sleep duration and natural history.

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shea, Sarah; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2015-08-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined the association of insomnia with incident depression using objective sleep measures are very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive role of the severity of insomnia for incident depression in a general population sample using psychometric and polysomnographic data. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the Penn State Adult Cohort, 1137 adults without depression were followed up with a structured telephone interview after 7.5 years. All subjects completed a full medical evaluation, 1-night polysomnogram and Multiphasic Minnesota Personality Inventory at baseline. The incidence of depression was 15%. Poor sleep (odds ratio = 1.5, P = 0.001) and insomnia (odds ratio = 1.9, P = 0.031) were significantly associated with incident depression. The odds of incident depression were highest (odds ratio = 2.2, P = 0.019) in insomnia with objective short sleep duration and independent of Multiphasic Minnesota Personality Inventory Ego Strength scores, an index of poor coping resources. The persistence of insomnia and worsening of poor sleep into insomnia significantly increased the odds of incident depression (odds ratios ranged from 1.8 to 6.3), whereas their full remission did not (odds ratio ranged from 1.2 to 1.8). Insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with incident depression independent of poor coping resources, whereas the association of insomnia with normal sleep duration with incident depression was mediated by poor coping resources. Persistence and worsening of poor sleep or insomnia, but not their full remission, are significant predictors of incident depression. These data suggest that there is a significant relationship between the severity of insomnia and incident depression. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  9. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Massey Peter D; Durrheim David N; Stephens Nicola; Christensen Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local ar...

  10. The operating experience and incident analysis for High Flux Engineering Test Reactor

    Zhao Guang

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the incidents analysis for High Flux Engineering test reactor (HFETR) and introduces operating experience. Some suggestion have been made to reduce the incidents of HFETR. It is necessary to adopt new improvements which enhance the safety and reliability of operation. (author)

  11. Estimating the impact of natural and technogenic factors on the incidence of malignant neoplasms in Altai krai

    Romanov, A. N.; Kovrigin, A. O.; Lazarev, A. F.; Lubennikov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution by industry and motor vehicles, the use of coal ash for the construction of residential and nonresidential buildings, and the presence of dead zones in the residential sector are the main factors of carcinogenic risk to human health. Natural factors (such as topography and prevailing wind directions) can weaken or strengthen technogenic factors. Based on the estimate of pollutant concentrations in the snow cover of Barnaul, we reveal residential areas that are located at the crossroads of atmospheric transport of carcinogenic substances and characterized by concentrations considerably exceeding the maximum allowable concentration. These areas are characterized by the integral accumulation of carcinogenic substances concurrently from multiple sources; for almost any wind rose, the impact of one of the pollution sources is observed throughout the year. The assessment of the carcinogenic risk for a territory depends much on the correlation between local topography and the height of apartments above ground level. Using cancer register data for Barnaul, we reveal an increased level of the incidence of malignant neoplasms in people living in high-rise buildings located in areas with a sharp change in topography (such as ledges, hills, and lowlands). This may occur due to stagnant zones and wind shadows; under certain correlation between topography and the height and shape of buildings, carcinogenic substances accumulate maximally.

  12. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  13. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  14. Incidence of infective endocarditis among patients considered at high risk

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Patients with prior infective endocarditis (IE), a prosthetic heart valve, or a cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) are considered to be at high risk of IE by guidelines. However, knowledge is sparse on the relative risk of IE between these three groups and compared controls. Methods...

  15. Consumption tax incidence: evidence from natural experiment in the Czech Republic

    Zápal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 149-166 ISSN 1802-792X Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : tax incidence * value added tax * difference-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vsfs.cz/periodika/acta-2014-02.pdf

  16. Consumption tax incidence: evidence from natural experiment in the Czech Republic

    Zápal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 149-166 ISSN 1802-792X Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : tax incidence * value added tax * difference-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vsfs.cz/periodika/acta-2014-02.pdf

  17. Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna

    2018-02-14

    Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neurotensin receptors in human neoplasms: high incidence in Ewing's sarcomas.

    Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Schaer, J C; Laissue, J A

    1999-07-19

    Receptors for regulatory peptides, such as somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), expressed at high density by neoplastic cells, can be instrumental for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Little is known about the expression of neurotensin receptors in human tumors. In the present study, 464 human neoplasms of various types were investigated for their neurotensin receptor content by in vitro receptor autoradiography on tissue sections using 125I-[Tyr3]-neurotensin as radioligand. Neurotensin receptors were identified and localized in tumor cells of 11/17 Ewing's sarcomas, 21/40 meningiomas, 10/23 astrocytomas, 5/13 medulloblastomas, 7/24 medullary thyroid cancers and 2/8 small cell lung cancers. They were rarely found in non-small cell lung cancers and breast carcinomas; they were absent in prostate, ovarian, renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, neuroendocrine gut tumors, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas, neuroblastomas and lymphomas. When present, the receptors bound with nanomolar affinity neurotensin and acetyl-neurotensin-(8-13), with lower affinity neuromedin N, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acidneurotensin-(8-13) and SR 48692, but not neurotensin-(1-11). They were all of the NT1 type, without high affinity for levocabastine. Further, in 2 receptor-positive Ewing's sarcomas, neurotensin mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization techniques. Since neurotensin is known to stimulate cell proliferation, the presence of neurotensin receptors in human neoplasia may be of biological relevance, possibly as an integrative part of an autocrine feedback mechanism of tumor growth stimulation.

  19. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...... potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID...... was observed in all but two patients. In these two patients, the electrode strip had been placed over infarcted tissue, and accordingly, no local ECoG or recurrent transient depolarization activity occurred throughout the observation period. Interpretation: CSD and PID occurred spontaneously with high...

  20. Dealing Collectively with Critical Incident Stress Reactions in High Risk Work Environments

    Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Vogt, joachim

    2015-01-01

    organisations. Indeed, we found that the CISM programme once integrated within the socio-cultural patterns of this specific working environment enhanced not only individual feelings of being supported but also organisational safety culture. Keywords: coping; safety culture; critical incident stress management......aim of this paper is to shift the representation of coping patterns within high risk occupations to an existential part of cultural pattern and social structure, which characterises high reliability organisations. Drawing upon the specific peer model of critical incident stress management (CISM......), in which qualified operational peers support colleagues who experienced critical incident stress, the paper discusses critical incident stress management in air traffic control. Our study revealed coping patterns that co-vary with the culture that the CISM programme fostered within this specific high...

  1. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural History of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Mexican Schoolchildren: Incidence and Spontaneous Clearance

    Duque, Ximena; Vilchis, Jenny; Mera, Robertino; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Goodman, Karen J.; Mendoza, Maria-Eugenia; Navarro, Fabiola; Roque, Victoria; Moran, Segundo; Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and spontaneous clearance rate of Helicobacter pylori infection and the effect of some variables on these outcomes in schoolchildren. Methods From May 2005 to December 2010, 718 schoolchildren enrolled in 3 public boarding schools in Mexico City participated in the follow-up. At the beginning of the study and every 6 months thereafter, breath samples were taken to detect H pylori infection; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were taken to evaluate nutritional status. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected. Results The prevalence of H pylori infection was 38%. The incidence rate was 6.36%/year. Schoolchildren with anemia or iron deficiency at the beginning of the study (who received iron supplements) showed a higher infection acquisition rate than those with normal iron nutritional status, hazard ratio (HR) 12.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.01%–39.12%), P <0.001 and HR 2.05 (95% CI 1.09%–3.87%), P = 0.027, respectively. The spontaneous clearance rate of the infection was 4.74%/year. The spontaneous clearance rate was higher in children who had iron deficiency (who received iron supplements), HR 5.02 (95% CI 1.33%–18.99%), P = 0.017, compared with those with normal nutritional iron status. It was lower in schoolchildren with ≥2 siblings compared with schoolchildren with 1 or no siblings, HR 0.23 (95% CI 0.08%–0.63%), P = 0.004. Conclusions H pylori infection status is dynamic in schoolchildren. Variables related to health status and infection transmission, such as iron status and number of siblings, are important for the incidence and spontaneous clearance of H pylori infection. PMID:22227999

  3. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Massey Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB incidence state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19

  4. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth.

    Massey, Peter D; Durrheim, David N; Stephens, Nicola; Christensen, Amanda

    2013-01-22

    The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas' country of birth profiles. TB notification data for the three year period 2006-2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5-19 years age group. Analysing local area TB rates and possible

  5. Risk Factors Associated with Incident Syphilis in a Cohort of High-Risk Men in Peru

    Konda, Kelika A.; Roberts, Chelsea P.; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Leon, Segundo R.; Clark, Jesse L.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Syphilis is concentrated among high-risk groups, but the epidemiology of syphilis reinfection is poorly understood. We characterized factors associated with syphilis incidence, including reinfection, in a high-risk cohort in Peru. Methods Participants in the NIMH CPOL trial were assessed at baseline and 2 annual visits with HIV/STI testing and behavioral surveys. Participants diagnosed with syphilis also attended 4- and 9-month visits. All participants underwent syphilis testing with RPR screening and TPPA confirmation. Antibiotic treatment was provided according to CDC guidelines. Reinfection was defined as a 4-fold titer increase or recurrence of seroreactivity after successful treatment with subsequent negative RPR titers. The longitudinal analysis used a Possion generalized estimating equations model with backward selection of variables in the final model (criteria P <0.02). Results Of 2,709 participants, 191 (7.05%) were RPR-reactive (median 1:8, range 1:1–1:1024) with TPPA confirmation. There were 119 total cases of incident syphilis, which included both reinfection and first-time incident cases. In the bivariate analysis, the oldest 2 quartiles of age (incidence ratio (IR) 3.84; P <0.001 and IR 8.15; P <0.001) and being MSM/TW (IR 6.48; P <0.001) were associated with higher risk of incident syphilis infection. Of the sexual risk behaviors, older age of sexual debut (IR 12.53; P <0.001), not being in a stable partnership (IR 1.56, P = 0.035), higher number of sex partners (IR 3.01; P <0.001), unprotected sex in the past 3 months (IR 0.56; P = 0.003), HIV infection at baseline (IR 3.98; P <0.001) and incident HIV infection during the study period (IR 6.26; P = 0.003) were all associated with incident syphilis. In the multivariable analysis, older age group (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR) 6.18; P <0.001), men reporting having sex with a man (aIR 4.63; P <0.001), and incident HIV infection (aIR 4.48; P = 0.008) were significantly associated

  6. Natural Killer/T-cell Neoplasms: Analysis of Incidence, Patient Characteristics, and Survival Outcomes in the United States.

    Kommalapati, Anuhya; Tella, Sri Harsha; Ganti, Apar Kishore; Armitage, James O

    2018-05-04

    Limited data are available regarding the incidence, survival patterns, and long-term outcomes of natural killer (NK)/T-cell neoplasms in the United States. We performed a retrospective study of patients with NK/T-cell neoplasms diagnosed from 2001 to 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the overall survival difference among the subgroups. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the factors affecting survival. For the 797 patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, the median age at diagnosis was 53 years, and males tended to be younger at diagnosis (P < .0001). The incidence of the disease increased from 0.4 in 2001 to 0.8 in 2014 per 1,000,000 individuals. The incidence was significantly greater in Hispanic patients compared with that in non-Hispanic patients (rate ratio, 3.03; P = .0001). The median overall survival was 20 months (range, 2-73 months) and varied significantly according to the primary site (P < .0001) and the disease stage at diagnosis (P < .0001). NK/T-cell lymphoma patients had an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (standardized incidence ratio, 18.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-67.81). For the 105 NK/T-cell leukemia patients, the median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range, 4-95 years). The overall incidence of the disease was 0.09 per 1,000,000 individuals and was significantly greater in males (rate ratio, 0.41; P < .0001). Unlike NK/T-cell lymphoma, no racial disparities were found in the incidence. The median overall survival was 17 months (range, 0-36 months). The incidence of NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in the United States has at least doubled in the past decade, with the greatest predilection among Hispanics. Patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma might have an increased risk of the subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence and Nature of Medical Attendance Injuries in English Community Rugby Union

    Roberts, Simon P.; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified injury patterns during community-level rugby union match play, but none have investigated the frequency and reasons for on-field injury management. Purpose: To establish the frequency, reasons, and patterns of on-field injury management in English community rugby, including differences between different levels of play. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over 3 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), and 76 (2011-2012) English community clubs (Rugby Football Union [RFU] levels 3-9). Club injury management staff reported information for all medical attendances during match play, including details on the injury site and type, playing position (seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 only), and whether the player was removed from play. Clubs were subdivided into groups A (RFU levels 3 and 4 [mainly semiprofessional]; n = 39), B (RFU levels 5 and 6 [mainly amateur]; n = 71), and C (RFU levels 7-9 [social and recreational]; n = 79) to differentiate playing levels. Results: The overall medical attendance incidence was 229 per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 226-232), with 45 players removed per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 44-46). Attendance incidence for group A (294 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 287-301) was higher compared with group B (213; 95% CI, 208-218; P < .001) and C (204; 95% CI, 200-209; P < .001). There was a higher incidence of attendances to forwards (254; 95% CI, 249-259) compared with backs (191; 95% CI, 187-196; P < .001). The head was the most common specific site of injury (55 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 53-57) but the lower limb region overall accounted for most attendances (87; 95% CI, 85-89) and the greatest chance of removal from the pitch (22; 95% CI, 21-23). Conclusion: With the likelihood of 1 injury for each team per match severe enough for the player to leave the pitch and with at least 1 attendance for a head injury per match

  8. Project Pocos de Caldas Plateau: cancer research and natural radioactivity - incidence and risk behavior

    Antoniazzi, Berenice Navarro; Otero, Ubirani Barros

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established by epidemiological studies that long term exposure due to radon increases the risk of lung cancer. While smoking continues to account for the bulk of lung cancers, it is been estimated that radon accounts for around 10% of all lung cancers. There is a synergistic relationship between smoking and radon and exposure due to radon is the primary cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Recognizing the importance of radon as a source of radiation exposure, the IAEA safety standard Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (generally referred to simply as the BSS) contains requirements aimed at reducing the associated risks. The BSS requires Member States to provide information on the levels of radon indoors and the associated health effects, and if appropriate, to establish and implement a radon action plan for controlling public exposure due to radon indoors. Although not specifically stated, it is clear that in order to decide whether or not an action plan is necessary, some measurement data must be available on the concentrations of radon present indoors. To assist in the implementation of the BSS, the Agency has also developed a Safety Guide: Protection of the Public against Exposure indoors due do Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation. This Safety Guide provides guidance on establishing and implementing a national radon action plan; developing national radon policy; undertaking national and regional surveys of radon in dwellings; measurement protocols; setting a reference level for dwellings; defining radon prone areas; radon control through building codes; and evaluation of programme effectiveness. While many sources of radiation exposure are not amenable to control, proven and effective building practices exist to limit the accumulation of radon in new buildings and cost-effective corrective actions have been developed to reduce high radon concentrations in existing buildings. The

  9. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  10. Peak incidence of distal radius fractures due to ice skating on natural ice in The Netherlands

    van Lieshout, Arno P. W.; van Manen, Christiaan J.; du Pré, Karel J.; Kleinlugtenbelt, Ydo V.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Goslings, J. Carel; Kloen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    An increase of distal radius fractures was seen in 2009 when an extended cold spell allowed natural ice skating in Amsterdam. This resulted in overload of our Emergency Departments and operating rooms. This study reports patient and fracture characteristics of these injuries. We also determined

  11. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  12. Microbial Forensics for Natural and Intentional Incidents of Infectious Disease Involving Animals

    2006-01-01

    Microbiologie medico-legale. ~ Microbiologia foren~e para ca£J~s de erderm®rdJ©lrdJ®$ DlTil~®©©D@$©l$ d® origen natural o intenciorm~d(il qa.u~ tEl~~ct...ll1 iBl ©lll1Dm©l~®$ S.A. McEwen, T.M Wilson, D.A. Ashford, E. D. Heegaard, T. Kuiken & B. Kournikakis Resumen La microbiologia forense es una... microbiologia y epidemiologia tradicionales, pero opera dentro de un marco juridico especifico. Entre las importantes razones que motivan una

  13. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs.

  14. Incidence and nature of tumors induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by gamma-irradiation

    Gross, L.; Dreyfuss, Y.; Faraggiana, T.

    1988-01-01

    In our previous studies carried out on inbred rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, the tumor incidence was increased following irradiation (150 rads, 5 times, at weekly intervals), from 22 to 93% in females and from 5 to 59% in males. Experiments here reported suggest that 2 consecutive total-body gamma-irradiations of 150 rads each are sufficient to induce in rats the development of tumors, some malignant; 18 of 19 females (94.7%) developed tumors at an average age of 11.4 mo, and seven of the 14 males in this group (50%) developed tumors at an average age of 10.4 mo. In the second group, which received 3 consecutive gamma-irradiations, 20 of 23 females (86.9%) and 5 of 13 males (38.4%) developed tumors at average ages of 9.1 and 7.5 mo, respectively. In the third group, among rats which received 4 consecutive gamma-irradiations, 17 of 19 females (89.4%) and 4 of 12 males (33.3%) developed tumors at average ages of 9.4 and 10.5 mo, respectively. The etiology of tumors either developing spontaneously or induced by irradiation in rats remains to be clarified. Our attempts to detect virus particles by electron microscopy in such tumors or lymphomas have not been successful. As a working hypothesis, we are tempted to theorize that tumors or lymphomas developing spontaneously or induced by gamma irradiation in rats are caused by latent viral agents which are integrated into the cell genome and are cell associated, i.e., not separable from the rat tumor cells by conventional methods thus far used

  15. The Dynamic Character of the Flow Over a 3.5 Caliber Tangent-Ogive Cylinder in Steady and Maneuvering States at High Incidence

    Zeiger, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Although complex, inconsistent and fickle, the time-averaged flow over a stationary slender forebody is generally well-understood. However, the nature of unsteady, time-varying flows over slender forebodies - whether due to the natural unsteadiness or forced maneuvering - is not well-understood. This body of work documents three experimental investigations into the unsteadiness of the flow over a 3.5 caliber tangent-ogive cylinder at high angles of incidence. The goal of the investigations...

  16. Incidence Rate of Canonical vs. Derived Medical Terminology in Natural Language.

    Topac, Vasile; Jurcau, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    Medical terminology appears in the natural language in multiple forms: canonical, derived or inflected form. This research presents an analysis of the form in which medical terminology appears in Romanian and English language. The sources of medical language used for the study are web pages presenting medical information for patients and other lay users. The results show that, in English, medical terminology tends to appear more in canonical form while, in the case of Romanian, it is the opposite. This paper also presents the service that was created to perform this analysis. This tool is available for the general public, and it is designed to be easily extensible, allowing the addition of other languages.

  17. Mycoflora and Natural Incidence of Selected Mycotoxins in Rabbit and Chinchilla Feeds

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that cause a toxic response when ingested by animals or man. Demand of natural fur, such as those from rabbit and chinchilla, produced under controlled conditions, has increased worldwide. The toxicogenic mycoflora contaminating feeds for these animals was enumerated and identified. Six of the major mycotoxins implicated in animal mycotoxicosis were detected and quantified. Moulds count ranged from <10 to 4.7×105 CFU g-1; 14% of the samples exceeded the limit that determines hygienic feed quality. More than twenty species belonging to the five most important mycotoxigenic mould genera were recovered. Among the analyzed mycotoxins, aflatoxins were recovered in 100% of the examined samples, deoxynivalenol in 95%, fumonisins in 100%, ochratoxin A in 98%, T2 toxin in 98%, and zearalenone in 100%. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins was observed in 100% of the samples analyzed. Exposure to multiple mycotoxins was thus demonstrated for these animals.

  18. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  19. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  20. Collagen Fibrils: Nature's Highly Tunable Nonlinear Springs.

    Andriotis, Orestis G; Desissaire, Sylvia; Thurner, Philipp J

    2018-03-21

    Tissue hydration is well known to influence tissue mechanics and can be tuned via osmotic pressure. Collagen fibrils are nature's nanoscale building blocks to achieve biomechanical function in a broad range of biological tissues and across many species. Intrafibrillar covalent cross-links have long been thought to play a pivotal role in collagen fibril elasticity, but predominantly at large, far from physiological, strains. Performing nanotensile experiments of collagen fibrils at varying hydration levels by adjusting osmotic pressure in situ during atomic force microscopy experiments, we show the power the intrafibrillar noncovalent interactions have for defining collagen fibril tensile elasticity at low fibril strains. Nanomechanical tensile tests reveal that osmotic pressure increases collagen fibril stiffness up to 24-fold in transverse (nanoindentation) and up to 6-fold in the longitudinal direction (tension), compared to physiological saline in a reversible fashion. We attribute the stiffening to the density and strength of weak intermolecular forces tuned by hydration and hence collagen packing density. This reversible mechanism may be employed by cells to alter their mechanical microenvironment in a reversible manner. The mechanism could also be translated to tissue engineering approaches for customizing scaffold mechanics in spatially resolved fashion, and it may help explain local mechanical changes during development of diseases and inflammation.

  1. Simple heuristic derivation of some charge-transfer probabilities at asymptotically high incident velocities

    Spruch, L.; Shakeshaft, R.

    1984-01-01

    For asymptotically high incident velocities we provide simple, heuristic, almost classical, derivations of the cross section for forward charge transfer, and of the ratio of the cross section for capture to the elastic-scattering cross section for the projectile scattered through an angle close to π/3

  2. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families with High Incidences of Stuttering

    Stager, Sheila V.; Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method: Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert…

  3. Metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles in cows from herds with high or low mastitis incidence.

    Holtenius, K; Persson Waller, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Holtenius, P; Hallén Sandgren, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.

  4. Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

  5. In-flight medical emergencies during airline operations: a survey of physicians on the incidence, nature, and available medical equipment

    Hinkelbein J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jochen Hinkelbein,1,2 Christopher Neuhaus,2,3 Lennert Böhm,1 Steffen Kalina,1 Stefan Braunecker1,2 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, 2Working group “Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue”, German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society.Materials and methods: Using unipark.de (QuestBack GmbH, Cologne, Germany, an online survey was developed and used to gather specific information. Members of the German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin e.V.; DGLRM were invited to participate in the survey during a 4-week period (21 March 2015 to 20 April 2015. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Altogether, 121 members of the society responded to the survey (n=335 sent out. Of the 121 respondents, n=54 (44.6% of the participants (89.9% male and 10.1% female; mean age, 54.1 years; n=121 were involved in at least one in-flight medical emergency. Demographic parameters in this survey were in concordance with the society members’ demographics. The mean duration of flights was 5.7 hours and the respondents performed 7.1 airline flights per year (median. Cardiovascular (40.0% and neurological disorders (17.8% were the most frequent diagnoses. The medical equipment (78.7% provided was sufficient. An emergency diversion was

  6. Developing Flanagan's critical incident technique to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing care from patients and their nurses.

    Norman, I J; Redfern, S J; Tomalin, D A; Oliver, S

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a development of Flanagan's critical incident technique (CIT) to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing from patients and their nurses on medical, surgical and elderly care wards. Stages in undertaking the CIT are identified and presuppositions held by most researchers about the nature of the technique are identified. The paper describes how the authors moved to a different set of presuppositions during the course of the study. Preliminary analysis of interview transcripts revealed that critical incidents need not always be demarcated scenes with a clear beginning and end, but may arise from respondents summarizing their overall experience within their description of one incident. Characteristically respondents were unable to give a detailed account of such incidents but validity may be established by the fact that respondents appear to recount what actually happened as they saw it, and what they said was clearly important to them. The researchers found that the most appropriate basic unit of analysis was not the incident itself but 'happenings' revealed by incidents that are 'critical' by virtue of being important to respondents with respect to the quality of nursing care. The importance of CIT researchers achieving an understanding of the 'meaning' of critical happenings to respondents is emphasized. Analysis of the interview transcripts is facilitated by the use of INGRES, a relational database computer program which should enable a 'personal theory' of quality nursing for each respondent, both patients and nurses, to be described. The study suggests that the CIT is a flexible technique which may be adapted to meet the demands of nursing research. If carefully applied, the CIT seems capable of capitalizing on respondents' own stories and avoids the loss of information which occurs when complex narratives are reduced to simple descriptive categories. Patients and nurses have unique perspectives on nursing and their views are of

  7. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the optimum level of iodine intake for iodine supplementation programmes, or about the effects of the high levels of iodine intake that are found in some countries. We compared the incidence of different types of hyperthyroidism in East-Jutland Denmark with a low average...... that even mild iodine deficiency has a significant effect on population health, since it leads to a high incidence of autonomous thyroid nodules with hyperthyroidism in the elderly population. However, population iodine intake probably should not exceed a level much higher than that necessary to avoid...... iodine intake but no endemic goitre, and the incidence in Iceland with a relatively high iodine intake. Hyperthyroidism was more common in East-Jutland than in Iceland, due to a much higher incidence of multinodular toxic goitre and also of single toxic adenoma. Most of the patients with these diseases...

  8. Video incident analysis of head injuries in high school girls' lacrosse.

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with head injuries in girls' high school lacrosse is necessary to target prevention efforts. To use video analysis and injury data to provide an objective and comprehensive visual record to identify mechanisms of injury, game characteristics, and penalties associated with head injury in girls' high school lacrosse. Descriptive epidemiology study. In the 25 public high schools of 1 school system, 529 varsity and junior varsity girls' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of head injury incidents was examined to identify associated mechanisms and game characteristics using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. Of the 25 head injuries (21 concussions and 4 contusions) recorded as game-related incidents by athletic trainers during the 2 seasons, 20 head injuries were captured on video, and 14 incidents had sufficient image quality for analysis. All 14 incidents of head injury (11 concussions, 3 contusions) involved varsity-level athletes. Most head injuries resulted from stick-to-head contact (n = 8), followed by body-to-head contact (n = 4). The most frequent player activities were defending a shot (n = 4) and competing for a loose ball (n = 4). Ten of the 14 head injuries occurred inside the 12-m arc and in front of the goal, and no penalty was called in 12 injury incidents. All injuries involved 2 players, and most resulted from unintentional actions. Turf versus grass did not appear to influence number of head injuries. Comprehensive video analysis suggests that play near the goal at the varsity high school level is associated with head injuries. Absence of penalty calls on most of these plays suggests an area for exploration, such as the extent to which current rules are enforced and the effectiveness of existing rules for the prevention of head injury.

  9. The attitude towards nature, and incidence of sexual intimacy among students at a South African University.

    Meyer, J C; Le Roux, J A

    1994-01-01

    The authors, of the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, surveyed 60 male university students of mean age 21.37 years and 79 female students of mean age 20.13 years with the goal of gaining insight into their sex behavior and their attitudes toward sexuality. The home language of 83% of the women and 85% of the men was Afrikaans, while the remaining subjects had English as a home language. One student was married, three were engaged to be married, and two lived together with a person of the opposite sex. 51 students were in steady relationships and 82 were single. 82% of the men and 90% of the women choose to have sex with someone of the same race. The study found a relatively low occurrence of sexual intercourse and promiscuity, and a very high percentage of subjects regarded themselves as heterosexual and as morally and religiously conservative. 97% of the men and 99% of the women regarded themselves as being heterosexual, and 3% of men and 1% of women regarded themselves as being bisexual. 6.6% of men and 1.34% of women, however, reported having had sexual contact with someone of the same sex. 37% of the men and 32% of the women reported having ever had sexual intercourse with a person of the opposite sex. These percentages are notably lower than those found by other investigators and the authors believe that a higher proportion of students at the university are actually sexually active than that suggested by this survey's findings. Among those sexually active, 17% of men and 18% of women were involved in sexual relationships with more than one partner. 68% of the sexually active men and women report using condoms often, 14% of men and 8% of women use contraceptives on an irregular basis, and 18% of men and 25% of women never use contraceptives. The birth control pill and condom were the most widely used methods. 85% of men and 86% of women felt that both partners should be responsible for taking precautions against unwanted pregnancy. These findings

  10. Neutron scattering on natural iron at incident energies between 9.4 and 15.2 MeV

    Schmidt, D.; Mannhart, W.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.

    1994-11-01

    Neutrons were scattered on a sample of natural iron at 12 incident energies in the range between 9.4 MeV and 15.2 MeV. Differential cross sections of the elastic scattering (natural iron) and of the inelastic scattering to the first excited level of 56 Fe (Q=-0.847 MeV) were determined for angles between 12.5 deg and 160 deg with total uncertainties between of 3% and 10%. Legendre polynomial least-squares fits resulted in integrated cross sections with uncertainties of 2% (elastic data) and 7% (inelastic data). The cross sections obtained in this work were compared with data from the literature. Inelastic scattering cross sections were determined within the scope of a pseudolevel analysis up to excitation energies of nearly 5.5 MeV. At higher excitation energies the scattering spectrum is contaminated by scattered breakup neutrons from the D+d source used hampering an analysis of the data. (orig.) [de

  11. High cumulative incidence of urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after kidney transplantation in Taiwan.

    Wu, Ming-Ju; Lian, Jong-Da; Yang, Chi-Rei; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Lee, Wen-Chin; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a well-documented complication after kidney transplantation. Increased incidence of bladder cancer had been reported in long-term hemodialysis patients in Taiwan. Herein, the authors report a very high cumulative incidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary tract after kidney transplantation in Taiwan. The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, medical records, and outcome of 730 kidney transplant (KT) recipients. The cumulative incidence of TCC was computed. The Cox regression method was used to analysis the role of potential risk factors. After a mean follow-up duration of 72.2 +/- 54.4 months, 69 cancers were diagnosed in 63 (8.6%) KT recipients. Of them, 30 cases (4.1%) were TCC. The cumulative incidence for TCC was 3.0% after 3 years of graft survival, increasing to 7.2% at 6 years and 17.5% at 10 years. Compared with the general population in Taiwan, the standardized mortality ratio was 398.4 (male, 192.6; female, 875.6). Painless gross hematuria was the cardinal initial symptom in 22 (73.3%) of the 30 KT recipients with TCC. Another 4 (13.3%) KT recipients with TCC presented with chronic urinary tract infection (UTI). Bilateral nephroureterectomy with removal of bladder cuffs was performed in 18 (60%) patients. Synchronous TCC in bilateral upper urinary tracts was confirmed in 11 (36.7%) of KT recipients with TCC. The age at the time of KT, female sex, compound analgesics usage, Chinese herb usage, and underground water intake had statistical significance as risk factors (P Taiwan, with an incidence of 4.1%. This study indicates that hematuria and chronic UTI are the initial presentation of TCC in KT recipients. Carefully urologic screening is indicated for patients with high risk for TCC, including those with older age, compound analgesics usage, Chinese herbs usage, and underground water intake as well as women.

  12. Incidence and natural history of mucopolysaccharidosis type III in France and comparison with United Kingdom and Greece.

    Héron, Bénédicte; Mikaeloff, Yann; Froissart, Roseline; Caridade, Guillaume; Maire, Irène; Caillaud, Catherine; Levade, Thierry; Chabrol, Brigitte; Feillet, François; Ogier, Hélène; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Michelakakis, Helen; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios; Lavery, Lucy; Wraith, Ed; Danos, Olivier; Heard, Jean-Michel; Tardieu, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPSIII) is a lysosomal storage disease with predominant neurological manifestations in affected children. It is considered heterogeneous with respect to prevalence, clinical presentation, biochemistry (four biochemical forms of the disease referred to as MPSIIIA, B, C, and D are known), and causative mutations. The perspective of therapeutic options emphasizes the need for better knowledge of MPSIII incidence and natural history. We performed parallel retrospective epidemiological studies of patients diagnosed with MSPIII in France (n = 128), UK (n = 126), and Greece (n = 20) from 1990 to 2006. Incidences ranged from 0.68 per 100,000 live-births in France to 1.21 per 100,000 live-births in UK. MPSIIIA, which predominates in France and UK, was absent in Greece, where most patients have MPSIIIB. The study confirmed the large allelic heterogeneity of MPSIIIA and MPSIIIB and detected several yet undescribed mutations. Analysis of clinical manifestations at diagnosis and over a 6-7 years follow-up indicated that almost all patients, whatever the disease subtype, expressed neurological manifestations before the age of 5 years, including language acquisition delay, cognitive delay, and/or abnormal behavior. In contrast to relatively homogeneous early onset manifestations, disease progression showed significant variation depending on subtype and age at diagnosis. Different severities of disease progressions and different allele distribution between France and UK suggested that mutations are not equally deleterious, although genotype-phenotype correlation could not be established. Notwithstanding the rapidity of further clinical deterioration, all MPSIII patients suffer early onset devastating neurological manifestations that deserve early treatment when available. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pediatric tuberculosis immigration screening in high-immigration, low-incidence countries.

    Alvarez, G G; Clark, M; Altpeter, E; Douglas, P; Jones, J; Paty, M-C; Posey, D L; Chemtob, D

    2010-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in migrant children, including immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers, is an ongoing challenge in low TB incidence countries. Many children from high TB incidence countries harbor latent TB infection (LTBI), and some have active TB disease at the point of immigration into host nations. Young children who harbor LTBI have a high risk of progression to TB disease and are at a higher risk than adults of developing disseminated severe forms of TB with significant morbidity and mortality. Many countries have developed immigration TB screening programs to suit the needs of adults, but have not focused much attention on migrant children. To compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in children in selected countries with high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Descriptive study of TB immigration screening programs for systematically selected countries. Of 18 eligible countries, 16 responded to the written survey and telephone interview. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrant children. The optimal evidenced-based manner in which to screen migrant children requires further research.

  14. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  15. Effect of forage supplements on the incidence of bloat in dairy cows grazing high clover pastures.

    Phillips, C J; James, N L; Murray-Evans, J P

    1996-08-17

    The effect of offering forage supplements of different compositions was examined in two experiments with cows grazing high clover swards. In the first experiment strawmix supplements of high or low energy content (11 and 9 MJ metabolisable energy/kg dry matter [DM]) and high or low crude protein content (17 and 4 g/kg DM) were offered for periods of three weeks. The energy and protein contents were varied by the content of molasses and soyabean meal, respectively. The high energy, high protein supplement increased the incidence of bloat, and the low energy, high protein supplement reduced it, compared with grazing alone. Bloat was most evident in the first two weeks of each feeding period, suggesting that the cows partially adapted to the diets within three weeks. In the second experiment silage supplements reduced the incidence of bloat among cows grazing both tall and short swards. The most suitable forages to feed when there is a risk of bloat are those that are slowly fermented in the rumen but are eaten in sufficient quantity to reduce periods of rapid herbage intake.

  16. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah.

    Merrill, Ray M; Hilton, Sterling C; Wiggins, Charles L; Sturgeon, Jared D

    2003-04-29

    This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26%-36%) higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985-88, 20% in 1989-92, 15% in 1993-1996, and 13% in 1997-99); age (13% in ages 50-59, 48% in ages 60-69, 28% in ages 70-79, and 16% in ages 80 and older); and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged). An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  17. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    that even mild iodine deficiency has a significant effect on population health, since it leads to a high incidence of autonomous thyroid nodules with hyperthyroidism in the elderly population. However, population iodine intake probably should not exceed a level much higher than that necessary to avoid...... iodine deficiency, otherwise Graves' disease may be induced in the young population.......Little is known about the optimum level of iodine intake for iodine supplementation programmes, or about the effects of the high levels of iodine intake that are found in some countries. We compared the incidence of different types of hyperthyroidism in East-Jutland Denmark with a low average...

  18. An opinion survey on the image of incidents or accidents at a final disposal site for high-level radioactive waste

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that a major psychological factor of attitudes toward final disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to as 'disposal sites') is risk perception. On the basis of this finding, the present survey attempted to identify mental images of assumable incidents and accidents likely to occur at disposal sites. Specifically, 402 respondents in the Kansai Area were asked to describe their mental image of what kind/level of incident or accident could possibly occur at a Disposal Site by what cause and what size of damage was expectable from such incident/accident. The results showed that following: regarding assumable incidents/accidents (1) people are most afraid of a large-scale natural disaster including a major earthquake beyond an assumed level of intensity, that they feel would probably generate the heaviest damage, (2) people assume that no major accident leading to serious damage is likely to occur in the early days after the launch of operation, (3) people have an impression that the longer the passage of time, the higher the probability of incident/accident occurrence becomes, regardless of the size of resulting damage. Those who strongly feel that Disposal Sites are dangerous are, when compared to others who do not have such a strong impression, apt to overestimate the size of assumable damage regardless of the cause of damage and also to overestimate the growth rate of the probability of incident/accident occurrence over the course of time. (author)

  19. High plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels may favour reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in men with low triglycerides

    Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Grobbee, Diederik E.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2007-01-01

    High cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with high triglycerides. We determined the relationship of plasma CETP with incident CVD in a population with relatively low triglycerides. A nested

  20. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  1. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  2. Risk of tuberculosis during pregnancy in Mongolia, a high incidence setting with low HIV prevalence.

    Rendell, N L; Batjargal, N; Jadambaa, N; Dobler, C C

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiology and the relative risk of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnant women in Mongolia, a high TB incidence setting with a low rate of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, where active case finding for TB in pregnancy is implemented. We retrospectively collected data on pregnant women diagnosed with TB during 2013. Data were collected through doctors at central TB dispensaries who extracted the relevant information from patients' clinical records. The overall incidence of TB among pregnant women was 228 (95%CI 187276) per 100000 person-years, resulting in an incidence rate ratio of 1.31 (95%CI 1.081.59) in pregnant women compared to the general population. Twelve per cent of the pregnant women with TB chose to have an abortion. In this study, pregnant women had a 1.3-fold higher risk of developing TB than the general population. Based on a moderately increased risk of TB during pregnancy in our study and the potential for adverse health outcomes, TB screening among pregnant women can currently be justified, but the cost-effectiveness of this intervention remains unclear. Patients and doctors need to be educated about the safety of standard TB treatment in pregnancy to reduce the rate of abortions.

  3. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  4. Natures and incidences of each normal variations on I.V.P. series of 1000 Korean females

    Shin, Ok Ja; Chin, Soo Yil

    1980-01-01

    Each organ of body has many normal variation and/or abnormal developments from fetus to adult, especially urogenital system is very complex and markedly abnormal. The authors attempt to analyze the natures, incidences and differences of each normal variations based on I.V.P. series of 1000 Korean females and the review of literatures were carried out. The results are as follows: 1. The normal variations of urinary tracts are about 30 kinds as follows; Aphasia 0/1000 (0%), Hypoplasia 4/1000 (0.4%), Atrophic kidney 0/1000 (0%), Hyperplasia 0/1000 (0%), Hypertrophied kidney 0/1000 (0%), Supernumerary kidney 0/1000 (0%), Pelvic kidney 0/1000 (0%), Wandering kidney 7/1000 (7%), Horseshoe kidney 2/1000 (2%), Nephroptosis 6/1000 (0.6%), Malroated kidney 0/1000 (0%), Crossed ecotopic kidney 0/1000 (0%), Ureteral kingking 440/1000 (44.0%), Short ureter 3/1000 (0.3%), Long ureter 49/1000 (4.9%), Retrocaval ureter 0/1000 (0%), Retroiliac ureter 0/1000 (0%), Mega-ureter 0/1000 (0%), Aberrant vessel in ureter 79/1000 (7.9%), Congenital ureteral valves 0/1000 (0%), Anomalous ureteral orifices 0/1000 (0%), Double ureter 22/1000 (2.2%), Ureteral diverticulum 0/1000 (0%), Extrarenal pelvis 170/1000 (17.0%), Intrarenal pelvis 830/1000 (83.0%), Supernumerary pelvis 55/1000 (55%), Renal backflow 2/1000 0.2%), Multiple calyces 0/1000 (0.1%), Calyceal diverticulum 2/1000 (0.2%), Unilateral fused kidney 0/1000 (0%), Polar enlarged kidney 0/1000 (0%). 2. The order of incidence of common variations in Korean females are as follows: 1. Intrarenal pelvis 2. Ureteral kingking 3. Extrarenal pelvis 4. Aberrant vessel in ureter 5. Double pelvis 6. Long ureter 7. Double ureter 8. Wandering Kidney 9. Nephrotosis 10. Hypoplasia 11. Short ureter 12. Horseshoe kidney 13. Renal backflow 14. Calyceal diverticulum 15. Supernumerary calyces. 3. The most common variations in Korean females are intrarenal pelvis, extrarenal pelvis, aberrant vessel in ureters and most of them are acquired origin. Contrary

  5. Incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance in Enterococcus faecium among food animals and humans

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; McNicholas, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    Six high-level evernimicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates were identified among 304 avilarnycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from animals and 404 stool samples from humans with diarrhea. All four animal isolates, and one of the human isolates, were able to transfer resistance...... to a susceptible E. faecium strain. The resulting transconjugants all tested positive for the presence of emtA, a gene encoding a methyltransferase previously linked with high-level evernimicin resistance. The four transconjugants derived from animal isolates all carried the same plasmid, while a differently sized...... plasmid was found in the isolate from humans. This study demonstrated a low incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance mediated by the emtA gene in different E. faecium isolates of animal and human origin....

  6. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  7. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  8. Anatomical distribution of peptic ulcer in high incidence gastric cancer area

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer makes reference to the solution of continuity of gastric or duodenal wall beyond muscularis mucosae. Previously, duodenal location was more common than gastric, in a ratio ranging from 2:1 to 4:1. Despite this, after the discovery of the association between peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori, relationship between gastric and duodenal ulcer has spread to the equality. However, in areas with high incidence of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer seems to have a different behavior, existing predominance of gastric ulcer. Department of Cauca is have the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Colombia, with an annual rate of 42.5 /100,000 for males and 28.6 / 100,000 for women; however, it is unknown how peptic ulcer anatomically are distributed. Objective: To determine the anatomical distribution of peptic ulcer at endoscopy service of San José University Hospital of Popayán-Cauca, Colombia 2006-2012. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was realized. Database of endoscopy service of San José University Hospital of Popayán was reviewed and reports with diagnosis of peptic ulcer were studied. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15. Results: Gastric ulcer was more common than duodenal ulcer. Gastric ulcer was more common in men (gastric and duodenal ulcer 1:1. In women duodenal ulcer is 1:1. Conclusion: At endoscopy service of San José University Hospital, gastric ulcer is more common than duodenal ulcer, with differences in gender, as in other areas with high incidence of gastric cancer. That fact are suggests in current literature could be related with the presence of stumps of Helicobacter pylori with combined virulence for cancer and ulcer at gastric level seems to be related to the presence in the medium of common virulence strains of Helicobacter pylori for stomach cancer and ulcer gastric, although the current literature is unclear about it, and still needs more validations.

  9. Characteristics of off-waist incident anomalous vortex beams in highly nonlocal media

    Zhen-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the effect of the off-waist incident condition on the propagation characteristics of anomalous vortex beams (AVBs in nonlocal media. An expression is derived mathematically in order to describe the propagation dynamics of AVBs in nonlocal media under the off-waist incident condition. Typical propagation characteristics induced by the off-waist incident condition are illustrated numerically. It is found that the propagation characteristics under the off-waist incident condition are much different from those under the on-waist incident condition. Keywords: Off-waist incidence, Anomalous vortex beam, Nonlocal media

  10. A high throughput 2 m normal incidence monochromator for SURF-II

    Ederer, D.L.; Cole, B.E.; West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high intrinsic brightness of the circulating electron beam at SURF-II is used as the entrance slit for a two-meter normal incidence monochromator. A typical beam size for the electron beam is 100 μm high by 2 mm wide yielding an obserbed resolution of 0.4 Angstroem with a 200 μm exit slit and a 2400 lines/mm grating. The instrument accepts a beam with a 65 mrad horizontal divergence and a 10 mrad vertical divergence. A plane pre-mirror used near normal incidence reflects the incoming radiation onto the 2 m grating; this combination provides a horizontal exit beam, and enables the experiment to be located three meters from the orbit tangent point. With magnesium fluoride coated aluminium optics a flux of 2 x 10'' photon/s x Angstroem at 1200 Angstroem is observed with a 10 mA circulating current. A flux of 5 x 10 10 photon/s x Angstroem at 600 Angstroem is obserbed with an osmium coated grating and a 10 mA circulating current. Sample spectra of the angle-resolved photoelectron spectrum of CO are presented. (orig.)

  11. Clinical and epidemiological features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a high incidence region.

    Carlos Pérez-Guzmán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EXPTB and to evaluate epidemiological data to search for potential explanations for its high frequency in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Materials and methods. Clinical records of all patients with tuberculosis seen in Aguascalientes in 2008 were reviewed, and official databases were analyzed. Results. EXPTB comprised 60.5% of the 86 cases evaluated, being lymph nodes the main site affected. Patients with EXPTB were younger and more obese than subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. One third of cases in either group had diabetes, a frequency much higher than expected. Epidemiological analysis showed that PTB incidence, but not EXPTB incidence, decreases as geographical altitude increases, and had a descendent trend from 1997 to 2011. Conclusions. The lower frequency of PTB (due to its inverse relationship with altitude and its descendent trend in last years might explain the high frequency of EXPTB. Obesity appeared to protect against developing pulmonary involvement, and diabetes was more frequent than expected among PTB and EXPTB cases.

  12. Clinical and epidemiological features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a high incidence region.

    Pérez-Guzmán, Carlos; Vargas, Mario H; Arellano-Macías, María del Rosario; Hernández-Cobos, Silvia; García-Ituarte, Aurea Zelindabeth; Serna-Vela, Francisco Javier

    2014-04-01

    To describe the clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EXPTB) and to evaluate epidemiological data to search for potential explanations for its high frequency in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Clinical records of all patients with tuberculosis seen in Aguascalientes in 2008 were reviewed, and official databases were analyzed. EXPTB comprised 60.5% of the 86 cases evaluated, being lymph nodes the main site affected. Patients with EXPTB were younger and more obese than subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). One third of cases in either group had diabetes, a frequency much higher than expected. Epidemiological analysis showed that PTB incidence, but not EXPTB incidence, decreases as geographical altitude increases, and had a descendent trend from 1997 to 2011. The lower frequency of PTB (due to its inverse relationship with altitude and its descendent trend in last years) might explain the high frequency of EXPTB. Obesity appeared to protect against developing pulmonary involvement, and diabetes was more frequent than expected among PTB and EXPTB cases.

  13. A grey incidence algorithm to detect high-Z material using cosmic ray muons

    He, W.; Xiao, S.; Shuai, M.; Chen, Y.; Lan, M.; Wei, M.; An, Q.; Lai, X.

    2017-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) is a method for using cosmic muons to scan cargo containers and vehicles for special nuclear materials. However, the flux of cosmic ray muons is low, in the real life application, the detection has to be done a short timescale with small numbers of muons. In this paper, we present a novel approach to detection of special nuclear material by using cosmic ray muons. We use the degree of grey incidence to distinguish typical waste fuel material, uranium, from low-Z material, medium-Z material and other high-Z materials of tungsten and lead. The result shows that using this algorithm, it is possible to detect high-Z materials with an acceptable timescale.

  14. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  15. Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed by LC-MS/MS

    Jeswal, Punam; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    Nine different Indian spices (red chilli, black pepper, turmeric, coriander, cumin, fennel, caraway, fenugreek, and dry ginger) commonly cultivated and highly used in India were analysed for natural occurrence of toxigenic mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), and citrinin (CTN) contamination. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the most dominant species isolated from all types of spices. Red chilli samples were highly contaminated with aflatoxins (85.4%) followed by dry ginger (77.7%). 56% Aspergillus flavus from red chilli and 45% Aspergillus ochraceus from black pepper were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Qualitative detection and quantitative detection of mycotoxins in spices were analyzed by ELISA and further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Penicillium citrinum produced citrinin in red chilli, black pepper, coriander, cumin, fenugreek, and dry ginger samples. The highest amount of AFs was found in red chilli (219.6 ng/g), OTA was in black pepper (154.1 ng/g), and CTN was in dry ginger samples (85.1 ng/g). The results of this study suggest that the spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and further mycotoxin production. This is the first report of natural occurrence of citrinin in black pepper and dry ginger from India. PMID:26229535

  16. Performance of Naturally Aspirating IC Engines Operating at High ...

    The loss of power and the increase of fuel consumption of naturally aspirating IC engines operating with low atmospheric pressure at high altitude as well as changes in the mixture quality with non adapting mixture formation systems are principally known. Other effects like the additional advance of ignition timing in petrol ...

  17. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    Understanding the nature of the highly excited molecu- lar eigenstates is equivalent to deciphering the mecha- nism of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. (IVR) occurring in the molecule.1 However, the assign- ment of eigenstates is far from simple. The existence of and interplay of several strong anharmonic ...

  18. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  19. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    Wrensch, Margaret; Peskin-Mentzer, Roni; Quesenberry, Charles P Jr; Souders-Mason, Virginia; Spence, Linda; Suzuki, Marisa; Gould, Mary; Chew, Terri; Farren, Georgianna; Barlow, Janice; Belli, Flavia; Clarke, Christina; Erdmann, Christine A; Lee, Marion; Moghadassi, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  20. High-flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    Schaefers, F.; Peatman, W.; Eyers, A.; Heckenkamp, C.; Schoenhense, G.; Heinzmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    A 6.5-m normal incidence monochromator installed at the storage ring BESSY, which is optimized for a high throughput of circularly polarized off-plane radiation at moderate resolution is described. The monochromator employs two exit slits and is specially designed and used for low-signal experiments such as spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on solids, adsorbates, free atoms, and molecules. The Monk--Gillieson mounting (plane grating in a convergent light beam) allows for large apertures with relatively little astigmatism. With two gratings, a flux of more than 10 11 photons s -1 bandwidth -1 (0.2--0.5 nm) with a circular polarization of more than 90% in the wavelength range from 35 to 675 nm is achieved

  1. Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in five Brazilian capitals with a high incidence of the disease *

    dos Santos, Normeide Pedreira; Lírio, Monique; Passos, Louran Andrade Reis; Dias, Juarez Pereira; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in the greater metropolitan areas of five Brazilian capitals where the incidence of tuberculosis was high in 2010-Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, Cuiabá, Porto Alegre, and Belém-using tabulations obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (National Case Registry Database). The degree of completeness was highest in Porto Alegre and Cuiabá, whereas it was lowest in Rio de Janeiro, where there are more reported cases of tuberculosis than in any other Brazilian capital. A low degree of completeness of these forms can affect the quality of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Program, which will have negative consequences for health care and decision-making processes. PMID:23670508

  2. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine·HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction. PMID:18474855

  3. Effectiveness of deep cleaning followed by hydrogen peroxide decontamination during high Clostridium difficile infection incidence.

    Best, E L; Parnell, P; Thirkell, G; Verity, P; Copland, M; Else, P; Denton, M; Hobson, R P; Wilcox, M H

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains an infection control challenge, especially when environmental spore contamination and suboptimal cleaning may increase transmission risk. To substantiate the long-term effectiveness throughout a stroke rehabilitation unit (SRU) of deep cleaning and hydrogen peroxide decontamination (HPD), following a high incidence of CDI. Extensive environmental sampling (342 sites on each occasion) for C. difficile using sponge wipes was performed: before and after deep cleaning with detergent/chlorine agent; immediately following HPD; and on two further occasions, 19 days and 20 weeks following HPD. C. difficile isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction ribotyping and multi-locus variable repeat analysis (MLVA). C. difficile was recovered from 10.8%, 6.1%, 0.9%, 0% and 3.5% of sites at baseline, following deep cleaning, immediately after HPD, and 19 days and 20 weeks after HPD, respectively. C. difficile ribotypes recovered after deep cleaning matched those from CDI cases in the SRU during the previous 10 months. Similarly, 10/12 of the positive sites identified at 20 weeks post-HPD harboured the same C. difficile ribotype (002) and MLVA pattern as the isolate from the first post-HPD CDI case. CDI incidence [number of cases on SRU per 10 months (January-October 2011)] declined from 20 before to seven after the intervention. HPD, after deep cleaning with a detergent/chlorine agent, was highly effective for removing environmental C. difficile contamination. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that a CDI symptomatic patient can rapidly recontaminate the immediate environment. Determining a role for HPD should include long-term cost-effectiveness evaluations. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  5. Incidence of Concussion During Practice and Games in Youth, High School, and Collegiate American Football Players.

    Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Hainline, Brian; Snook, Erin M; Hayden, Ross; Simon, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    A report by the Institute of Medicine called for comprehensive nationwide concussion incidence data across the spectrum of athletes aged 5 to 23 years. To describe the incidence of concussion in athletes participating in youth, high school, and collegiate American football. Data were collected by athletic trainers at youth, high school, and collegiate football practices and games to create multiple prospective observational cohorts during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Data were collected from July 1, 2012, through January 31, 2013, for the 2012 season and from July 1, 2013, through January 31, 2014, for the 2013 season. The Youth Football Surveillance System included 118 youth football teams, providing 4092 athlete-seasons. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 11 957 athlete-seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 24 member institutions, providing 4305 athlete-seasons. All injuries regardless of severity, including concussions, and athlete exposure information were documented by athletic trainers during practices and games. Injury rates, injury rate ratios, risks, risk ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated. Concussions comprised 9.6%, 4.0%, and 8.0% of all injuries reported in the Youth Football Surveillance System; National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network; and National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program, respectively. The game concussion rate was higher than the practice concussion rate across all 3 competitive levels. The game concussion rate for college athletes (3.74 per 1000 athlete exposures) was higher than those for high school athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.50-2.31) and youth athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17-2.10). The practice concussion rate in college (0.53 per 1000 athlete exposures) was lower than that in high school (injury rate ratio, 0

  6. High performance natural rubber composites with a hierarchical reinforcement structure of carbon nanotube modified natural fibers

    Tzounis, Lazaros; Debnath, Subhas; Rooj, Sandip; Fischer, Dieter; Mäder, Edith; Das, Amit; Stamm, Manfred; Heinrich, Gert

    2014-01-01

    A simple and facile method for depositing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of naturally occurring short jute fibers (JFs) is reported. Hierarchical multi-scale structures were formed with CNT-networks uniformly distributed and fully covering the JFs (JF–CNT), as depicted by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The impact of these hybrid fillers on the mechanical properties of a natural rubber (NR) matrix was systematically investigated. Pristine JFs were cut initially to an average length of 2.0 mm and exposed to an alkali treatment (a-JFs) to remove impurities existing in the raw jute. MWCNTs were treated under mild acidic conditions to generate carboxylic acid moieties. Afterward, MWCNTs were dispersed in an aqueous media and short a-JFs were allowed to react with them. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the chemical interaction between CNTs and JFs. The JF–CNT exposed quite hydrophobic behavior as revealed by the water contact angle measurements, improving the wettability of the non-polar NR. Consequently, the composite interfacial adhesion strength was significantly enhanced while a micro-scale “mechanical interlocking” mechanism was observed from the interphase-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. SEM analysis of the composite fracture surfaces demonstrated the interfacial strength of NR/a-JF and NR/JF–CNT composites, at different fiber loadings. It can be presumed that the CNT-coating effectively compatibillized the composite structure acting as a macromolecular coupling agent. A detailed analysis of stress-strain and dynamic mechanical spectra confirmed the high mechanical performance of the hierarchical composites, consisting mainly of materials arising from natural resources. - Highlights: • Natural rubber (NR) composites reinforced with CNT-modified short jute fibers. • MWCNTs deposited to the surface of jute fibers via non-covalent interactions. • Hierarchical reinforcement structure with

  7. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile

    Heise, Katy; Bertran, Enriqueta; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence and survival rate of stomach cancer (SC) and its associated factors in a high risk population in Chile. METHODS: The population-based cancer registry of Valdivia, included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer system, covers 356 396 residents of Valdivia Province, Southern Chile. We studied all SC cases entered in this Registry during 1998-2002 (529 cases). Population data came from the Chilean census (2002). Standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants (SIR) using the world population, cumulative risk of developing cancer before age 75, and rate ratios by sex, age, ethnicity and social factors were estimated. Relative survival (Ederer II method) and age-standardized estimates (Brenner method) were calculated. Specific survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were measured at 3 and 5 years and survival curves were analyzed with the Logrank and Breslow tests. Survival was studied in relation to demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory results and medical management of the cases. Those variables significantly associated with survival were later included in a Cox multivariate model. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 529 primary gastric cancers occurred in Valdivia (crude incidence rate 29.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Most cases were male (69.0%), residents of urban areas (57.5%) and Hispanic (83.2%), with a low education level (84.5% Mapuche ethnicity only significant for women (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Of all cases, 76.4% were histologically confirmed, 11.5% had a death certificate only (DCO), 56.1% were TNM stage IV; 445 cases (84.1%) were eligible for survival analysis, all completed five years follow-up; 42 remained alive, 392 died of SC and 11 died from other causes. Specific 5-year survival, excluding cases with DCO, was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.7-13.5); 5-year relative survival rate was 12.3% (95% CI: 9.1-16.1), men 10.9% (95% CI: 7.4-15.2) and women 16.1% (95% CI: 9.5-24.5). Five-year specific survival was higher for patients

  8. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  9. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia; Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina; Barbosa, Renata F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  10. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia, E-mail: isatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina, E-mail: lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear; Barbosa, Renata F., E-mail: profcelta@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias do Mar

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  11. A comparative study of the incidence of aseptic meningitis in symptomatic natural mumps patients and monovalent mumps vaccine recipients in Japan.

    Nagai, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Ito, Yuhei; Kamada, Makoto; Kumagai, Takuji; Yuri, Kenji; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Miyata, Akiko; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Hitoshi; Shimomura, Kunihisa; Suzuki, Eitaro; Torigoe, Sadayoshi; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2007-03-30

    To compare the incidence of aseptic meningitis associated with symptomatic natural mumps infection and in mumps vaccine recipients, we conducted a prospective comparative study. Consecutive samples of 1051 children with mumps were enrolled by 10 pediatricians and 21,465 vaccine recipients by 143 pediatric primary care practitioners, from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2003. Parents used a daily diary to record symptoms during the period of illness (15 days) or 30-day period following immunization. Mumps infection was confirmed by virus isolation and/or detection of mumps virus genome in salivary and CSF samples. The incidence of aseptic meningitis was 13/1051 (1.24%) in patients with symptomatic natural mumps infection and was estimated to be 0.7-1.1% of overall infection in considering asymptomatic infection, and 10/21,465 (0.05%) in vaccine recipients. Although aseptic meningitis is a clear side effect of the mumps vaccine, the incidence is considerably lower than among those with symptomatic natural infection. Our results provide an informative data for consideration to resume mumps vaccine as a part of routine immunization schedule for Japanese children.

  12. High incidence of athletic pubalgia symptoms in professional athletes with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Hammoud, Sommer; Bedi, Asheesh; Magennis, Erin; Meyers, William C; Kelly, Bryan T

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of symptoms consistent with athletic pubalgia (AP) in athletes requiring surgical treatment for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and the frequency of surgical treatment of both AP and FAI in this group of patients. Thirty-eight consecutive professional athletes, with a mean age of 31 years, underwent arthroscopic surgery for symptomatic FAI that limited their ability to play competitively. In all cases a cam and/or focal rim osteoplasty with labral refixation or debridement was performed. In 1 case concomitant intramuscular lengthening of the psoas was performed. Retrospective data regarding prior AP surgery and return to play were collected. Thirty-two percent of patients had previously undergone AP surgery, and 1 patient underwent AP surgery concomitantly with surgical treatment of FAI. No patient returned to his previous level of competition after isolated AP surgery. Thirty-nine percent had AP symptoms that resolved with FAI surgery alone. Of the 38 patients, 36 returned to their previous level of play; all 12 patients with combined AP and FAI surgery returned to professional competition. The mean duration before return to play was 5.9 months (range, 3 to 9 months) after arthroscopic surgery. There is a high incidence of symptoms of AP in professional athletes with FAI of the hip. This study draws attention to the overlap of these 2 diagnoses and highlights the importance of exercising caution in diagnosing AP in a patient with FAI. Level IV, therapeutic, retrospective case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence and Symptoms of High Altitude Illness in South Pole Workers: Antarctic Study of Altitude Physiology (ASAP

    Paul J. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Each year, the US Antarctic Program rapidly transports scientists and support personnel from sea level (SL to the South Pole (SP, 2835 m providing a unique natural laboratory to quantify the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS, patterns of altitude related symptoms and the field effectiveness of acetazolamide in a highly controlled setting. We hypothesized that the combination of rapid ascent (3 hr, accentuated hypobarism (relative to altitude, cold, and immediate exertion would increase altitude illness risk. Methods Medically screened adults (N = 246, age = 37 ± 11 yr, 30% female, BMI = 26 ± 4 kg/m 2 were recruited. All underwent SL and SP physiological evaluation, completed Lake Louise symptom questionnaires (LLSQ, to define AMS, and answered additional symptom related questions (eg, exertional dyspnea, mental status, cough, edema and general health, during the 1st week at altitude. Acetazolamide, while not mandatory, was used by 40% of participants. Results At SP, the barometric pressure resulted in physiological altitudes that approached 3400 m, while T ° C averaged -42, humidity 0.03%. Arterial oxygen saturation averaged 89% ± 3%. Overall, 52% developed LLSQ defined AMS. The most common symptoms reported were exertional dyspnea-(87%, sleeping difficulty-(74%, headache-(66%, fatigue-(65%, and dizziness/lightheadedness-(46%. Symptom severity peaked on days 1-2, yet in >20% exertional dyspnea, fatigue and sleep problems persisted through day 7. AMS incidence was similar between those using acetazolamide and those abstaining (51 vs. 52%, P = 0.87. Those who used acetazolamide tended to be older, have less altitude experience, worse symptoms on previous exposures, and less SP experience. Conclusion The incidence of AMS at SP tended to be higher than previously reports in other geographic locations at similar altitudes. Thus, the SP constitutes a more intense altitude exposure than might be expected considering physical

  14. A method of incident angle estimation for high resolution spectral recovery in filter-array-based spectrometers

    Kim, Cheolsun; Lee, Woong-Bi; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seongmin; Oh, Jinkyung; Lim, Dongsung; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in miniature spectrometers for research and development. Especially, filter-array-based spectrometers have advantages of low cost and portability, and can be applied in various fields such as biology, chemistry and food industry. Miniaturization in optical filters causes degradation of spectral resolution due to limitations on spectral responses and the number of filters. Nowadays, many studies have been reported that the filter-array-based spectrometers have achieved resolution improvements by using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. The performance of the DSP-based spectral recovery highly depends on the prior information of transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. The TFs vary with respect to an incident angle of light onto the filter-array. Conventionally, it is assumed that the incident angle of light on the filters is fixed and the TFs are known to the DSP. However, the incident angle is inconstant according to various environments and applications, and thus TFs also vary, which leads to performance degradation of spectral recovery. In this paper, we propose a method of incident angle estimation (IAE) for high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers. By exploiting sparse signal reconstruction of the L1- norm minimization, IAE estimates an incident angle among all possible incident angles which minimizes the error of the reconstructed signal. Based on IAE, DSP effectively provides a high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers.

  15. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. Methods A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43 in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40 in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. Results The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05. Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7% and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%. The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise. Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91% and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%. Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. Conclusions There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  16. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players.

    Kordi, Ramin; Hemmati, Farajollah; Heidarian, Hamid; Ziaee, Vahid

    2011-02-09

    Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players. A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43) in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40) in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football. The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05).Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7%) and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%). The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration) and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise.Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91%) and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%).Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild. There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.

  17. High plasma levels of vitamin C and E are associated with incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis

    Previous studies suggest that the antioxidants vitamins C and E may protect against development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association of circulating levels of vitamin C and E with incident whole knee radiographic OA (WKROA). We performed a nested case-control study of incident WKR...

  18. Erythema nodosum and the risk of tuberculosis in a high incidence setting

    Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Ladefoged, Karin; Simonsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the erythema nodosum (EN) incidence in a tuberculosis (TB) endemic setting and evaluates the likelihood of a subsequent TB diagnosis among individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) with or without EN. DESIGN: We estimated EN incidence rates (IRs...

  19. High incidence of large deletions in the PMS2 gene in Spanish Lynch syndrome families.

    Brea-Fernández, A J; Cameselle-Teijeiro, J M; Alenda, C; Fernández-Rozadilla, C; Cubiella, J; Clofent, J; Reñé, J M; Anido, U; Milá, M; Balaguer, F; Castells, A; Castellvi-Bel, S; Jover, R; Carracedo, A; Ruiz-Ponte, C

    2014-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Defects in this pathway lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) in DNA tumors, which constitutes the molecular hallmark of this disease. Selection of patients for genetic testing in LS is usually based on fulfillment of diagnostic clinical criteria (i.e. Amsterdam criteria or the revised Bethesda guidelines). However, following these criteria PMS2 mutations have probably been underestimated as their penetrances appear to be lower than those of the other MMR genes. The use of universal MMR study-based strategies, using MSI testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, is being one proposed alternative. Besides, germline mutation detection in PMS2 is complicated by the presence of highly homologous pseudogenes. Nevertheless, specific amplification of PMS2 by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the improvement of the analysis of large deletions/duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) overcome this difficulty. By using both approaches, we analyzed 19 PMS2-suspected carriers who have been selected by clinical or universal strategies and found five large deletions and one frameshift mutation in PMS2 in six patients (31%). Owing to the high incidence of large deletions found in our cohort, we recommend MLPA analysis as the first-line method for searching germline mutations in PMS2. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  1. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung Cancer 
Incidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    Linlin ZHANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improving the environmental conditions in the area. Methods A total of 280 rural villages were selected through stratified cluster random sampling. Environmental background and pollution were investigated, including details on fuel type, coking plant, metal smelting, and chemical plant, among others. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the investigated factors. Results Out of the total number of local villages studied, 78.1% of those with high incidence often use smoky coal and coking. On the other hand, 78.8% of the low-incidence areas use smokeless coal or wood. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the coal type used for everyday life was a main risk factor related to lung cancer (P<0.05. Using smoky and coking coals create an alarmingly high risk for developing lung cancer. Meanwhile, smokeless coals and wood seemed to have no significant relationship to the lung cancer incidence. Conclusion The fuel type used for everyday life is an important factor in the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing. Evidently, the use of smoky coal and coke increased the incidence of lung cancer, whereas smokeless coal and wood seem to bring about the contrary.

  2. High incidence of mild hyponatraemia in females using ecstasy at a rave party.

    van Dijken, Geetruida D; Blom, Renske E; Hené, Ronald J; Boer, Walther H; NIGRAM Consortium

    2013-09-01

    Globally, millions of subjects regularly use ecstasy, a drug popular due to its empathogenic and entactogenic effects. Dilutional hyponatraemia, mainly caused by direct stimulation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion by ecstasy, is among the many side effects of the drug (active substance 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA). Severe, symptomatic hyponatraemia related to the use of MDMA has been reported in more than 30 cases. The mortality of this complication is high and mainly females are involved. Dramatic cases that reach the literature probably represent the tip of the iceberg. We decided to study the incidence of hyponatraemia in subjects using MDMA at an indoor rave party. The study was performed at the indoor event 'Awakenings', held in Amsterdam in the fall of 2010. The plasma sodium concentration was measured at the party using a point of care method in 63 subjects using MDMA and 44 controls. The use of MDMA was confirmed by a urine test. The plasma sodium concentration in subjects using MDMA was significantly lower than in those not using the drug (138 ± 2 mmol/L versus 140 ± 2 mmol/L, respectively, P ecstasy pills ingested by the females developing hyponatraemia was not different from that ingested by those who did not develop this complication. Fluid intake in ecstasy users exceeded that of non-users, suggesting a dipsogenic effect of the drug. Only 3% of males, but no less than ∼25% of females attending a rave party and using MDMA developed mild hyponatraemia during the event. Especially females are therefore probably also at risk of developing severe symptomatic hyponatraemia. Not using MDMA is obviously the best option to prevent MDMA-induced hyponatraemia. However, accepting the fact that millions use the drug every weekend, strategies should also be developed to prevent hyponatraemia in subjects choosing to take MDMA. This would include matching the electrolyte content of the fluids and food ingested to that of the fluids that are

  3. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has through years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R 466). It states natural clay deposits may be used for membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system may contain at least 95% of all leachate created throughout...... ion transport as well as diffusion.Clay prospection for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island Lolland. The natural clay contains 60 to 75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium-type. The clay material...... has been evaluated using standardised methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15 to 0.3m thick clay membrane have been tested...

  4. Clay membrane made of natural high plasticity clay:

    Foged, Niels; Baumann, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Leachate containment in Denmark has throughout the years been regulated by the DIF Recommendation for Sanitary Landfill Liners (DS/R4669. It states that natural clay deposits may be used as membrane material provided the membrane and drainage system contains at least 95% of all leachate created...... into account advective ion transport as well as diffusion. Clay prospecting for clays rich in smectite has revealed large deposits of Tertiary clay of very high plasticity in the area around Rødbyhavn on the Danish island of Lolland. The natural clay contains 60-75% smectite, dominantly as a sodium......-type. The clay material has been evaluated using the standardized methods related to mineralogy, classification, compaction and permeability, and initial studies of diffusion properties have been carried out. Furthermore, at a test site the construction methods for establishing a 0.15-0.3 m thick clay membrane...

  5. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: a pilot study in elite Saudi National Team footballers.

    Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on

  6. Causal Effects of Career-Technical Education on Postsecondary Work Outcomes of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Lee, Heok In; Rojewski, Jay W.; Gregg, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a propensity score analysis revealed significant causal effects for a secondary career and technical education (CTE) concentration on the postsecondary work outcomes of adolescents with high-incidence disabilities. High school students identified as CTE concentrators (three or more high…

  7. High plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels may favour reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in men with low triglycerides

    Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Grobbee, Diederik E.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Aims High cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with high triglycerides. We determined the relationship of plasma CETP with incident CVD in a population with relatively low triglycerides. Methods and

  8. Kirishites, a new type of natural high-carbon compounds

    Marin, Yu. B.; Skublov, G. T.; Yushkin, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    On the right-hand bank of the Volkhov River, in the natural area of tektite-like glasses (Volkhovites), fragments of shungites and slags with bunches of hairlike dark brownish enclosures were found. The filament thickness ranged from 20 to 100 μm, and separate “hairlines” were 3 cm in length. The composition of shungites and “hairlines” was found to be identical, which allowed us to consider the latter as aposhungite carbon formations. The high-carbon hairline structures associated with volkhovites are called kirishites. Kirishites are a new type of high-carbon structures that formed simultaneously with volkhovites in the case of explosion-type delivery of carbon slag and shungite fragments to the daylight surface during Holocene explosive activity. Under sharply reductive conditions, the slags partially melted, the melts were segregated, and carbonaceous-silicate and carbonaceous-ferriferous glasses formed with subsequent decompression-explosive liberation of carbon-supersaturated structures, which were extruded from shungite and slag fragments in the form of a resinoid mass. The “hairlines” were found to be zonal in structure: the central axial zones are composed of high-nitrogen hydrocarbon compounds, and peripheral regions are essentially carbonaceous with a high content of organic-mineral compounds and numerous microanomalies of petrogenic, volatile, rare, and ore elements. Infrared spectroscopy identified in kirishites proteinlike compounds, diagnosed in absorption bands (in cm-1) 600-720 (Amid V), 1200-1300 (Amid III), 1480-1590 (Amid II), 1600-1700 (Amid I), 3000-3800 (vibrations in NH2 and II groups). Gas chromatography, with the possibility of differentiation of left- and right-handed forms, revealed a broad spectrum of amino acids in kirishites, with their total content found to be the absolutely highest record for natural bitumens, an order of magnitude higher than the largest amino acid concentrations ever revealed in fibrous high

  9. Diagnosis and high incidence of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome in northern Saskatchewan.

    Sokoro, AbdulRazaq A H; Lepage, Joyce; Antonishyn, Nick; McDonald, Ryan; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Irvine, James; Lehotay, Denis C

    2010-12-01

    Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene, encoding the human inner mitochondrial membrane ornithine transporter, are thought to be responsible for hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition. HHH syndrome has been detected in several small, isolated communities in northern Saskatchewan (SK). To determine the incidence of HHH syndrome in these communities, a PCR method was set up to detect F188Δ, the common French-Canadian mutation. Neonatal blood spots collected from all newborns from the high risk area were genotyped for the F188Δ mutation for seven consecutive years. Using DNA analysis, we estimated that the heterozygote frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome to be about 1 in 19 individuals, predicting one affected child with HHH syndrome for approximately every 1,500 individuals (1 in 1,550 live births; 1 child every 12 years) in this isolated population. The frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome in this isolated community is probably the highest in the world for this rare disorder. We determined that ornithine levels, by tandem mass spectrometry, were not abnormal in newborns with F188Δ mutation, carriers and normals. Ornithine rises to abnormally high levels at some time after birth well past the time that the newborn screening blood spot is collected. The timing or the reasons for the delayed rise of ornithine in affected children with HHH syndrome have not been determined. Newborn screening for HHH Syndrome in this high risk population is only possible by detection of the mutant allele using DNA analysis.

  10. Unusually high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in children of the Nahuatl population of Mexico.

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Mendez-Mendoza, Amilcar

    2017-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is an uncommon disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus. To study the clinical and pathological findings of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia detected during an oral examination of 343 Mexican Nahuatl children from a single primary school in El Paso de Cupilco, Mexico. A thorough oral examination was performed in all children and clinical data (age, gender, location and number of lesions) were documented and analyzed. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia was diagnosed in 110 of the 343 children (32.3%). The ages of the children varied from 5 to 15 years, and of these, 56.3% were girls. The lesions were asymptomatic, 0.2 to 3.0 cm in diameter, soft, round to oval, smooth surfaced, sessile papulonodules, similar in colour to that of the surrounding mucosa. The lesions were commonly seen on the buccal mucosa and tongue, and most affected children (85%) had less than 5 lesions. Children in the 7 to 10 years age group were most often affected. Human papillomavirus typing was not done owing to a lack of facilities. There is a high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in Nahuatl children with a predilection for females.

  11. Direct reactions induced by 16O on 208Pb at high incident energy

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Direct reactions induced by 16 O mainly on 208 Pb at 20 MeV/nucleon are reviewed. The quasi-elastic transfer reaction, such as one-proton and one-neutron transfer respectively leading to 209 Bi and 209 Pb single-particle-states, is first discussed, the fragmentation of 16 O projectile on heavy targets is then envisaged. The one-nucleon transfer can be described within the framework of one-step processes using the DWBA formalism to calculate the cross sections. At high incident energy (312.6 MeV), transfer reactions involving nucleons from the deeper 1p 3/2 orbit of 16 O are kinematically favoured and well observed. At 20 MeV/A and above, a large part of the reaction cross sections seems to be due to the fragmentation of the projectile; more especially, an abrasion-ablation model have to be used in order to explain the general trend of the data (energy spectra and angular distribution)

  12. Medial tibial stress syndrome in high school cross-country runners: incidence and risk factors.

    Plisky, Melody S; Rauh, Mitchell J; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Underwood, Frank B; Tank, Robert T

    2007-02-01

    Prospective cohort. To determine (1) the cumulative seasonal incidence and overall injury rate of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and (2) risk factors for MTSS with a primary focus on the relationship between navicular drop values and MTSS in high school cross-country runners. MTSS is a common injury among runners. However, few studies have reported the injury rate and risk factors for MTSS among adolescent runners. Data collected included measurement of bilateral navicular drop and foot length, and a baseline questionnaire regarding the runner's height, body mass, previous running injury, running experience, and orthotic or tape use. Runners were followed during the season to determine athletic exposures (AEs) and occurrence of MTSS. The overall injury rate for MTSS was 2.8/1000 AEs. Although not statistically different, girls had a higher rate (4.3/1000 AEs) than boys (1.7/1000 AEs) (P = .11). Logistic regression modeling indicated that only gender and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with the occurrence of MTSS. However, when controlled for orthotic use, only BMI was associated with risk of MTSS. No significant associations were found between MTSS and navicular drop or foot length. Our findings suggest that navicular drop may not be an appropriate measure to identify runners who may develop MTSS during a cross-country season; thus, additional studies are needed to identify appropriate preseason screening tools.

  13. Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in patients receiving high-risk antibiotics with or without a proton pump inhibitor.

    Gordon, D; Young, L R; Reddy, S; Bergman, C; Young, J D

    2016-02-01

    Considering the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), risk reduction strategies are crucial. Prior studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use can increase the risk of CDI over antibiotics alone; however, data and guidelines have been conflicting. The aim was to compare CDI incidence in patients receiving high-risk antibiotics, comparing rates in those prescribed a PPI versus those without overlapping PPI exposure. This retrospective cohort study assessed the incidence of CDI in veterans receiving high-risk antibiotics over an approximately three-year period. High-risk antibiotics were defined as: ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or cefixime. We identified subjects who were prescribed any high-risk antibiotic, finding 3513 on a concomitant PPI and 6149 not taking a PPI. Of these subjects, 111 were diagnosed with CDI and met inclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics, CDI severity, length of hospitalization and antibiotic therapy prior to infection were similar in both groups. The incidence of CDI was significantly higher in patients prescribed a PPI (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.52-3.23; P=0.0001). A strong association was found between concurrent PPI use with fluoroquinolones (P=0.005) and clindamycin (P=0.045). The use of PPIs together with high-risk antibiotics was associated with a significantly higher incidence of CDI. Our study provides further support for the CDI prevention strategy of judicious PPI use, especially in patients receiving high-risk antibiotics. Prudent avoidance of PPIs may reduce the incidence of CDI, a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of highly stabilised natural rubber latex for radiation vulcanisation

    Kulatunge, S.S.; Nadarajah, M.; Kalyani, N.M.V.; Chandralal, H.N.K.K.; Devendra, R.

    1996-01-01

    There is a bright future for radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL) but there are problems in manufacturing it as the centrifuged latex to be used for radiation has to be kept for at least a month or sometimes even three to six months before adding the sensitisers and even then the latex sometimes coagulates on adding the sensitisers. This paper describes a process by which the latex can be stabilised by addition of an anionic soap before centrifuging so that it has a high mechanical stability and hence can be used even within one week of the manufacture of the centrifuged latex

  15. Optical spectroscopy and high pressure on emeralds: synthetic and natural

    Sánchez-Alejo, M. A.; Hernández-Alcántara, J. M.; Flores Jiménez, C.; Calderón, T.; Murrieta S., H.; Camarillo García, E.

    2011-09-01

    Emerald, natural and synthetic, are the subject of study by means of optical spectroscopy techniques. Particularly, natural emeralds have been considered as a gemstone in jewelry not being so the synthetic ones. But, in general, the properties of these are very good for applications, for instance as a laser system, due to the impurities control. In this work a comparison between natural and synthetic emeralds is done. Chromium ions are the main responsible of the characteristic fascinating green color of these gemstones, entering in the crystals in octahedral sites. Absorption at room temperature show up two broad bands in the visible region and two narrow bands called the R-lines. That spectrum corresponds to trivalent chromium ions in an octahedral site, as it happens in ruby and alexandrite. On other hand, photoemission arises in the range 640-850 nm. at room temperature . It is shown that the luminescence spectra changes as the temperature is lowered. The effect on the main peak of luminescence when high pressure is applied on small samples of emerald shows as a linear function.

  16. High incidence of oral corticosteroids prescriptions in children with asthma in early childhood

    Arabkhazaeli, A.; Vijverberg, S.J.H.; Van Der Ent, C. Kors; Raaijmakers, J.A.M.; van der Zee, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe asthma exacerbations are often treated with short courses of oral corticosteroids (OCS). This study assessed the incidence of OCS being prescribed in asthmatic children of various age groups and calculated their chances of receiving subsequent OCS prescriptions. METHODS:

  17. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K; Soborg, B; Koch, A

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome...

  18. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. High Resolution Nature Runs and the Big Data Challenge

    Webster, W. Phillip; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center is undertaking a series of very computationally intensive Nature Runs and a downscaled reanalysis. The nature runs use the GEOS-5 as an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) while the reanalysis uses the GEOS-5 in Data Assimilation mode. This paper will present computational challenges from three runs, two of which are AGCM and one is downscaled reanalysis using the full DAS. The nature runs will be completed at two surface grid resolutions, 7 and 3 kilometers and 72 vertical levels. The 7 km run spanned 2 years (2005-2006) and produced 4 PB of data while the 3 km run will span one year and generate 4 BP of data. The downscaled reanalysis (MERRA-II Modern-Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications) will cover 15 years and generate 1 PB of data. Our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS), a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service that is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by cloud computing. In this presentation, we will describe two projects that demonstrate this shift. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is an example of cloud-enabled CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over MERRA reanalysis data collection by bringing together the high-performance computing, scalable data management, and a domain-specific climate data services API. NASA's High-Performance Science Cloud (HPSC) is an example of the type of compute-storage fabric required to support CAaaS. The HPSC comprises a high speed Infinib and network, high performance file systems and object storage, and a virtual system environments specific for data intensive, science applications. These technologies are providing a new tier in the data and analytic services stack that helps connect earthbound, enterprise-level data and computational resources to new customers and new mobility

  20. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for reducing the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cows and heifers.

    Hassfurther, Renee L; TerHune, Terry N; Canning, Peter C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate effects of various doses of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (bG-CSF) on the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle. 211 periparturient Holstein cows and heifers. Approximately 7 days before the anticipated date of parturition (day of parturition = day 0), healthy cattle received SC injections of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) or PEG-bG-CSF at 5, 10, or 20 μg/kg. Cattle were commingled and housed in a pen with dirt flooring, which was kept wet to maximize the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis. Within 24 hours after parturition, each animal again received the assigned treatment. Mammary glands and milk were visually scored for abnormalities twice daily for 28 days after parturition. Milk samples were aseptically collected from mammary glands with an abnormal appearance or abnormal milk and submitted for microbial culture. Daily milk production was recorded, and milk composition was assessed on days 3, 5, 7, and 10. Cattle treated with PEG-bG-CSF at 10 and 20 μg/kg had significantly fewer cases of clinical mastitis (9/54 and 5/53, respectively), compared with control cattle (18/53). Administration of PEG -bG-CSF did not significantly affect daily milk production or milk composition. Results suggested that PEG-bG-CSF was effective for reducing the incidence of naturally occurring clinical mastitis in periparturient dairy cattle. Further investigations of the use of PEG-bG-CSF as a potential preventative intervention should be conducted.

  1. Potential media influence on the high incidence of medical disputes from the perspective of plastic surgeons.

    Chen, Chiehfeng; Lin, Ching-Feng; Chen, Cha-Chun; Chiu, Shih-Feng; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Lee, Ming-Been

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of medical disputes among plastic surgeons in Taiwan and to elucidate their perspectives regarding the influence of medical litigation media coverage on the physician-patient relationship. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among plastic surgeons attending a series of continuing education training lectures organized by the Taiwan Society of Plastic Surgery in 2015. Of the 109 respondents, over a third (36.4%) had previously experienced a medical dispute. The vast majority of both physicians who had medical disputes (77.1%) and those who did not (72.1%) felt that the media tends to be supportive of patients in their reporting, and 37.1% of all plastic surgeons felt that the media always portrays the patient as a victim. Respondents who experienced medical disputes in this study felt that the top five leading causes of the high incidence of medical disputes were patient disappointment with procedure results (81.1%), insufficient patient psychological preparation or emotional instability (61.7%), inadequate risk communication on the part of the physician (64.9%), patient uneasiness with the procedure or perception of carelessness (60.6%), and insufficient physician training or incorrect medical evaluation (57.4%). Over a third of the respondents had previously experienced a medical dispute. This study highlights the perception among plastic surgeons that the media reporting of medical disputes and medical litigation is biased in favor of the patients, with 37.1% of the plastic surgeons surveyed opining that patients are always cast as victims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  3. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of Mercury's radius decrease obtained using the amount of strain recorded by tectonics on the planet range from 0.5 km to 2 km. These latter figures appear too low with respect to the radius contraction (up to 5-6 km) predicted by the most accredited studies based on thermo-mechanical evolution models. For this reason, it has been suggested that there may be hidden strain accommodated by features yet unseen on Mercury. Indeed, as it has been already cautioned by previous studies, the identification of tectonic features on Mercury might be largely biased by the lighting geometry of the used basemaps. This limitation might have affected the results of the extrapolations for estimating the radius change. In this study, we mapped tectonic features at the terminator thus using images acquired at high sun incidence angle (>50°) that represents the optimal condition for their observation. In fact, images with long shadows enhance the topography and texture of the surface and are ideal to detect tectonic structures. This favorable illumination conditions allowed us to infer reliable measurements of spatial distribution (i.e. frequency, orientation, and areal density) of tectonic features which can be used to estimate the average contractional strain and planetary radius decrease. We digitized tectonic structures within a region extending for an area of about 12 million sq. km (~16% of planet's surface). More than 1300 tectonic lineaments were identified and interpreted to be compressional features (i.e. lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges) with a total length of more than 12300 km. Assuming that the extensional strain is negligible within the area, the average contractional strain calculated for the survey area is ~0.21-0.28% (~0.24% for θ=30°). This strain, extrapolated to the entire surface, corresponds to a contraction in radius of about 2.5-3.4 km (~2.9 km for θ=30°). Interestingly, the values of contractional strain and radius decrease

  4. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. High Altitude Aerial Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Richard T. Wainner; Mickey B. Frish; B. David Green; Matthew C. Laderer; Mark G. Allen; Joseph R. Morency

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective and power-efficient advanced standoff sensing technology able to detect and quantify, from a high-altitude (> 10,000 ft) aircraft, natural gas leaking from a high-pressure pipeline. The advanced technology is based on an enhanced version of the Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) platform developed previously by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). The RMLD combines a telecommunications-style diode laser, fiber-optic components, and low-cost DSP electronics with the well-understood principles of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS), to indicate the presence of natural gas located between the operator and a topographic target. The transceiver transmits a laser beam onto a topographic target and receives some of the laser light reflected by the target. The controller processes the received light signal to deduce the amount of methane in the laser's path. For use in the airborne platform, we modified three aspects of the RMLD, by: (1) inserting an Erbium-doped optical fiber laser amplifier to increase the transmitted laser power from 10 mW to 5W; (2) increasing the optical receiver diameter from 10 cm to 25 cm; and (3) altering the laser wavelength from 1653 nm to 1618 nm. The modified RMLD system provides a path-integrated methane concentration sensitivity {approx}5000 ppm-m, sufficient to detect the presence of a leak from a high capacity transmission line while discriminating against attenuation by ambient methane. In ground-based simulations of the aerial leak detection scenario, we demonstrated the ability to measure methane leaks within the laser beam path when it illuminates a topographic target 2000 m away. We also demonstrated simulated leak detection from ranges of 200 m using the 25 cm optical receiver without the fiber amplifier.

  6. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  7. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  8. Fix It with TAPE: Repurposing Technology to Be Assistive Technology for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Bouck, Emily C.; Shurr, Jordan C.; Tom, Kinsey; Jasper, Andrea D.; Bassette, Laura; Miller, Bridget; Flanagan, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how practitioners can repurpose technology--common and socially desirable technology in particular--to be assistive technology for students with high-incidence disabilities. The authors provide a framework for practitioners to consider technology for repurposing: TAPE (Transportable, Available, Practical, Engaging) and…

  9. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  10. High incidence of diseases endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil, 2001-2006.

    Penna, Gerson; Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Soranz, Daniel; Glatt, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    In Brazil, reportable diseases are the responsibility of the Secretariat of Health Surveillance of the Brazilian Federal Ministry of Health. During 2001-2006, to determine incidence and hospitalization rates, we analyzed 5 diseases (malaria, leishmaniasis [cutaneous and visceral], dengue fever, leprosy, and tuberculosis) that are endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil. Data were obtained from 773 municipalities in 3 regions. Although incidence rates of malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy are decreasing, persons in lower socioeconomic classes with insufficient formal education are affected more by these diseases and other health inequalities than are other population groups in the region.

  11. High Incidence of Diseases Endemic to the Amazon Region of Brazil, 2001–2006

    Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Soranz, Daniel; Glatt, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, reportable diseases are the responsibility of the Secretariat of Health Surveillance of the Brazilian Federal Ministry of Health. During 2001–2006, to determine incidence and hospitalization rates, we analyzed 5 diseases (malaria, leishmaniasis [cutaneous and visceral], dengue fever, leprosy, and tuberculosis) that are endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil. Data were obtained from 773 municipalities in 3 regions. Although incidence rates of malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy are decreasing, persons in lower socioeconomic classes with insufficient formal education are affected more by these diseases and other health inequalities than are other population groups in the region. PMID:19331758

  12. Condensation heat transfer on natural convection at the high pressure

    Jong-Won, Kim; Hyoung-Kyoun, Ahn; Goon-Cherl, Park

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Energy Research Institute for the Next Generation is to develop a small scale electric power system driven by an environment-friendly and stable small nuclear reactor. REX-10 has been developed to assure high system safety in order to be placed in densely populated region and island. REX-10 adopts the steam-gas pressurizer to assure the inherent safety. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam-gas pressurizer are very complex. Especially, the condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas on the natural convection is important to evaluate the pressurizer behavior. However, there have been few investigations on the condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas at the high pressure. In this study, the theoretical model is developed to estimate the condensation heat transfer at the high pressure using heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis results show good agreement with correlations and experimental data. It is found that the condensation heat transfer coefficient increases as the total pressure increases or the mass fraction of the non-condensable gas decreases. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient no more increases over the specific pressure

  13. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008-2010 to 68.6% in 2010-2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates.

  14. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  15. Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation.

    Chappell, A J; Simper, T; Barker, M E

    2018-01-01

    Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown. Fifty-one competitors (35 male and 16 female) volunteered to take part in this project. The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) runs an annual national competition for high level bodybuilders; competitors must qualify by winning at a qualifying events or may be invited at the judge's discretion. Competitors are subject to stringent drug testing and have to undergo a polygraph test. Study of this cohort provides an opportunity to examine the dietary practices of high level natural bodybuilders. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of bodybuilders competing at the BNBF finals. Volunteers completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing diet at three time points. At each time point participants recorded food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Competitors were categorised according to contest placing. A "placed" competitor finished in the top 5, and a "Non-placed" (DNP) competitor finished outside the top 5. Nutrient analysis was performed using Nutritics software. Repeated measures ANOVA and effect sizes (Cohen's d ) were used to test if nutrient intake changed over time and if placing was associated with intake. Mean preparation time for a competitor was 22 ± 9 weeks. Nutrient intake of bodybuilders reflected a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. Total carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes decreased over time in both male and female cohorts ( P  preparation (5.1 vs 3.7 g/kg BW) than DNP competitors ( d  = 1.02, 95% CI

  16. Incidence and Predictors of Multiple Fractures Despite High Adherence to Oral Bisphosphonates

    Hawley, Samuel; Javaid, M Kassim; Rubin, Katrine H

    2016-01-01

    , Spain) and Danish Health Registries (Denmark) for all incident users of oral BPs in 2006-2007 and 2000-2001 respectively. Fine and Gray survival models using backward-stepwise selection (p-entry 0.049; p-exit 0.10) and accounting for the competing risk of therapy cessation were used to identify...

  17. High incidence of medulloblastoma in Māori and Pacific populations in New Zealand.

    Elwood, J Mark; Aye, Phyu Sin

    2017-02-17

    In New Zealand from 1995-2010, the incidence of medulloblastoma at ages 1-19 years was significantly higher in Māori (relative risk 2.0) and in Pacific peoples (RR 2.1) than in New Zealand Europeans.

  18. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava

    2013-01-01

    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  19. The success of the distorted wave method at very high incident energy

    Barrette, J.; Berthier, B.; Gastebois, J.

    1986-05-01

    The one-proton and one-neutron direct surface transfer reactions induced by 793 MeV 16 O incident energy beam bombarding a 208 Pb target nucleus, are widely explained by two selection rules contained in the Dirtorted Wave Method formalism

  20. HIV Incidence Remains High in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Evidence from Three Districts

    Nel, Annaléne; Mabude, Zonke; Smit, Jenni; Kotze, Philip; Arbuckle, Derek; Wu, Jian; van Niekerk, Neliëtte; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV prevalence and incidence among sexually active women in peri-urban areas of Ladysmith, Edendale, and Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed between October 2007 and February 2010 in preparation for vaginal microbicide trials. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sexually

  1. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Uwizera, Aline Umutoni; Mwamarangwe, Lambert; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Nel, Annalene; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  2. High Incidence of Asymptomatic Syphilis in HIV-Infected MSM Justifies Routine Screening

    Branger, Judith; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; van Ketel, Ruud J.; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Prins, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, the incidence of syphilis has risen, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM), many of whom are coinfected with HIV. Current guidelines recommend at least yearly syphilis testing in this group. In this study, we assessed the yield of routine syphilis screening in outpatient

  3. A high incidence of polymorphic CYP2C19 variants in archival blood samples from Papua New Guinea

    Hsu Huai-Ling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is considerable inter-ethnic variability in the incidence of CYP2C19 genetic poor metabolisers (var/var. About 3 per cent of Caucasians are CYP2C19 var/var. By contrast, an extremely high incidence (70 per cent is observed in the Melanesian island of Vanuatu. The colonisation of the Pacific Islands is believed to have involved migration through Papua New Guinea (PNG, and hence a high incidence may also be expected in this population. The reported incidence in PNG was only 36 per cent, however. PNG is a country of extensive ethnic diversity, and the incidence of the CYP2C19 var/var in other regional populations of PNG is currently not established. In this study, restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction analysis of archival blood serum samples was used to determine the prevalence of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 variant alleles in three different ethnic and geographically isolated populations of PNG. In the largest population studied (Iruna, the frequency of both variant CYP2C19 alleles was high (0.37 and 0.34, respectively. Specifically, the frequency of the CYP2C19*3 allele was significantly higher than in the PNG (East Sepik population reported previously (0.34 vs 0.16; p 0.0001. In the Iruna population, 48.9 per cent of the samples were homozygous variants for CYP2C19*2 or *3, which although higher was not statistically different from the East Sepik population (36 per cent. The results of this study indicated that other regional populations of PNG also have a relatively high incidence of the CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism compared with Caucasian populations. The high incidence reported in Vanuatu, however, may be due to genetic drift rather than a PNG founder population, as the Vanuatu population is dominated by the CYP2C19*2 allele, with a lower contribution from the *3 allelic variant.

  4. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072

  5. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  6. The incidence and course of depression in bereaved youth 21 months after the loss of a parent to suicide, accident, or sudden natural death.

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Donohoe, M Bertille; Walker, Monica

    2009-07-01

    This study examined effects of bereavement 21 months after a parent's death, particularly death by suicide. The participants were 176 offspring, ages 7-25, of parents who died by suicide, accident, or sudden natural death. They were assessed 9 and 21 months after the death, along with 168 nonbereaved subjects. Major depression and alcohol or substance abuse 21 months after the parent's death were more common among bereaved youth than among comparison subjects. Offspring with parental suicide or accidental death had higher rates of depression than comparison subjects; those with parental suicide had higher rates of alcohol or substance abuse. Youth with parental suicide had a higher incidence of depression than those bereaved by sudden natural death. Bereavement and a past history of depression increased depression risk in the 9 months following the death, which increased depression risk between 9 and 21 months. Losing a mother, blaming others, low self-esteem, negative coping, and complicated grief were associated with depression in the second year. Youth who lose a parent, especially through suicide, are vulnerable to depression and alcohol or substance abuse during the second year after the loss. Depression risk in the second year is mediated by the increased incidence of depression within the first 9 months. The most propitious time to prevent or attenuate depressive episodes in bereaved youth may be shortly after the parent's death. Interventions that target complicated grief and blaming of others may also improve outcomes in symptomatic youth with parental bereavement.

  7. Modelling of the relation of natural disasters and the economic ...

    It is obvious that economy and production and commerce ability of the countries are also under the influence of natural changes. But when the changes and natural challenges finds a high speed or volume, they are called natural incident or natural disaster. Natural incidents, in addition to damages to life and emotion that ...

  8. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in high school athletes via a free running test: incidence and epidemiology.

    Kukafka, D S; Lang, D M; Porter, S; Rogers, J; Ciccolella, D; Polansky, M; D'Alonzo, G E

    1998-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 35% of athletes and up to 90% of asthmatics. Asthma morbidity and mortality have increased over the past several decades among residents of Philadelphia, PA. It is possible that a simple free running test for EIB may serve as a tool to study the factors contributing to recent trends in asthma, and to screen for asthma in athletes in the urban setting. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess a free running test to screen for EIB, and (2) examine prevalence of and epidemiologic factors associated with EIB in high school athletes. Cross-sectional observational study on the incidence and risk factors for EIB. To validate our method and criteria for the diagnosis of EIB, a repeat test was performed on a portion of the athletes. In a randomized single-blinded fashion, 15 athletes who had demonstrated EIB initially received albuterol or placebo prior to a repeat exercise test. Community high school athletic facilities. We studied 238 male high school varsity football players. All athletes underwent an acquaintance session with a questionnaire, followed by a 1-mile outdoor run (6 to 8 mins). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were determined prior to and 5, 15, and 30 min after exercise. Heart rates (HRs) and dyspnea scores were measured. EIB was defined as a decrease of 15% in PEF at any time point after exercise. Associations of EIB with demographic factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Two hundred thirty-eight athletes participated: 92 European-Americans (EA), 140 African-Americans (AA), 5 Hispanics, and 1 Native American. Mean age was 16+/-1 years. Average HR postexercise was 156+/-24 beats/min. Twenty-four (10%) reported a history of treated asthma. The prevalence of EIB among the remaining 214 athletes was 19 of 214 (9%). The rate of EIB among AA athletes was higher than among EA athletes: (17/126 [13%] AA vs 2/82 [2%] EA, p = 0.01). During the validation portion of the study, the

  9. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in the context of high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage.

    Võrno, Triin; Lutsar, Katrin; Uusküla, Anneli; Padrik, Lee; Raud, Terje; Reile, Rainer; Nahkur, Oliver; Kiivet, Raul-Allan

    2017-11-01

    Estonia has high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage. We modelled the impact of population-based bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent HPV vaccination alongside cervical cancer screening. A Markov cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of 12-year-old girls with bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccine in two doses in a national, school-based vaccination programme. The model followed the natural progression of HPV infection into subsequent genital warts (GW); premalignant lesions (CIN1-3); cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer. Vaccine coverage was assumed to be 70%. A time horizon of 88years (up to 100years of age) was used to capture all lifetime vaccination costs and benefits. Costs and utilities were discounted using an annual discount rate of 5%. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside screening compared to screening alone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €14,007 (bivalent), €14,067 (quadrivalent) and €11,633 (nonavalent) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in the base-case scenario and ranged between €5367-21,711, €5142-21,800 and €4563-18,142, respectively, in sensitivity analysis. The results were most sensitive to changes in discount rate, vaccination regimen, vaccine prices and cervical cancer screening coverage. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside current cervical cancer screening can be considered a cost-effective intervention in Estonia. Adding HPV vaccination to the national immunisation schedule is expected to prevent a considerable number of HPV infections, genital warts, premalignant lesions, HPV related cancers and deaths. Although in our model ICERs varied slightly depending on the vaccine used, they generally fell within the same range. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination was found to be most dependent on vaccine cost and duration of vaccine immunity, but not on the type of vaccine

  10. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Match-Related Collegiate Men's Soccer Injuries on FieldTurf and Natural Grass Surfaces: A 6-Year Prospective Study.

    Meyers, Michael C

    2017-03-01

    Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. More recently, newer generations of artificial turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although artificial turf has been deemed safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. Collegiate male soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, or severity of match-related injuries between FieldTurf and natural grass. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Male soccer athletes from 11 universities were evaluated over 6 seasons. Demographic features and predictors included player position, cleat design, player weight, turf age, and environmental factors. Outcomes of interest included injury incidence, injury category, time loss, injury mechanism and situation, type of injury, injury grade and anatomic location, injury severity, head and lower extremity trauma, and elective medical procedures. All match-related injuries were evaluated by the attending head athletic trainer and team physicians on site and subsequently in the physician's office when further follow-up and treatment were deemed necessary. In sum, 765 collegiate games were evaluated for match-related soccer injuries sustained on FieldTurf or natural grass during 6 seasons. Overall, 380 team games (49.7%) were played on FieldTurf versus 385 team games (50.3%) played on natural grass. A total of 722 injuries were documented, with 268 (37.1%) occurring on FieldTurf and 454 (62.9%) on natural grass. Multivariate analysis per 10 team games indicated a significant playing surface effect: F 2,720 = 7.260, P = .001. A significantly lower total injury incidence rate (IIR) of 7.1 (95% CI, 6.6-7.5) versus 11.8 (95% CI, 11.3-12.2; P < .0001) and lower rate of substantial injuries, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-1.0) versus 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3; P < .03), were documented on Field

  11. Trade liberalization and tuberculosis incidence: a longitudinal multi-level analysis in 22 high burden countries between 1990 and 2010.

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Trade liberalization is promoted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) through a complex architecture of binding trade agreements. This type of trade, however, has the potential to modify the upstream and proximate determinants of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We aimed to analyse the association between trade liberalization and TB incidence in 22 high-burden TB countries between 1990 and 2010. and findings A longitudinal multi-level linear regression analysis was performed using five different measures of trade liberalization as exposure [WTO membership, duration of membership, trade as % of gross domestic product, and components of both the Economic Freedom of the World Index (EFI4) and the KOF Index of Globalization (KOF1)]. We adjusted for a wide range of factors, including differences in human development index (HDI), income inequality, debts, polity patterns, conflict, overcrowding, population stage transition, health system financing, case detection rates and HIV prevalence. None of the five trade indicators was significantly associated with TB incidence in the crude analysis. Any positive effect of EFI4 on (Log-) TB incidence over time was confounded by differences in socio-economic development (HDI), HIV prevalence and health financing indicators. The adjusted TB incidence rate ratio of WTO member countries was significantly higher [RR: 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-2.29] when compared with non-member countries. We found no association between specific aggregate indicators of trade liberalization and TB incidence. Our analyses provide evidence of a significant association between WTO membership and higher TB incidence, which suggests a possible conflict between the architecture of WTO agreements and TB-related Millennium Development Goals. Further research is needed, particularly on the relation between the aggregate trade indices used in this study and the hypothesized mediators and also on sector-specific indices, specific trade agreements and

  12. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Mullerian aplasia

    Nik-Zainal , Serena; Strick , Reiner; Storer , Mekayla; Huang , Ni; Rad , Roland; Willatt , Lionel; Fitzgerald , Tomas; Martin , Vicki; Sandford , Richard; Carter , Nigel P; Janecke , Andreas; Renner , Stefan; Oppelt , Patricia G; Oppelt , Peter; Schulze , Christine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Congenital malformations involving the Mullerian ducts are observed in around 5% of infertile women. Complete aplasia of the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina, also termed Mullerian aplasia or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome occurs with an incidence of around 1 in 4,500 female births, and occurs in both isolated and syndromic forms. Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in c...

  13. Patients with uterine leiomyoma exhibit a high incidence but low mortality rate for breast cancer.

    Shen, Te-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chih-Yi; Soh, Khay-Seng; Liu, Liang-Chih; Chang, Wen-Shin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Bau, Da-Tian

    2017-05-16

    The association of uterine leiomyoma with increased risk of breast cancer is controversial. Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to examine breast cancer incidence and mortality among Asian patients with and without uterine leiomyoma. We compared breast cancer incidence and mortality between 22,001 newly diagnosed uterine leiomyoma patients and 85,356 individuals without uterine leiomyoma matched by age and date of diagnosis. Adjusted hazard ratios for breast cancer were estimated using the Cox model. The incidence of breast cancer was 35% higher in the uterine leiomyoma group than the leiomyoma-free group (1.65 vs. 1.22 per 1,000 individuals, p leiomyoma group (mean followed time, 3.59 ± 2.70 years) than the leiomyoma-free group (8.78%; mean followed time, 3.54 ± 2.67 years) at the endpoint of the study (p leiomyoma than in those without it, but overall mortality from breast cancer was lower in the patients with uterine leiomyoma.

  14. High Chlamydia and gonorrhea incidence and reinfection among performers in the adult film industry.

    Goldstein, Binh Y; Steinberg, Jane K; Aynalem, Getahun; Kerndt, Peter R

    2011-07-01

    Adult film industry (AFI) performers engage in unprotected oral, vaginal, and anal sex with multiple partners, increasing the likelihood of acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. Current industry practice does not require condom use; instead it relies upon limited testing. We sought to estimate the annual cumulative incidence of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) and assess the rate of reinfection among AFI performers. We retrieved all CT and GC cases diagnosed among performers between 2004 and 2008 in Los Angeles, CA and reported to the health department surveillance registry. Using 2008 data, we estimated ranges for CT and GC annual cumulative incidences based on assumptions of the population size of performers. For cases reported between 2004 and 2007, we determined the CT and/or GC reinfection rate within 1 year. Lower bounds for the annual cumulative incidences of CT and GC among AFI performers were estimated to be 14.3% and 5.1%, respectively. The reinfection rate within 1 year was 26.1%. Female performers were 27% more likely to be reinfected as compared with male performers (prevalence ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.48). CT and GC infections are common and recurrent among performers. Control strategies, including promotion of condom use, are needed to protect workers in this industry, as testing alone will not effectively prevent workplace acquisition and transmission. Additional legislation that places more responsibility on the production companies is needed to ensure the safety and health of performers.

  15. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  16. NCI Program for Natural Product Discovery: A Publicly-Accessible Library of Natural Product Fractions for High-Throughput Screening.

    Thornburg, Christopher C; Britt, John R; Evans, Jason R; Akee, Rhone K; Whitt, James A; Trinh, Spencer K; Harris, Matthew J; Thompson, Jerell R; Ewing, Teresa L; Shipley, Suzanne M; Grothaus, Paul G; Newman, David J; Schneider, Joel P; Grkovic, Tanja; O'Keefe, Barry R

    2018-06-13

    The US National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Natural Product Repository is one of the world's largest, most diverse collections of natural products containing over 230,000 unique extracts derived from plant, marine, and microbial organisms that have been collected from biodiverse regions throughout the world. Importantly, this national resource is available to the research community for the screening of extracts and the isolation of bioactive natural products. However, despite the success of natural products in drug discovery, compatibility issues that make extracts challenging for liquid handling systems, extended timelines that complicate natural product-based drug discovery efforts and the presence of pan-assay interfering compounds have reduced enthusiasm for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of crude natural product extract libraries in targeted assay systems. To address these limitations, the NCI Program for Natural Product Discovery (NPNPD), a newly launched, national program to advance natural product discovery technologies and facilitate the discovery of structurally defined, validated lead molecules ready for translation will create a prefractionated library from over 125,000 natural product extracts with the aim of producing a publicly-accessible, HTS-amenable library of >1,000,000 fractions. This library, representing perhaps the largest accumulation of natural-product based fractions in the world, will be made available free of charge in 384-well plates for screening against all disease states in an effort to reinvigorate natural product-based drug discovery.

  17. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow

    Rashad, Ramy

    To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition

  18. High C-Reactive Protein Predicts Delirium Incidence, Duration, and Feature Severity After Major Noncardiac Surgery.

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha M; Dillon, Simon T; Inouye, Sharon K; Ngo, Long H; Fong, Tamara G; Jones, Richard N; Travison, Thomas G; Schmitt, Eva M; Alsop, David C; Freedman, Steven D; Arnold, Steven E; Metzger, Eran D; Libermann, Towia A; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2017-08-01

    To examine associations between the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 2 (POD2) and delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity. Prospective cohort study. Two academic medical centers. Adults aged 70 and older undergoing major noncardiac surgery (N = 560). Plasma CRP was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Delirium was assessed from Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) interviews and chart review. Delirium duration was measured according to number of hospital days with delirium. Delirium feature severity was defined as the sum of CAM-Severity (CAM-S) scores on all postoperative hospital days. Generalized linear models were used to examine independent associations between CRP (preoperatively and POD2 separately) and delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity; prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS, >5 days); and discharge disposition. Postoperative delirium occurred in 24% of participants, 12% had 2 or more delirium days, and the mean ± standard deviation sum CAM-S was 9.3 ± 11.4. After adjusting for age, sex, surgery type, anesthesia route, medical comorbidities, and postoperative infectious complications, participants with preoperative CRP of 3 mg/L or greater had a risk of delirium that was 1.5 times as great (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.1) as that of those with CRP less than 3 mg/L, 0.4 more delirium days (P delirium (3.6 CAM-S points higher, P delirium (95% CI = 1.0-2.4) as those in the lowest quartile (≤127.53 mg/L), had 0.2 more delirium days (P delirium (4.5 CAM-S points higher, P delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity. CRP may be useful to identify individuals who are at risk of developing delirium. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. A point kernel shielding code, PKN-HP, for high energy proton incident

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A point kernel integral technique code PKN-HP, and the related thick target neutron yield data have been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray dose equivalents in ordinary concrete and iron shields for fully stopping length C, Cu and U-238 target neutrons produced by 100 MeV-10 GeV proton incident in a 3-dimensional geometry. The comparisons among calculation results of the present code and other calculation techniques, and measured values showed the usefulness of the code. (author)

  20. High incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in one region of the republic of macedonia.

    Anastasovska, V; Koviloska, R; Kocova, M

    2014-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation in children. Diagnosis is difficult at birth without neonatal screening. Neonatal thyroid screening was established in Prilep, Republic of Macedonia as an integral part of the nationwide screening program. To estimate the prevalence of CH in this region, neonatal thyroid screening was performed on 9757 newborns, during the period 2002-2011. The DELFIA method was applied to measure the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in dried blood spot samples on standard filter paper taken 48 hours after birth by heel-stick. The TSH cut-off level was 10 mU/L. The neonatal thyroid screening coverage was 93.4%. Eight newborns with CH were detected, with an incidence of 1:1220 live births, significantly higher compared to the nationwide results 1:2602. The TSH level was not significantly dependent on the gender of the newborn. There was a statistically significant difference between the TSH level and the timing of newborn screening sampling (p One point ninety-two percent of newborns with TSH levels above 5 mU/L indicated an iodine sufficiency in Prilep. The incidence of CH in Prilep, which is higher when compared with that reported in surrounding countries, might be a consequence of the higher percentage of the Romany population in this region. Further analysis of this population in other regions is warranted.

  1. High recombination rate in natural populations of Plasmodium falciparum

    Conway, D. J.; Roper, C.; Oduola, A. M.; Arnot, D. E.; Kremsner, P. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; Curtis, C. F.; Greenwood, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is

  2. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  3. High incidence of hydrocephalus following prenatal exposure to X-irradiation at early gestational stage in mice

    Aolad, H.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Darmanto, W.; Murata, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is one of the severe brain anomalies. Several causes of congenital hydrocephalus have been reported and, it is known that radiation is one of those. The current study was designed to obtain postnatally viable hydrocephalic offspring at a high incidence following X-radiation. This finding will be helpful to elucidate the mechanism of congenital hydrocephalus caused by X-radiation. Twenty pregnant Slc:ICR mice, 5 in each group, were exposed to X-irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy on gestational days 7 (G7), G8, G9 or G10. The incidence of hydrocephalus was high in the group exposed on G7. An additional 21 pregnant mice were then exposed to a dose of 1.2 Gy, 1.3 Gy, 1.4 Gy or 1.5 Gy X-radiation on G7. The highest incidence of hydrocephalic offspring was found following exposure to 1.4 Gy X-radiation. (author)

  4. The role of antiretroviral therapy in reducing TB incidence and mortality in high HIV-TB burden countries

    Anthony D Harries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, all countries have committed to end the tuberculosis (TB epidemic by 2030, defined as dramatic reductions in TB incidence and mortality combined with zero TB-induced catastrophic costs for families. This paper explores how antiretroviral therapy (ART in high HIV-TB burden countries may help in reducing TB incidence and mortality and thus contribute to the ambitious goal of ending TB. ART in people living with HIV has a potent TB preventive effect, with this being most apparent in those with the most advanced immunodeficiency. Early ART also significantly reduces the risk of TB, and with new World Health Organization guidance released in 2015 about initiating ART in all persons living with HIV irrespective of CD4 count, there is the potential for enormous benefit at the population level. Already, several countries with high HIVTB burdens have seen dramatic declines in TB case notification rates since ART scale up started in 2004. In patients already diagnosed with HIV-associated TB, mortality can be significantly decreased by ART, especially if started within 2–8 weeks of anti-TB treatment. The benefits of ART on TB incidence and TB mortality can be further augmented respectively by the addition of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. These interventions must be effectively implemented and scaled up in order to end the TB epidemic by 2030.

  5. On the incidence of close binary stars in globular clusters and the nature of the cluster X-ray sources

    Trimble, V.

    1977-01-01

    Recent calculations suggest that the globular clusters could not have formed with more than 20 per cent of the normal Population I fraction of their stars in binary systems. The fact that the clusters have more than their fair share of novae and U Geminorum stars (three each out of approximately 200 of each known, while the clusters contain only about 10 -4 of the mass and 10 -3 of the luminosity of the galaxy) therefore becomes surprising. The hypothesis of binary capture within cluster cores suggested to account for the clusters' high X-ray luminosity provides a few extra systems, but neither it nor any of the similar encounter or capture mechanisms suggested can account for the novae and U Gen stars, which remain puzzling. The number of Algol-type and W UMa eclipsing binaries predicted by these hypotheses do not conflict with data presently available, but careful searches for them would constitute a critical test of the theories. (author)

  6. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of HIV-1-associated cryptococcal meningitis during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Touma, Madeleine; Rasmussen, Line D.; Martin-Iguacel, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with advanced immunosup-pression predisposes to cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of CM in HIV-infected individuals during the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Methods......: A nationwide, population-based cohort of HIV-infected individuals was used to estimate incidence and mortality of CM including risk factors. A description of neurological symptoms of CM at presentation and follow-up in the study period 1995–2014 was included in this study. Results: Among 6,351 HIV...... was associated with increased risk of CM [IRR, 2.05 (95% CI, 1.00–4.20)]. The main signs and symptoms at presentation were headache, cognitive deficits, fever, neck stiffness, nausea, and vomiting. All individuals diagnosed with CM had a CD4 + cell count

  7. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of HIV-1-associated cryptococcal meningitis during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Touma, Madeleine; Rasmussen, Line D.; Martin-Iguacel, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    : A nationwide, population-based cohort of HIV-infected individuals was used to estimate incidence and mortality of CM including risk factors. A description of neurological symptoms of CM at presentation and follow-up in the study period 1995-2014 was included in this study. RESULTS: Among 6,351 HIV......BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with advanced immunosuppression predisposes to cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of CM in HIV-infected individuals during the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. METHODS...... was associated with increased risk of CM [IRR, 2.05 (95% CI, 1.00-4.20)]. The main signs and symptoms at presentation were headache, cognitive deficits, fever, neck stiffness, nausea, and vomiting. All individuals diagnosed with CM had a CD4(+) cell count

  8. Tissue characteristics of high- and low-incidence plutonium-induced osteogenic sarcoma sites in life-span beagles

    Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.; Smith, J.M.; Wronski, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of information gathered from the 239 Pu life-span study in beagles at the University of Utah, the tissue features were found to be characteristic of high-incidence bone-tumor sites compared to low-incidence sites included more hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow; greater trabecular bone mass; greater bone remodeling rates; greater mineral apposition rates; greater density and activity of bone surface cells; greater density of putative bone-cell precursors; greater initial uptake of plutonium on bone surfaces; and greater marrow vascular volumes and a venous sinusoidal bed. Although most of these studies are not yet complete, the information being collected should contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas. This should aid in predicting the types and characteristics of osseous tissues where radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas may arise in humans. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Mapping Prevalence and Incidence of Coral Disease in reef-building corals at two Natural Reserves of the Southwest Puerto Rico

    Sanchez Viruet, I.; Irizarry-Soto, E.; Ruiz-Valentín, I.

    2016-02-01

    Coral diseases seems to be the main cause of coral reef decline in the Caribbean. Before the bleaching event of 2005, coral reefs in Puerto Rico were dominated by the reef-building taxa: Orbicella annularis, Porites astreoides, Montastrea cavernosa, Agaricia agaracites and Colpophyllia natans. After the event, live-coral cover significantly declined and more than 90% of the scleractinian corals in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico showed signals of thermal stressors. The prevalence of coral diseases in five reef-building coral (Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Orbicella faveolata, Porites porites and Pseudiploria strigosa) species was assessed by tagging, photographing, and mapping all diseased and healthy colonies within 10 permanent 40m2 band transects at each inshore and mid-shelf reefs of Belvedere and Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserves using a random stratified sampling method. Maximum and perpendicular diameter was used to assess coral size using Coral Point Count with Excel Extension. Corals were classified into three size class populations (class I: 0-50cm, class II: 50-100cm and class III: >100 cm). Data was used to develop a GIS-based map containing coral species, size and disease presence. Preliminary results of the inshore area showed a higher disease prevalence in Belvedere natural reserve and for P. strigosa (17.1%) and O. annularis (9.3%). Frequency distribution analysis showed a dominance of O. faveolata at Punta Guaniquilla and Belvedere (127 and 88 individuals respectively). Size class I dominates the distribution of each species within the natural reserves with a higher disease prevalence. Future work include continue prevalence surveys of the outer reef shelf on both natural reserves, monitoring and GIS-based mapping of incidence and resilience through time. This study will help in the assessment of the status of the coral reef of the southwest insular platform.

  10. Less efficient oculomotor performance is associated with increased incidence of head impacts in high school ice hockey.

    Kiefer, Adam W; DiCesare, Christopher; Nalepka, Patrick; Foss, Kim Barber; Thomas, Staci; Myer, Gregory D

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate associations between pre-season oculomotor performance on visual tracking tasks and in-season head impact incidence during high school boys ice hockey. Prospective observational study design. Fifteen healthy high school aged male hockey athletes (M=16.50±1.17years) performed two 30s blocks each of a prosaccade and self-paced saccade task, and two trials each of a slow, medium, and fast smooth pursuit task (90°s -1 ; 180°s -1 ; 360°s -1 ) during the pre-season. Regular season in-game collision data were collected via helmet-mounted accelerometers. Simple linear regressions were used to examine relations between oculomotor performance measures and collision incidence at various impact thresholds. The variability of prosaccade latency was positively related to total collisions for the 20g force cutoff (p=0.046, adjusted R 2 =0.28). The average self-paced saccade velocity (p=0.020, adjusted R 2 =0.37) and variability of smooth pursuit gaze velocity (p=0.012, adjusted R 2 =0.47) were also positively associated with total collisions for the 50g force cutoff. These results provide preliminary evidence that less efficient oculomotor performance on three different oculomotor tasks is associated with increased incidence of head impacts during a competitive ice hockey season. The variability of prosaccade latency, the average self-paced saccade velocity and the variability of gaze velocity during predictable smooth pursuit all related to increased head impacts. Future work is needed to further understand player initiated collisions, but this is an important first step toward understanding strategies to reduce incidence of injury risk in ice hockey, and potentially contact sports more generally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gallbladder cancer: incidence and survival in a high-risk area of Chile.

    Bertran, Enriqueta; Heise, Katy; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-11-15

    We assessed population incidence rates 1998-2002 and 5-year survival rates of 317 primary gallbladder cancer (GBC) entered in the population-based cancer registry in Valdivia. We analyzed GBC incidence (Poisson regression) and GBC survival (Cox regression). Cases were identified by histology (69.4%), clinical work-up (21.8%), or death certificate only (8.8%). Main symptoms were abdominal pain (82.8%), jaundice (53.6%) nausea (42.6%), and weight loss (38.2%); at diagnosis, 64% had Stage TNM IV. In the period, 4% of histopathological studies from presumptively benign cholecystectomies presented GBC. GBC cases were mainly females (76.0%), urban residents (70.3%), Hispanic (83.7%) of low schooling Mapuche 25.0, Hispanic 16.2 (p = 0.09). The highest SIRs were in Mapuche (269.2) and Hispanic women (199.6) with 8 years of schooling. Low schooling, female and urban residence were independent risk factors. By December 31, 2007, 6 (1.9%) cases were living, 280 (88.3%) died from GBC, 32 (10.1%) were lost of follow-up. Kaplan Meier Global 5-year survival was: 10.3%, 85% at stage I and 1.9% at stage IV; median survival: 3.4 months. Independent poor prognostic factors were TNM IV, jaundice and nonincidental diagnoses. Our results suggest that women of Mapuche ancestry with low schooling (>50 years) are at the highest risk of presenting and dying from GBC and should be the target for early detection programs.

  12. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in north Netherlands (1989-2003) : increased incidence, stable survival and high incidence of second primary tumours

    van Gaal, J. C.; Bastiaannet, E.; Schaapveld, M.; Otter, R.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.

    Background: Lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer has led to increased awareness of this young population. Design: We carried out a population-based study of incidence and survival of primary tumours and second primary tumours in patients aged 12-24 in north

  13. Schistosomiasis mansoni incidence data in Rwanda can improve prevalence assessments, by providing high-resolution hotspot and risk factors identification.

    Nyandwi, E; Veldkamp, A; Amer, S; Karema, C; Umulisa, I

    2017-10-25

    Schistosomiasis mansoni constitutes a significant public health problem in Rwanda. The nationwide prevalence mapping conducted in 2007-2008 revealed that prevalence per district ranges from 0 to 69.5% among school children. In response, mass drug administration campaigns were initiated. However, a few years later some additional small-scale studies revealed the existence of areas of high transmission in districts formerly classified as low endemic suggesting the need for a more accurate methodology for identification of hotspots. This study investigated if confirmed cases of schistosomiasis recorded at health facility level can be used to, next to existing prevalence data, detect geographically more accurate hotspots of the disease and its associated risk factors. A GIS-based spatial and statistical analysis was carried out. Confirmed cases, recorded at primary health facilities level, were combined with demographic data to calculate incidence rates for each of 367 health facility service area. Empirical Bayesian smoothing was used to deal with rate instability. Incidence rates were compared with prevalence data to identify their level of agreement. Spatial autocorrelation of the incidence rates was analyzed using Moran's Index, to check if spatial clustering occurs. Finally, the spatial relationship between schistosomiasis distribution and potential risk factors was assessed using multiple regression. Incidence rates for 2007-2008 were highly correlated with prevalence values (R 2  = 0.79), indicating that in the case of Rwanda incidence data can be used as a proxy for prevalence data. We observed a focal distribution of schistosomiasis with a significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I > 0: 0,05-0.20 and p ≤ 0,05), indicating the occurrence of hotspots. Regarding risk factors, it was identified that the spatial pattern of schistosomiasis is significantly associated with wetland conditions and rice cultivation. In Rwanda the high density of health

  14. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222 Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  15. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  16. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  17. Incidence of and risk factors for traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: an epidemiologic study in high-school rugby players.

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Maki, Nobukazu; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of reinjuries due to glenohumeral instability and the major risk factors for primary anterior shoulder dislocation in youth rugby players have been unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, mechanisms, and intrinsic risk factors of shoulder dislocation in elite high-school rugby union teams during the 2012 season. A total of 378 male rugby players from 7 high-school teams were investigated by use of self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of shoulder dislocation was 14.8%, and there were 21 events of primary shoulder dislocation of the 74 overall shoulder injuries that were sustained during the season (3.2 events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). During the season, 54.3% of the shoulders with at least one episode of shoulder dislocation had reinjury. This study also indicated that the persistence of glenohumeral instability might affect the player's self-assessed condition, regardless of the incidence during the current season. By a multivariate logistic regression method, a history of shoulder dislocation on the opposite side before the season was found to be a risk factor for contralateral primary shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.97; P = .02). High-school rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation are not playing at full capacity and also have a significant rate of reinjury as well as a high risk of dislocating the other shoulder. These findings may be helpful in deciding on the proper treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in young rugby players. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice after X-irradiation and corticosteroids

    Resnitzky, P.; Estrov, Z.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem; Haran-Ghera, N.

    1985-01-01

    SJL/J mice which developed a high incidence of spontaneous reticulum cell neoplasms, developed a low rate incidence (20-25%) of myeloid leukemia (ML) after X-irradiation. The possible effect of adrenal steroid imbalance to radiation-induced ML in SJL/J mice was tested. Intact and thymectomized animals were exposed to a single dose of 300 r whole body irradiation and treated with either hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, metyrapone and adrenocorticotropin as coleukemogenic agents. Hydrocortisone and prednisone exerted a marked coleukemogenic effect, increasing the ML incidence to a similar rate of about 50-70%, at a mean latent period of 300 days. Prominent leukemic infiltration were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and liver of the leukemic animals. Results of cytological and histological studies, including cytochemistry and ultrastructure, were all consistent with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since AML is the type of human secondary leukemia which appears increasingly in patients treat with alkylating drugs and/or irradiation and corticosteroids for Hodgkin's disease or other neoplastic diseases, the experimental model of AML induced in SJL/J mice could be used for elucidation of mechanisms of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia. (author)

  19. High incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice after X-irradiation and corticosteroids

    Resnitzky, P; Estrov, Z; Haran-Ghera, N

    1985-01-01

    SJL/J mice which developed a high incidence of spontaneous reticulum cell neoplasms, developed a low rate incidence (20-25%) of myeloid leukemia (ML) after X-irradiation. The possible effect of adrenal steroid imbalance to radiation-induced ML in SJL/J mice was tested. Intact and thymectomized animals were exposed to a single dose of 300 r whole body irradiation and treated with either hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, metyrapone and adrenocorticotropin as coleukemogenic agents. Hydrocortisone and prednisone exerted a marked coleukemogenic effect, increasing the ML incidence to a similar rate of about 50-70%, at a mean latent period of 300 days. Prominent leukemic infiltration were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and liver of the leukemic animals. Results of cytological and histological studies, including cytochemistry and ultrastructure, were all consistent with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since AML is the type of human secondary leukemia which appears increasingly in patients treat with alkylating drugs and/or irradiation and corticosteroids for Hodgkin's disease or other neoplastic diseases, the experimental model of AML induced in SJL/J mice could be used for elucidation of mechanisms of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia.

  20. Trends in incidence of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark, 1978-2008

    Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidences of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3) over time in Danish women and men. Describing the burden of anal cancer and AIN may be valuable in future evaluations of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. We included all...... anal cancers in the Danish Cancer Register in the period 1978-2008 and all cases of AIN2/3 in the Danish Registry of Pathology. Overall and age-, period- and histology-specific incidence rates were estimated. During the 30-year period, 2187 anal cancers were identified, two thirds of which were...... in women. Between 1978-1982 and 2003-2008, the age-standardized incidence rate of anal cancer increased from 0.68 to 1.48 per 100 000 person-years in women and from 0.45 to 0.80 per 100 000 person-years in men. Although there is no systematic screening for AIN in Denmark, we nevertheless identified 608...

  1. High concentrations of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used ...

    Introduction. Gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL) are commonly used by healthcare workers because of their good qualities. However, allergic reactions to latex allergens are still commonly reported. Objective. To measure the concentrations of Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 allergens in gloves used by a ...

  2. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation

    Freire-Maia, A.; Krieger, H.

    1978-01-01

    Data have been obtained by a genetic-epidemiological survey of a population living in the State of Espirito Santo (Brazil), and subjected to mean levels of natural radiation, per locality, ranging from 7 to 133 μrad/hr. Multiple regression models have been applied to the data, and the results showed no detectable effect of natural radiation on the sex ratio at birth, on the occurrence of congenital anomalies, and on the numbers of pregnancy terminations, stillbirths, livebirths, and post-infant mortality in the children, as well as fecundity and fertility of the couples (these observations contradict some data from the literature, based on official records and without analyses of the concomitant effects of other variables). However, nonsignificant results cannot be considered as disproving harmful effects of natural radiation on mortality and morbidity. These results may simply mean that other causes of mortality and morbidity are so important, under the conditions of the study, that the contribution of low-level, chronic natural radiation is made negligible. (author)

  3. High incidence of monozygotic twinning after assisted reproduction is related to genetic information, but not to assisted reproduction technology itself.

    Sobek, Aleš; Zbořilová, Blažena; Procházka, Martin; Šilhánová, Eva; Koutná, Olga; Klásková, Eva; Tkadlec, Emil; Sobek, Aleš

    2015-03-01

    To study the incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) in patients using in vitro fertilization, relative to their age, genetic background, ovarian function, and assisted reproductive techniques used. Analysis of a collected database. Infertility treatment center. A total of 1,876 patients receiving infertility treatment between 2000 and 2012. Pregnancies with monozygotic twins (A: 23) were compared with deliveries of dizygotic twins (B: 423), singleton pregnancies (C: 880), and aborted pregnancies (D: 389). None. A genetic survey on multiple pregnancies in the extended family. Measures were micromanipulation technique, the length of embryo cultivation, type of cultivation media, basal follicle-stimulating hormone level, estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, number of oocytes, total consumption of gonadotropins, and consumption of gonadotropins needed for recovery of 1 oocyte. No differences were found between the incidence of MZT in cycles that did vs. did not use micromanipulation techniques. In addition, the length of embryo cultivation or type of cultivation media used did not affect the results. Estradiol levels and implantation rates were significantly higher in group A. The incidence of MZT in families in group A was significantly higher than that in groups B and C. We propose that the high incidence of MZT in infertility-clinic patients is conditioned by hereditary factors, and good ovarian function only facilitates the expression. The resulting recommendation is that young women with a positive family history and good ovarian function undergo elective single-embryo transfer, and proper counseling is advisable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  5. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  6. The Incidence of the Tuition-Free High School Program in Japan

    Hori, Masahiro; Shimizutani, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a tuition-free high school program launched in FY2010 in Japan on the high school enrollment rate and household spending. We have some interesting findings. First, the program contributed to improvement in the high school enrollment rate for poorer households. Second, the program stimulated household spending…

  7. The high cancer incidence in young people in Italy: do genetic signatures reveal their environmental causes?

    Ruggero Ridolfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cancer in children and adolescents registered in Italy in the last few decades is one of the highest amongst Western countries. The causes are difficult to identify, but recent daily news and some epidemiological surveys, such as the ‘Sentieri’ study, suggest that environmental pollution has an important role. In the past 20 years, epigenetic studies have described how the changes induced by the cell microenvironment on the non-coding parts of the genome can heavily influence gene function, contributing to the carcinogenesis process. Connecting links amongst the external environment, cellular microenvironment and functional epigenetic and genetic mutations promote carcinogenesis. Today, the whole genome sequencing techniques for human cancers can help to formulate a map of mutational signatures in individual tumours, and a list of mutational fingerprints showing exposure to specific environmental mutagens is being developed. Determining the ethical, legal and economic consequences of known cancer causative agents in young people will be a crucial step for a serious reconsideration of primary prevention.

  8. Cost-effective mammography screening in Korea. High incidence of breast cancer in young women

    Lee, Soon-Young; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Kim, Youn-Nam; Kim, Jinheum; Kang, Dae-Ryong; Kim, Hyeon-Chang; Nam, Chung-Mo

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in Korean women are different from the characteristics reported in Western women. The highest incidence rate occurs in Korean women in their 40s. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective screening interval and target age range for Korean women from the perspective of the national healthcare system. A stochastic model was used to simulate breast cancer screenings by varying both the screening intervals and the age ranges. The effectiveness of mammography screening was defined as the probability of detecting breast cancer in the preclinical state and the cost was based on the direct cost of mammography screening and the confirmative tests. The age-specific mean sojourn times and the sensitivity of the mammography were applied in the stochastic model. An optimal cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and lifetime schedule sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess parameter uncertainty. The selected cost-effective strategies were: the current biennial mammography screenings for women who are at least 40 years old; biennial screening for women between the ages of 35 and 75 years; and a combination strategy consisting of biennial screening for women aged between 45 and 54 years, and 3-year interval screening for women aged between 40 and 44 years and 55 and 65 years. Further studies should follow to investigate the effectiveness of mammography screening in women younger than 40 years in Asia as well as in Korea. (author)

  9. Novel surgical performance evaluation approximates Standardized Incidence Ratio with high accuracy at simple means.

    Gabbay, Itay E; Gabbay, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Excess adverse events may be attributable to poor surgical performance but also to case-mix, which is controlled through the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR). SIR calculations can be complicated, resource consuming, and unfeasible in some settings. This article suggests a novel method for SIR approximation. In order to evaluate a potential SIR surrogate measure we predefined acceptance criteria. We developed a new measure - Approximate Risk Index (ARI). "Number Needed for Event" (NNE) is the theoretical number of patients needed "to produce" one adverse event. ARI is defined as the quotient of the group of patients needed for no observed events Ge by total patients treated Ga. Our evaluation compared 2500 surgical units and over 3 million heterogeneous risk surgical patients that were induced through a computerized simulation. Surgical unit's data were computed for SIR and ARI to evaluate compliance with the predefined criteria. Approximation was evaluated by correlation analysis and performance prediction capability by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. ARI strongly correlates with SIR (r(2) = 0.87, p 0.9) 87% sensitivity and 91% specificity. ARI provides good approximation of SIR and excellent prediction capability. ARI is simple and cost-effective as it requires thorough risk evaluation of only the adverse events patients. ARI can provide a crucial screening and performance evaluation quality control tool. The ARI method may suit other clinical and epidemiological settings where relatively small fraction of the entire population is affected. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High incidence and spontaneous resolution of mastoid effusion after craniotomy on early postoperative magnetic resonance images

    Watanabe, T.; Saito, N.; Takahashi, A.; Fujimaki, H.; Tosaka, M.; Sasaki, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, 371-8511, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Sato, N. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Mastoid effusion is a poorly understood complication after craniotomy. The incidence and severity of postoperative mastoid effusion were retrospectively examined on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess any association with craniotomy procedures, time course, and neuro-otological complications. We evaluated the early postoperative MR images (within 4 days of craniotomy) and medical records of 74 patients who underwent 77 operations for the treatment of various intracranial diseases from January 2000 to December 2001. Mastoid effusion was classified into four grades: none, partial, moderate, and severe diffuse effusion in the mastoid air cells. Thirty-three follow-up MR images from 26 patients were also reviewed. Postoperative mastoid effusion occurred ipsilateral to the craniotomy site in 62 cases and contralateral in 56 cases. Mastoid effusion was significantly more severe ipsilateral than contralateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in severity between the contralateral and ipsilateral sides after craniotomy without mastoid air cell opening (P=0.437). Mastoid effusion following craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells resolved within 3 months. However, otitis media with effusion developed in six patients with severe mastoid effusion ipsilateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells. Mastoid effusion frequently developed on both sides. Any grade of mastoid effusion on the ipsilateral side to craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells, or on the contralateral side, was asymptomatic or had a benign course, and disappeared within 3 months. (orig.)

  11. Did high-altitude EMP (electromagnetic pulse) cause the Hawaiian streetlight incident

    Vittitoe, C N

    1989-04-01

    Studies of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects on civilian and military systems predict results ranging from severe destruction to no damage. Convincing analyses that support either extreme are rare. The Hawaiian streetlight incident associated with the Starfish nuclear burst is the most widely quoted observed damage. We review the streetlight characteristics and estimate the coupling between the Starfish EMP and a particular streetlight circuit identified as one of the few that failed. Evidence indicates that the damage was EMP-generated. The main contributing factors were the azimuthal angle of the circuit relative to the direction of EMP propagation, and the rapid rise of the EMP signal. The azimuthal angle provided coherent buildup of voltage as the EMP swept across the transmission line. The rapid rise allowed substantial excitation before the canceling effects of ground reflections limited the signals. Resulting voltages were at the threshold for causing the observed fuse damage and are consistent with this damage occurring in only some of the strings in the systems. 15 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. High incidence and spontaneous resolution of mastoid effusion after craniotomy on early postoperative magnetic resonance images

    Watanabe, T.; Saito, N.; Takahashi, A.; Fujimaki, H.; Tosaka, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, N.

    2003-01-01

    Mastoid effusion is a poorly understood complication after craniotomy. The incidence and severity of postoperative mastoid effusion were retrospectively examined on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess any association with craniotomy procedures, time course, and neuro-otological complications. We evaluated the early postoperative MR images (within 4 days of craniotomy) and medical records of 74 patients who underwent 77 operations for the treatment of various intracranial diseases from January 2000 to December 2001. Mastoid effusion was classified into four grades: none, partial, moderate, and severe diffuse effusion in the mastoid air cells. Thirty-three follow-up MR images from 26 patients were also reviewed. Postoperative mastoid effusion occurred ipsilateral to the craniotomy site in 62 cases and contralateral in 56 cases. Mastoid effusion was significantly more severe ipsilateral than contralateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in severity between the contralateral and ipsilateral sides after craniotomy without mastoid air cell opening (P=0.437). Mastoid effusion following craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells resolved within 3 months. However, otitis media with effusion developed in six patients with severe mastoid effusion ipsilateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells. Mastoid effusion frequently developed on both sides. Any grade of mastoid effusion on the ipsilateral side to craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells, or on the contralateral side, was asymptomatic or had a benign course, and disappeared within 3 months. (orig.)

  13. The paradox of high apolipoprotein A-I levels independently predicting incident type-2 diabetes among Turks.

    Onat, A; Hergenç, G; Bulur, S; Uğur, M; Küçükdurmaz, Z; Can, G

    2010-06-25

    Predictive value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I for incident hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) needs further exploration. A representative sample of Turkish adults was studied with this purpose prospectively. Sex-specific apoA-I tertiles were examined regarding cardiometabolic risk. A total of 1044 men and 1067 women (aged 49+/-12 years at baseline) were followed up over 7.4 years. High serum apoA-I levels were significantly associated in multivariable analysis with female sex, aging, alcohol intake, (inversely) cigarette smoking and, in women, with systolic blood pressure. Risk of diabetes was predicted in logistic regression in both genders by top versus bottom apoA-I tertile (RR 1.98; [95%CI 1.31; 3.0]), additive to age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-cholesterol and lipid lowering drugs. By adding sex hormone-binding globulin to the model in a subset of the sample, the association between high apoA-I and incident diabetes was attenuated only in women. ApoA-I tertiles tended to be positively associated also with hypertension and CHD only in women but this did not reach significance. High compared with low serum apoA-I levels nearly double the risk for incident diabetes, additively to age, BMI, CRP, HDL-cholesterol among Turks. Systemic inflammation concomitant with prevailing MetS might turn apoA-I into proinflammatory particles. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

    Cesar Monzo

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help

  15. Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (≥20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake......DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often DNA is recognized as nutrient source...... of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations...

  16. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation, 7

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1975-01-01

    Two methods to estimate the inbreeding load, employed in our analysis, are reviewed. Besides the total population, a sample constituted of individuals with no alien ancestral is also analysed. The measurements by genetic load models show any clear effect of natural radioactivity (especially for abortions, pre-natal mortality, anomalies, and abnormalities in general). The results on stillbirths and post-natal and total mortalities are discussed and it is concluded that uncontrolled concomitant variables (if not chance alone) cause the differences [pt

  17. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs

  19. High incidence of adrenal crisis in educated patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency: a prospective study.

    Hahner, Stefanie; Spinnler, Christina; Fassnacht, Martin; Burger-Stritt, Stephanie; Lang, Katharina; Milovanovic, Danijela; Beuschlein, Felix; Willenberg, Holger S; Quinkler, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Adrenal crisis (AC) is a life-threatening complication of adrenal insufficiency (AI), which according to retrospective data represents a significant clinical complication. Here we aimed to prospectively assess incidence of AC and mortality associated with AC in patients with chronic AI. A total of 423 patients with AI (primary AI, n = 221; secondary AI, n = 202) were prospectively followed up for 2 years. Baseline assessment included a general questionnaire and detailed written instructions on glucocorticoid dose adaptation during stress. Patients received follow-up questionnaires every 6 months and were contacted by phone in case of reported adrenal crisis. A total of 423 data sets were available for baseline analysis, and 364 patients (86%) completed the whole study. Sixy-four AC in 767.5 patient-years were documented (8.3 crises per 100 patient-years). Precipitating causes were mainly gastrointestinal infection, fever, and emotional stress (20%, respectively) but also other stressful events (eg, major pain, surgery, strenuous physical activity, heat, pregnancy) or unexplained sudden onset of AC (7%) were documented. Patients with a previous AC were at higher risk of crisis (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.5-5.5, P cases death was associated with AC (0.5 AC related deaths per 100 patient-years). Even in educated patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency, AC occurs in a substantial proportion of cases. Furthermore, we identified AC-associated mortality in approximately 6% of AC. Our findings further emphasize the need for improved management of AC in patients with chronic AI.

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants born before 25 weeks gestation in a Korean single neonatal intensive care unit: incidence, natural history and risk factors.

    Kong, Mingui; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Ham, Don Il; Kang, Se Woong; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-12-01

    As younger preterm infants are able to survive, more extremely preterm infants are at risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). To investigate the incidence, progression and risk factors of ROP in extremely preterm infants in Korea, the medical records of infants born before 25 weeks gestation were retrospectively reviewed. The criteria for laser treatment agreed with type 1 ROP as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Of the 121 infants included in the analysis, 119 (98.4%) infants developed any stage ROP, including 78 infants (64.5%) with type 1 ROP. The mean postmenstrual age (PMA) at the onset of any ROP and type 1 ROP were 33.5 and 36.1 weeks, respectively. All but one infant developed type 1 ROP after 31 weeks PMA. Univariate analysis showed that duration of total parenteral nutrition and onset of any ROP (PMA) were associated with the development of type 1 ROP. In conclusion, this study shows high incidence of ROP in extremely preterm infants and suggests that, although current screening protocols are feasible for most preterm infants born before 25 weeks gestation, earlier screening before 31 weeks PMA may be necessary in infants with an unstable clinical course.

  1. The effect of smoking by family members and friends on the incidence of smoking among high school students.

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Soltaneefa, Atefeh; Ghaznavi, Mahsoomeh; Bakhshandeh, Tahereh; Saberi, Soheila

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of death. According to the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) presented by WHO, 25% of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10; hence, it is of great importance to investigate the effect of smoking of family members and friends on smoking incidence of adolescents. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of GYTS questionnaire. The studied population consisted of 3000 high school students who were selected randomly. Data was collected by applying the questionnaires which were fulfilled by students anonymously without supervision of school authorities. The results were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 software employing chi-square test. The studied population included 1842 boys (61.4%) and 1158 girls (38.6%) with the mean age of 16.1 years. In terms of smoking habit, 827 students (27.6%) were occasional smokers, 122 students (4.2%) were regular smokers, 518 students (17.3%) used another type of tobacco, and 1533 students (51.1%) were non-smokers. In terms of gender, 77.6% of occasional smokers were males and 22.4% of them were females. At the same time, males and females made up 80.3% and 19.7% of regular smokers, respectively. Also, males and females made up 71.1% and 28.9% of students using another type of tobacco, respectively. In terms of smoker family members and friends, 1860 students (85.6%) of non-smoker students had no smoker in their families and only 313 (14.4%) had at least one smoker in family, while 61.5% of smoker students had at least one smoker family member (p pocket money. This study showed that the incidence of smoking among high school students significantly correlated with the incidence of smoking among their friendsandfamilymembers (p pocket money) has little orno effect on the incidence of smoking among high school students (p value: 0.863).

  2. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Müllerian aplasia.

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Strick, Reiner; Storer, Mekayla; Huang, Ni; Rad, Roland; Willatt, Lionel; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Martin, Vicki; Sandford, Richard; Carter, Nigel P; Janecke, Andreas R; Renner, Stefan P; Oppelt, Patricia G; Oppelt, Peter; Schulze, Christine; Brucker, Sara; Hurles, Matthew; Beckmann, Matthias W; Strissel, Pamela L; Shaw-Smith, Charles

    2011-03-01

    Congenital malformations involving the Müllerian ducts are observed in around 5% of infertile women. Complete aplasia of the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina, also termed Müllerian aplasia or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, occurs with an incidence of around 1 in 4500 female births, and occurs in both isolated and syndromic forms. Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in copy number at different genomic loci. In order to obtain an overview of the contribution of copy number variation to both isolated and syndromic forms of Müllerian aplasia, copy number assays were performed in a series of 63 cases, of which 25 were syndromic and 38 isolated. A high incidence (9/63, 14%) of recurrent copy number variants in this cohort is reported here. These comprised four cases of microdeletion at 16p11.2, an autism susceptibility locus not previously associated with Müllerian aplasia, four cases of microdeletion at 17q12, and one case of a distal 22q11.2 microdeletion. Microdeletions at 16p11.2 and 17q12 were found in 4/38 (10.5%) cases with isolated Müllerian aplasia, and at 16p11.2, 17q12 and 22q11.2 (distal) in 5/25 cases (20%) with syndromic Müllerian aplasia. The finding of microdeletion at 16p11.2 in 2/38 (5%) of isolated and 2/25 (8%) of syndromic cases suggests a significant contribution of this copy number variant alone to the pathogenesis of Müllerian aplasia. Overall, the high incidence of recurrent copy number variants in all forms of Müllerian aplasia has implications for the understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of the condition, and for genetic counselling in families affected by it.

  3. Baseball and softball sliding injuries: incidence and correlates during one high school league varsity season.

    Stovak, Mark; Parikh, Amit; Harvey, Anne T

    2012-11-01

    To estimate injury rates associated with sliding in high school baseball and softball. Prospective cohort study. Community high school athletic events. Ten high school varsity baseball and softball teams over 1 season. All sliding attempts were recorded during each game and recorded as headfirst, feetfirst, or diveback. Base type, playing surface, and field conditions were also noted. Injury exposure rates by game exposures and sliding/diveback exposures. Data were collected from 153 baseball games and 166 softball games. A greater proportion of slides were associated with injury in softball than in baseball (42.0 and 4.9 per 1000 slides; P softball (55 vs 35 per 1000 slides; P = 0.74). More powerful studies are required to determine whether efforts to prevent baseball sliding injuries at the high school level should focus on better education in sliding technique or changes in equipment. Softball players are vulnerable to injury when wearing inadequate protective sliding apparel.

  4. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site

    Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kamada, Nanao; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Gusev, B.I.; Sakerbaev, A.K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238, 239, 400 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to γ-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years. (author)

  5. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  6. A prospective cohort study to assess seroprevalence, incidence, knowledge, attitudes and practices, willingness to pay for vaccine and related risk factors in dengue in a high incidence setting

    Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world, causing significant morbidity and economic impact. In Colombia, dengue is a major public health problem. Departments of La Guajira, Cesar and Magdalena are dengue endemic areas. The objective of this research is to determine the seroprevalence and the incidence of dengue virus infection in the participating municipalities from these Departments, and also establish the association between individual and housing factors and vector indices with seroprevalence and incidence. We will also assess knowledge, attitudes and practices, and willingness-to-pay for dengue vaccine. Methods A cohort study will be assembled with a clustered multistage sampling in 11 endemic municipalities. Approximately 1000 homes will be visited to enroll people older than one year who living in these areas, who will be followed for 1 year. Dengue virus infections will be evaluated using IgG indirect ELISA and IgM and IgG capture ELISA. Additionally, vector indices will be measured, and adult mosquitoes will be captured with aspirators. Ovitraps will be used for continuous estimation of vector density. Discussion This research will generate necessary knowledge to design and implement strategies with a multidimensional approach that reduce dengue morbidity and mortality in La Guajira and other departments from Colombian Caribbean.

  7. High HIV prevalence and incidence among women in Southern Mozambique: Evidence from the MDP microbicide feasibility study.

    Sibone Mocumbi

    was 4.3 per 100 person years at Mavalane and 9.2 per 100 person years at Manhiça.We demonstrated the ability to recruit a cohort of women at risk of HIV who were willing to participate in clinical research. The high HIV incidence necessitates additional action around HIV prevention for women and offers opportunities to evaluate the impact of available prevention options, such as treatment as prevention and oral PrEP. The high HIV incidence and STI prevalence also offers opportunities to evaluate the added benefit of potential prevention options such as new formulations of oral PrEP, vaginal microbicides (also called topical PrEP, vaccines, and multi-purpose technologies for HIV, STIs and contraception.

  8. High folate production by naturally occurring Lactobacillus sp. with ...

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home ... Milk products are good sources of such vitamins which are produced by probiotics. In order to ... Therefore, two new strains with an ability of high folate production were isolated and identified.

  9. High folate production by naturally occurring Lactobacillus sp. with ...

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... high folate production, isolation and identification of Lactobacilli in traditional fermented milk ... mended for pregnant women (Van Der Put et al., 2001; ...... utilization of folic acid and vitamin B12 by lactic cultures in skim milk.

  10. Effects of high fat diet on incidence of spontaneous tumors in Wistar rats

    KRISTIANSEN, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    In a 2.5-year carcinogenicity study, two groups, both including male and female Wistar rats, were fed two different diets with 4% and 16% fat. In addition to 4% soybean oil, the high-fat diet contained 12% mono- and diglycerides, of which 85% was stearic acid and 13% palmitic acid...

  11. Zooplankton incidence in abnormally high sea surface temperature in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Goswami, S.C.

    Zooplankton in an abnormally high sea surface temperature (33.1 to 33.8 degrees C) and alternate bands of slick formation were studied in the Eastern Arabian Sea during 26 and 29 April 1981. The phenomenon which may be due to intense diurnal heating...

  12. Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Tromp, Peter; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Xu, Jun; Seow, Wei Jie; Chapman, Robert S.; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel

    Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung

  13. Incidence, microbiological profile of nosocomial infections, and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a high volume Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.

  14. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  15. Incidence and care of environmental dermatoses in the high-altitude region of Ladakh, India

    G K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low humidity, high-velocity wind, excessive ultraviolet (UV exposure, and extreme cold temperature are the main causes of various types of environmental dermatoses in high altitudes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in patients visiting the lone dermatology department in Ladakh between July 2009 and June 2010. The aim was to identify the common environmental dermatoses in high altitudes so that they can be treated easily or prevented. The patients were divided into three demographic groups, namely, lowlanders, Ladakhis (native highlanders, and tourists. Data was analyzed in a tabulated fashion. Results: A total of 1,567 patients with skin ailments were seen, of whom 965 were lowlanders, 512 native Ladakhis, and 90 were tourists. The skin disorders due to UV rays, dry skin, and papular urticaria were common among all groups. The frequency of melasma ( n = 42; 49.4%, chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD ( n = 18; 81.81% of total CAD cases, and actinic cheilitis ( n = 3; 100% was much higher among the native Ladakhis. The frequency of cold-related injuries was much lesser among Ladakhis ( n = 1; 1.19% than lowlanders ( n = 70; 83.33% and tourists ( n = 13; 15.47% ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dryness of skin, tanning, acute or chronic sunburn, polymorphic light reaction, CAD, insect bite reactions, chilblain, and frostbite are common environmental dermatoses of high altitudes. Avoidance of frequent application of soap, application of adequate and suitable emollient, use of effective sunscreen, and wearing of protective clothing are important guidelines for skin care in this region.

  16. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  17. The nature of temper brittleness of high-chromium ferrite

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.; Golovin, I.S.; Mishin, V.M.; Kislyuk, I.V. [Central Scientific-Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    The reasons for development of {open_quotes}475{degrees}C brittleness{close_quotes} of high-chromium ferritic steels are considered from the standpoint of fracture mechanics. It is shown that the general rise in the curve of temperature-dependent local flow stress has the decisive influence on the position of the ductile-to-brittle transformation temperature and the increase in it as the result of a hold at temperatures of development of brittleness. The established effect is related to the change in the parameters determining dislocation mobility, that is, the activation energy of dislocation movement in high-chromium ferrite and the resistance to microplastic deformation, both caused by processes of separation into layers of high-chromium ferrite and decomposition of the interstitial solid solution.

  18. A Prospective Cohort Study of Absconsion Incidents in Forensic Psychiatric Settings: Can We Identify Those at High-Risk?

    Alexis E Cullen

    Full Text Available Incidents of absconsion in forensic psychiatric units can have potentially serious consequences, yet surprisingly little is known about the characteristics of patients who abscond from these settings. The few previous studies conducted to date have employed retrospective designs, and no attempt has been made to develop an empirically-derived risk assessment scale. In this prospective study, we aimed to identify predictors of absconsion over a two-year period and investigate the feasibility of developing a brief risk assessment scale.The study examined a representative sample of 135 patients treated in forensic medium- and low-secure wards. At baseline, demographic, clinical, treatment-related, and offending/behavioural factors were ascertained from electronic medical records and the treating teams. Incidents of absconsion (i.e., failure to return from leave, incidents of escape, and absconding whilst on escorted leave were assessed at a two-year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the strongest predictors of absconsion which were then weighted according to their ability to discriminate absconders and non-absconders. The predictive utility of a brief risk assessment scale based on these weighted items was evaluated using receiver operator characteristics (ROC.During the two-year follow-up period, 27 patients (20% absconded, accounting for 56 separate incidents. In multivariate analyses, four factors relating to offending and behaviour emerged as the strongest predictors of absconsion: history of sexual offending, previous absconsion, recent inpatient verbal aggression, and recent inpatient substance use. The weighted risk scale derived from these factors had moderate-to-good predictive accuracy (ROC area under the curve: 0.80; sensitivity: 067; specificity: 0.71, a high negative predictive value (0.91, but a low positive predictive value (0.34.Potentially-targetable recent behaviours, such as inpatient verbal aggression

  19. A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum?

    Rekart, Michael L; Ndifon, Wilfred; Brunham, Robert C; Dushoff, Jonathan; Park, Sang Woo; Rawat, Sanjana; Cameron, Caroline E

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly. This is expected to result in increased sexual risk-taking, especially unprotected anal intercourse, leading to more non-HIV-1 STDs, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis. However, syphilis incidence has increased more rapidly than other STDs. We hypothesise that HAART downregulates the innate and acquired immune responses to Treponema pallidum and that this biological explanation plays an important role in the syphilis epidemic. We performed a literature search and developed a mathematical model of HIV-1 and T. pallidum confection in a population with two risk groups with assortative mixing to explore the consequence on syphilis prevalence of HAART-induced changes in behaviour versus HAART-induced biological effects. Since rising syphilis incidence appears to have outpaced gonorrhoea and chlamydia, predominantly affecting HIV-1 positive MSM, behavioural factors alone may be insufficient to explain the unique, sharp increase in syphilis incidence. HAART agents have the potential to alter the innate and acquired immune responses in ways that may enhance susceptibility to T. pallidum . This raises the possibility that therapeutic and preventative HAART may inadvertently increase the incidence of syphilis, a situation that would have significant and global public health implications. We propose that additional studies investigating the interplay between HAART and enhanced T. pallidum susceptibility are needed. If our hypothesis is correct, HAART should be combined with

  20. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.

  1. High HIV incidence in men who have sex with men attending for postexposure prophylaxis: a service evaluation.

    Whitlock, G; McCormack, C; Fearnley, J; McOwan, A

    2017-05-01

    There are limited outcome data for men who have sex with men (MSM) who have received HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The objective of this service evaluation was to determine HIV incidence and repeat PEP use among MSM PEP recipients in London, UK. Retrospective electronic case-note review of all MSM who were prescribed PEP between January and April 2013 at a central London sexual health service. 530 MSM received PEP between 1 January and 30 June 2013. Of these, 449 had more than 30 days subsequent follow-up at our service. Median age was 31 years. PEP indication was unprotected anal intercourse, 98% (receptive 88% and insertive 10%) and other, 2%. Up to 1 November 2015, total follow-up was 756 person-years. 183 users received repeat PEP. The total number of repeat PEP courses was 442. 57 MSM newly acquired HIV: the HIV incidence was 7.6 per 100 person-years. PEP was associated with a high risk of subsequent HIV seroconversion in this cohort; this group may be appropriate candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States.

    De Jesus, Christopher Lawrence; Bartley, Amanda; Welch, Aaron Z; Berry, John P

    2017-12-21

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminants of food crops. Among the agricultural products consequently contaminated by OTA is wine. In the present study, a sample of wines sourced from the United States was assessed for OTA. Wines were primarily analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) coupled to a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique which was developed and validated as a simplified sample preparation approach. More than 85% of the wines evaluated were found to contain OTA, at levels above the limit-of-detection (LOD = 0.1 µg L -1 ), and 76% were above the limit-of-quantitation (LOQ = 0.3 µg L -1 ) for the LLE/HPLC-FD method. More than two-thirds of the wines above the LOQ were found to exceed 1 µg L -1 . Complementary analysis by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) confirmed OTA in 74% of the OTA-positive wines (i.e., >LOQ by HPLC-FD). Overall, both the occurrence and measured levels of OTA were generally high, specifically relative to previous assessments of OTA in wine, and two of the wines were above the only current (European Union) regulatory limit of two parts-per-billion (ppb, ~2 µg L -1 ). Possible trends with respect to geographical region and/or growing climate are noted. As the first assessment of U.S. wines in more than a decade, the overall high occurrence and levels of OTA in wine, and possible geographic and climatic trends, point to a need for regular surveillance of wines, as well as investigation of the relevant contributors to OTA occurrence toward mitigating contamination and exposure risks.

  3. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and soft tissue infection among high school football players.

    Lear, Aaron; McCord, Gary; Peiffer, Jeffrey; Watkins, Richard R; Parikh, Arpan; Warrington, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections have been documented with increasing frequency in both team and individual sports in recent years. It also seems that the level of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections in the general population has increased. One hundred ninety athletes from 6 local high school football teams were recruited for this prospective observational study to document nasal colonization and the potential role this plays in skin and soft tissue infections in football players and, in particular, MRSA infections. Athletes had nasal swabs done before their season started, and they filled out questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for skin and soft tissue infections. Those enrolled in the study were then observed over the course of the season for skin and soft tissue infections. Those infected had data about their infections collected. One hundred ninety of 386 available student athletes enrolled in the study. Forty-four of the subjects had nasal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none were colonized with MRSA. There were 10 skin and soft tissue infections (8 bacterial and 2 fungal) documented over the course of the season. All were treated as outpatients with oral or topical antibiotics, and none were considered serious. Survey data from the preseason questionnaire showed 21% with skin infection, 11% with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none with MRSA infection during the past year. Three reported a remote history of MRSA infection. We documented an overall skin infection rate of 5.3% among high school football players over a single season. Our results suggest that skin and soft tissue infection may not be widespread among high school athletes in northeast Ohio.

  4. Predicting incident size from limited information

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  5. High incidence of deformity in aquatic turtles in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge

    Bell, Barbara [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Spotila, James R [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Congdon, Justin [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2006-08-15

    The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge is subject to pollution from multiple sources. We studied development of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) embryos from the refuge from 2000 through 2003. Mean annual deformity rate of pooled painted turtle clutches over four years ranged from 45 to 71%, while that of snapping turtle clutches ranged from 13 to 19%. Lethal deformities were more common than minor or moderate deformities in embryos of both species. Adult painted turtles had a higher deformity rate than adult snapping turtles. Snapping turtles at JHNWR had high levels of PAH contamination in their fat. This suggests that PAHs are involved in the high level of deformities. Other contaminants may also play a role. Although the refuge offers many advantages to resident turtle populations, pollution appears to place a developmental burden on the life history of these turtles. - This paper presents findings on the prevalence of developmental abnormalities in turtles at a national wildlife refuge that have direct relevance to studies on the effects of contamination on development and morphology of vertebrates.

  6. High incidence of deformity in aquatic turtles in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge

    Bell, Barbara; Spotila, James R.; Congdon, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge is subject to pollution from multiple sources. We studied development of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) embryos from the refuge from 2000 through 2003. Mean annual deformity rate of pooled painted turtle clutches over four years ranged from 45 to 71%, while that of snapping turtle clutches ranged from 13 to 19%. Lethal deformities were more common than minor or moderate deformities in embryos of both species. Adult painted turtles had a higher deformity rate than adult snapping turtles. Snapping turtles at JHNWR had high levels of PAH contamination in their fat. This suggests that PAHs are involved in the high level of deformities. Other contaminants may also play a role. Although the refuge offers many advantages to resident turtle populations, pollution appears to place a developmental burden on the life history of these turtles. - This paper presents findings on the prevalence of developmental abnormalities in turtles at a national wildlife refuge that have direct relevance to studies on the effects of contamination on development and morphology of vertebrates

  7. natural

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  8. Incidence of Sociodemographic Factors in the Attitudes to the Reading of High School Students

    Teresa Cervera Mata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the high school students determine their possibilities to change their attitude towards the reading and, in this way, encourage their reading habit. A program of workshops to inspire Reading carried out in an educational compensation center shows how a relationship between sociodemographic factors and the change happened with their reading habit is established. This methodology is introduced in the classroom as a tool that intends to produce a transformation in their literary education through playful elements, which are required in the necessary contexts of social transformation. An attitude towards reading are the first aspects that must be positively modified to strengthen the relationship between books and students and thus, encourage the reading as an habit. Therefore, the knowloedge of the social and family influential environment will contribute to the application of this methodology in the classroom, enhancing or mitigating the effects of this relationship.

  9. Incidence of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Battersby, Cheryl; Santhalingam, Tharsika; Costeloe, Kate; Modi, Neena

    2018-03-01

    To conduct a systematic review of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) rates in high-income countries published in peer-reviewed journals. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases for observational studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We selected studies reporting national, regional or multicentre rates of NEC in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. For included studies, we extracted country, year of publication in peer-reviewed journal, study time period, study population inclusion and exclusion criteria, case definition, gestation or birth weight-specific NEC and mortality rates. Of the 1888 references identified, 120 full manuscripts were reviewed, 33 studies met inclusion criteria, 14 studies with the most recent data from 12 countries were included in the final analysis. We identified an almost fourfold difference, from 2% to 7%, in the rate of NEC among babies born REVIEWS REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015030046. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Backscatter dose from metallic materials due to obliquely incident high-energy photon beams

    Nadrowitz, Roger; Feyerabend, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    If metallic material is exposed to ionizing radiation of sufficient high energy, an increase in dose due to backscatter radiation occurs in front of this material. Our purpose in this study was to quantify these doses at variable distances between scattering materials and the detector at axial beam angles between 0 deg. (zero angle in beams eye view) and 90 deg. . Copper, silver and lead sheets embedded in a phantom of perspex were exposed to 10 MV-bremsstrahlung. The detector we developed is based on the fluorescence property of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid) after exposure to ionizing radiation. Our results show that the additional doses and the corresponding dose distribution in front of the scattering materials depend quantitatively and qualitatively on the beam angle. The backscatter dose increases with varying beam angle from 0 deg. to 90 deg. up to a maximum at 55 deg. for copper and silver. At angles of 0 deg. and 55 deg. the integral backscatter doses over a tissue-equivalent depth of 2 mm are 11.2% and 21.6% for copper and 24% and 28% for silver, respectively. In contrast, in front of lead there are no obvious differences of the measured backscatter doses at angles between 0 deg. and 55 deg. With a further increase of the beam angle from 55 deg. to 90 deg. the backscatter dose decreases steeply for all three materials. In front of copper a markedly lower penetrating depth of the backscattered electrons was found for an angle of 0 deg. compared to 55 deg. This dependence from the beam angle was less pronounced in front of silver and not detectable in front of lead. In conclusion, the dependence of the backscatter dose from the angle between axial beam and scattering material must be considered, as higher scattering doses have to be considered than previously expected. This may have a clinical impact since the surface of metallic implants is usually curved

  11. Backscatter dose from metallic materials due to obliquely incident high-energy photon beams

    Nadrowitz, Roger; Feyerabend, Thomas [Medical University of Luebeck, Germany, Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, D-23538 (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    If metallic material is exposed to ionizing radiation of sufficient high energy, an increase in dose due to backscatter radiation occurs in front of this material. Our purpose in this study was to quantify these doses at variable distances between scattering materials and the detector at axial beam angles between 0 deg. (zero angle in beams eye view) and 90 deg. . Copper, silver and lead sheets embedded in a phantom of perspex were exposed to 10 MV-bremsstrahlung. The detector we developed is based on the fluorescence property of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid) after exposure to ionizing radiation. Our results show that the additional doses and the corresponding dose distribution in front of the scattering materials depend quantitatively and qualitatively on the beam angle. The backscatter dose increases with varying beam angle from 0 deg. to 90 deg. up to a maximum at 55 deg. for copper and silver. At angles of 0 deg. and 55 deg. the integral backscatter doses over a tissue-equivalent depth of 2 mm are 11.2% and 21.6% for copper and 24% and 28% for silver, respectively. In contrast, in front of lead there are no obvious differences of the measured backscatter doses at angles between 0 deg. and 55 deg. With a further increase of the beam angle from 55 deg. to 90 deg. the backscatter dose decreases steeply for all three materials. In front of copper a markedly lower penetrating depth of the backscattered electrons was found for an angle of 0 deg. compared to 55 deg. This dependence from the beam angle was less pronounced in front of silver and not detectable in front of lead. In conclusion, the dependence of the backscatter dose from the angle between axial beam and scattering material must be considered, as higher scattering doses have to be considered than previously expected. This may have a clinical impact since the surface of metallic implants is usually curved.

  12. Flexible social organization and high incidence of drifting in the sweat bee, Halictus scabiosae.

    Ulrich, Yuko; Perrin, Nicolas; Chapuisat, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The very diverse social systems of sweat bees make them interesting models to study social evolution. Here we focus on the dispersal behaviour and social organization of Halictus scabiosae, a common yet poorly known species of Europe. By combining field observations and genetic data, we show that females have multiple reproductive strategies, which generates a large diversity in the social structure of nests. A detailed microsatellite analysis of 60 nests revealed that 55% of the nests contained the offspring of a single female, whereas the rest had more complex social structures, with three clear cases of multiple females reproducing in the same nest and frequent occurrence of unrelated individuals. Drifting among nests was surprisingly common, as 16% of the 122 nests in the overall sample and 44% of the nests with complex social structure contained females that had genotypes consistent with being full-sisters of females sampled in other nests of the population. Drifters originated from nests with an above-average productivity and were unrelated to their nestmates, suggesting that drifting might be a strategy to avoid competition among related females. The sex-specific comparison of genetic differentiation indicated that dispersal was male-biased, which would reinforce local resource competition among females. The pattern of genetic differentiation among populations was consistent with a dynamic process of patch colonization and extinction, as expected from the unstable, anthropogenic habitat of this species. Overall, our data show that H. scabiosae varies greatly in dispersal behaviour and social organization. The surprisingly high frequency of drifters echoes recent findings in wasps and bees, calling for further investigation of the adaptive basis of drifting in the social insects.

  13. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0.013). The accelerated rehabilitation protocol seems to have advantages for early muscle recovery in patients undergoing PAO; however, postoperative pelvic fracture rates were unacceptably high in patients with this protocol.

  14. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  15. High incidence of unplanned pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy initiation: findings from a prospective cohort study in South Africa.

    Sheree R Schwartz

    Full Text Available Increased fertility rates in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART have been attributed to improved immunological function; it is unknown to what extent the rise in pregnancy rates is due to unintended pregnancies.Non-pregnant women ages 18-35 from four public-sector ART clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa, were enrolled into a prospective cohort and followed from August 2009-March 2011. Fertility intentions, contraception and pregnancy status were measured longitudinally at participants' routine ART clinic visits.Of the 850 women enrolled, 822 (97% had at least one follow-up visit and contributed 745.2 person-years (PY at-risk for incident pregnancy. Overall, 170 pregnancies were detected in 161 women (incidence rate [IR]: 21.6/100 PY [95% confidence interval (CI: 18.5-25.2]. Of the 170 pregnancies, 105 (62% were unplanned. Unmet need for contraception was 50% higher in women initiating ART in the past year as compared to women on ART>1 year (prevalence ratio 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-2.0]; by two years post-ART initiation, nearly one quarter of women had at least one unplanned pregnancy. Cumulative incidence of pregnancy was equally high among recent ART initiators and ART experienced participants: 23.9% [95% CI: 16.4-34.1], 15.9% [12.0-20.8], and 21.0% [16.8-26.1] for women on ART 0-1 yr, >1 yr-2 yrs, and >2 yrs respectively (log-rank, p = 0.54. Eight hormonal contraceptive failures were detected [IR: 4.4 [95% CI: 2.2-8.9], 7/8 among women using injectable methods. Overall 47% (80/170 of pregnancies were not carried to term.Rates of unintended pregnancies among women on ART are high, including women recently initiating ART with lower CD4 counts and higher viral loads. A substantial burden of pregnancy loss was observed. Integration of contraceptive services and counselling into ART care is necessary to reduce maternal and child health risks related to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Further research into injectable

  16. Xpert MTB/RIF testing in a low tuberculosis incidence, high-resource setting: limitations in accuracy and clinical impact.

    Sohn, Hojoon; Aero, Abebech D; Menzies, Dick; Behr, Marcel; Schwartzman, Kevin; Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Dan, Andrei; McIntosh, Fiona; Pai, Madhukar; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2014-04-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF, the first automated molecular test for tuberculosis, is transforming the diagnostic landscape in low-income countries. However, little information is available on its performance in low-incidence, high-resource countries. We evaluated the accuracy of Xpert in a university hospital tuberculosis clinic in Montreal, Canada, for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis on induced sputum samples, using mycobacterial cultures as the reference standard. We also assessed the potential reduction in time to diagnosis and treatment initiation. We enrolled 502 consecutive patients who presented for evaluation of possible active tuberculosis (most with abnormal chest radiographs, only 18% symptomatic). Twenty-five subjects were identified to have active tuberculosis by culture. Xpert had a sensitivity of 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26%-67%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99%-100%) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sensitivity was 86% (95% CI, 42%-100%) in the 7 subjects with smear-positive results, and 28% (95% CI, 10%-56%) in the remaining subjects with smear-negative, culture-positive results; in this latter group, positive Xpert results were obtained a median 12 days before culture results. Subjects with positive cultures but negative Xpert results had minimal disease: 11 of 13 had no symptoms on presentation, and mean time to positive liquid culture results was 28 days (95% CI, 25-47 days) compared with 14 days (95% CI, 8-21 days) in Xpert/culture-positive cases. Our findings suggest limited potential impact of Xpert testing in high-resource, low-incidence ambulatory settings due to lower sensitivity in the context of less extensive disease, and limited potential to expedite diagnosis beyond what is achieved with the existing, well-performing diagnostic algorithm.

  17. Motor vehicle driving in high incidence psychiatric disability: comparison of drivers with ADHD, depression, and no known psychopathology.

    Aduen, Paula A; Kofler, Michael J; Cox, Daniel J; Sarver, Dustin E; Lunsford, Erin

    2015-05-01

    Although not often discussed in clinical settings, motor vehicle driving is a complex multitasking endeavor during which a momentary attention lapse can have devastating consequences. Previous research suggests that drivers with high incidence psychiatric disabilities such as ADHD contribute disproportionately to collision rates, which in turn portend myriad adverse social, financial, health, mortality, and legal outcomes. However, self-referral bias and the lack of psychiatric comparison groups constrain the generalizability of these findings. The current study addressed these limitations and examined the unique associations among ADHD, Depression, and adverse driving outcomes, independent of self-selection, driving exposure, and referral bias. The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP-2) Naturalistic Driving Study comprises U.S. drivers from six sites selected via probability-based sampling. Groups were defined by Barkley ADHD and psychiatric diagnosis questionnaires, and included ADHD (n = 275), Depression (n = 251), and Healthy Control (n = 1828). Primary outcomes included self-reported traffic collisions, moving violations, collision-related injuries, and collision fault (last 3 years). Accounting for demographic differences, ADHD but not Depression portended increased risk for multiple violations (OR = 2.3) and multiple collisions (OR = 2.2). ADHD but not Depression portended increased risk for collision fault (OR = 2.1). Depression but not ADHD predicted increased risk for self-reported injury following collisions (OR = 2.4). ADHD appears uniquely associated with multiple collisions, multiple violations, and collision fault, whereas Depression is uniquely associated with self-reported injury following a collision. Identification of the specific mechanisms underlying this risk will be critical to designing effective interventions to improve long-term functioning for drivers with high incidence psychiatric disability. Copyright © 2015

  18. Incidence of high dosage buprenorphine and methadone shopping behavior in a retrospective cohort of opioid-maintained patients in France.

    Delorme, Jessica; Chenaf, Chouki; Kabore, Jean-Luc; Pereira, Bruno; Mulliez, Aurélien; Tremey, Aurore; Brousse, Georges; Zenut, Marie; Laporte, Catherine; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) misuse and diversion have significantly increased worldwide. Obtaining OST prescriptions from multiple prescribers, known as doctor shopping, is a way in which opioids may be diverted. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of OST (high dosage buprenorphine (HDB) and methadone (MTD)) shopping behavior and identify associated risk factors, and its impact on mortality. A retrospective cohort of patients treated by OST between April 1, 2004 and December 31, 2012 from a sample of the French Health Insurance database was established. Doctor shopping was defined as ≥1 day of overlapping prescriptions written by ≥2 different prescribers and filled in ≥3 different pharmacies. A total of 2043 patients were enrolled, 1450HDB and 593 MTD. The one-year incidence of shopping behavior was 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0-10.1) in HDB group and 0% in MTD group, compared to 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.2) for diuretics. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with HDB shopping behavior were: male gender HR: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.20-2.54); low-income status HR: 2.95 (95% CI: 2.07-4.44); mental health disorders HR: 1.43 (95% CI: 1.06-1.94); concurrent hypnotics use HR: 1.90 (95% CI: 1.39-2.61); concurrent use of weak opioids HR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.09-1.99) and morphine HR: 1.69 (95% CI: 1.02-2.80). HDB shoppers had a higher, yet non-significant risk of death (HR: 1.56 (95% CI: 0.64-3.81)) than non HDB shoppers. Shopping behavior was only found in high dosage buprenorphine patients and concerned almost one out ten patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in human immune deficiency virus-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy

    B Akshaya Srikanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in Human immune deficiency virus (HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. To identify the risk factors associated with ADRs in HIV patients. To analyze reported ADRs based on various parameters like causality, severity, predictability, and preventability. Retrospective case-control study. An 18-month retrospective case-control study of 208 patients newly registered in ART center, RIMS hospital, Kadapa, were intensively monitored for ADRs to HAART. Predictability was calculated based on the history of previous exposure to drug. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for estimating the correlation between ADRs and different variables. All statistical calculations were performed using EpiInfo version 3.5.3. Monitoring of 208 retrospective patients by active Pharmacovigilance identified 105 ADRs that were identified in 71 patients. Skin rash and anemia were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was skin and appendages (31.57%. The ADRs that were moderate were 90.14% of cases. The incidence of ADRs (53.52% was higher with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. CD4 cell count less than <250 cells/μl were 80.28%, male gender were observed to be the risk factors for ADRs. Our study finding showed that there is a need of active pharmaceutical care with intensive monitoring for ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients who are illiterate, of male and female gender, with CD4 count ≤250 cells/mm 3 with comorbid conditions.

  20. Incidence, Risk Factors, and the Protective Effect of High Body Mass Index against Sarcopenia in Suburb-Dwelling Elderly Chinese Populations.

    Han, P; Zhao, J; Guo, Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Shen, S; Wang, X; Dong, R; Ma, Y; Kang, L; Fu, L; Jia, L; Han, X; He, Z; Bao, Y; Wang, L; Niu, K

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the risk factors of sarcopenia in certain cohorts. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of sarcopenia and associated factors over a 1-year period in an elderly Chinese suburban population. This study was conducted on 356 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years, for whom detailed information regarding sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and medical conditions had been documented. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Sarcopenia incidence was documented after one year of follow-up, and correlated with several possible factors. At baseline, 64 (9.7%) of the initial 657 participants had sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 10.4% after one year. Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, 13 of the participants without sarcopenia at baseline had developed sarcopenia. After multivariate adjustments, it was found that the incidence of sarcopenia increased with age and high body mass index (BMI) is associated with less incidence of sarcopenia. Incidence was also higher among women. We found sarcopenia incidence increased with age, and women were more likely to have sarcopenia. A higher BMI is also associated with a lower incidence of sarcopenia. Maintaining a healthy weight could be beneficial in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  1. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  2. Isolated elliptically polarized attosecond soft X-ray with high-brilliance using polarization gating of harmonics from relativistic plasmas at oblique incidence.

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Li, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-19

    The production of intense isolated attosecond pulse is a major goal in ultrafast research. Recent advances in high harmonic generation from relativistic plasma mirrors under oblique incidence interactions gave rise to photon-rich attosecond pulses with circular or elliptical polarization. However, to achieve an isolated elliptical attosecond pulse via polarization gating using currently available long driving pulses remains a challenge, because polarization gating of high harmonics from relativistic plasmas is assumed only possible at normal or near-normal incidence. Here we numerically demonstrate a scheme around this problem. We show that via control of plasma dynamics by managing laser polarization, it is possible to gate an intense single attosecond pulse with high ellipticity extending to the soft X-ray regime at oblique incidence. This approach thus paves the way towards a powerful tool enabling high-time-resolution probe of dynamics of chiral systems and magnetic materials with current laser technology.

  3. Natural Competence of Xylella fastidiosa Occurs at a High Frequency Inside Microfluidic Chambers Mimicking the Bacterium's Natural Habitats.

    Kandel, Prem P; Lopez, Samantha M; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that is the causal agent of emerging diseases in a number of economically important crops. Genetic diversity studies have demonstrated homologous recombination occurring among X. fastidiosa strains, which has been proposed to contribute to host plant shifts. Moreover, experimental evidence confirmed that X. fastidiosa is naturally competent for recombination in vitro Here, as an approximation of natural habitats (plant xylem vessels and insect mouthparts), recombination was studied in microfluidic chambers (MCs) filled with media amended with grapevine xylem sap. First, different media were screened for recombination in solid agar plates using a pair of X. fastidiosa strains that were previously reported to recombine in coculture. The highest frequency of recombination was obtained with PD3 medium, compared to those with the other two media (X. fastidiosa medium [XFM] and periwinkle wilt [PW] medium) used in previous studies. Dissection of the media components led to the identification of bovine serum albumin as an inhibitor of recombination that was correlated to its previously known effect on inhibition of twitching motility. When recombination was performed in liquid culture, the frequencies were significantly higher under flow conditions (MCs) than under batch conditions (test tubes). The recombination frequencies in MCs and agar plates were not significantly different from each other. Grapevine xylem sap from both susceptible and tolerant varieties allowed high recombination frequency in MCs when mixed with PD3. These results suggest that X. fastidiosa has the ability to be naturally competent in the natural growth environment of liquid flow, and this phenomenon could have implications in X. fastidiosa environmental adaptation. Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that lives inside xylem vessels (where water and nutrients are transported inside the plant) and the mouthparts of insect vectors. This bacterium

  4. Wheelchair incidents

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  5. Understanding the nature of errors in nursing: using a model to analyse critical incident reports of errors which had resulted in an adverse or potentially adverse event.

    Meurier, C E

    2000-07-01

    Human errors are common in clinical practice, but they are under-reported. As a result, very little is known of the types, antecedents and consequences of errors in nursing practice. This limits the potential to learn from errors and to make improvement in the quality and safety of nursing care. The aim of this study was to use an Organizational Accident Model to analyse critical incidents of errors in nursing. Twenty registered nurses were invited to produce a critical incident report of an error (which had led to an adverse event or potentially could have led to an adverse event) they had made in their professional practice and to write down their responses to the error using a structured format. Using Reason's Organizational Accident Model, supplemental information was then collected from five of the participants by means of an individual in-depth interview to explore further issues relating to the incidents they had reported. The detailed analysis of one of the incidents is discussed in this paper, demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach in providing insight into the chain of events which may lead to an adverse event. The case study approach using critical incidents of clinical errors was shown to provide relevant information regarding the interaction of organizational factors, local circumstances and active failures (errors) in producing an adverse or potentially adverse event. It is suggested that more use should be made of this approach to understand how errors are made in practice and to take appropriate preventative measures.

  6. Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Edwards, Katie M

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.

  7. High-incidence of PTEN mutations in Chinese patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Ge; Xiao, Hualiang; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuan; Xiao, He; Yang, Zhenzhou; Wang, Dong; Li, Zengpeng

    2014-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (PSCCE) is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA and PTEN mutations in PSCCE. Clinical–pathological data and paraffin-embedded specimens were collected from 38 patients. Exons 18 to 21 of EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA status were analyzed by real-time PCR based on ARMS and Scorpion technology in all patients, and the PTEN gene was also screened using real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA). Only 1 (2.63%) out of 38 patients had EGFR mutations in L858R missense, and KRAS and PIK3CA were not found in the mutational spot in all patients. However, PTEN mutations presented in 14 (36.84%) out of 38 patients, including exon 5 coding for PTEN missense mutation (n =4, 10.53%), exon 6 (n =7, 18.42%), concurrent exon 5 and exon 6 (n =2, 5.26%), and exon 8 (n =1, 2.63%). Concurrent mutations of these genes were not detected in all samples. No statistically significant associations were found between the clinicopathological features and the mutation status of PTEN. The incidence of PTEN mutations in Chinese patients with PSCCE was higher than that of previous reports in other histological subtypes of esophageal cancer

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  9. Location iron-Mantua an area with high securities gives natural radioactivity

    Alcaide Orpi, J.; Oliveira Acosta, J.; Valdes Hernadez, G.M.; Leal Ramirez, M.R.; Blanco Jorrin, N.

    1998-01-01

    The work shows the high natural radioactivity and the concentration to the natural radioelements (U,Th, Ra, K) it is exists in the sulfurous Hierro Mantua location. The objective is to know the possible radiological risk to that would be subjected the workers during the mining exploitation, because the high gamma radiation doses that could receive and to the risks product the internal contamination due to the inhalation the radon 222 and uranium aerosols and particles

  10. High levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore

    Swinbanks, D D; Shirayama, Y

    1986-03-27

    The paper concerns the high levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench. Measured /sup 210/Po activities and barium contents of various parts of Occultammina profunda and the surrounding sediment are given, together with their estimated /sup 210/Pb and /sup 226/Ra activities. The data suggest that xenophyphores are probably subject to unusually high levels of natural radiation.

  11. A new spectrometer for grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence for the characterization of Arsenic implants and Hf based high-k layers

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.; Giubertoni, D.; Steinhauser, G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2010-01-01

    Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (GIXRF) is a powerful technique for depth-profiling and characterization of thin layers in depths up to a few hundred nanometers. By measurement of fluorescence signals at various incidence angles Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis provides information on depth distribution and total dose of the elements in the layers. The technique is very sensitive even in depths of a few nanometers. As Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis does not provide unambigous depth profile information and needs a realistic input depth profile for fitting, in the context of the EC funded European Integrated Activity of Excellence and Networking for Nano and Micro-Electronics Analysis (ANNA) Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis is used as a complementary technique to Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for the characterization of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJ). A measuring chamber was designed, constructed and tested to meet the requirements of Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis. A measurement protocol was developed and tested. Some results for As implants as well as Hf based high k layers on Silicon are shown. For the determination of the bulk As content of the wafers, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has also been applied for comparison.

  12. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on tuberculosis incidence among HIV-positive patients in high-income countries

    del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Lodi, Sara; van Sighem, Ard; de Wolf, Frank; Sabin, Caroline; Bansi, Loveleen; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Toulomi, Giota; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ainsworth, J.; Anderson, J.; Babiker, A.; Delpech, V.; Dunn, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilson, R.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Phillips, A.; Pillay, D.; Porter, K.; Sabin, C.; Schwenk, A.; Walsh, J.; Bansi, L.; Glabay, A.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Dooley, D.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Prins, J. M.; Boer, K.; Bos, J. C.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Haverkort, M. E.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Lange, J. M. A.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pajkrt, D.; van der Poll, T.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Valk, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M. J. H.; van der Ende, M. E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Nouwen, J. L.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Driessen, G.; Hartwig, N. G.; Branger, J.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Jolink, H.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Vriesendorp, R.; Leyten, E. M. S.; van Houte, D.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; Juttmann, J. R.; Brouwer, A. E.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Koopmans, P. P.; Brouwer, A. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van der Flier, M.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; van Assen, S.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Peters, E. J. G.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Claessen, F. A. P.; de Jong, E. V.; Perenboom, R. M.; bij de Vaate, E. A.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Duits, A. J.; Winkel, K.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; Costagliola, D.; Cotte, L.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Gilquin, J.; Grabar, S.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Matheron, S.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tattevin, P.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Jacquemet, N.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P. M.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J. L.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J. P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M. F.; Pontonnier, G.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Saint-Martin, C. H.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Contant, M.; Aebi, C.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Brazzola, P.; Bucher, H. C.; Bürgisser, Ph; Calmy, A.; Cattacin, S.; Cavassini, M.; Cheseaux, J.-J.; Drack, G.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fischer, M.; Flepp, M.; Fontana, A.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H. J.; Fux, C.; Gayet-Ageron, A.; Gerber, S.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Gyr, Th; Hirsch, H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Hüsler, M.; Kaiser, L.; Kahlert, Ch; Karrer, U.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, Th; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Paccaud, F.; Pantaleo, G.; Raio, L.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Wyler, C.-A.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Miró, J. M.; Alquézar, A.; Isern, V.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Agüero, F.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Segura, F.; Riera, M.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Romero, A.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Ortega, N.; Lazzari, E.; Puchol, E.; Sanchez, M.; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Mallolas, J.; Martínez, E.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou E Negredo, A.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Olmo, M.; Barragan, P.; Saumoy, M.; Bolao, F.; Cabellos, C.; Peña, C.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Navarro, M.; Jose Amengual, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Berenguer, J.; del Amo, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Muñoz, M. A.; Sobrino, P.; Alejos, B.; Monge, S.; Hernando, V.; Alvarez, D.; Jarrín, I.; Gómez Sirvent, J. L.; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; de Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, R. l; Iribarren, J. A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; de los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Fiellin, D. A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, D. N.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Parrinello, M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle de Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Montpied, G.; Morelon, S.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Drenou, B.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Muller, E.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Touam, F.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Poincaré, R.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Mignot, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Mourier, L.; Fournier, L.; Jacquet, M.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Pasteur, L.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; de Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Veil, S.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M. S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Colasante, U.; Nouaouia, W.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Lelievre, J. D.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Venti, H.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Ferreros, I.; Hurtado, I.; González, C.; Caro, A. M.; Muga, R.; Sanvicens, A.; Tor, J.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Garcia de Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Alastrue, I.; Belda, J.; Trullen, P.; Fernández, E.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Zafra, T.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Ruiz, I.; Nuñez, R.; Pérez, R.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Antoniadou, A.; Chrysos, G.; Daikos, G.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Gogos, H. A.; Katsarou, O.; Kordossis, T.; Lazanas, M.; Nikolaidis, P.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Sambatakou, H.; Skoutelis, A.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Vourli, G.; Gioukari, V.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Paraskeva, D.; Hatziastros, P.; Psichogiou, M.; Xylomenos, G.; Maragos, M. N.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kontos, A.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Kolaras, P.; Metallidis, S.; Haratsis, G.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Mariolis, I.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2012-01-01

    The lower tuberculosis incidence reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is difficult to interpret causally. Furthermore, the role of unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is unclear. We aim to

  13. Long-term follow-up reveals high incidence of colorectal cancer in Indian patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Bopanna, Sawan; Kedia, Saurabh; Das, Prasenjit; Dattagupta, S; Sreenivas, V; Mouli, V Pratap; Dhingra, Rajan; Pradhan, Rajesh; Kumar, N Suraj; Yadav, Dawesh P; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet

    2017-08-01

    As the magnitude of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in India is low, magnitude of CRC in ulcerative colitis (UC) is also considered low. As a result, screening for CRC in UC although advocated may not be followed everywhere. We report our data of UC-related CRC from a low-incidence area of sporadic CRC. A total of 1012 patients with left-sided colitis/pancolitis having more than one full-length colonoscopy performed at least a year after the onset of symptoms were included in retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained case records. In addition, 136 patients with duration of disease >10 years underwent surveillance white-light colonoscopy prospectively during the study period. A total of 1012 individuals were finally included (6542 person-years of follow-up, 68.5% males, disease duration: 6.4 ± 6.8 years). Twenty (1.97%) patients developed CRC. Two (10%) patients developed CRC during the first decade, 10/20 (50%) during the second and 8/20 (40%) after the second decade of disease. The cumulative risk of developing CRC was 1.5%, 7.2% and 23.6% in the first, second and third decade, respectively. Of 136 high-risk UC cases, five (3.6%) had CRC on screening colonoscopy. Disease duration and increasing age of onset were associated with higher risk of CRC. Cumulative risk of CRC in Indian UC patients is as high as 23.6% at 30 years. The risk of CRC increases with increasing age of onset and increasing duration of disease. A low risk of sporadic CRC does not confer a low risk of UC-related CRC, and regular screening is warranted.

  14. The Jarvis gas release incident

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  15. The high burden of cholera in children: comparison of incidence from endemic areas in Asia and Africa.

    Jacqueline L Deen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholera remains an important public health problem. Yet there are few reliable population-based estimates of laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence in endemic areas around the world. METHODS: We established treatment facility-based cholera surveillance in three sites in Jakarta (Indonesia, Kolkata (India, and Beira (Mozambique. The annual incidence of cholera was estimated using the population census as the denominator and the age-specific number of cholera cases among the study cohort as the numerator. FINDINGS: The lowest overall rate was found in Jakarta, where the estimated incidence was 0.5/1000 population/year. The incidence was three times higher in Kolkata (1.6/1000/year and eight times higher in Beira (4.0/1000/year. In all study sites, the greatest burden was in children under 5 years of age. CONCLUSION: There are considerable differences in cholera incidence across these endemic areas but in all sites, children are the most affected. The study site in Africa had the highest cholera incidence consistent with a growing impression of the large cholera burden in Africa. Burden estimates are useful when considering where and among whom interventions such as vaccination would be most needed.

  16. naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment of the Red Sea

    Roik, Anna Krystyna; Roethig, Till; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Saderne, Vincent; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2018-01-01

    The coral structural framework is crucial for maintaining reef ecosystem function and services. Rising seawater temperatures impair the calcification capacity of reef-building organisms on a global scale, but in the Red Sea total alkalinity is naturally high and beneficial to reef growth. It is currently unknown how beneficial and detrimental factors affect the balance between calcification and erosion, and thereby overall reef growth, in the Red Sea. To provide estimates of present-day carbonate budgets and reef growth dynamics in the central Red Sea, we measured in situ net-accretion and net-erosion rates (Gnet) by deployment of limestone blocks to estimate census-based carbonate budgets (Gbudget) in four reef sites along a cross-shelf gradient (25 km). In addition, we assessed abiotic (i.e., temperature, inorganic nutrients, and carbonate system variables) and biotic (i.e., calcifier and bioeroder abundances) variables. Our data show that aragonite saturation states (Ω = 3.65–4.20) were in the upper range compared to the chemistry of other tropical reef sites. Further, Gnet and Gbudget encompassed positive (offshore) and negative (midshore-lagoon and exposed nearshore site) carbonate budgets. Notably, Gbudget maxima were lower compared to reef growth from undisturbed Indian Ocean reefs, but erosive forces for Red Sea reefs were not as strong as observed elsewhere. In line with this, a comparison with recent historical data from the northern Red Sea suggests that overall reef growth in the Red Sea has remained similar since 1995. When assessing reef sites across the shelf gradient, AT correlated well and positive with reef growth (ρ = 0.9), while temperature (ρ = −0.7), pH variation (ρ = −0.8), and pCO2 (ρ = −0.8) were weaker negative correlates. Noteworthy for this oligotrophic sea was the positive effect of PO43− (ρ = 0.7) on reef growth. In the best-fitting distance-based linear model, AT explained about 64 % of Gbudget. Interestingly

  17. naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment of the Red Sea

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2018-02-28

    The coral structural framework is crucial for maintaining reef ecosystem function and services. Rising seawater temperatures impair the calcification capacity of reef-building organisms on a global scale, but in the Red Sea total alkalinity is naturally high and beneficial to reef growth. It is currently unknown how beneficial and detrimental factors affect the balance between calcification and erosion, and thereby overall reef growth, in the Red Sea. To provide estimates of present-day carbonate budgets and reef growth dynamics in the central Red Sea, we measured in situ net-accretion and net-erosion rates (Gnet) by deployment of limestone blocks to estimate census-based carbonate budgets (Gbudget) in four reef sites along a cross-shelf gradient (25 km). In addition, we assessed abiotic (i.e., temperature, inorganic nutrients, and carbonate system variables) and biotic (i.e., calcifier and bioeroder abundances) variables. Our data show that aragonite saturation states (Ω = 3.65–4.20) were in the upper range compared to the chemistry of other tropical reef sites. Further, Gnet and Gbudget encompassed positive (offshore) and negative (midshore-lagoon and exposed nearshore site) carbonate budgets. Notably, Gbudget maxima were lower compared to reef growth from undisturbed Indian Ocean reefs, but erosive forces for Red Sea reefs were not as strong as observed elsewhere. In line with this, a comparison with recent historical data from the northern Red Sea suggests that overall reef growth in the Red Sea has remained similar since 1995. When assessing reef sites across the shelf gradient, AT correlated well and positive with reef growth (ρ = 0.9), while temperature (ρ = −0.7), pH variation (ρ = −0.8), and pCO2 (ρ = −0.8) were weaker negative correlates. Noteworthy for this oligotrophic sea was the positive effect of PO43− (ρ = 0.7) on reef growth. In the best-fitting distance-based linear model, AT explained about 64 % of Gbudget. Interestingly

  18. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus.

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Heaton, M P

    2015-01-01

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154). The experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility of breeding ewes to infection after natural exposure to OPPV from birth to 39 mo of age. Sires and dams were heterozygous for TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3, producing ewe lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." These lambs were raised by mature, infected dams to ensure natural, maternal exposure to OPPV. Ewe lambs (n = 108) were kept for breeding and joined an infected flock of ewes to guarantee natural, nonmaternal exposure to OPPV. Ewes were bred to lamb at 1, 2, and 3 yr of age. Serum samples were collected at breeding, 1 mo before lambing and shortly after weaning each year to monitor infection status to 39 mo of age. During the experiment, 9 of the 108 ewes died while uninfected and data collected on these ewes were not analyzed. Infection status of the remaining 99 ewes at 39 mo of age was analyzed using logistic regression procedures. Effects of ewe type of birth, ewe type of rearing, and breed type of dam were not detected (P > 0.10), and the estimated sire variance component was nil. Ewe diplotype affected infection status (P ewes with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.10, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and confidence intervals for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were distinct from "1 1." Haplotype 3 was completely dominant to haplotype 1 at 39 mo of age. The probability of infection for ewes with either diplotype "1 3" or "3 3" averaged 8.5 times that of ewes with diplotype "1 1." Diplotype "1 3" and "3 3" ewes were highly susceptible to nonmaternal transmission of OPPV, in contrast to

  19. Ten years incidence of natural rubber latex sensitization and symptoms in a prospective cohort of health care workers using non-powdered latex gloves 2000-2009.

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Bochdanovits, Letizia; Capuzzo, Chiara; Cerchi, Roberto; Rui, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    To assess the incidence of sensitization and gloves-related symptoms in 10-year follow-up in a group of health care workers (9,660 person-years) using non-powdered latex gloves from 2000 to 2009 and to examine related factors. We studied 2,053 health care workers in Trieste Hospitals by means of skin prick test for latex extract, patch tests and medical examinations. We report the incidence of latex sensitization among workers using non-powdered latex gloves. The incidence of latex sensitization, rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis were 1.0; 0.12; 0.21; 0.72; 2.39 and 2.50 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Respiratory symptoms and urticaria were positively related with latex sensitization (OR = 8.0; 95 % CL 1.27-48.6), with common allergic respiratory symptoms (OR = 4.19; 95 % CL 1.04-16.8) and with familial atopy (OR = 4.47; 95 % CL 1.1-17.9). The incidence of latex sensitization and latex-related symptoms were very low but subjects with allergic symptoms related to common allergens are at higher risk. The use of non-latex gloves is suggested for them.

  20. Reinforcement of natural rubber/high density polyethylene blends with electron beam irradiated liquid natural rubber-coated rice husk

    Chong, E.L.; Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Dahlan, H.M. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ibrahim, E-mail: dia@ukm.m [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Coating of rice husk (RH) surface with liquid natural rubber (LNR) and exposure to electron beam irradiation in air were studied. FTIR analysis on the LNR-coated RH (RHR) exposed to electron beam (EB) showed a decrease in the double bonds and an increase in hydroxyl and hydrogen bonded carbonyl groups arising from the chemical interaction between the active groups on RH surface with LNR. The scanning electron micrograph showed that the LNR formed a coating on the RH particles which transformed to a fine and clear fibrous layer at 20 kGy irradiation. The LNR film appeared as patches at 50 kGy irradiation due to degradation of rubber. Composites of natural rubber (NR)/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/RHR showed an optimum at 20-30 kGy dosage with the maximum stress, tensile modulus and impact strength of 6.5, 79 and 13.2 kJ/m{sup 2}, respectively. The interfacial interaction between the modified RH and TPNR matrix had improved on exposure of RHR to e-beam at 20-30 kGy dosage.

  1. Shark attacks in Dakar and the Cap Vert Peninsula, Senegal: low incidence despite high occurrence of potentially dangerous species.

    Trape, Sébastien

    2008-01-30

    The International Shark Attack File mentions only four unprovoked shark attacks on the coast of West Africa during the period 1828-2004, an area where high concentrations of sharks and 17 species potentially dangerous to man have been observed. To investigate if the frequency of shark attacks could be really low and not just under-reported and whether there are potentially sharks that might attack in the area, a study was carried out in Dakar and the Cap Vert peninsula, Senegal. Personnel of health facilities, administrative services, traditional authorities and groups of fishermen from the region of Dakar were interviewed about the occurrence of shark attacks, and visual censuses were conducted along the coastline to investigate shark communities associated with the coasts of Dakar and the Cap Vert peninsula. Six attacks were documented for the period 1947-2005, including two fatal ones attributed to the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvieri. All attacks concerned fishermen and only one occurred after 1970. Sharks were observed year round along the coastline in waters 3-15 m depth. Two species potentially dangerous for man, the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum and the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus, represented together 94% of 1,071 sharks enumerated during 1,459 hours of observations. Threatening behaviour from sharks was noted in 12 encounters (1.1%), including 8 encounters with C. limbatus, one with Galeocerdo cuvieri and 3 with unidentified sharks. These findings suggest that the frequency of shark attacks on the coast of West Africa is underestimated. However, they also indicate that the risk is very low despite the abundance of sharks. In Dakar area, most encounters along the coastline with potentially dangerous species do not result in an attack. Compared to other causes of water related deaths, the incidence of shark attack appears negligible, at least one thousand fold lower.

  2. Shark attacks in Dakar and the Cap Vert Peninsula, Senegal: low incidence despite high occurrence of potentially dangerous species.

    Sébastien Trape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Shark Attack File mentions only four unprovoked shark attacks on the coast of West Africa during the period 1828-2004, an area where high concentrations of sharks and 17 species potentially dangerous to man have been observed. To investigate if the frequency of shark attacks could be really low and not just under-reported and whether there are potentially sharks that might attack in the area, a study was carried out in Dakar and the Cap Vert peninsula, Senegal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Personnel of health facilities, administrative services, traditional authorities and groups of fishermen from the region of Dakar were interviewed about the occurrence of shark attacks, and visual censuses were conducted along the coastline to investigate shark communities associated with the coasts of Dakar and the Cap Vert peninsula. Six attacks were documented for the period 1947-2005, including two fatal ones attributed to the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvieri. All attacks concerned fishermen and only one occurred after 1970. Sharks were observed year round along the coastline in waters 3-15 m depth. Two species potentially dangerous for man, the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum and the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus, represented together 94% of 1,071 sharks enumerated during 1,459 hours of observations. Threatening behaviour from sharks was noted in 12 encounters (1.1%, including 8 encounters with C. limbatus, one with Galeocerdo cuvieri and 3 with unidentified sharks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the frequency of shark attacks on the coast of West Africa is underestimated. However, they also indicate that the risk is very low despite the abundance of sharks. In Dakar area, most encounters along the coastline with potentially dangerous species do not result in an attack. Compared to other causes of water related deaths, the incidence of shark attack appears negligible, at least one thousand

  3. Distribution of Trauma Care Facilities in Oman in Relation to High-Incidence Road Traffic Injury Sites: Pilot study.

    Al-Kindi, Sara M; Naiem, Ahmed A; Taqi, Kadhim M; Al-Gheiti, Najla M; Al-Toobi, Ikhtiyar S; Al-Busaidi, Nasra Q; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z; Taqi, Alaa M; Ba-Alawi, Sharif A; Al-Qadhi, Hani A

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered a major public health problem worldwide. In Oman, high numbers of RTIs and RTI-related deaths are frequently registered. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of trauma care facilities in Oman with regards to their proximity to RTI-prevalent areas. This descriptive pilot study analysed RTI data recorded in the national Royal Oman Police registry from January to December 2014. The distribution of trauma care facilities was analysed by calculating distances between areas of peak RTI incidence and the closest trauma centre using Google Earth and Google Maps software (Google Inc., Googleplex, Mountain View, California, USA). A total of 32 trauma care facilities were identified. Four facilities (12.5%) were categorised as class V trauma centres. Of the facilities in Muscat, 42.9% were ranked as class IV or V. There were no class IV or V facilities in Musandam, Al-Wusta or Al-Buraimi. General surgery, orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery services were available in 68.8%, 59.3% and 12.5% of the centres, respectively. Emergency services were available in 75.0% of the facilities. Intensive care units were available in 11 facilities, with four located in Muscat. The mean distance between a RTI hotspot and the nearest trauma care facility was 34.7 km; however, the mean distance to the nearest class IV or V facility was 83.3 km. The distribution and quality of trauma care facilities in Oman needs modification. It is recommended that certain centres upgrade their levels of trauma care in order to reduce RTI-associated morbidity and mortality in Oman.

  4. Incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in high-risk patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction.

    Bodem, Jens Philipp; Kargus, Steffen; Eckstein, Stefanie; Saure, Daniel; Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2015-05-01

    As the most suitable approach for preventing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction is still under discussion, the present study evaluates the incidence of BRONJ after surgical tooth extraction using a standardized surgical protocol in combination with an adjuvant perioperative treatment setting in patients who are at high-risk for developing BRONJ. High-risk patients were defined as patients who received intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) due to a malignant disease. All teeth were removed using a standardized surgical protocol. The perioperative adjuvant treatment included intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis starting at least 24 h before surgery, a gastric feeding tube and mouth rinses with chlorhexidine (0.12%) three times a day. In the follow-up period patients were examined every 4 weeks for the development of BRONJ. Minimum follow-up was 12 weeks. In 61 patients a total number of 184 teeth were removed from 102 separate extraction sites. In eight patients (13.1%) BRONJ developed during the follow-up. A higher risk for developing BRONJ was found in patients where an additional osteotomy was necessary (21.4% vs. 8.0%; p = 0.0577), especially for an osteotomy of the mandible (33.3% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.0268). Parameters including duration of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, the use of a gastric feeding tube and the duration of intravenous BP therapy showed no statistical impact on the development of BRONJ. Furthermore, patients currently undergoing intravenous BP therapy showed no higher risk for BRONJ compared with patients who have paused or completed their intravenous BP therapy (p = 0.4232). This study presents a protocol for surgical tooth extraction in high-risk BP patients in combination with a perioperative adjuvant treatment setting, which reduced the risk for postoperative BRONJ to a minimum. However, the risk for BRONJ increases significantly if an additional osteotomy is necessary

  5. High incidence of rainbow glare after femtosecond laser assisted-LASIK using the upgraded FS200 femtosecond laser.

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yue-Guo

    2018-03-05

    To compare the incidence of rainbow glare (RG) after femtosecond laser assisted-LASIK (FS-LASIK) using the upgraded FS200 femtosecond laser with different flap cut parameter settings. A consecutive series of 129 patients (255 eyes) who underwent FS-LASIK for correcting myopia and/or astigmatism using upgraded WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser with the original settings was included in group A. Another consecutive series of 129 patients (255 eyes) who underwent FS-LASIK using upgraded WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser with flap cut parameter settings changed (decreased pulse energy, spot and line separation) was included in group B. The incidence and fading time of RG, confocal microscopic image and postoperative clinical results were compared between the two groups. There were no differences between the two groups in age, baseline refraction, excimer laser ablation depth, postoperative uncorrected visual acuity and refraction. The incidence rate of RG in group A (35/255, 13.73%) was significantly higher than that in group B (4/255, 1.57%) (P  0.05).The confocal microscopic images showed wider laser spot spacing in group A than group B. The incidence of RG was significantly correlated with age and grouping (P laser with original flap cut parameter settings could increase the incidence of RG. The narrower grating size and lower pulse energy could ameliorate this side effect.

  6. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  7. Snakebites in Two Rural Districts in Lao PDR: Community-Based Surveys Disclose High Incidence of an Invisible Public Health Problem.

    Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy

    Full Text Available The Lao PDR (Laos is one of the least developed countries in Asia with an estimated 25% of the population living in poverty. It is the habitat of some highly venomous snakes and the majority of the population earns their living from agricultural activities. Under these circumstances the incidence of snakebites is expected to be high.Two cross-sectional, community-based surveys were performed in Champone and Phin district, Savannakhet province, Lao PDR to estimate snakebite incidence. Multistage random sampling was used. In the first stage approximately 40% of all villages in each district were randomly selected. In the second stage 33% of all households in each village were randomly chosen. Members of the selected households were interviewed about snakebites during the previous 12 months.Thirty-five of 9856 interviewees reported a snakebite in a 12 month period in Champone district and 79 of 7150 interviewees in Phin district. The estimated incidence is 355 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year and 1105 per 100,000 in Champone and Phin district respectively. All snakebite victims received treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment at home and nobody went to a hospital. Incidence of snakebites, calculated on the basis of hospital records of 14 district hospitals and Savannakhet provincial hospital, ranged from 3 to 14 cases per 100,000 persons per year between 2012 and 2014.Incidence of snakebites is high in rural communities in Laos with significant regional differences. Poverty most likely contributes significantly to the higher number of snakebites in Phin district. Hospital statistics profoundly underestimates snakebite incidence, because the majority of snakebite victims receive only treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment in their village. There is an urgent need to train medical staff and students in management of snakebite patients and make snake antivenom available to cope effectively with this important public

  8. Snakebites in Two Rural Districts in Lao PDR: Community-Based Surveys Disclose High Incidence of an Invisible Public Health Problem.

    Vongphoumy, Inthanomchanh; Phongmany, Panom; Sydala, Sengdao; Prasith, Nouda; Reintjes, Ralf; Blessmann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR (Laos) is one of the least developed countries in Asia with an estimated 25% of the population living in poverty. It is the habitat of some highly venomous snakes and the majority of the population earns their living from agricultural activities. Under these circumstances the incidence of snakebites is expected to be high. Two cross-sectional, community-based surveys were performed in Champone and Phin district, Savannakhet province, Lao PDR to estimate snakebite incidence. Multistage random sampling was used. In the first stage approximately 40% of all villages in each district were randomly selected. In the second stage 33% of all households in each village were randomly chosen. Members of the selected households were interviewed about snakebites during the previous 12 months. Thirty-five of 9856 interviewees reported a snakebite in a 12 month period in Champone district and 79 of 7150 interviewees in Phin district. The estimated incidence is 355 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year and 1105 per 100,000 in Champone and Phin district respectively. All snakebite victims received treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment at home and nobody went to a hospital. Incidence of snakebites, calculated on the basis of hospital records of 14 district hospitals and Savannakhet provincial hospital, ranged from 3 to 14 cases per 100,000 persons per year between 2012 and 2014. Incidence of snakebites is high in rural communities in Laos with significant regional differences. Poverty most likely contributes significantly to the higher number of snakebites in Phin district. Hospital statistics profoundly underestimates snakebite incidence, because the majority of snakebite victims receive only treatment by traditional healers or self-treatment in their village. There is an urgent need to train medical staff and students in management of snakebite patients and make snake antivenom available to cope effectively with this important public health problem in

  9. High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Deloose, S. T. P.; Smit, L. A.; Pals, F. T.; Kersten, M.-J.; van Noesel, C. J. M.; Pals, S. T.

    2005-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ( KSHV) is known to be associated with two distinct lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD)/MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma. We here report a high incidence of KSHV infection in solid

  10. Assessment of the incidence of squamous cell papilloma of the esophagus and the presence of high-risk human papilloma virus.

    Pantham, Ganesh; Ganesan, Santhi; Einstadter, Douglas; Jin, Ge; Weinberg, Aaron; Fass, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. We investigated the incidence of esophageal papilloma and the presence of high-risk HPV infection. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at a County teaching hospital. Patients with esophageal papilloma between January 2000 and December 2013 were identified. Patients with sufficient specimens were tested for the HPV virus. Sixty patients with esophageal papilloma lesions were identified from 2000 to 2013. (31 males, age 51 ± 13 years). The incidence was 0.13% in 2000 and increased to 0.57% in 2013 (P papilloma that was more than 5 mm in size, and 20% had multiple lesions. The papilloma was located in the distal esophagus in 35 (58.3%) patients, mid esophagus in 17 (28.3%) patients, and proximal in 8 (13.3%) patients. Three (5%) patients had associated OPC, and 9 (47.4%) of the 19 patients tested were positive for high-risk HPV serotype 16. The incidence of esophageal papilloma has increased by fourfolds over the past 14 years. About half of the tested patients demonstrated high risk HPV. This may suggest a potential growing risk for esophageal squamous cell cancer in the future. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Distinctive Features of Oral Cancer in Changhua County: High Incidence, Buccal Mucosa Preponderance, and a Close Relation to Betel Quid Chewing Habit

    Che-Chun Su

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the high incidence and buccal mucosa preponderance of oral cancer in Changhua may have an exceptionally close relation with patients' betel quid chewing habit, and other unknown etiologic factors may also be present locally. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:225-233

  12. High Incidence of Recurrent Wheeze in Children With Down Syndrome With and Without Previous Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    Bloemers, B.; van Furth, A.M.; Weijerman, M.E.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Broers, C.J.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with the subsequent development of recurrent wheeze. In a recent study, we found a high incidence (9.9%) of hospitalization for RSV-induced LRTI among children with Down syndrome (DS),

  13. A Qualitative Study of Individual and Peer Factors Related to Effective Nonviolent versus Aggressive Responses to Problem Situations among Adolescents with High Incidence Disabilities

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Sutherland, Kevin; Lotze, Geri M.; Mays, Sally; Wright, Stephen; Farrell, Albert D.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the positive adjustment of youths with high incidence disabilities, a better understanding of the factors that influence their use of effective responses in challenging situations is needed. In this qualitative study, adolescents described individual and peer factors that would influence their use of effective nonviolent or aggressive…

  14. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  15. Incidents analysis

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  16. Incidents analysis

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  17. Synthesis of Zeolite NaA from Low Grade (High Impurities) Indonesian Natural Zeolite

    Mustain, Asalil; Wibawa, Gede; Nais, Mukhammad Furoiddun; Falah, Miftakhul

    2014-01-01

    The zeolite NaA has been successfully synthesized from the low grade natural zeolite with high impurities. The synthesis method was started by mixing natural zeolite powder with NH4Cl aqueous solution in the reactor as pretreatment. The use of pretreatment was to reduce the impurities contents in the zeolite. The process was followed by alkaline fusion hydrothermal treatment to modify the framework structure of natural zeolite and reduce the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. Finally, the synthesized zeolite ...

  18. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW

  19. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    was found between ferritin and TSH. Conclusions: Worsening of thyroid function was observed in 35% of the studied thalassemic patients by the age of 18 years. The lack of proper increase of TSH in response to the low circulating levels of FT4 in 13/17 (76% of these patients indicates a relatively high incidence of defective pituitary thyrotrophic function in these patients.

  20. A Clinical Algorithm to Identify HIV Patients at High Risk for Incident Active Tuberculosis: A Prospective 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Susan Shin-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Predicting the risk of tuberculosis (TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV using a single test is currently not possible. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical algorithm, using baseline CD4 cell counts, HIV viral load (pVL, and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, to identify PLHIV who are at high risk for incident active TB in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is routinely provided.A prospective, 5-year, cohort study of adult PLHIV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in two hospitals in Taiwan. HAART was initiated based on contemporary guidelines (CD4 count < = 350/μL. Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of active TB and to construct the algorithm. The validation cohorts included 1455 HIV-infected individuals from previous published studies. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was calculated.Seventeen of 772 participants developed active TB during a median follow-up period of 5.21 years. Baseline CD4 < 350/μL or pVL ≥ 100,000/mL was a predictor of active TB (adjusted HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.49-15.90, P = 0.009. A positive baseline IGRA predicted TB in patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 350/μL and pVL < 100,000/mL (adjusted HR 6.09, 95% CI 1.52-24.40, P = 0.01. Compared with an IGRA-alone strategy, the algorithm improved the sensitivity from 37.5% to 76.5%, the negative predictive value from 98.5% to 99.2%. Compared with an untargeted strategy, the algorithm spared 468 (60.6% from unnecessary TB preventive treatment. Area under the ROC curve was 0.692 (95% CI: 0.587-0.798 for the study cohort and 0.792 (95% CI: 0.776-0.808 and 0.766 in the 2 validation cohorts.A validated algorithm incorporating the baseline CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and IGRA status can be used to guide targeted TB preventive treatment in PLHIV in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where HAART is routinely provided to all PLHIV. The implementation of this algorithm will avoid unnecessary

  1. Natural radionuclides in food in an area with high concentrations of radionuclides

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Kelecom, A.; Silva, A.X. da; Lopez, J.M.; Filgueiras, R.; Carmo, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Areas of high natural radiation expose the local population to doses greater than the world average. One of the routes of exposure is food intake. The activity concentration (AC) of 5 natural radionuclides in 7 types of foods was analyzed. The highest CA measured was 2.40 Bq.kg -1 for the U nat in the potato. The multivariate statistic identified two groups: (U nat e 232 Th) and [( 210 Pb and 228 Ra) and 226 Ra

  2. Basic Characterization of Natural Transformation in a Highly Transformable Haemophilus parasuis Strain SC1401

    Dai, Ke; He, Lvqin; Chang, Yung-Fu; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qigui; Han, Xinfeng; Ma, Xiaoping; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping

    2018-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease and pneumonia, incurring serious economic losses in the porcine industry. In this study, natural competence was investigated in H. parasuis. We found competence genes in H. parasuis homologous to ones in Haemophilus influenzae and a high consensus battery of Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP-S) regulons using bioinformatics. High rates of natural competence were found from the onset of stationary-phase growth condition to mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 0.29 to 1.735); this rapidly dropped off as cells reached mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 1.735 to 1.625). As a whole, bacteria cultured in liquid media were observed to have lower competence levels than those grown on solid media plates. We also revealed that natural transformation in this species is stable after 200 passages and is largely dependent on DNA concentration. Transformation competition experiments showed that heterogeneous DNA cannot outcompete intraspecific natural transformation, suggesting an endogenous uptake sequence or other molecular markers may be important in differentiating heterogeneous DNA. We performed qRT-PCR targeting multiple putative competence genes in an effort to compare bacteria pre-cultured in TSB++ vs. TSA++ and SC1401 vs. SH0165 to determine expression profiles of the homologs of competence-genes in H. influenzae. Taken together, this study is the first to investigate natural transformation in H. parasuis based on a highly naturally transformable strain SC1401. PMID:29473023

  3. Increasing Incidence in Relapsing-Remitting MS and High Rates among Young Women in Finland: A Thirty-Year Follow-Up

    Marja-Liisa Sumelahti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Gender and disease course specific incidences were studied in high- and medium-risk regions of MS in Finland. Methods. Age- and gender-specific incidences with 95% CIs were calculated in 10-year periods from 1981 to 2010. Poser diagnostic criteria were used and compared with the McDonald criteria from 2001 to 2010. Association between age and diagnostic delay over time was assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. 1419 (89% RRMS and 198 (11% PPMS cases were included. RRMS incidence increased with the female to male ratio (F/M from 4,2/105 (F/M 1.9 to 9,7 (2.3, while that of PPMS decreased from 1,2 (1.6 to 0,7 (1.2. The use of McDonald criteria did not change the conclusion. The decreasing diagnostic delay and age at diagnosis in RRMS were associated within the 10-year periods and contrasted those in PPMS. Increasing female risk in RRMS was observed in the high-risk region. Conclusion. Increasing RRMS incidence and high female ratios shown in each age group indicate gender-specific influences acting already from childhood. A more precise definition of the risk factors and their action in MS is needed to provide a better understanding of underlying pathological processes and a rationale for the development of new preventive and treatment strategies.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population.

    Pan, En Chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu Jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin Fei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10(-4) in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences.

  5. Very high incidence of syphilis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires city: a retrospective cohort study.

    Bissio, E; Cisneros, V; Lopardo, G D; Cassetti, L I

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly syphilis, is high and continues to rise among some populations, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). Furthermore, a higher incidence of STIs has been reported in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative MSM. To determine the incidence of syphilis in a cohort of men with HIV in Buenos Aires city. Retrospective cohort study. We examined the records and visits made by men with HIV aged >18 years in our institution during a 1-year period. Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) results for all the men in our cohort during the study period were analysed. We considered a case of syphilis as incident if a person had a VDRL result of ≥16 DILS, provided that this was increased at least fourfold compared with a previous determination. All VDRL results ≤8 were investigated, and analysed together with the medical records, to determine if they were new cases. We analysed the VDRL results and the clinical records of 1150 men followed up in our centre during the study period. Mean age was 40.9 years. According to the definition used, we registered 171 new cases of syphilis-that is, an incidence of 14.9/100 patients/year (95% CI 12.9 to 17.0). No significant differences in incidence according to age group were found, but there was a trend towards a lower incidence in older men. Ten men had two new episodes during the study. The incidence of syphilis in this cohort of men with HIV (predominantly MSM) was very high. In addition to maintaining high surveillance for early diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to implement newer and more effective measures to prevent syphilis and other STIs in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Marcia Manterola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  7. Transcriptional changes associated with reduced spontaneous liver tumor incidence in mice chronically exposed to high dose arsenic

    Nelson, Gail M.; Ahlborn, Gene J.; Allen, James W.; Ren, Hongzu; Corton, J. Christopher; Waalkes, Michael P.; Kitchin, Kirk T.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Knapp, Geremy; Delker, Don A.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of male C3H mice in utero (from gestational days 8-18) to 85 ppm sodium arsenite via the dams' drinking water has previously been shown to increase liver tumor incidence by 2 years of age. However, in our companion study (Ahlborn et al., 2009), continuous exposure to 85 ppm sodium arsenic (from gestational day 8 to postnatal day 365) did not result in increased tumor incidence, but rather in a significant reduction (0% tumor incidence). The purpose of the present study was to examine the gene expression responses that may lead to the apparent protective effect of continuous arsenic exposure. Genes in many functional categories including cellular growth and proliferation, gene expression, cell death, oxidative stress, protein ubiquitination, and mitochondrial dysfunction were altered by continuous arsenic treatment. Many of these genes are known to be involved in liver cancer. One such gene associated with rodent hepatocarcinogenesis, Scd1, encodes stearoyl-CoA desaturase and was down-regulated by continuous arsenic treatment. An overlap between the genes in our study affected by continuous arsenic exposure and those from the literature affected by long-term caloric restriction suggests that reduction in the spontaneous tumor incidence under both conditions may involve similar gene pathways such as fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis, and stress response.

  8. Incidence of tuberculosis meningitis in a high HIV prevalence setting: time-series analysis from 2006 to 2011.

    Chaya, S; Dangor, Z; Solomon, F; Nzenze, S A; Izu, A; Madhi, S A

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Soweto, a peri-urban low-middle income setting. Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. To describe the incidence, mortality and clinical features of TBM in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and non-infected children in South Africa from 2006 to 2011. A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. Electronic databases and individual patient records of all children with a discharge diagnosis of TBM were reviewed to yield incidence rate ratios (IRR) in HIV-infected and non-infected children. Clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics were compared between HIV-infected and non-infected children with TBM. Overall TBM incidence per 100 000 population in 2006 was 6.9 (95%CI 4.4-10.3) and 9.8 (95%CI 6.9-13.6) in 2009, but had subsequently declined to 3.1 (95%CI 1.6-5.5) by 2011. There was a significant reduction in the IRR of TBM among HIV-infected children (IRR 0.916, P = 0.036). The overall case fatality ratio was 6.7%. Clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid and computed tomography brain findings were similar in HIV-infected and non-infected children. TBM incidence decreased over the study period from 2006 to 2011, and was temporally associated with an increase in the uptake of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected individuals.

  9. Protective equipment and player characteristics associated with the incidence of sport-related concussion in high school football players: a multifactorial prospective study.

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. [Municipal distribution of the incidence of the most common tumours in an area with high cancer mortality].

    Viñas Casasola, Manuel Jesús; Fernández Navarro, Pablo; Fajardo Rivas, María Luisa; Gurucelain Raposo, José Luis; Alguacil Ojeda, Juan

    To describe the geographic distribution patterns of the municipal incidence of the most common tumours in the Huelva province (Spain) as compared to the estimated incidence for all of Spain. Relative risk (RR) was computed based on the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié by applying the INLA tool to the cancer data for 2007-2011 for the following tumour locations: colon, rectum and anus (men and women); trachea, bronchia, and lungs, prostate and bladder in men; and breasts in women. The RR was presented in in choropleth and isopleth (with kriging interpolation) risk maps. RR for bladder cancer in men was greater than 1.0 in all municipalities, with confidence intervals over 1.0 in four municipalities; Madrid having a 1.56 RR (95%CI 1.30-1.67). For prostate cancer, a posteriori probabilities were below 0.1 in 68 of the 79 municipalities. For lung cancer, nine municipalities had confidence limits below 1.0, almost all of them in western Spain. For women, the RR for breast cancer was significantly higher in the capital of province area. The cancer incidence rates for the Huelva province were, in general, similar to those estimated for Spain, standing out bladder cancer in men (35% higher) and prostate cancer (30% lower). In the Huelva province, there is a geographical municipal distribution of cancer incidence with well-defined patterns for some specific tumour locations, with overall incidence rates very similar to those in the rest of Spain. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prophylactic Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen Results in Equivalent Acute Mountain Sickness Incidence at High Altitude: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Kanaan, Nicholas C; Peterson, Alicia L; Pun, Matiram; Holck, Peter S; Starling, Jennifer; Basyal, Bikash; Freeman, Thomas F; Gehner, Jessica R; Keyes, Linda; Levin, Dana R; O'Leary, Catherine J; Stuart, Katherine E; Thapa, Ghan B; Tiwari, Aditya; Velgersdyk, Jared L; Zafren, Ken; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-06-01

    Recent trials have demonstrated the usefulness of ibuprofen in the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS), yet the proposed anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unconfirmed. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were tested for AMS prevention. We hypothesized that a greater clinical effect would be seen from ibuprofen due to its anti-inflammatory effects compared with acetaminophen's mechanism of possible symptom reduction by predominantly mediating nociception in the brain. A double-blind, randomized trial was conducted testing acetaminophen vs ibuprofen for the prevention of AMS. A total of 332 non-Nepali participants were recruited at Pheriche (4371 m) and Dingboche (4410 m) on the Everest Base Camp trek. The participants were randomized to either acetaminophen 1000 mg or ibuprofen 600 mg 3 times a day until they reached Lobuche (4940 m), where they were reassessed. The primary outcome was AMS incidence measured by the Lake Louise Questionnaire score. Data from 225 participants who met inclusion criteria were analyzed. Twenty-five participants (22.1%) in the acetaminophen group and 18 (16.1%) in the ibuprofen group developed AMS (P = .235). The combined AMS incidence was 19.1% (43 participants), 14 percentage points lower than the expected AMS incidence of untreated trekkers in prior studies at this location, suggesting that both interventions reduced the incidence of AMS. We found little evidence of any difference between acetaminophen and ibuprofen groups in AMS incidence. This suggests that AMS prevention may be multifactorial, affected by anti-inflammatory inhibition of the arachidonic-acid pathway as well as other analgesic mechanisms that mediate nociception. Additional study is needed. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  13. Effect of high-frequency excitation on natural frequencies of spinning discs

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural frequenc......The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural...

  14. Incidência e viabilidade de sementes crioulas de milho naturalmente infestadas com fungos em pré e pós-armazenamento Incidence and viability of creole seeds of corn naturally infested with fungi in pre-and post-storage

    Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira Catão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de quatorze variedades de sementes de milho crioulas em pré e pós-armazenamento em embalagens de polietileno tereftalato (PET. Houve efeito das variedades e das épocas de avaliações sobre a incidência de fungos e germinação. Dentre a micobiota observada, Fusarium moniliforme (88%, Penicillium spp. (6,9% e Aspergillus spp. (2,1% tiveram a maior porcentagem de incidência. Após o armazenamento, houve decréscimo de F. moniliforme (69% e aumento de Penicillium spp. (35% e Aspergillus spp. (22%. A incidência desses fungos não comprometeu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes, que apresentaram elevadas porcentagens de vigor e germinação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanitary and physiological quality of fourteen varieties of creole corn seeds in pre-and post-storage in packaging of polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Among the mycobiota observed Fusarium moniliforme (88%, Penicillium spp. (6,9% and Aspergillus spp. (2,1% had the highest incidence. After storage there was a slight decrease in the percentage of F. moniliforme (69% and a increase of Penicillium spp. (35% and Aspergillus spp. (22%. The incidence of these fungi did not compromise the physiological quality of seeds that showed high percentages of vigor and germination.

  15. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  16. How do the high school biology textbooks introduce the nature of science?

    Lee, Young H.

    2007-05-01

    Although helping students to achieve an adequate understanding of the nature of science has been a consistent goal for science education for over half a century, current research reveals that the majority of students and teachers have naive views of the nature of science (Abd-El-khalick & Akerson, 2004; Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). This problem could be attributed not only to the complex nature of science, but also to the way the nature of science is presented to students during instruction. Thus, research must be conducted to examine how the science is taught, especially in science textbooks, which are a major instructional resource for teaching science. The aim of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the first chapter of four high school biology textbooks, which typically discusses "What is science?" and "What is biology?" This research used a content analysis technique to analyze the four high school biology textbooks, using a conceptual framework that has been used often for science textbook analysis. This conceptual framework consists of four themes of the nature of science: (a) science as a body of knowledge, (b) science as a way of thinking, (c) science as a way of investigating, and (d) the interaction of science, technology, and society. For this study, the four-theme-framework was modified to incorporate descriptors from national-level documents, such as Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990) Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as science education research reports. A scoring procedure was used that resulted in good to excellent intercoder agreement with Cohen's kappa (k) ranging from .63 to .96. The findings show that the patterns of presentation of the four themes of the nature of science in the four high school biology textbooks are similar across the different locations of data, text, figures, and assessments. On the other hand, the pattern of presentation of the four

  17. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: an emerging public health priority.

    Wong, Joshua M; Nyachieo, Dhillon O; Benzekri, Noelle A; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M; Williamson, John M; Breiman, Robert F

    2014-09-01

    Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006-2011. Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in emission and energy recovery concerning incident angle in a scheme recovering high energy ions by secondary electrons

    Wada, Takayuki; Konno, Shota; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2016-01-01

    As an energy recovery device for fast protons produced in D- 3 He nuclear fusion, secondary electron (SE) direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed in addition to traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC). Some protons passing through a TWDEC come into an SEDEC, where protons penetrate to a number of foil electrodes and emitted SEs are recovered. Following to a development of SE orbit control by magnetic field, dependence on incident angle of protons was examined to optimize structure of SEDEC. Based on a theoretical expectation, experiments were performed by changing incident angle of protons and variation in emission and energy recovery were measured. Both emission and energy recovery increased as the angle increased, and differences with theoretical expectation are discussed. (author)

  19. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations.

  20. Thermodynamic characterization of deepwater natural gas mixtures with heavy hydrocarbon content at high pressures

    Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago; Ejaz, Saquib; Zhou, Jingjun; Al-Marri, Mohammed; Holste, James J.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper includes high-accuracy density measurements and phase envelopes for deepwater natural gas mixtures. Mixtures primarily consist of (0.88 and 0.94) mole fraction methane and both mixtures includes heavy components (C 6+ ) more than 0.002 mole fraction. Experimental density and phase envelope data for deep and ultra-deep reservoir mixtures are scarce in literature and high accuracy measurements for such parameters for such natural gas-like mixtures are essential to validate the benchmark equations for custody transfer such as AGA8-DC92 and GERG-2008 equation of states (EOS). Thus, in this paper we report density and phase envelope experimental data via compact single-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter and isochoric apparatuses. Such data help gas industry to avoid retrograde condensation in natural gas pipelines

  1. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations [pt

  2. High incidence of microbleeds in hemodialysis patients detected by T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    Yokoyama, Shunichi; Uomizu, Kenji; Kajiya, Yoriko; Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Kusumoto, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    The incidence and characteristics of microbleeds in hemodialysis (HD) patients were investigated to elucidate the clinical significance with T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The 57 patients with chronic renal failure maintained by HD had no previous history of stroke. The control group consisted of 53 patients without previous history of stroke or chronic renal failure. The incidence and the number of microbleeds were assessed in the HD and control groups. The findings of microbleeds with T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo MR imaging were compared with those of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR imaging in HD patients. The incidence of microbleeds was significantly greater in the HD patients compared with the control patients. T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed a total of 44 microbleeds in 11 HD patients. T 2 -weighted imaging demonstrated 13 of 44 microbleeds as hyperintensity, whereas T 1 -weighted imaging demonstrated 12 lesions as hypointensity. T 2 - and T 1 -weighted imagings did not demonstrate any findings in 31 and 32 lesions, respectively. T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo MR imaging is effective to detect microbleeds which may be a predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage in HD patients and should be included in the protocol for the study of cerebrovascular disease, because T 2 - and T 1 -weighted MR imaging recognizes microbleeds as lacunar infarction. (author)

  3. Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    Song, Jianwei; Chen, Chaoji; Zhu, Shuze; Zhu, Mingwei; Dai, Jiaqi; Ray, Upamanyu; Li, Yiju; Kuang, Yudi; Li, Yongfeng; Quispe, Nelson; Yao, Yonggang; Gong, Amy; Leiste, Ulrich H.; Bruck, Hugh A.; Zhu, J. Y.; Vellore, Azhar; Li, Heng; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jia, Zheng; Martini, Ashlie; Li, Teng; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used for millennia as a structural material for building and furniture construction. However, the mechanical performance of natural wood (its strength and toughness) is unsatisfactory for many advanced engineering structures and applications. Pre-treatment with steam, heat, ammonia or cold rolling followed by densification has led to the enhanced mechanical performance of natural wood. However, the existing methods result in incomplete densification and lack dimensional stability, particularly in response to humid environments, and wood treated in these ways can expand and weaken. Here we report a simple and effective strategy to transform bulk natural wood directly into a high-performance structural material with a more than tenfold increase in strength, toughness and ballistic resistance and with greater dimensional stability. Our two-step process involves the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose from the natural wood via a boiling process in an aqueous mixture of NaOH and Na2SO3 followed by hot-pressing, leading to the total collapse of cell walls and the complete densification of the natural wood with highly aligned cellulose nanofibres. This strategy is shown to be universally effective for various species of wood. Our processed wood has a specific strength higher than that of most structural metals and alloys, making it a low-cost, high-performance, lightweight alternative.

  4. Two decades of research in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity

    Cullen, T.L.; Paschoa, A.S.; Franca, E.P.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Barcinski, M.; Eisenbud, M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the most important findings obtained in the decades 1960-1980 in the Brazilian regions of high natural radioactivity. The research was carried out by three university groups: Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and New York Universisity. (Author) [pt

  5. The gyrotron - a natural source of high-power orbital angular momentum millimeter-wave beams

    Thumm, M.; Sawant, A.; Choe, M. S.; Choi, E. M.

    2017-08-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of electromagnetic-wave beams provides further diversity to multiplexing in wireless communication. The present report shows that higher-order mode gyrotrons are natural sources of high-power OAM millimeter (mm) wave beams. The well-defined OAM of their rotating cavity modes operating at near cutoff frequency has been derived by photonic and electromagnetic wave approaches.

  6. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    Omole, Imona C.; Adams, Ryan T.; Miller, Stephen J.; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2

  7. The Nature, Causes and Effects of School Violence in South African High Schools

    Ncontsa, Vusumzi Nelson; Shumba, Almon

    2013-01-01

    We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design…

  8. Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    Jianwei Song; Chaoji Chen; Shuze Zhu; Mingwei Zhu; Jiaqi Dai; Upamanyu Ray; Yiju Li; Yudi Kuang; Yongfeng Li; Nelson Quispe; Yonggang Yao; Amy Gong; Ulrich H. Leiste; Hugh A. Bruck; J. Y. Zhu; Azhar Vellore; Heng Li; Marilyn L. Minus; Zheng Jia; Ashlie Martini; Teng Li; Liangbing Hu

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites)1–8. Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used...

  9. [A comparison of proteomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer between areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer].

    Liu, Lin-na; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Shi-gang; Zhong, Li Jun; Li, Guang-chuan; Shi, Yan-yan; Wang, Ye

    2011-12-18

    To identify the differentially expressed proteins of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and to discuss the role of bacterial factor in pathogenesis. Hp in the endoscopic biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high (Xining) and low (Beijing) incidence of gastric cancer, were separated, cultured and saved at -80°C. The bacteria were recovered. Then the whole-cell protein of the Hp were extracted and characterized by 2-DE. The different protein spots were analyzed by PDQuest analysis software and identified by electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS), and searched by the Mascot database. Nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, and four protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastric cancer in both areas, which were: Urease subunit alpha, chaperone protein dnaK, superoxide dismutase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha; two protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastritis in both areas, which were: Probablethiol peroxidase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; 60×10(3) chaperonin, and inorganic pyrophosphatase were over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Xining; S-ribosyl homocysteinelyase was over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Beijing. There are differences between proteomic analyses of Hp in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer in areas of high and low incidents of gastric cancer, but 2/3 of the protein spots over expressed in the areas are consistent. The protein spots over expressed from gastric cancer in the area with high incidence of gastric cancer are more than in the area with low incidence of gastric cancer. For the Hp extracted from patients with gastric cancer, the mechanism of gastric cancer may be similar, but the role

  10. Elucidating the underlying causes of oral cancer through spatial clustering in high-risk areas of Taiwan with a distinct gender ratio of incidence

    Chi-Ting Chiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate whether or not high-risk clusters of oral cancer (OC incidence spatially correlate with the prevalence rates of betel quid chewing (BQC and cigarette smoking (CS in Taiwan. The spatial autocorrelation and potential clusters of OC incidence among the 307 townships and heavy metal content of soil throughout Taiwan were identified using the Anselin’s local Moran test. Additionally, the spatial correlations among the incidence of OC, the prevalence of BQC and CS and heavy metal content of soil were determined based on a comparison of spatial clusters. High-risk OC (Moran’s I = 0.638, P <0.001 clusters were located in central and eastern Taiwan, while “hot spots” of BQC and CS prevalence were located mainly in eastern Taiwan. The distributions of BQC and CS lifestyle factors (P <0.001 were spatially autocorrelated. The “hot spots” of OC largely coincided with the “hot spots” of BQC, except for the Changhua and Yunlin counties, which are located in central Taiwan. However, high soil contents of nickel and chromium (P <0.001 in central Taiwan also coincided with the high-risk areas of OC incidence. In particular, Changhua county has incurred several decades of serious heavy-metal pollution, with inhabitants living in polluted areas having high-risk exposure to these metals. Results of this study suggest that, in addition to BQC and CS, anthropogenic pollution may profoundly impact the complexity of OC aetiology in central Taiwan.

  11. Stem cell transplantation in children with infantile osteopetrosis is associated with a high incidence of VOD, which could be prevented with defibrotide.

    Corbacioglu, S; Hönig, M; Lahr, G; Stöhr, S; Berry, G; Friedrich, W; Schulz, A S

    2006-10-01

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis (MIOP) is a rare hereditary disorder of osteoclast function, which can be reversed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We observed a high incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in transplanted patients and explored the prevention of this complication by using defibrotide (DF) as a prophylaxis. Twenty children with MIOP were consecutively transplanted in our center between 1996 and 2005. Eleven of these patients were transplanted between 1996 and 2001 and experienced an overall incidence of VOD of 63.6% (7/11). VOD was severe in three patients and one patient succumbed to VOD-related multi-organ failure. Owing to this very high incidence of VOD, DF prophylaxis was initiated in nine patients consecutively transplanted between 2001 and 2005. In this group, only one patient (11.1%) was diagnosed with moderate VOD. We report here a very high risk in patients with MIOP to develop VOD after transplantation. Prophylactic DF was implemented in our current transplant protocol and reduced the VOD rate significantly in this high-risk population.

  12. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D., E-mail: diego.perugini@unipg.it [Department of Physics and Geology, Petro-Volcanology Research Group (PVRG), University of Perugia, Piazza Università, Perugia 06100 (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10{sup 6} Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment.

  13. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D.

    2015-01-01

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10 6 Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment

  14. How daylight influences high-order chromatic descriptors in natural images.

    Ojeda, Juan; Nieves, Juan Luis; Romero, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Despite the global and local daylight changes naturally occurring in natural scenes, the human visual system usually adapts quite well to those changes, developing a stable color perception. Nevertheless, the influence of daylight in modeling natural image statistics is not fully understood and has received little attention. The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of daylight changes in different high-order chromatic descriptors (i.e., color volume, color gamut, and number of discernible colors) derived from 350 color images, which were rendered under 108 natural illuminants with Correlated Color Temperatures (CCT) from 2735 to 25,889 K. Results suggest that chromatic and luminance information is almost constant and does not depend on the CCT of the illuminant for values above 14,000 K. Nevertheless, differences between the red-green and blue-yellow image components were found below that CCT, with most of the statistical descriptors analyzed showing local extremes in the range 2950 K-6300 K. Uniform regions and areas of the images attracting observers' attention were also considered in this analysis and were characterized by their patchiness index and their saliency maps. Meanwhile, the results of the patchiness index do not show a clear dependence on CCT, and it is remarkable that a significant reduction in the number of discernible colors (58% on average) was found when the images were masked with their corresponding saliency maps. Our results suggest that chromatic diversity, as defined in terms of the discernible colors, can be strongly reduced when an observer scans a natural scene. These findings support the idea that a reduction in the number of discernible colors will guide visual saliency and attention. Whatever the modeling is mediating the neural representation of natural images, natural image statistics, it is clear that natural image statistics should take into account those local maxima and minima depending on the daylight illumination and

  15. High Incidence of De Novo and Subclinical Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Cardiac Rhythm Management Device.

    Wilke, Iris; Witzel, Katrin; Münch, Julia; Pecha, Simon; Blankenberg, Stephan; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Willems, Stephan; Patten, Monica; Aydin, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important prognostic parameter in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Though cardiac rhythm management (CRM) devices (e.g., ICD, pacemaker or implantable loop recorder) can detect subclinical AF, data describing the incidence of AF are rare. We therefore investigated the incidence and clinical impact of de novo and subclinical AF detected by CRM devices in patients with HCM. In our retrospective single-center study, we included patients with HCM and need for CRM devices. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of clinical and subclinical de novo AF. During follow-up, patients were screened for adverse events like stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, or death. From 192 HCM patients, 44 patients received a CRM device (38 ICDs, 5 pacemakers, 1 implantable loop recorder). In 14 of these patients (32%), AF had been documented before device implantation. Thirty (68%) patients were free from AF at the time of implantation. During a median follow-up of 595 days (interquartile range, 367-890 days), de novo AF was recorded in 16 of these 30 patients (53%). Fourteen (88%) of the 16 patients with de novo AF were free from any clinical symptoms, so these patients were classified to have subclinical AF. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only significant predictor for an increased risk of AF. AF is common in patients with HCM who need a CRM device. More than 50% of these patients develop de novo AF that was predominantly subclinical in our cohort. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Past and present views in the approach to the problem of high natural background areas

    Mastino, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    High natural background areas are of great interest because they present anomalous conditions in their geological and geochemical features and consequently in the background radiation levels. High natural background areas have been recognised as representing a valid field of investigation for assessing the effects induced by low-level exposures. Such an approach represents the first attempt to draw an environmental impact evaluation, even if focussed on a single potentially harmful parameter only. Past and current studies on High Background Radiation Areas are reviewed with special emphasis on the ongoing programs and prospectives; their significance is discussed on the basis of the sectorial approach mostly used in the environmental studies. A more complete approach is suggested based on the impact evaluation and extention to all the potentially harmful environmental factors

  17. Characterization of natural organic colorants in historical and art objects by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Barták, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2014-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography plays an important role in analysis of historical organic colorants. A number of papers have been published in this field over the last 30 years. Classification of the most commonly used natural dyes and an overview of high-performance liquid chromatography methods with main focus on recent works (2008 to the beginning of 2014) are provided. The review deals with an entire analytical protocol covering sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and suitable detection (UV/visible and fluorescent spectroscopy and mass spectrometric techniques). High-performance liquid chromatography has been successfully used in the complete characterization of some organic dyestuffs present in historical and art objects. The possibilities and difficulties for identification of natural sources of historical colorants are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Measurement of neutron-production double-differential cross sections for high-energy pion-incident reaction

    Iwamoto, Yousuke; Iga, Kiminori; Kitsuki, Hirohiko

    2000-01-01

    Double-differential neutron-production yields for 870-MeV π + , π - and 2.1-GeV π + incident on iron and lead targets were measured with NE213 liquid scintillators by time-of-flight technique. The two-gate integration method was used for the pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and gamma-rays. Neutron detection efficiencies were derived from the calculation results of SCINFUL and CECIL codes. The experimental results were compared with the calculation including the neutron transport in the actual thickness target by the contribution use of both NMTC/JAERI97 and MCNPX. (author)

  19. A further study of the high incidence of the median artery of the forearm in Southern Africa.

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two forearms from 36 cadavers of South Africans of European extraction were dissected. The frequency of the median artery per forearm was 27.4%. There was neither bilateral difference nor sexual dimorphism in the incidence of the artery. These findings compare well with a previous study of black South Africans (Henneberg & George, 1992) where frequency per forearm was 27.1%. Our findings are much higher than those of earlier studies. This discrepancy may be explained either by differences in the thoroughness of the observations or regional variation, or by the occurrence of a secular trend in the development of vasculature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1294564

  20. High incidence of injury at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of injuries at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days during the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Daily injury data were obtained from teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. There were 174 total injuries reported, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 26.5 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 22.7% to 30.8%). There was a significantly higher IR recorded in alpine skiing/snowboarding (IR of 41.1 (95% CI 33.7% to 49.6%) p=0.0001) compared to cross-country skiing/biathlon, ice sledge hockey or wheelchair curling. Injuries in the shoulder region were the highest single-joint IR (IR of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6% to 8.6%)), although total upper and lower body IR were similar (IR 8.5 vs 8.4 (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%)). Furthermore, the IR of acute injuries was significantly higher than other types of injury onset (IR of 17.8 (95% CI 14.7% to 21.4%)). In a Winter Paralympic Games setting, athletes report higher injury incidence than do Olympic athletes or athletes in a Summer Paralympic Games setting. The highest incidence of injury was reported in the alpine skiing/snowboarding sporting category. There was a similar incidence of injury in the upper and lower limbs. The joint with the greatest rate of injury reported was the shoulder joint. Our data can inform injury prevention programmes and policy considerations regarding athlete safety in future Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Opportunities and challenges in green house gases reduction using high pressure direct injection of natural gas

    Ouellette, P.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to reduce Greenhouse Gases, Westport Innovations is developing a high pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology for gaseous fuels. This technology adapts the diesel cycle for gaseous fuels, since the diesel cycle provides high efficiency, high low-speed torque, fast transient capabilities and reliability. Because of their high efficiency, diesels are very favorable from a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) point of view, however they remain challenged by high nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. When directly injecting natural gas, NOx and PM emissions can be reduced by approximately 50% while maintaining the performance of the diesel engine. This allows the use of abundant and historically cheaper natural gas. Because of its lower carbon content per unit energy, natural gas also offers further GHG reduction over the diesel if the efficiency is preserved and if methane emissions are low. This paper discusses development efforts at Westport for several applications including on-highway trucks, light-duty delivery trucks and power generation

  2. High pregnancy incidence and low contraceptive use among a prospective cohort of female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Duff, Putu; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen S; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2018-05-03

    While HIV and unintended pregnancies are both occupational risks faced by female sex workers, the epidemiology of pregnancy and its drivers in this population remains understudied. This includes Cambodia, where the drivers of pregnancy among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remain unknown. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with incident pregnancy, as well as describe contraceptive use among FESW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This analysis drew from the Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)-2, a 12-month observational cohort of 220 FESW aged 15-29 years, conducted between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted at baseline and quarterly thereafter, alongside HIV and pregnancy testing. Bivariate and multivariable extended Cox regression analysis was used to examine correlates of incident pregnancy. At baseline, 6.8% of participants were pregnant, and only 10.8% reported using hormonal contraceptives, with 11.3% reporting an abortion in the past 3 months. Pregnancy incidence was high, at 22/100 person-years (95% CI: 16.3-30.1). In multivariable analysis, younger age (19-24 years versus 25-29 years) (Adjusted Hazards Ratio (AHR): 2.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.22-4.27), lower income (400,000-600,000 Riel (≤150$USD) versus > 600,000 Riel (> 150$USD)) (AHR 2.63; 95% CI 1.02-6.77) positively predicted pregnancy, while higher self-reported condom self-efficacy were associated with reduced pregnancy incidence (AHR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.98). Results document high incidence of pregnancy and unmet reproductive health needs among FESWs in Cambodia. Findings point to an urgent need for multi-level interventions, including venue-based HIV/STI and violence prevention interventions, in the context of legal and policy reform. High pregnancy incidence in this population may also undermine recruitment and retention into HIV prevention intervention trials. The exploration of innovative and comprehensive sex

  3. High HIV incidence among young black men who have sex with men: constructing a retrospective cohort from a community health programme.

    Friedman, M Reuel; Feliz, Nayck B; Netto, Jess; Adams, Brian J; Matthews, Derrick D; Stall, Ron D; Ho, Ken S; Krier, Sarah E; Silvestre, Anthony J

    2018-06-01

    We sought to calculate HIV incidence in a retrospective cohort of young (13-29 years old) black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) accessing repeated HIV-antibody testing in a mid-size city in the USA. We aggregated site-specific HIV-antibody testing results from the project's inception among YBMSM who received an initial negative result and accessed at least one additional HIV-antibody test. From these data, we assessed number of seroconversions and person-years and calculated HIV incidence using a mid-P exact test to estimate 95% CIs. Five seroconversions were documented over 42.3 person-years (the mean age at first onsite test: 19.7 years), resulting in an HIV incidence rate of 11.8% (95% CI 4.3% to 26.2%). The mean age at seroconversion was 20.4 (±3.0) years. Even in mid-size cities with low HIV prevalence rates in the general population, HIV incidence among YBMSM may be high. Community-based HIV-antibody testing organisations serving YBMSM should be encouraged and trained to track repeated HIV testing and calculate HIV incidence rates. Increased resources should be deployed to develop and encourage regular HIV testing in community health sites serving YBMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. A critical incident reporting system in anaesthesia.

    Madzimbamuto, F D; Chiware, R

    2001-01-01

    To audit the recently established Critical Incident Reporting System in the Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, University of Zimbabwe Medical School. The system was set up with the purpose of improving the quality of care delivered by the department. Cross sectional study. A critical incident was defined as 'any adverse and reversible event in theatre, during or immediately after surgery that if it persisted without correction would cause harm to the patient'. The anaesthetic or recovery room staff filled a critical incident form anonymously. Data was collected from critical incident reporting forms for analysis. The anaesthetic service in the two teaching hospitals of Harare Central and Parirenyatwa General Hospitals. Between May and October 2000, 62 completed critical incident forms were collected. The nature of the incident and the monitoring used were recorded, the cause was classified as human, equipment or monitoring failure and the outcome for each patient reported. There was no formal system for reminding staff to fill in their critical incident forms. A total of 14,165 operations were performed over the reporting period: 62 critical incident forms were collected, reporting 130 incidents, giving a rate of 0.92% (130/14,165). Of these, 42 patients were emergencies and 20 elective. The incidents were hypotension, hypoxia, bradycardia, ECG changes, aspiration, laryngospasm, high spinal, and cardiac arrest. Monitoring present on patients who had critical incidents was: capnography 57%, oxymetry 90% and ECG 100%. Other monitors are not reported. Human error contributed in 32/62 of patients and equipment failure in 31/62 of patients. Patient outcome showed 15% died, 23% were unplanned admissions to HDU while 62% were discharged to the ward with little or no adverse outcome. Despite some under reporting, the critical incident rate was within the range reported in the literature. Supervision of juniors is not adequate, especially on call. The

  5. Estimation of the incidence of late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 Gy) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, using dose-volume histograms

    Boersma, Liesbeth J.; Brink, Mandy van den; Bruce, Allison M.; Shouman, Tarek; Gras, Luuk; Velde, Annet te; Lebesque, Joos V.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters can be used to identify risk groups for developing late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: DVH parameters were analyzed for 130 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with conformal radiotherapy in a dose-escalating protocol (70-78 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction). The incidence of late (>6 months) GI and GU complications was classified using the RTOG/EORTC and the SOMA/LENT scoring system. In addition, GI complications were divided in nonsevere and severe (requiring one or more laser treatments or blood transfusions) rectal bleeding. The median follow-up time was 24 months. We investigated whether rectal and bladder wall volumes, irradiated to various dose levels, correlated with the observed actuarial incidences of GI and GU complications, using volume as a continuous variable. Subsequently, for each dose level in the DVH, the rectal wall volumes were dichotomized using different volumes as cutoff levels. The impact of the total radiation dose, and the maximum radiation dose in the rectal and bladder wall was analyzed as well. Results: The actuarial incidence at 2 years for GI complications ≥Grade II was 14% (RTOG/EORTC) or 20% (SOMA/LENT); for GU complications ≥Grade III 8% (RTOG/EORTC) or 21% (SOMA/LENT). Neither for GI complications ≥Grade II (RTOG/EORTC or SOMA/LENT), nor for GU complications ≥Grade III (RTOG/EORTC or SOMA/LENT), was a significant correlation found between any of the DVH parameters and the actuarial incidence of complications. For severe rectal bleeding (actuarial incidence at 2 years 3%), four consecutive volume cutoff levels were found, which significantly discriminated between high and low risk. A trend was observed that a total radiation dose ≥ 74 Gy (or a maximum radiation dose in the rectal wall >75 Gy) resulted in a higher incidence of severe rectal bleeding (p

  6. Polymer Electrolyte Prepared from Highly Deproteinized Natural Rubber Having Epoxy Group

    Klinklai, W.; Kawahara, S.; Isono, Y.; Mizumo, T.; Yoshizawa, M.; Ohno, H.

    Deproteinized natural rubber having epoxy group (EDPNR) was applied to transport Li+ as a solid polymer electrolyte. The deproteinized natural rubber, incubated with proteolytic enzyme and surfactant, was subjected to epoxidation followed by oxidative depolymerization in latex stage. The resulting rubber was proved to be a liquid deproteinized natural rubber (LEDPNR) having polar epoxy groups, low Tg, low Mn and well-defined terminal units. Ionic conductivity of LEDPNR mixed with alkali metal salts was investigated through impedance analysis to clarify an effect of proteins present in the rubber. The ionic conductivity of the resulting LEDPNR depended on the kind of salts, their concentrations and temperature. The ionic conductivity of LEDPNR/lithium bis(trifluoromethan sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was higher than that of LEDPNR/ lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). The difference in the ionic conductivity was attributed to the solubility of the salts as results of both high-resolution solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy and measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time. The conductivity of LEDPNR/LiTFSI was also dependent upon concentrations of LiTFSI and it reached the highest value at 20 wt%, which was different from the monotonic increase in the Li+ conductivity of liquid epoxidized natural rubber prepared from untreated natural rubber.

  7. Biological effects of high level natural background radiation on human population residing in Kerala coast, South West India

    Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The populations residing in Kerala coast are exposed to elevated natural background radiation since many generations. Extensive studies conducted by Bio-Medical group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center have generated wealth of data from this area dealing with epidemiology, monitoring the newborns for malformations, Health Audit Survey, Dosimetry and biological studies using cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques. Our studies on congenital malformations and chromosomal anomalies in children born to parents residing in High Level Natural Radiation Areas in Kerala have not shown any significant difference from normal radiation areas. Screening of over 1,25,000 consecutively born children showed an incidence rate which is comparable in both areas. Other factors such as consanguinity, maternal age and gravida status are more significant contributors than radiation dose to the risk for having malformation in child. Radiation prevalent in the HLNRA is in the dose range of above 1.5 to about 50 mGy per year which translates to doses in the range of nGy per hour. This clearly indicate the number of cells exposed to radiations will be one in few thousand or ten thousands. This throws up challenges in our capability to investigate the effects of radiation on cells. It has become imperative to develop and exploit techniques which will detect responses in single cells and would be able screen large number of cells at a time. Developments in cell biology and molecular biology are now giving us these capabilities. Use of flowcytometer and next generation sequencing would enable us to address many of these questions and provide meaningful approaches to understand the effects of such low dose radiation

  8. Strategies for dereplication of natural compounds using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is commonly performed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), but annotating compounds to most likely structures using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry is a faster and feasible first step. The CASMI contest 2016 (Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification) provided spectra of eighteen compounds for the best manual structure identification in the natural products category. High resolution precursor and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) were available to characterize the compounds. We used the Seven Golden Rules, Sirius2 and MS-FINDER software for determination of molecular formulas, and then we queried the formulas in different natural product databases including DNP, UNPD, ChemSpider and REAXYS to obtain molecular structures. We used different in-silico fragmentation tools including CFM-ID, CSI:FingerID and MS-FINDER to rank these compounds. Additional neutral losses and product ion peaks were manually investigated. This manual and time consuming approach allowed for the correct dereplication of thirteen of the eighteen natural products.

  9. Natural analogues to the conditions around a final repository for high-level radioactive waste

    Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents the proceedings resulting from a Workshop held at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, USA, from 1-3 October, 1984. The theme of the Workshop was entitled 'Natural analogues to the conditions around a final repository for high-level radioactive waste', and was restricted to ultimate disposal in a crystalline bedrock environment. The Workshop provided an important first step in co-ordinating and focussing different national and individual interests and approaches towards natural analogue studies. One of the points highlighted at the concluding forum of the meeting was the necessity to first define the geochemical processes which are assumed to occur after disposal of the radioactive waste, and then locate suitable analogue systems which can be used to test the mechanisms of one, or a simple combination of these geochemical processes. Even accepting that the choice of which geochemical process(es) to be selected for validation will be sensitive to individual national disposal strategies, farfield radionuclide retardation mechanisms in the geosphere were considered to be a central topic of importance, and should therefore be given high priority. At this early stage in the development of natural analogue studies it was not possible to cover all the important aspects. In retrospect, the role of the models should have received more attention; bridging the gap between geoscientists and the modellers was seen as being of prime importance in future meetings of this nature. (author)

  10. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  11. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study

    Engsig, Frederik Neess; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Omland, Lars Haukali

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection predisposes to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Here, we describe the incidence, presentation, and prognosis of PML in HIV-1-infected patients during the period before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1995...... at presentation and follow-up. RESULTS: Among 4,649 patients, we identified 47 patients with PML. The incidence rates were 3.3, 1.8, and 1.3 cases per 1000 person-years at risk in 1995-1996, 1997-1999, and 2000-2006, respectively. The risk of PML was significantly associated with low CD4(+) cell count, and 47......% of cases were diagnosed by means of brain biopsy or polymerase chain reaction analysis for JC virus. The predominant neurological symptoms at presentation were coordination disturbance, cognitive defects, and limb paresis. Thirty-five patients died; the median survival time was 0.4 years (95% confidence...

  12. Popular heavy particle beam cancer therapeutic system (3). Development of high efficiency compact incident system-2. Great success of beam test of new APF-IH type DTL

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwata, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    High efficiency compact incident system consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator and an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift tube linear accelerator (DTL). IH type DTL and alternating phase focusing (APF) method is explained. Its special features, production, and beam test are reported. The electric field generation method, outline of the APF method, drift tube, IH type DTL, distribution of electric field and voltage, set up of beam test, ECR ion source and incident line, the inside structure of the RFQ type linear accelerator and the APF-IH type DTL, matching Q lens section, beam, emittance, measurement results of momentum dispersion are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. Polonium-210 and Lead-210 in marine biota from a coastal region with high natural radioactivity

    Zafrul Kabir, M.; Deeba, Farah; Hossain, Sushmita; Fharim, Massoud; Md Moniruzzaman; Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, M.; Silva, L.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal sediments and marine fish from a region with high natural radioactivity in Cox Bazar Bangladesh, were analyzed in order to investigate the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Sediment from the sea shore in high ambient radiation dose rate areas contained naturally occurring radionuclides at high concentrations. These sediments displayed 226 Ra, 232 Th and 235 U activity concentrations of 2184 ± 88 Bq kg -1 dry weight (d.w.), 3808 ± 200 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) and 123 ± 15 Bq kg -1 (d.w.), respectively. In contrast with these high values, radionuclide concentrations in sand from other areas of the Cox's Bazar coast were as low as 42 ± 3, 70 ± 4 and < 8 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) for the same radionuclides, respectively, which are comparable to concentrations determined in many coastal areas elsewhere. The presence of sand deposits with high concentration of uranium series radionuclides could potentially originate high accumulation of alpha emitting radionuclides such as 210 Po in marine biota, and food chain transfer to man. 210 Po is a major contributor to the radiation dose both in marine organisms and sea food consumers. Determination of 210 Po in marine fish and shrimp from the area lead to concentration values ranging from 4.5±0.3 to 124±3 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in fish and 82.9±1.6 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in shrimp. Similar concentrations are commonly reported in marine biota from several regions. Therefore, in spite of the deposits of heavy mineral sands containing high concentrations of radionuclides such as 210 Pb and 210 Po no significant raise in the accumulation of these radionuclides in biota seems to occur, which suggests that radionuclides are tightly bound in sediment grains and are not significantly bioavailable. (author)

  14. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  15. Implementing High-Performance Geometric Multigrid Solver with Naturally Grained Messages

    Shan, H; Williams, S; Zheng, Y; Kamil, A; Yelick, K

    2015-10-26

    Structured-grid linear solvers often require manually packing and unpacking of communication data to achieve high performance.Orchestrating this process efficiently is challenging, labor-intensive, and potentially error-prone.In this paper, we explore an alternative approach that communicates the data with naturally grained messagesizes without manual packing and unpacking. This approach is the distributed analogue of shared-memory programming, taking advantage of the global addressspace in PGAS languages to provide substantial programming ease. However, its performance may suffer from the large number of small messages. We investigate theruntime support required in the UPC ++ library for this naturally grained version to close the performance gap between the two approaches and attain comparable performance at scale using the High-Performance Geometric Multgrid (HPGMG-FV) benchmark as a driver.

  16. Second primary pancreatic ductal carcinoma in the remnant pancreas after pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal carcinoma: High cumulative incidence rates at 5 years after pancreatectomy.

    Ishida, Jun; Toyama, Hirochika; Matsumoto, Ippei; Asari, Sadaki; Goto, Tadahiro; Terai, Sachio; Nanno, Yoshihide; Yamashita, Azusa; Mizumoto, Takuya; Ueda, Yuki; Kido, Masahiro; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate and clinical features of second primary pancreatic ductal carcinoma (SPPDC) in the remnant pancreas after pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC). Data of patients undergoing R0 resection for PDC at a single high-volume center were reviewed. SPPDC was defined as a tumor in the remnant pancreas after R0 resection for PDC, and SPPDC met at least one of the following conditions: 1) the time interval between initial pancreatectomy and development of a new tumor was 3 years or more; 2) the new tumor was not located in contact with the pancreatic stump. We investigated the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with SPPDC. This study included 130 patients who underwent surgical resection for PDC between 2005 and 2014. Six (4.6%) patients developed SPPDC. The cumulative 3- and 5-year incidence rates were 3.1% and 17.7%, respectively. Four patients underwent remnant pancreatectomy for SPPDC. They were diagnosed with the disease in stage IIA or higher and developed recurrence within 6 months after remnant pancreatectomy. One patient received carbon ion radiotherapy and survived 45 months. One patient refused treatment and died 19 months after the diagnosis of SPPDC. The incidence rate of SPPDC is not negligible, and the cumulative 5-year incidence rate of SPPDC is markedly high. Post-operative surveillance of the remnant pancreas is critical for the early detection of SPPDC, even in long-term survivors after PDC resection. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transient effects in SIMS analysis of Si with Cs sup + at high incidence angles Secondary ion yield variations

    Heide, P A W

    2002-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis of Si wafers using 1 keV Cs sup + primary ions at large incidence angles (80 deg. ) is plagued by unusually strong transient effects (variations in both sputter and ion yields). Analysis of a native oxide terminated Si wafer with and without the aid of an O sub 2 leak, and an Ar sup + pre-sputtered wafer revealed correlations between the implanted Cs content and various secondary ion intensities consistent with that expected from a resonance charge transfer process (that assumed by the electron tunneling model). Cs concentrations were defined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the sputtered surface from SIMS profiles terminated within the transient region. These scaled with the surface roughening occurring under these conditions and can be explained as resulting from the associated drop in sputter rates. An O induced transient effect from the native oxide was also identified. Characterization of these effects allowed the reconstruction of ...

  18. High incidence of the median artery of the forearm in a sample of recent southern African cadavers.

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the presence of the median artery, providing substantial blood supply to the hand, were conducted on 96 dissected forearms of 15 adult African females and 49 adult males. The artery has a much higher incidence (27.1%) than previously reported by any author. There is no significant difference in its occurrence between sexes, nor between right and left limbs. The artery seems to occur more often bilaterally than unilaterally. The presence of the artery is not related to age. From a theoretical standpoint it is difficult to accept that a structure present in more than 1 in 4 of individuals should be considered an 'anomaly' or a 'variant'. A different approach to description of normal human anatomy is therefore necessary--that of presenting alternative anatomical patterns of equal standing rather than a single 'normal' pattern. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1452474

  19. [Detection of a higher incidence of pathologic somatic findings in globus sensation by use of high frequency cinematography].

    Hannig, C; Wuttge-Hannig, A; Bockmeyer, M

    1987-07-01

    Since December 1984 303 patients have undergone examination in our Multidisciplinary Consultation Service for Swallowing Disorders; 117 of them were suffering from typical globus symptoms. We were able to increase the yield of detection of organic lesions by use of the technique of 35 mm film cineradiography with a rate of 50 frames/s. Frame-by-frame analysis and computer-assisted evaluation showed that 80% of the patients with globus symptoms suffered from one or more underlying organic diseases, which could often be treated later with success. We found an increased incidence of early hypopharyngeal diverticula, webs, and motility disorders of the upper esophageal sphincter often associated with gastro-esophageal reflux or weakness of the pharyngeal wall. Cineradiography proved to be a very important tool in the analysis of the pharyngeal swallow in globus pharyngis.

  20. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  1. Control of high natural activity building materials and land areas in the Nordic countries

    Mjoenes, L.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the ground can cause problems with high concentrations of indoor 222 Rn, elevated levels of gamma radiation and natural radioactive elements in drinking water. Of the Nordic countries it is essentially Finland, Norway and Sweden that have problems with enhanced natural radioactivity in the ground and in building materials. Finland and Sweden have among the highest mean 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings in the world, 123 Bq m -3 and 108 Bq m -3 with a corresponding mean annual effective dose of about 2 mSv. In Sweden about 500,000 and in Finland and Norway about 200,000 persons get their drinking water from wells drilled in bedrock. The water from a large number of these wells contain elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive elements, primarily 222 Rn. The action levels for 222 Rn in dwellings and above-ground workplaces are essentially the same in Finland, Norway and Sweden: 200 Bq m -3 for new buildings and 400 Bq m -3 for existing buildings. For mines and underground excavations, however, there are some differences. The treatment of gamma emitting natural radionuclides in building materials etc. is similar, although there are differences in the degree of control. The action levels for 222 Rn in drinking water differ from 100 Bq l -1 to 500 Bq l -1 . The action level in Finland has the form of an activity index that restricts also other radioactive nuclides. Denmark has not adopted a formal radon policy and has no recommended or legally binding action levels for 222 Rn or any other naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  2. Heat transfer measurements on an incidence-tolerant low pressure turbine blade in a high speed linear cascade at low to moderate Reynolds numbers

    Moualeu, Leolein Patrick Gouemeni

    Runway-independent aircraft are expected to be the future for short-haul flights by improving air transportation and reducing area congestion encountered in airports. The Vehicle Systems Program of NASA identified a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor, equipped with variable-speed power-turbine engines, as the best concept. At cruise altitude, the engine rotor-speed will be reduced by as much as the 50% of take-off speed. The large incidence variation in the low pressure turbine associated with the change in speed can be detrimental to the engine performance. Low pressure turbine blades in cruise altitude are more predisposed to develop regions of boundary layer separation. Typical phenomenon such as impinging wakes on downstream blades and mainstream turbulences enhance the complexity of the flow in low pressure turbines. It is therefore important to be able to understand the flow behavior to accurately predict the losses. Research facilities are seldom able to experimentally reproduce low Reynolds numbers at relevant engine Mach number. Having large incidence swing as an additional parameter in the investigation of the boundary layer development, on a low pressure turbine blade, makes this topic unique and as a consequence requires a unique facility to conduct the experimental research. The compressible flow wind tunnel facility at the University of North Dakota had been updated to perform steady state experiments on a modular-cascade, designed to replicate a large variation of the incidence angles. The high speed and low Reynolds number facility maintained a sealed and closed loop configuration for each incidence angle. The updated facility is capable to produce experimental Reynolds numbers as low as 45,000 and as high as 570,000 at an exit Mach number of 0.72. Pressure and surface temperature measurements were performed at these low pressure turbine conditions. The present thesis investigates the boundary layer development on the surface of an Incidence-tolerant blade. The

  3. Feasibility of high-helium natural gas exploration in the Presinian strata, Sichuan Basin

    Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helium in China highly depends on import at present, so the most practical way to change the situation is searching for medium-to-large natural gas fields with high helium content. Therefore, the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism and the helium origin of the Weiyuan high-helium natural gas reservoir have been analyzed to find out the feasibility of finding natural gas field with high helium content in the Presinian strata of the Sichuan Basin. Based on twelve outcrop sections and drilling data of four wells encountering the Presinian strata, the petrological features, sedimentary facies and source rocks of Presinian strata were systematically analyzed, which shows that the sedimentary formation developed in the Presinian is the Nanhua system, and the stratigraphic sequence revealed by outcrop section in the eastern margin includes the Nantuo, Datangpo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms, and it is inferred that the same stratigraphic sequence may occur inside the basin. The Nantuo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms are mainly glacial deposits of glutenite interbedded with mudstone; the Datangpo Fm is interglacial deposits of sandstone and shale, the lower part shale, rich in organic matter, is fairly good source rock. Further study showed that the Nantuo coarse-grained clastic reservoir, Datangpo source rock and the intruded granite “helium source rock” make up a good high-helium gas system. Controlled by the early rift, the thick Presinian sedimentary rocks occur primarily inside the rift. The distribution of sedimentary rocks and granite in the basin was predicted by use of the seismic data, which shows that the feasibility of finding high-helium gas reservoirs in Ziyang area of the Sichuan Basin is great.

  4. Project Pocos de Caldas Plateau: cancer research and natural radioactivity - incidence and risk behavior; Projeto Planalto Pocos de Caldas: pesquisa cancer e radiacao natural - incidencia e comportamento de risco

    Antoniazzi, Berenice Navarro [Secretaria de Estado de Saude de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Avaliacao e Vigilancia do Cancer; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Cunha, Tarcisio Neves da [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Otero, Ubirani Barros [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Pocos de Caldas (RCBP), MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    It has been well established by epidemiological studies that long term exposure due to radon increases the risk of lung cancer. While smoking continues to account for the bulk of lung cancers, it is been estimated that radon accounts for around 10% of all lung cancers. There is a synergistic relationship between smoking and radon and exposure due to radon is the primary cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Recognizing the importance of radon as a source of radiation exposure, the IAEA safety standard Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (generally referred to simply as the BSS) contains requirements aimed at reducing the associated risks. The BSS requires Member States to provide information on the levels of radon indoors and the associated health effects, and if appropriate, to establish and implement a radon action plan for controlling public exposure due to radon indoors. Although not specifically stated, it is clear that in order to decide whether or not an action plan is necessary, some measurement data must be available on the concentrations of radon present indoors. To assist in the implementation of the BSS, the Agency has also developed a Safety Guide: Protection of the Public against Exposure indoors due do Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation. This Safety Guide provides guidance on establishing and implementing a national radon action plan; developing national radon policy; undertaking national and regional surveys of radon in dwellings; measurement protocols; setting a reference level for dwellings; defining radon prone areas; radon control through building codes; and evaluation of programme effectiveness. While many sources of radiation exposure are not amenable to control, proven and effective building practices exist to limit the accumulation of radon in new buildings and cost-effective corrective actions have been developed to reduce high radon concentrations in existing buildings. The

  5. Epidemiologic studies in the areas with a high level of natural radioactivity

    Laurier, D.; Martin, J.M.; Hubert, Ph.

    2000-10-01

    Since 1970, numerous studies have been interested in high level of natural radiations areas (H.L.N.R.A.) or high background radiation areas (H.B.R.A.). An international conference stands every four years, and the last one was at Munich (Germany). The aim of this note is to make a review of epidemiologic studies made with the populations living in H.L.N.R.A. and to present a synthesis of achieved results. The cytogenetic studies are equally mentioned but not detailed. (N.C.)

  6. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indic...

  7. Radiation exposure map based on fuzzy logic for the representation of areas with high natural background

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The identification of areas with high concentrations of natural radionuclides is an important task in classifying these areas in relation to the health risk for residents in the region. The aim of this work is to identify areas of high exposure to nuclear radiation using a geographic representation based on the theory of fuzzy sets. Radiometric data obtained from previous works developed in a region of high concentrations in natural uranium were used to create a fuzzy map of the local radiation levels. During the image processing, a nonlinear filter was applied to eliminate noise i.e. to reduce isolated pixels that would eventually cause major uncertainties in the results. A resulting image was geographically positioned (WGS40) and obtained in gray scale. This image was fuzzified for membership functions that represent linguistic variables as low exposure, medium exposure and high exposure. After representing the membership grade in a RGB (red, green and blue) image it was possible to visualize the radiation level in the area of exposure. When compared to data from the region, results demonstrated the good efficiency of the technique here employed for the representation of areas with high radioactivity levels. The image obtained also provided important information about those areas where exposure to radiation is more pronounced. Hence, the fuzzy map can be applied in decision-making of experts when a risk situation is identified. (author)

  8. Evaluation of High-Pressure RCS Natural Circulations Under Severe Accident Conditions

    Lee, Byung Chul; Bang, Young Suk; Suh, Nam Duk

    2006-01-01

    Since TMI-2 accident, the occurrence of severe accident natural circulations inside RCS during entire in-vessel core melt progressions before the reactor vessel breach had been emphasized and tried to clarify its thermal-hydraulic characteristics. As one of consolidated outcomes of these efforts, sophisticated models have been presented to explain the effects of a variety of engineering and phenomenological factors involved during severe accident mitigation on the integrity of RCS pressure boundaries, i.e. reactor pressure vessel(RPV), RCS coolant pipe and steam generator tubes. In general, natural circulation occurs due to density differences, which for single phase flow, is typically generated by temperature differences. Three natural circulation flows can be formed during severe accidents: in-vessel, hot leg countercurrent flow and flow through the coolant loops. Each of these flows may be present during high-pressure transients such as station blackout (SBO) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). As a part of research works in order to contribute on the completeness of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) in domestic plants by quantitatively assessing the RCS natural circulations on its integrity, this study presents basic approach for this work and some preliminary results of these efforts with development of appropriately detailed RCS model using MELCOR computer code

  9. High throughput Screening to Identify Natural Human Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors

    Mazzio, E; Deiab, S; Park, K; Soliman, KFA

    2012-01-01

    Age-related increase in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) may contribute to CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors are used in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease as preliminary monotherapy or adjunct therapy with L-dopa. To date, meager natural sources of MAO-B inhibitors have been identified, and the relative strength, potency and rank of many plants relative to standard drugs such as Selegiline (L-deprenyl, Eldepryl) are not known. In this work, we developed and utilized a high throughput enzyme microarray format to screen and evaluate 905 natural product extracts (0.025–.7 mg/ml) to inhibit human MAO-B derived from BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. The protein sequence of purified enzyme was confirmed using 1D gel electrophoresis-matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-tandem mass spectroscopy, and enzyme activity was confirmed by [1] substrate conversion (3-mM benzylamine) to H202 and [2] benzaldehyde. Of the 905 natural extracts tested, the lowest IC50s [Comfrey, Bringraj, Skullcap, Kava-kava, Wild Indigo, Gentian and Green Tea. In conclusion, the data reflect relative potency information by rank of commonly used herbs and plants that contain human MAO-B inhibitory properties in their natural form. PMID:22887993

  10. Soil remediation: humic acids as natural surfactants in the washings of highly contaminated soils

    Conte, Pellegrino; Agretto, Anna; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The remediation of the highly contaminated site around the former chemical plant of ACNA (near Savona) in Northern Italy is a top priority in Italy. The aim of the present work was to contribute in finding innovative and environmental-friendly technology to remediate soils from the ACNA contaminated site. Two soils sampled from the ACNA site (A and B), differing in texture and amount and type of organic contaminants, were subjected to soil washings by comparing the removal efficiency of water, two synthetic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX100), and a solution of a natural surfactant, a humic acid (HA) at its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The extraction of pollutants by sonication and soxhlet was conducted before and after the soil washings. Soil A was richer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas soil B had a larger content of thiophenes. Sonication resulted more analytically efficient in the fine-textured soil B. The coarse-textured soil A was extracted with a general equal efficiency also by soxhlet. Clean-up by water was unable to exhaustively remove contaminants from the two soils, whereas all the organic surfactants revealed very similar efficiencies (up to 90%) in the removal of the contaminants from the soils. Hence, the use of solutions of natural HAs appears as a better choice for soil washings of highly polluted soils due to their additional capacity to promote microbial activity, in contrast to synthetic surfactants, for a further natural attenuation in washed soils. - Solutions of natural humic acids appear to be a better choice for washing highly polluted soils

  11. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women’s willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Results Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. “Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed” (47.6%), “No symptoms/discomfort” (34.1%) and “Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening” (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Conclusion Efforts are needed to increase women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:23843976

  12. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their

  13. Safety and Health Standard 110: Incident/accident reporting and investigation

    Sones, K. [West Kootenay Power, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Incident/accident reporting requirements in effect at West Kootenay Power are discussed. Details provided include definitions of low risk, high risk, and critical events, the incidents to be reported, the nature of the reports, the timelines, the investigation to be undertaken for each type of incident/accident, counselling services available to employees involved in serious incidents, and the procedures to be followed in accidents involving serious injury to non-employees. The emphasis is on the `critical five` high risk events and the procedures relating to them.

  14. High incidence of nephropathy in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial administration of low-osmolar and iso-osmolar contrast media.

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Karolkiewicz, Maciej; Gruszka, Marzena; Strózecki, Pawel; Lasek, Wladyslaw; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Grazyna; Manitius, Jacek; Beuth, Wojciech

    2011-05-01

    Percutaneous endovascular examinations and interventions require significant amounts of iodinated contrast media (CM) and have been reported to be complicated by an increased incidence of post-contrast nephropathy. To evaluate renal function, the incidence of post-contrast nephropathy, and risk factors after interventional procedures in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial administration of a low-osmolar contrast medium (LOCM) versus an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM). This single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blinded study included 92 patients in its final analysis (mean age 49.6 ± 12.6 years, 29.3% men, mean eGFR 97.8 ± 26.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). LOCM was used in 48 patients (52.2%) and IOCM in 44 patients (47.8%). The patients were given an average of 151.2 ± 52.1 mL of contrast medium intra-arterially. Serum creatinine (SCr), urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion, and creatinine clearance (CCr) were measured at baseline, and on days 1 and 3 after the procedure. Baseline risk factors, renal functional parameters, and average CM doses were not statistically different between the two groups. SCr, NAG, and CCr values did not differ significantly between the LOCM and IOCM groups on days 1 and 3 after CM administration. Nephropathy developed in 21 cases (22.8%): 13 (27.1%) after LOCM use and 8 (18.2%) after IOCM; (P = NS). The only significant risk factors of CIN were the diabetes (P = 0.0466) and atherosclerosis (P = 0.0498). We found a high incidence of nephropathy in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial CM administration. The renal function values and incidence of nephropathy following LOCM administration were not statistically different from those following IOCM administration.

  15. Contribution of human papilloma virus to the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in a European population with high smoking prevalence.

    Tinhofer, I; Jöhrens, K; Keilholz, U; Kaufmann, A; Lehmann, A; Weichert, W; Stenzinger, A; Stromberger, C; Klinghammer, K; Becker, E-T; Dommerich, S; Stölzel, K; Hofmann, V M; Hildebrandt, B; Moser, L; Ervens, J; Böttcher, A; Albers, A; Stabenow, R; Reinecke, A; Budach, V; Hoffmeister, B; Raguse, J D

    2015-03-01

    Increases in incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in countries with falling tobacco use have been attributed to a growing role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis. Trends of HPV prevalence in populations with persistently high portions of smokers are poorly characterised. Registry data from East Germany were used to determine incidence trends between 1998 and 2011. Data from patients treated at the Charité University Medicine Berlin between 2004 and 2013 (cohort 1, N=436) were used for estimation of trends in HPV prevalence, smoking and survival. HPV prevalence was prospectively confirmed in cohort 2 (N=213) comprising all primary HNSCC cases at the Charité in 2013. Between 1998 and 2011 incidence of both OPSCC and non-OPSCC increased. An increase in HPV prevalence (% of HPV+ cases in 2004-2006 versus 2012-2013: 27% versus 59%, P=0.0004) accompanied by a moderate decrease in the portion of current smokers was observed in OPSCC but not in non-OPSCC. The change in disease epidemiology in OPSCC was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Increased HPV prevalence in OPSCC (48%) compared to non-OPSCC (11%) was confirmed in cohort 2. Despite clear differences to the United States in terms of tobacco use, the increase in OPSCC incidence in a European population was also mainly attributed to HPV, and the HPV status significantly affected prognosis. For clinical trial design it is important to consider the large group of smokers within HPV-induced OPSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Darwinism in Context: An interdisciplinary, highly contextualized course on nature of science

    Kostas Kampourakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a course, titled Darwinism in Context, which focuses on the social, cultural and scientific influences on the development of Darwin's theory. This was an interdisciplinary, highly contextualized nature of science course that aimed to help students learn about a core nature of science aspect: that there are historical, cultural and social influences on the practice and directions of science. For this purpose, the course was based on a well-documented historical case study: the development of Darwin's theory. The course consisted of five classes that focused on: (a Victorian society, (b the views and beliefs of scholars that had an impact on Darwin's thinking (historical influences, (c aspects of Darwin's personal and social life that influenced the publication of his theory (social influences, (d the reception of Darwin's theory and the relationship between religion and science (cultural influences and (e the relationship between science and literature. In all cases, teaching included presentations of the historical events but was mostly based on the analysis and discussion of excerpts from the respective original writings. During the classes only a few examples were presented; students were motivated to study further the original writings and identify some key concepts and ideas after the classes. It is concluded that this kind of highly contextualized nature of science instruction can provide students with a more authentic view of science.

  17. High-pressure measuring cell for Raman spectroscopic studies of natural gas

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    A system for obtaining Raman spectra of gases at high pressure has been constructed. In order to ensure that a natural gas sample is totally representative, a high-pressure gas-measuring cell has been developed, built up by stainless steel fittings and a sapphire tube. The design and construction...... of this cell are described. A perfect pressure seal has been demonstrated up to 15.0 MPaA (MPa absolute). The cell has been successfully used to obtain Raman spectra of natural gas samples. Some of these spectra are presented and assigned. The most remarkable observation in the spectra is that it is possible...... to detect hydrogen sulfide at concentrations of 1-3 mg H2S/Nm(3). An attempt to make a quantitative analysis of natural gas by the so-called "ratio method" is presented. In addition to this, the relative normalized differential Raman scattering cross sections for ethane and i-butane molecules at 8.0 MPa...

  18. The incidence of kidney injury for patients treated with a high-potency versus moderate-potency statin regimen after an acute coronary syndrome.

    Sarma, Amy; Cannon, Christopher P; de Lemos, James; Rouleau, Jean L; Lewis, Eldrin F; Guo, Jianping; Mega, Jessica L; Sabatine, Marc S; O'Donoghue, Michelle L

    2014-05-01

    Observational studies have raised concerns that high-potency statins increase the risk of acute kidney injury. We therefore examined the incidence of kidney injury across 2 randomized trials of statin therapy. PROVE IT-TIMI 22 enrolled 4162 subjects after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and randomized them to atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus pravastatin 40 mg/day. A-to-Z enrolled 4497 subjects after ACS and randomized them to a high-potency (simvastatin 40 mg/day × 1 months, then simvastatin 80 mg/day) versus a delayed moderate-potency statin strategy (placebo × 4 months, then simvastatin 20 mg/day). Serum creatinine was assessed centrally at serial time points. Adverse events (AEs) relating to kidney injury were identified through database review. Across both trials, mean serum creatinine was similar between treatment arms at baseline and throughout follow-up. In A-to-Z, the incidence of a 1.5-fold or ≥ 0.3 mg/dL rise in serum creatinine was 11.4% for subjects randomized to a high-potency statin regimen versus 12.4% for those on a delayed moderate-potency regimen (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.10; P=0.33). In PROVE IT-TIMI 22, the incidence was 9.4% for subjects randomized to atorvastatin 80 mg/day and 10.6% for subjects randomized to pravastatin 40 mg/day (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.09; P=0.25). Consistent results were observed for different kidney injury thresholds and in individuals with diabetes mellitus or with moderate renal dysfunction. The incidence of kidney injury-related adverse events (AEs) was not statistically different for patients on a high-potency versus moderate-potency statin regimen (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.67; P=0.78). For patients enrolled in 2 large randomized trials of statin therapy after ACS, the use of a high-potency statin regimen did not increase the risk of kidney injury.

  19. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  20. Boosting in athletes with high-level spinal cord injury: knowledge, incidence and attitudes of athletes in paralympic sport.

    Bhambhani, Yagesh; Mactavish, Jennifer; Warren, Sharon; Thompson, Walter R; Webborn, Anthony; Bressan, Elizabeth; De Mello, Marco Tuilo; Tweedy, Sean; Malone, Laurie; Frojd, Kennet; Van De Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is unique to individuals with spinal injuries (SCI) at T6 or above and can be voluntarily induced. Although AD improves wheelchair racing performance in some athletes, it also elicits exaggerated blood pressure, which could be dangerous. The International Paralympic Committee considers AD doping and banned its use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate AD knowledge, incidence and attitudes (KIA) of Paralympians with SCI. An existing questionnaire was modified to include questions of AD KIA, validated by three experts and piloted with a small sample. It was administered on-line, mailed to members of a scientific network and distributed during the Beijing Paralympic Games. Fisher Exact test was used to evaluate differences across gender, injury and education. Of 99 participants, 54.5% had previously heard of AD while 39.4% were unaware; 16.7%, all males, had used AD to enhance performance. Participants reported that AD was (1) useful for middle (78.6%) and long distance (71.4%), marathon (64.3%) and wheelchair rugby (64.3%); (2) somewhat dangerous (48.9%), dangerous (21.3%) or very dangerous (25.5%) to health. Results were not influenced by age, injury level or injury duration. Findings indicate the need for educational programmes directed towards enhancing the AD knowledge of rehabilitation professionals, coaches and trainers working with SCI individuals.

  1. Federal and state regulatory schemes affecting liability for high-level waste transportation incidents: opportunities for clarification and amendment

    Friel, L.E.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act of 1957 provides extensive public liability coverage in the event of a serious accident involving the transportation of nuclear materials to or from certain federally-licensed, or federal contractor-operated facilities. While actual liability for a nuclear incident and the extent of damages are usually determined by state law, the Act establishes a comprehensive system for the payment of such damages. Despite the federally-mandated scheme for liability coverage several aspects of the Act's application to transportation to a permanent repository have not yet been settled and are open to various interpretations. Some areas of uncertainty apply not only to future waste transport to a repository, but also to current transportation activities, and include: coverage for emergency response and clean-up costs; coverage for precautionary evacuations; and the federal government's financial liability. The need to address liability issues is also increasingly recognized at the state level. The state laws which are used to determine liability and the extent of damages in the event of a transportation accident vary widely among states and significantly affect the compensation that an injured person will receive under the provisions of the Price-Anderson Act. Areas of state law deserving special attention include: standards for determining liability; statutes of limitations; standards for proof of causation; state sovereign immunity statutes; and recovery of unique emergency response costs

  2. Ground source heat pumps versus high efficiency natural gas furnaces in Alberta

    Shaw, J.

    2003-02-02

    For the past twenty years or so, the heating and cooling of numerous buildings in northern Europe has been accomplished using ground source heat pumps (GSHPs), while in North America they have been in use for approximately ten years. In the Prairies, natural gas furnaces dominate, while GSHP are more popular in eastern Canada. The author noted that natural gas furnaces have an efficiency of 80 per cent or less, while high efficiency natural gas (HENG) furnaces, more expensive, have an efficiency in the 90 per cent range. A brief outline of the principles behind GSHPs was provided. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) of GSHP reaches up to 500 per cent depending whether the unit is cooling or heating. The amount of heat produced by a heating system expressed as a percentage of the energy input required to operate the system is the definition used for the efficiency. In those cases where it is possible to amortize the initial costs, pay now or obtain a subsidy, the installation of GSHP is advantageous. Several factors affect the total cost of heating a building, such as the airtightness of the building and its insulation, the coldness of the climate, and the inside controlled temperature setting. The author then examined the cost of operating a GSHP versus a natural gas furnace. In most examples studied, the cost of operating a GSHP was less than the cost of operating a natural gas furnace. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) of GSHPs and HENG furnaces was examined. The author concluded that the cost of heating by GSHP in Alberta will be lower than the cost of heating by HENG which requires a separate air conditioning unit for the summer months, with additional improvements in efficiency and insulation. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Nuclear power for coexistence with nature, high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Until this century, it is sufficient to aim at the winner of competition in human society to obtain resources, and to entrust waste to natural cleaning action. However, the expansion of social activities has been too fast, and the scale has become too large, consequently, in the next century, the expansion of social activities will be caught by the structure of trilemma that is subjected to the strong restraint and selection from the problems of finite energy and resources and environment preservation. In 21st century, the problems change to those between mankind and nature. Energy supply and population increase, envrionment preservation and human activities, and the matters that human wisdom should bear regarding energy technology are discussed. In Japan, the construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is in progress. The design of high temperature gas-cooled reactors and their features on the safety are explained. The capability of reducing CO 2 release of high temperature gas-cooled reactors is reported. In future, it is expected that the time of introducing high temperature gas-cooled reactors will come. (K.I.)

  4. Incidence and nature of medication errors in neonatal intensive care with strategies to improve safety - A review of the current literature

    Chedoe, Indra; Molendijk, Harry A.; Dittrich, Suzanne T. A. M.; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Harting, Johannes W.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Taxis, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are highly vulnerable to medication errors because of their extensive exposure to medications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the general lack of evidence on pharmacotherapeutic interventions in neonates and the lack of neonate-specific formulations. We searched PubMed and

  5. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    Gato, L.M.C.; Henriques, J.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas

  6. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  7. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...... and did not decrease below -12. °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2. °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid...

  8. Natural radionuclides in rocks and soils of the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus

    Asvarova, T. A.; Abdulaeva, A. S.; Magomedov, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the radioecological survey in the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus at the heights from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l. are considered. This survey encompassed the territories of Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Chechnya, Northern Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions. The natural γ background radiation in the studied regions is subjected to considerable fluctuations and varies from 6 to 40 μR/h. The major regularities of the migration of natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in soils in dependence on the particular environmental conditions (the initial concentration of the radionuclides in the parent material; the intensity of pedogenesis; the intensity of the vertical and horizontal migration; and the geographic, climatic, and landscape-geochemical factors) are discussed.

  9. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    Gato, L.M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: lgato@mail.ist.utl.pt; Henriques, J.C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: jcch@mail.ist.utl.pt

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas.

  10. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs by G. GABRIELSE / Harvard University, USA Experiments with atomic energy scales probe nature and its symmetries with exquisite precision. Particle traps allow the manipulation of single charged particles for months at a time, allow the most accurate comparison of theory and experiment, and promise to allow better measurement of fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant. Ions and atoms can be probed with lasers that are phase locked to microwave frequency standards via optical combs, thus calibrating optical sources in terms of the official cesium second. A series of three lectures will illustrate what can be measured and discuss key techniques.  ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  11. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  12. A high diet quality is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort.

    Joanna Hlebowicz

    Full Text Available To investigate if diet quality is related to incidence of cardiovascular (CV events.A diet quality index based on the 2005 Swedish Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish Dietary Guidelines was created and included six dietary components: saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. The index ranked 17126 participants (59% women of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (Sweden on their dietary intakes. Total index score was categorized as low, medium or high. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model associations between index score categories and index components with risk of incident CV events, with adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of first CV events (non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke or death from ischemic heart disease was monitored from baseline (1991-1996 until December 31, 2008; 703 CV events occurred in women and 1093 in men.A high diet quality was associated with decreased risk of CV events when compared to a low diet quality. In multivariate analysis, the risk reduction was 32% (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.73 in men and 27% (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91 in women. When examined separately and mutually adjusted for each other, the individual components were either not associated with CV risk or marginally decreased risks were seen.High quality diets in line with current recommendations may reduce the risk of CV events. This study illustrates the importance of considering a combination of dietary factors when evaluating diet-disease associations.

  13. The impact of portable high-efficiency particulate air filters on the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in a large acute tertiary-care hospital.

    Abdul Salam, Zakir-Hussain; Karlin, Rubiyah Binte; Ling, Moi Lin; Yang, Kok Soong

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide, the frequency of invasive fungal infections has been increasing, with a corresponding increase in the numbers of high-risk patients. Exposure reduction through the use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters has been the preferred primary preventive strategy for these high-risk patients. Although the efficiency and benefits of fixed HEPA filters is well proven, the benefits of portable HEPA filters are still inconclusive. This was a retrospective study to assess the impact of 48 portable HEPA filter units deployed in selected wards in Singapore General Hospital, an acute tertiary-care hospital in Singapore. Data were extracted between December 2005 and June 2008 on the diagnoses at discharge and microbiological and histological laboratory findings. All patients with possible, probable, or proven invasive aspergillosis (IA) were included. In wards with portable HEPA filters, the incidence rate of IA of 34.61/100,000 patient-days in the pre-installation period was reduced to 17.51/100,000 patient-days in the post-installation period (P = .01), for an incidence rate ratio of 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.97). In wards with no HEPA filters, there was no significant change in the incidence rate during the study period. Portable HEPA filters were associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.28-0.85; P = .01), adjusted for diagnosis and length of hospital stay. Portable HEPA filters are effective in the prevention of IA. The cost of widespread portable HEPA filtration in hospitals will be more than offset by the decreases in nosocomial infections in general and in IA in particular. Copyright (c) 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10 -9 and 3.4 x 10 -7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10 -8 to 1.3 x 10 -4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10 -5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [ 3 H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  15. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    Omole, Imona C.

    2010-05-19

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2 partial pressures. The cross-linked membrane material shows high intrinsic separation performance for CO2 and CH4 (selectivity ∼49, CO2 permeability ∼161 barrer, with a feed at 65 psia, 35 °C, and 10% CO2). Cross-linked asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes made from the material show good resistance to CO2-induced plasticization. Carbon dioxide partial pressures as high as ∼400 psia were employed, and the membrane was shown to be promisingly stable under these aggressive conditions. The performance of the membrane was also analyzed using the dual-mode sorption/transport model. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Association of processed food, synergistic effect of alcohol and HBV with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a high incidence region of India.

    Phukan, Rup Kumar; Borkakoty, Biswa Jyoti; Phukan, Sanjib Kumar; Bhandari, Kumar; Mahanta, Jagdish; Tawsik, Sopai; Bhandari, Sangita; Rai, Ashish; Narain, Kanwar

    2018-04-01

    Dietary factors, tobacco, and alcohol use have been identified as important factors of rising various cancer incidence in several northeastern states of India. However, little is known about the factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in this region. The aim of the paper was to identify the factors associated with HCC in the northeast region. A case-control study was conducted in Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, two northeastern states of India, including 104 histologically-confirmed cases of HCC and same number (104) of age and sex matched control enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with HCC. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between HCC and alcohol consumption, consumption of 'Sai-mod' (OR 2.77, CI 1.57-4.87) a homemade alcohol beverage, and with HBV (OR 7.97, CI 3.36-18.94). Positive synergism index (S = 3.04) was observed between HBV and alcohol consumption to risk of HCC. Higher intake of processed meat (OR 2.56, CI 1.09-6.03) and processed fish (OR 2.24, CI 1.02-4.95) were found associated with increased risk of HCC; and decreased risk of HCC with fresh fish, fruits, and milk. Strong relationship between different dietary factors, alcohol beverage with HCC suggests that control on dietary and drinking habit will be an important strategy to combat HCC in this region. Risk factors identified in this study will help to plan more effectively targeted risk reduction strategies and programs in this region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and patterns of valvular heart disease in a tertiary care high-volume cardiac center: a single center experience.

    Manjunath, C N; Srinivas, P; Ravindranath, K S; Dhanalakshmi, C

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of the heart valves constitute a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) being the dominant form of valvular heart disease (VHD) in developing nations. The current study was undertaken at a tertiary care cardiac center with the objective of establishing the incidence and patterns of VHD by Echocardiography (Echo). Among the 136,098 first-time Echocardiograms performed between January 2010 and December 2012, an exclusion criterion of trivial and functional regurgitant lesions yielded a total of 13,289 cases of organic valvular heart disease as the study cohort. In RHD, the order of involvement of valves was mitral (60.2%), followed by aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary valves. Mitral stenosis, predominantly seen in females, was almost exclusively of rheumatic etiology (97.4%). The predominant form of isolated MR was rheumatic (41.1%) followed closely by myxomatous or mitral valve prolapse (40.8%). Isolated AS, more common in males, was the third most common valve lesion seen in 7.3% of cases. Degenerative calcification was the commonest cause of isolated AS (65.0%) followed by bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (33.9%) and RHD (1.1%). Multiple valves were involved in more than a third of all cases (36.8%). The order of involvement was MS + MR > MS + AR > MR + AR > AS + AR > MR + AS > MS + AS. Overall, 9.7% of cases had organic tricuspid valve disease. RHD contributed most to the burden of VHD in the present study with calcific degeneration, myxomatous disease and BAV being the other major forms of VHD. Multiple valves were affected in more than a third of all cases. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High incidence of osteochondral lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced ankle fractures: Medium-term follow-up of 100 cases.

    Regier, Marc; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Hamurcu, Ahmet; Vettorazzi, Eik; Behzadi, Cyrus; Hoffmann, Michael; Großterlinden, Lars G; Fensky, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Weiser, Lukas; Rueger, Johannes M; Spiro, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) in association with displaced ankle fractures has only been examined in two previous studies. In both studies magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Because MRI may overdiagnose or overestimate the extent of OCLs in an acute trauma setting the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of OCLs after ORIF of displaced ankle fractures using MRI at medium-term follow-up, and to analyse if the severity of fracture or the clinical outcome correlates with the incidence of OCLs. Following institutional review board approval a total of 100 patients (mean age, 41.3 years; range, 17.9-64.3 years) with a displaced ankle fracture who had undergone ORIF according to the AO principles were included in this study. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was used to quantify the clinical outcome and MR images were evaluated for OCLs of the talus and distal tibia after a mean of 34.5 months (range, 17.5-54.1 months). OCLs were found in 40.4% of the patients. Logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between the severity of fracture and the incidence of OCLs. Patients with a trimalleolar fracture (p=0.04) or an ankle fracture dislocation (p=0.003) had a significantly higher risk for developing an OCL compared to those with a type B fracture. Logistic regression also demonstrated a significant correlation between the clinical outcome (AOFAS score) and the incidence of OCLs (p=0.01). The risk for developing an OCL increases up to 5.6% when the AOFAS score decreases by one point. OCLs were frequently found in association with acute ankle fractures at medium-term follow-up, and the severity of fracture was associated with an increased number of OCLs. Considering the disadvantages of MRI including the high cost and limited availability, the results of this study may help to explain why anatomic surgical realignment of displaced

  19. Water-rock interaction in a high-FeO olivine rock in nature

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Lindberg, A.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1992-12-01

    The long-term behaviour in nature of high-FeO olivine rock in contact with surface water has been studied at the Lovasjaervi instrusion, SE-Finland. The rock has been proposed as a high-capasity, higly reactive redox-buffer backfill in a repository for spent fuel. Favourable groundwater chemistry is a major parameter relevant to safety of such a repository. Reducing conditions favour the retardation of long-lived, redox-sensitive radionuclides. Weathering influences have been studied at the natural outcrop of the rock mass. The interaction of oxidizing surface waters with rock at greater depths has been studied by using fissure filling minerals. Investigation of weathered rock from the outcrop indicates that the olivine rock is highly reactive on a geological time scale and its redox capasity is available although the instrusion as a whole is surprisingly well preserved. The fissure fillings studied allow the conclusion that oxygen seems to be efficiently removed from intruding surface water. Oxidation seem to have caused visible effects only along very conducting fractures and near the contact zones of the surrounding granitic rock. Stable isotope data of fissure filling calcites indicate that the influence of surface waters can be traced clearly down to a depth of about 50 m, but also at greater depths re-equilibration has occurred. Groundwater data from the site were not available. (orig.)

  20. 2nd Workshop on the Nature of the High-Energy Unidentified Sources

    Cheng, K S; Multiwavelength Approach to Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources

    2005-01-01

    Nearly one half of the point-like gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET instrument of the late Compton satellite are still defeating our attempts at identifying them. To establish the origin and nature of these enigmatic sources has become a major problem of current high-energy astrophysics. The second workshop on Multiwavelength Approach to Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources intends to shed new and fresh light on the problem of the nature of these mysterious sources and the objects behind them. The proceedings contain 46 contributed papers in this subject, which cover theoretical models on gamma-ray sources as well as the best multiwavelength strategies for the identification of the promising candidates. The topics of this conference also include energetic phenomena ocurring both in galactic and extragalactic scenarios, phenomena that might lead to the appearance of what we have called high-energy unidentified sources. The book will be of interest for all active researchers in the high-energy astrophysics and rela...

  1. Transcriptional Changes during Naturally Acquired Zika Virus Infection Render Dendritic Cells Highly Conducive to Viral Replication.

    Sun, Xiaoming; Hua, Stephane; Chen, Hsiao-Rong; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Einkauf, Kevin; Tse, Samantha; Ard, Kevin; Ciaranello, Andrea; Yawetz, Sigal; Sax, Paul; Rosenberg, Eric S; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Yu, Xu G

    2017-12-19

    Although dendritic cells are among the human cell population best equipped for cell-intrinsic antiviral immune defense, they seem highly susceptible to infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using highly purified myeloid dendritic cells isolated from individuals with naturally acquired acute infection, we here show that ZIKV induces profound perturbations of transcriptional signatures relative to healthy donors. Interestingly, we noted a remarkable downregulation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes and innate immune sensors, suggesting that ZIKV can actively suppress interferon-dependent immune responses. In contrast, several host factors known to support ZIKV infection were strongly upregulated during natural ZIKV infection; these transcripts included AXL, the main entry receptor for ZIKV; SOCS3, a negative regulator of ISG expression; and IDO-1, a recognized inducer of regulatory T cell responses. Thus, during in vivo infection, ZIKV can transform the transcriptome of dendritic cells in favor of the virus to render these cells highly conducive to ZIKV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  3. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pplantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (pfootprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  4. High-resolution phenotypic profiling of natural products-induced effects on the single-cell level

    Kremb, Stephan Georg; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are highly evolved molecules making them a valuable resource for new therapeutics. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of broad-spectrum phenotypic profiling of NP-induced perturbations on single cells with imaging-based High

  5. Book of abstracts of the international conference on high levels of natural radiation held in Ramsar, Islamic Republic of Iran, 3-7 Nov 1990

    Sohrabi, M.; Borhan Azad, S.; Katouzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented in international conference on high levels of natural radiation was in the following subjects: A review of world natural radiation, environmental transfer pathway,technologically enhanced natural radiation environment,radon in the environment,radium determination in water,cytogenetic studies in high natural radiation areas,epidemiological studies in high natural radiation areas and radiation measurements methods

  6. Natural asphalt modified binders used for high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete

    Bilski, Marcin; Słowik, Mieczysław

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a set of test results supporting the possibility of replacing, in Polish climate conditions, hard road 20/30 penetration grade bitumen used in the binder course and/or base course made of high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete with binders comprising of 35/50 or 50/70 penetration grade bitumens and additives in the form of natural Gilsonite or Trinidad Epuré asphalts. For the purpose of comparing the properties of the discussed asphalt binders, values of the Performance Grade have been determined according to the American Superpave system criteria.

  7. Estimative of the soil amount ingested by cattle in high natural radioactive region

    Rosa, Roosevelt; Silva, Lucia H.C.; Taddei, Maria H.T.

    1997-01-01

    Considering that Pocos de Caldas is a region of high natural radioactivity, where many environmental impacts have been studied, 27 samples of cattle faeces and 24 samples of local soil were collected and analyzed for Ti concentrations, during dry and rain periods. Using this element as an indicator, the percentage of soil ingestion by cattle were estimated for three management practices: confined, semi-confined and free. The results showed the management practices influence on the cattle soil ingestion percentage, and the importance of this pathway in the environmental impact assessment. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  8. Transport properties of natural gas through polyethylene nanocomposites at high temperature and pressure

    Adewole, Jimoh K.; Jensen, Lars; Al-Mubaiyedh, Usamah A.

    2012-01-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites containing nanoclay concentrations of 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% were prepared by a melt blending process. The effects of various types of nanoclays and their concentrations on permeability, solubility, and diffusivity of natural gas in the nanocomposites...... at constant temperature had little influence on the permeability, whereas increasing the temperature from 30 to 70 degrees C significantly increased the permeability of the gas. Additionally, the effect of crystallinity on permeability, solubility, and diffusivity was investigated. Thus, the permeability...

  9. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan.

    Jih-Luh Tang

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6% patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs. Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106. Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100-2.141, p value = 0.012. Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided.

  10. Synthesis of high capacity cation exchangers from a low-grade Chinese natural zeolite

    Wang Yifei; Lin Feng

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese natural zeolite, in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz was treated hydrothermally with NaOH solutions, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder as pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, Na-Y and analcime were identified as the reacted products, depending on the reaction conditions such as NaOH concentration, reaction time and hydrothermal temperature. The products were identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by Fourier transform IR and ICP. With hydrothermal treatment after fusion of natural zeolite with NaOH, high purity of zeolite Na-Y and Na-P can be selectively formed, their cation exchange capacity (CEC) are 275 and 355 meq/100 g respectively, which are greatly higher than that of the natural zeolite (97 meq/100 g). Furthermore, the ammonium removal by the synthetic zeolite Na-P in aqueous solution was also studied. The equilibrium isotherms have been got and the influence of other cations present in water upon the ammonia uptake suggested an order of preference Ca 2+ > K + > Mg 2+ .

  11. Natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples with a high content of NORM

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; Durante, G.; Trozzo, R.; Fullone, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this article natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples contaminated by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are made, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard for the population and for workers professionally exposed to ionizing radiations. Investigated samples came from the district of Crotone, Calabria region, South of Italy. The natural radioactivity investigation was performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra , 234-mPa , 224Ra , 228Ac and 40K and compared with their clearance levels for NORM. The total effective dose was calculated for each sample as due to the committed effective dose for inhalation and to the effective dose from external irradiation. The sum of the total effective doses estimated for all investigated samples was compared to the action levels provided by the Italian legislation (D.Lgs.230/95 and subsequent modifications) for the population members (0.3mSv/y) and for professionally exposed workers (1mSv/y). It was found to be less than the limit of no radiological significance (10μSv/y).

  12. Learning from Natural Nacre: Constructing Layered Polymer Composites with High Thermal Conductivity.

    Pan, Guiran; Yao, Yimin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Sun, Jiajia; Hu, Jiantao; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-09-27

    Inspired by the microstructures of naturally layered and highly oriented materials, such as natural nacre, we report a thermally conductive polymer composite that consists of epoxy resin and Al 2 O 3 platelets deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Owing to their unique two-dimensional structure, Al 2 O 3 platelets are stacked together via a hot-pressing technique, resulting in a brick-and-mortar structure, which is similar to the one of natural nacre. Moreover, the AgNPs deposited on the surfaces of the Al 2 O 3 platelets act as bridges that link the adjacent Al 2 O 3 platelets due to the reduced melting point of the AgNPs. As a result, the polymer composite with 50 wt % filler achieves a maximum thermal conductivity of 6.71 W m -1 K -1 . In addition, the small addition of AgNPs (0.6 wt %) minimally affects the electrical insulation of the composites. Our bioinspired approach will find uses in the design and fabrication of thermally conductive materials for thermal management in modern electronics.

  13. Dawn song in natural and artificial continuous day: Light pollution affects songbirds at high latitudes.

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-10-01

    In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  14. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da.

    1992-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs

  15. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  16. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord: incidence and dose-volume relationship of symptomatic and asymptomatic late effects following high dose irradiation of paraspinal tumors

    Liu, Mitchell C.C.; Munzenrider, John E.; Finkelstein, Dianne; Liebsch, Norbert; Adams, Judy; Hug, Eugen B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Low grade chordomas and chondrosarcomas require high radiation doses for effective, lasting tumor control. Fractionated, 3-D planned, conformal proton radiation therapy has been used for lesions along the base of skull and spine to deliver high target doses, while respecting constraints of critical, normal tissues. In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of myelopathy after high dose radiotherapy to the cervical spine and investigated the influence of various treatment parameters, including dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Between December 1980 and March 1996, 78 patients were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory for primary or recurrent chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the cervical spine using combined proton and photon radiation therapy. In general, the tumor dose given was between 64.5 to 79.2 CGE (Cobalt Gray Equivalent). The guidelines for maximum permissible doses to spinal cord were: ≤ 64 CGE to the spinal cord surface and ≤ 53 CGE to the spinal cord center. Dose volume histograms of the spinal cord were analyzed to investigate a possible dose and volume relationship. Results: With a mean follow-up period of 46.6 months (range: 3 - 157 months), 4 of 78 patients (5.1%) developed high-grade (RTOG Grade 3 and 4) late toxicity: 3 patients (3.8%) experienced sensory deficits without motor deficits, none had any limitations of daily activities. One patient (1.2%) developed motor deficit with loss of motor function of one upper extremity. The only patient, who developed permanent motor damage had received additional prior radiation treatment and therefore received a cumulative spinal cord dose higher than the treatment guidelines. No patient treated within the guidelines experienced any motor impairment. Six patients (7.7%) experienced transient Lhermitt's syndrome and 1 patient (1.2%) developed asymptomatic radiographic MR findings only. Time to onset of symptoms of radiographic

  17. Prevalence of anemia and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in an indigenous community from the Venezuelan Amazon with a high incidence of malaria.

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Leets, Irene; Bracho, Carmen; Hidalgo, Mariana; Bastidas, Gilberto; Gomez, Ana; Peña, Ana; Pérez, Hilda

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of anemia and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in Betania del Topocho, a Piaroa community from Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, a zone with a high incidence of malaria. The group studied included 184 subjects of all ages that assisted to the local health center for malaria diagnosis. Analysis performed included hematology by coulter counter, ferritin quantification by ELISA with monoclonal antibodies and folic acid and vitamin B12 determinations by an immunoradiometric assay. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was 89.6% and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 affected 37.1,70.3 and 12.4% of the population studied, respectively. Plasmodium infection was detected by molecular diagnosis in 53.2% of the cases, and 86% of them were anemic. The highest incidence of anemia was found in children, with a prevalence of 100% in infants of both sexes. The high prevalence of anemia, iron and folic acid deficiencies found, indicates an important health and nutrition problem that should be immediately and properly addressed. The number of cases of anemia due to iron deficiency could be underestimated, since ferritin concentration increased as a acute phase protein, although prevalence data was also analyzed with a cutoff point of 30 microg/L for ferritin concentration.

  18. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  19. Multiple chromosome aberrations among newborns from high level natural radiation area and normal level natural radiation area of south west coast of Kerala

    Soren, D.C.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cord blood samples were collected in heparin vials and microculture techniques employed to obtain good metaphase chromosome spreads. In cytogenetic studies on newborns cells with multiple aberrations were recorded in 57 from a total of 27285 newborns (1266972 cells). Of these 17294 newborns (964140 cells) were from High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) and 9991 newborns (302832 cells) from Normal Level Natural Radiation Area (NLNRA). Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in 38 and 19 newborns from High and Normal Level Natural Radiation Area respectively. On an average one cell with multiple aberrations was observed among 479 newborns. Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in newborns from HLNRA as well as NLNRA in both males and females. Gender difference of newborns, maternal age group and background radiation levels did not seem to have any influence in the occurrence of Multiple chromosome aberrations

  20. N-enriched multilayered porous carbon derived from natural casings for high-performance supercapacitors

    Xu, Zongying; Li, Yu; Li, Dandan; Wang, Dawei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhifeng; Banis, Mohammad N.; Hu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Huaihao

    2018-06-01

    In this study, N-enriched multilayered porous activated carbon (LPAC), using natural casings as precursor, was fabricated by a facile carbonization and subsequent KOH activation procedure. The influence of the mass ratio of KOH to carbonized material on pore-structure and surface element composition of LPACs was investigated by a variety of means, such as SEM, HRTEM, BET, Raman, XRD, XPS and XAS. Owing to the unique multilayered texture and nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) rich feature of natural casings, the resulting LPACs possess interconnected and developed porous structure with N- and O-enriched functional groups, contributing to larger pseudocapacitance. With the rise of mass ratio, the specific surface area (SSA) and average pore size of LPACs increased. The final materials were endowed with a desirable SSA (3100 m2 g-1) and high N content (6.34 at.%). Meanwhile, N- and O-enriched LPAC-4 exhibited a high specific capacitance (307.5 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution), excellent rate performance (63.4% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1) and good cycling stability (7.1% capacitance loss after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled symmetrical supercapacitor (LPAC-4//LPAC-4) with a wide voltage window of 1.4 V delivered a remarkable energy density of 11.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 297 W kg-1. These results suggested that unique LPACs derived from natural casings are a promising material for supercapacitors.

  1. Plasma Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances at Baseline and Associations with Glycemic Indicators and Diabetes Incidence among High-Risk Adults in the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial.

    Cardenas, Andres; Gold, Diane R; Hauser, Russ; Kleinman, Ken P; Hivert, Marie-France; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Webster, Thomas F; Horton, Edward S; Oken, Emily

    2017-10-02

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutants almost universally detected in humans. Experimental evidence indicates that PFAS alter glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. However, epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. We sought to examine associations between plasma PFAS concentrations, glycemic indicators, and diabetes incidence among high-risk adults. Within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a trial for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals, we quantified baseline plasma concentrations of nine PFAS among 957 participants randomized to a lifestyle intervention or placebo. We evaluated adjusted associations for plasma PFAS concentrations with diabetes incidence and key glycemic indicators measured at baseline and annually over up to 4.6 y. Plasma PFAS concentrations were similar to those reported in the U.S. population in 1999-2000. At baseline, in cross-sectional analysis, a doubling in plasma perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations was associated with higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [β PFOS =0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.66; β PFOA =0.64; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.94], β-cell function (HOMA-β) (β PFOS =9.62; 95% CI: 1.55, 17.70; β PFOA =15.93; 95% CI: 6.78, 25.08), fasting proinsulin (β PFOS =1.37 pM; 95% CI: 0.50, 2.25; β PFOA =1.71 pM; 95% CI: 0.72, 2.71), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) (β PFOS =0.03%; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.07; β PFOA =0.04%; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.07). There was no strong evidence of associations between plasma PFAS concentrations and diabetes incidence or prospective changes in glycemic indicators during the follow-up period. At baseline, several PFAS were cross-sectionally associated with small differences in markers of insulin secretion and β-cell function. However, there was limited evidence suggesting that PFAS concentrations are associated with

  2. Cancer occurrence in the high natural background radiation area of Kerala coast

    Krishnan Nair, M.; Sreedevi Amma, N.; Ramachandran, T.P.; Varghese Cherian; Jayalakshmy, P.; Mani, K.S.; Boban, T.G.; Jayadevan, S.; Gangadharan, P.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the health effects if any, in populations living in high background radiation areas, the Department of Atomic Energy has sanctioned a 5-year project to establish a Registry covering Karunagappally taluk. The study proposes to cover a population of about 1,00,000 persons living in high background radiation areas where the radiation levels range anywhere between 10 and 825 μR/h inside the houses; for comparison the study proposes to cover another 3,00,000 persons living in nearby normal areas where the natural radiation levels range between 6 and 200 μ R/h. The data collected so far in the first 2.5 years are presented in this paper which covers a population of about 1,10,000 persons living in three villages. No attempt is made to interpret the data at this preliminary stage. (author). 7 tabs

  3. 2.1 Natural History of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1

    Sonnberg, Stephanie; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has significantly changed from sporadic outbreaks in terrestrial poultry to persistent circulation in terrestrial and aquatic poultry and potentially in wild waterfowl. A novel genotype of HPAI H5N1 arose in 1996 in southern China and through ongoing mutation, reassortment, and natural selection, has diverged into distinct lineages and expanded into multiple reservoir hosts. The evolution of Goose/Guangdong-lineage highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses is ongoing: while stable interactions exist with some reservoir hosts, these viruses are continuing to evolve and adapt to others, and pose an un-calculable risk to sporadic hosts, including humans. PMID:23735535

  4. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  5. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.; Quarto, M.; Obryk, B.; Paszkowski, M.; Celikovic, I.; Demajo, A.; Ujic, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m 3 and at about 650 Bq/m 3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m 3 . The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m 3 , with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m 3 . The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics

  6. The nature, causes and effects of school violence in South African high schools

    Vusumzi Nelson Ncontsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design is divided into two phases, beginning with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data. The overall purpose of this design is that the qualitative data help explain or build upon initial quantitative results from the first phase of the study. The advantage of the design is that its two-phased nature makes it uncomplicated to implement and to report on. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a better understanding of the research problem than either approach alone. A pilot study of the questionnaire was conducted in a school outside the province in which the study was done. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.72. This was a high positive coefficient and implied that the questionnaire used was reliable. The study found that bullying, vandalism, gangsterism, indiscipline, intolerance, and corporal punishment were prevalent in schools. Furthermore, the study found that school violence had the following effects on learners: loss of concentration; poor academic performance; bunking of classes; and depression. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail.

  7. Replicated mesocosm study on the role of natural ultraviolet radiation in high CDOM, shallow lakes.

    Pérez, A Patricia; Diaz, Mónica M; Ferraro, Marcela A; Cusminsky, Gabriela C; Zagarese, Horacio E

    2003-02-01

    The role of ultraviolet radiation on shallow, high CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) lakes was investigated during two consecutive summers (1999 and 2000) in replicated mesocosms (rectangular fiberglass tanks). Each tank (volume: 300 L; depth: 40 cm) was covered with a layer (approximately 3 cm) of sediment from lake El Toro (40 degrees 14' S; 70 degrees 22' W) and filled with filtered water. The experimental design consisted of two treatments: full natural radiation (UV-exposed) and natural radiation without ultraviolet radiation (UV-shielded). UV-exposed and UV-shielded treatments differed in most studied variables as revealed by repeated measures ANOVA. UV-exposed tanks displayed lower CDOM levels (dissolved absorbance) of lower average molecular size (absorbance ratio between 250 and 365 nm), higher bacterial biomass, and lower chlorophyll a concentration. The effect on consumers (rotifers and crustaceans) was less noticeable. The results are consistent with UV stimulation of bacteria production mediated by higher rates of CDOM photobleaching, and the photoinhibition of planktonic algae. Thus, a major effect of UVR in shallow, high CDOM ecosystems appears to be the stimulation of heterotrophic pathways and a simultaneous inhibition of photoautotrophs.

  8. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability.

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-07

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (∼110,700 S m -1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  9. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-01

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (~110,700 S m-1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  10. World high background natural radiation areas: Need to protect public from radiation exposure

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of findings on radiological measurements, radiobiological and epidemiological studies in some main world high background natural radiation (HBNR) areas such as in Brazil, China, India and Iran are presented and discussed with special regard to remediation of radiation exposure of inhabitants in such areas. The current radiation protection philosophy and recommendations applied to workers and public from operation of radiation and nuclear applications are based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The inhabitants of HBNR and radon prone areas receive relatively high radiation doses. Therefore, according to the LNT concept, the inhabitants in HBNR areas and in particular those in Ramsar are considered at risk and their exposure should be regulated. The HBNR areas in the world have different conditions in terms of dose and population. In particular, the inhabitants in HBNR areas of Ramsar receive very high internal and external exposures. This author believes that the public in such areas should be protected and proposes a plan to remedy high exposure of the inhabitants of the HBNR areas of Ramsar, while maintaining these areas as they stand to establish a national environmental radioactivity park which can be provisionally called “Ramsar Research Natural Radioactivity Park” (RRNRP). The major HBNR areas, the public exposure and the need to remedy exposures of inhabitants are reviewed and discussed. - Highlights: ► Highlights of findings on studies in HBNR areas are reviewed and discussed. ► The need to protect HBNR area inhabitants and remedy public exposure is emphasized. ► A collective approach is proposed to remedy exposure of Ramsar HBNR area inhabitants. ► Relocation of HBNR area inhabitants and establishing a park at the location is proposed. ► The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed and recommendations are made

  11. Natural rubber/nitrile butadiene rubber/hindered phenol composites with high-damping properties

    Xiuying Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New natural rubber (NR/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/hindered phenol (AO-80 composites with high-damping properties were prepared in this study. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, polarized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA, and a tensile tester. Each composite consisted of two phases: the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase. There was partial compatibility between the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase, and the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite exhibited a co-continuous morphology. Strain-induced crystallization occurred in the NR phase at strains higher than 200%, and strain-induced orientation appeared in the NBR/AO-80 phase with the increase of strain from 100% to 500%. The composites had a special stress–strain behavior and mechanical properties because of the simultaneous strain-induced orientation and strain-induced crystallization. In the working temperature range of a seismic isolation bearing, the composites (especially the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite presented a high loss factor, high area of loss peak (TA, and high hysteresis energy. Therefore, the NR/NBR/AO-80 rubber composites are expected to have important application as a high-performance damping material for rubber bearing.

  12. Physicochemical properties of natural actomyosin from threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Zhou, Aimei; Lin, Liying; Liang, Yan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shi, Xiaoling; Liu, Xin

    2014-08-01

    Changes of physicochemical properties in natural actomyosin (NAM) from threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) induced by high hydrostatic pressure (200, 400, 600MPa for 10, 30, 50min) were studied. The increase in turbidity of NAM was coincidental with the decrease in protein solubility with increasing pressure and time, suggesting the formation of protein aggregates. SDS-PAGE showed that polymerisation and degradation of myosin heavy chain were induced by high pressure. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of NAM treated by high pressure was lost, suggesting the denaturation of myosin and the dissociation of actomyosin complex. Surface hydrophobicity of NAM increased when the pressure and pressurization time increased, indicating that the exposed hydrophobic residues increased upon application of high pressure. Decrease in total sulfhydryl content and increase in surface-reactive sulfhydryl content of NAM samples were observed with the extension of pressurizing time, indicating the formation of disulphide bonds through oxidation of SH groups or disulphide interchanges. The above changes of physicochemical properties suggested conformational changes of NAM from muscle of threadfin bream induced by high hydrostatic pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AXAOTHER XL -- A spreadsheet for determining doses for incidents caused by tornadoes or high-velocity straight winds

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1996-09-01

    AXAOTHER XL is an Excel Spreadsheet used to determine dose to the maximally exposed offsite individual during high-velocity straight winds or tornado conditions. Both individual and population doses may be considered. Potential exposure pathways are inhalation and plume shine. For high-velocity straight winds the spreadsheet has the capability to determine the downwind relative air concentration, however for the tornado conditions, the user must enter the relative air concentration. Theoretical models are discussed and hand calculations are performed to ensure proper application of methodologies. A section has also been included that contains user instructions for the spreadsheet

  14. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  15. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  16. Sensitivity to Verbally and Physically Harassing Behaviors and Reported Incidents in Junior High/Middle School Students.

    Turner, Penelope B.

    This thesis investigates the sensitivity of junior high/middle school students to statements depicting verbal and physical sexual harassment. The independent variables that were investigated included gender, grade level, age, size of district, grades received, participation in sports, birth order, developmental level, and self-esteem. Students…

  17. High incidence of pseudotumours after hip resurfacing even in low risk patients; results from an intensified MRI screening protocol.

    Weegen, W. van der; Smolders, J.M.; Sijbesma, T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Brakel, K.; Susante, J.L.C. van

    2013-01-01

    We intensified our screening protocol for the presence of pseudotumours in a consecutive series of patients with a hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), to establish whether we should be alert to the presence of 'silent' pseudotumours. Patients categorised with high risk (11 hips) and low risk (10

  18. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  19. High HIV incidence in men who have sex with men following an early syphilis diagnosis: is there room for pre-exposure prophylaxis as a prevention strategy?

    Girometti, Nicolò; Gutierrez, Angela; Nwokolo, Nneka; McOwan, Alan; Whitlock, Gary

    2017-08-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is becoming a pivotal strategy for HIV prevention. Understanding the impact of risk factors for HIV transmission to identify those at highest risk would favour the implementation of PrEP, currently limited by costs. In this service evaluation, we estimated the incidence of bacterial STIs in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with early syphilis attending a London sexual health clinic according to their HIV status. In addition, we estimated the incidence of HIV infection in HIV-negative MSM, following a diagnosis of early syphilis. We undertook a retrospective case note review of all MSM patients diagnosed with early syphilis between January and June 2014. A number of sexual health screens and diagnoses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HIV were prospectively analysed following the syphilis diagnosis. 206 MSM were diagnosed with early syphilis. 110 (53%) were HIV-negative at baseline, 96 (47%) were HIV-positive. Only age (37 vs 32 years, p=0.0005) was significantly different according to HIV status of MSM at baseline. In HIV-negative versus HIV-positive MSM, incidence of rectal chlamydia infection at follow-up was 27 cases vs 50/100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) (p=0.0039), 33 vs 66/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for rectal gonorrhoea and 10 vs 26/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for syphilis reinfection, respectively. Total follow-up for 110 HIV-negative MSM was 144 person-years. HIV incidence was 8.3/100 PYFU (CI 4.2 to 14). A diagnosis of early syphilis carries a high risk of consequent HIV seroconversion and should warrant prioritised access to prevention measures such as PrEP and regular STI screening to prevent HIV transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  1. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia Based on High-performance Liquid Chromatography Confirmatory Technique in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2007–2015

    Ali Abbaskhanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys, 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937. In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease.

  2. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia Based on High-performance Liquid Chromatography Confirmatory Technique in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2007–2015)

    Abbaskhanian, Ali; Zamanfar, Daniel; Afshar, Parvaneh; Asadpoor, Einollah; Rouhanizadeh, Hamed; Jafarnia, Ali; Shokzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys), 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937). In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease. PMID:29184644

  3. Shark Attacks in Dakar and the Cap Vert Peninsula, Senegal: Low Incidence despite High Occurrence of Potentially Dangerous Species

    Trape, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Shark Attack File mentions only four unprovoked shark attacks on the coast of West Africa during the period 1828-2004, an area where high concentrations of sharks and 17 species potentially dangerous to man have been observed. To investigate if the frequency of shark attacks could be really low and not just under-reported and whether there are potentially sharks that might attack in the area, a study was carried out in Dakar and the Cap Vert peninsula, Senegal. M...

  4. Eta Production at High Transverse Momentum by Negative 520 GeV/c Pions Incident on Beryllium and Copper Targets

    Roser, Robert Martin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the production of high transverse momentum 17 mesons by a 520 GeV /c $\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.2) $\\pi^-$ beam using data collected during the 1990 fixed target run of Fermilab experiment E706. E706 is a second generation fixed target experiment designed to measure direct-photon production in hadron-nucleus collisions. These data provide a clean test of perturbative QCD and serve as a valuable tool for probing hadronic structure. The $\\gamma\\gamma$ decay mode of the $\\eta$ meson was studied using data from a highly segmented electromagnetic lead liquid argon sampling calorimeter. Results are presented for inclusive $\\eta$ production by $\\pi^-$ beams on both beryllium and copper targets. The $\\eta$ to $\\pi^0$ production ratio and the nuclear dependence of the $\\eta$ production cross section are also reported. These results are for $\\eta$'s in the transverse momentum range 3.5 to 9 Ge V / c and the center of mass rapidity range -0.75 to 0.75, and are the highest energy results ever obtained for inclusive $\\eta$ production using a $\\pi^-$ beam.

  5. Application of metal foam heat exchangers for a high-performance liquefied natural gas regasification system

    Kim, Dae Yeon; Sung, Tae Hong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate fluid vaporizer has wide applications in the regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas). The heat exchanger performance is one of the main contributors to the thermodynamic and cost effectiveness of the entire LNG regasification system. Within the paper, the authors discuss a new concept for a compact heat exchanger with a micro-cellular structure medium to minimize volume and mass and to increase thermal efficiency. Numerical calculations have been conducted to design a metal-foam filled plate heat exchanger and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger using published experimental correlations. The geometry of both heat exchangers was optimized using the conditions of thermolators in LNG regasification systems. The heat transfer and pressure drop performance was predicted to compare the heat exchangers. The results show that the metal-foam plate heat exchanger has the best performance at different channel heights and mass flow rates of fluid. In the optimized configurations, the metal-foam plate heat exchanger has a higher heat transfer rate and lower pressure drop than the shell-and-tube heat exchanger as the mass flow rate of natural gas is increased. - Highlights: • A metal foam heat exchanger is proposed for LNG regasification system. • Comparison was made with a shell and tube heat exchanger. • Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were estimated. • The geometry of both heat exchangers is optimized for thermolators. • It can be used as a compact and high performance thermolators.

  6. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

    San Jose Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. Methods One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. Results The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p p p = 0.04. Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04. Conclusion The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate.

  8. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    Celik, Kemal; Meral, Cagla; Mancio, Mauricio; Mehta, P. Kumar; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Very high coronary artery calcium score with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging is associated with a moderate incidence of severe coronary artery disease

    Yuoness, Salem A.; Goha, Ahmed M.; Romsa, Jonathan G.; Akincioglu, Cigdem; Warrington, James C.; Datta, Sudip; Gambhir, Sanjay; Urbain, Jean-Luc C.; Vezina, William C. [London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London, ON (Canada); Massel, David R. [London Health Sciences Centre, Division of Cardiology, London, ON (Canada); Martell, Rafael [Private Practice, London, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has limitations in the presence of balanced multivessel disease (MVD) and left main (LM) coronary artery disease, occasionally resulting in false-normal results despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of severe coronary artery disease (CAD) in the presence of a very high Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (>1,000) in stable symptomatic patients without known CAD but with normal MPI results. A total of 2,659 prospectively acquired consecutive patients were referred for MPI and evaluation of CAC score by CT. Of this patient population, 8 % (222/2,659) had ischemia without myocardial infarction (MI) on MPI and 11 % (298/2,659) had abnormal MPI (MI and/or ischemia). On presentation 1 % of the patients (26/2,659) were symptomatic, had a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI results. The definition of normal MPI was strict and included a normal hemodynamic response without ischemic ECG changes and normal imaging, particularly absence of transient ischemic dilation. All of these 26 patients with a CAC score >1,000 and normal MPI findings underwent cardiac catheterization. Of these 26 patients, 58 % (15/26) had severe disease (≥70 % stenosis) leading to revascularization. Of this group, 47 % (7/15) underwent percutaneous intervention, and 53 % (8/15) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. All of these 15 patients had either MVD (14/15) or LM coronary artery disease (1/15), and represented 0.6 % (15/2,659) of all referred patients (95 % CI 0.3 - 0.9 %). The majority, 90 % (8/9), had severe CAD with typical chest pain. A very high CAC score (>1,000) with normal MPI in a small subset of symptomatically stable patients was associated with a moderate incidence of severe CAD (95 % CI 37 - 77 %). Larger studies and/or a meta-analysis of small studies are needed to more precisely estimate the incidence of CAD in this population. This study also supports

  11. High prevalence and incidence of HPV-related anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive women in the late HAART era.

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; de Jesus, Samantha E; Esquivias, Javier; Pasquau, Juan

    2017-12-02

    Anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS defining malignancies, especially in men who have sex with men and women living with HIV (WLHIV). To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL]) and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes (HR-HPV) in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection. Prospective-longitudinal study (May 2012-December 2016). At baseline (V1) and follow up visits, anal mucosa samples were taken in liquid medium for cytology and HPV PCR. In cases of abnormal anal cytology and/or positive HR-HPV PCR results, a high resolution anoscopy was performed. Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist. Ninety five women with an average age of 43.7years were included. At baseline, 11.6% had cervical abnormalities (4.1% CIN1, 2.2% CIN2/3, 1.1% cervical cancer), 64.3% anal abnormalities (50% LSIL/AIN1, 9.5% HSIL/AIN2/3 and 2.4% anal cancer) and 49.4% had HR-HPV genotypes. During 36months of follow up, the incidence of anal HSIL was 16×1,000 person-years; 14.8% acquired HR-HPV genotypes and 51.2% cleared them, P=.007. No patients presented CIN1/2/3/ or cervical cancer. In the multivariate analysis we found the following predictive factors for HR-HPV infection: smoking (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.99-2.42), number of sexual partners >3 (RR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.62), cervical and anal dysplasia (RR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.67) and (RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.021-2.35), respectively. Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Therefore, screening for these lesions should perhaps be offered to all WLHIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights

  12. The influence and analysis of natural crosswind on cooling characteristics of the high level water collecting natural draft wet cooling tower

    Ma, Libin; Ren, Jianxing

    2018-01-01

    Large capacity and super large capacity thermal power is becoming the main force of energy and power industry in our country. The performance of cooling tower is related to the water temperature of circulating water, which has an important influence on the efficiency of power plant. The natural draft counter flow wet cooling tower is the most widely used cooling tower type at present, and the high cooling tower is a new cooling tower based on the natural ventilation counter flow wet cooling tower. In this paper, for high cooling tower, the application background of high cooling tower is briefly explained, and then the structure principle of conventional cooling tower and high cooling tower are introduced, and the difference between them is simply compared. Then, the influence of crosswind on cooling performance of high cooling tower under different wind speeds is introduced in detail. Through analysis and research, wind speed, wind cooling had little impact on the performance of high cooling tower; wind velocity, wind will destroy the tower inside and outside air flow, reducing the cooling performance of high cooling tower; Wind speed, high cooling performance of cooling tower has increased, but still lower than the wind speed.

  13. Bacterial Glycosyltransferases: Challenges and opportunities of a highly diverse enzyme class toward tailoring natural products

    Jochen eSchmid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme subclass of glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4 currently comprises 97 families as specified by CAZy classification. One of their important roles is in the biosynthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by catalyzing the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to other sugar molecules. In addition glycosyltransferases also catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties onto aglycons, which is of great relevance for the synthesis of many high value natural products. Bacterial glycosyltransferases show a higher sequence similarity in comparison to mammalian ones. Even when most glycosyltransferases are poorly explored, state of the art technologies, such as protein engineering, domain swapping or computational analysis strongly enhance our understanding and utilization of these very promising classes of proteins. This perspective article will focus on bacterial glycosyltransferases, especially on classification, screening and engineering strategies to alter substrate specificity. The future development in these fields as well as obstacles and challenges will be highlighted and discussed.

  14. High-fidelity adiabatic inversion of a {sup 31}P electron spin qubit in natural silicon

    Laucht, Arne, E-mail: a.laucht@unsw.edu.au; Kalra, Rachpon; Muhonen, Juha T.; Dehollain, Juan P.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Hudson, Fay; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-03-03

    The main limitation to the high-fidelity quantum control of spins in semiconductors is the presence of strongly fluctuating fields arising from the nuclear spin bath of the host material. We demonstrate here a substantial improvement in single-qubit inversion fidelities for an electron spin qubit bound to a {sup 31}P atom in natural silicon, by applying adiabatic sweeps instead of narrow-band pulses. We achieve an inversion fidelity of 97%, and we observe signatures in the spin resonance spectra and the spin coherence time that are consistent with the presence of an additional exchange-coupled donor. This work highlights the effectiveness of simple adiabatic inversion techniques for spin control in fluctuating environments.

  15. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Fiorucci, M.P.; López, A.J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Rivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  16. Assessment of immune surveillance among inhabitants of high natural background radiation areas in Ramsar-Iran

    Sileh, Sajad Borzouei; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Mostafazade, Amrollah; Abedian, Said

    2010-01-01

    In this study by Multi-parameter flow cytometry, immunologic analyze is performed on peripheral blood, NK cells, most effective cells in innate immune and the proportion of TCD8/TCD4 cells that is effective in cellular immune system will be determined. Lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 or CD107a) is used as a functional marker for the identification of natural killer cell activity. Immune surveillance and immune system role in tumoral defense in Ramsar inhabitants will be determined. Radiation dose rate in Talesh mahalle is very high and was many times greater than Chaparsar (another region in Ramsar). Immune surveillance and immune system role in tumoral defense in Talesh mahalle inhabitants will be compared to Chaparsar inhabitants. If this doesn't have significant difference, we should think about some other aspects such as free radical scavengers that will study later

  17. High-Resolution Replication Profiles Define the Stochastic Nature of Genome Replication Initiation and Termination

    Michelle Hawkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome replication is stochastic, and each cell uses a different cohort of replication origins. We demonstrate that interpreting high-resolution Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome replication data with a mathematical model allows quantification of the stochastic nature of genome replication, including the efficiency of each origin and the distribution of termination events. Single-cell measurements support the inferred values for stochastic origin activation time. A strain, in which three origins were inactivated, confirmed that the distribution of termination events is primarily dictated by the stochastic activation time of origins. Cell-to-cell variability in origin activity ensures that termination events are widely distributed across virtually the whole genome. We propose that the heterogeneity in origin usage contributes to genome stability by limiting potentially deleterious events from accumulating at particular loci.

  18. On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections

    Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to be assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability for geometric reaction cross sections are determined

  19. Natural rubber/high density polyethylene/ground rubber composites vulcanized by gamma irradiation

    Shaltout, N.A.; Abou zeid, M.M.; Khalil, A.M.; El Miligy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was blended mechanically with 50 phr high density polyethylene (HDPE). the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of NR/HDPE blend and its composites with different contents of ground tire rubber (GTR) before and after exposure to gamma irradiation to various doses up to 250 kGy were studied. Also, the change in structure morphology of irradiated NR/HDPE blend as well as NR/HDPE/GTR composites was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the substitution of a part of virgin NR with GTR decreases the mechanical and physical properties but not to the extent of deterioration . However, it was found that the mechanical and physical properties were improved after gamma irradiation . Composite of NR/GTR/HDPE (75/25/50) showed good properties. Scanning electron microscope showed homogeneity between the irradiated composites ingredients.

  20. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Fiorucci, M.P., E-mail: m.p.fiorucci@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); López, A.J., E-mail: ana.xesus.lopez@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ramil, A., E-mail: alberto.ramil@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Pozo, S., E-mail: ipozo@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  1. Uptake of naturally occurring radioisotopes by vegetation in a region of high radioactivity

    Mahon, D C; Mathewes, R W [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1983-05-01

    The accumulation of four naturally occurring radionuclides of the sup(238)U series, uranium, sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po, in 15 species of native plants was investigated. Of the plants sampled some accumulated, but none concentrated uranium or sup(226)Ra. Grouseberry (Vaccinium scoparium Leiberg) appeared to concentrate sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po. There were marked seasonal variations in the accumulation of uranium by grass (Calamagrostis rubescens Buckl.), and of sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po by grass and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.). High positive correlations between soil and vegetation radionuclide content were found for uranium in fireweed and grouseberry in spring, sup(226)Ra in willow (Salix scouleriana L.) in spring, and uranium in fireweed in summer.

  2. Analysis of population dosimetry data in the high level natural radiation areas, Kerala, India

    Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Jojo, P.J.; Predeep, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the Indian scenario, Kerala has huge monazite bearing sand deposits on the west coast thereby having high natural background radiation levels. Extensive studies on the radiation dosimetry as well as effects on the human health are therefore being carried out in the region. We have recently completed a dosimetric survey aimed for epidemiological studies using case control methodology. This study, in collaboration with two local colleges in Kollam, Kerala, was taken up to study the relationship of congenital malformations and radiation exposures, if any. The two conditions that were selected were mental retardation and cleft lip-palate. Stringent selection criteria were set in selecting the cases and suitable controls. A ratio of 1:3 for case:control was selected for getting the optimum statistical significance from the data generated. The paper describes the methodology of dosimetric survey and the analysis of dose data based on case and controls

  3. Synthesis of high purity rutile nanoparticles from medium-grade Egyptian natural ilmenite

    Mohamed G. Shahien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian magmatic ilmenite is classified as a medium-grade ore. The present work is an attempt to produce a high-quality TiO2 that can be used in several industries from this medium-grade raw material using the mechanical activation, carbothermic reduction, hydrochloric acid leaching and calcination. A mixture from the ilmenite (FeTiO3 and activated carbon was milled for 30 h. This mixture was annealed at 1200 °C for one hour and the product was leached by hydrochloric acid and calcined at 600 °C for two hours. The role of the ball milling was to grind the raw ilmenite to obtain the nano size, and the carbothermic reduction was to reduce all the Fe-Ti phases to a mixture from Fe metal and TiO2. Leaching procedure was carried out to remove all the Fe metal and obtain a high-grade TiO2. After leaching and calcination of the milled and annealed mixture of FeTiO3/C under the optimal conditions, TiO2 nanoparticles with a size of 10–100 nm and purity more than 95% were obtained. The qualifications of the synthesized high purity rutile nanoparticles from the Egyptian natural ilmenite match the conditions of many industrial applications.

  4. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  5. A construction method of reinforced-concrete very high stacks and natural draft cooling towers

    Miyamoto, Takao; Hosokawa, Osamu

    1978-01-01

    The new Shimizu flex-lip system was developed by the Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd. for constructing very high (about 200 m) towers made of reinforced concrete. Utilizing this system, towers of any shape, circular, triangular, square and polygonal, can be constructed. The wall thickness can be varied from 200 mm to 1 m. The diameter of towers can be enlarged from 3 m to any valve and the inclination of tower walls can be designed in any way between +1/5 and -1/5. The advantage of this system is to use the jack down mechanism, to test concrete strength without sampling, to reduce the connections of reinforcing steel bars and to adopt the continuous, and to use automatic measuring system using laser for checking up positional error. The design and analysis of high tower structures were systemized and automated with the development of the flex-lip construction method. The several past records of having applied this method to industrial areas are shown. As for natural draft cooling towers, the Shimizu jump-up system has been studied for the cooling water capacity of 60,000 m 3 /h. The towers are 120 m high, 110 m in diameter at the bottom and 65 m in diameter at the top. The advantage of this construction method, the plan of concrete jump-up and the construction test are explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, S. [Health Physics Unit, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal, 683 501 Kerala (India); Krishnamony, S. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-09-01</