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Sample records for high mortality rate

  1. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  2. High mortality rates after nonelective colon cancer resection : results of a national audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Grossmann, I.; Karsten, T. M.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    AimColon cancer resection in a nonelective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on nonelective resection. MethodData were obtained from

  3. The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients.

  4. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrier G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  5. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  6. The very high premature mortality rate among active professional wrestlers is primarily due to cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Herman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recently, much media attention has been given to the premature deaths in professional wrestlers. Since no formal studies exist that have statistically examined the probability of premature mortality in professional wrestlers, we determined survival estimates for active wresters over the past quarter century to establish the factors contributing to the premature mortality of these individuals. METHODS: Data including cause of death was obtained from public records and wrestling publications in wrestlers who were active between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2011. 557 males were considered consistently active wrestlers during this time period. 2007 published mortality rates from the Center for Disease Control were used to compare the general population to the wrestlers by age, BMI, time period, and cause of death. Survival estimates and Cox hazard regression models were fit to determine incident premature deaths and factors associated with lower survival. Cumulative incidence function (CIF estimates given years wrestled was obtained using a competing risks model for cause of death. RESULTS: The mortality for all wrestlers over the 26-year study period was.007 deaths/total person-years or 708 per 100,000 per year, and 16% of deaths occurred below age 50 years. Among wrestlers, the leading cause of deaths based on CIF was cardiovascular-related (38%. For cardiovascular-related deaths, drug overdose-related deaths and cancer deaths, wrestler mortality rates were respectively 15.1, 122.7 and 6.4 times greater than those of males in the general population. Survival estimates from hazard models indicated that BMI is significantly associated with the hazard of death from total time wrestling (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Professional wrestlers are more likely to die prematurely from cardiovascular disease compared to the general population and morbidly obese wrestlers are especially at risk. Results from this study may be useful for professional

  7. Mortality and recurrence rates among systemically untreated high risk breast cancer patients included in the DBCG 77 trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maj Britt; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Knoop, Ann S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Following loco-regional treatment for early breast cancer accurate prognostication is essential for communicating benefits of systemic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine time to recurrence and long-term mortality rates in high risk patients according to patient characte......Background: Following loco-regional treatment for early breast cancer accurate prognostication is essential for communicating benefits of systemic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine time to recurrence and long-term mortality rates in high risk patients according to patient...

  8. Validation of the high mortality rate of Malnutrition-Inflammation-Atherosclerosis syndrome: -Community-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueta, Daisuke; Hokimoto, Seiji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Akasaka, Tomonori; Tabata, Noriaki; Kaikita, Koichi; Honda, Osamu; Naruse, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Malnutrition-Inflammation-Atherosclerosis (MIA) factors significantly and independently affect life prognosis of hemodialysis (HD) patients. We re-evaluated Japanese data, which have progressed ahead from a community-based observational study. The present study was designed to assess the contribution of these MIA factors to the mortality rate of Japanese HD patients in a community of 1.8 million people over a 36-month follow-up period. A total of 5813 patients at 76 facilities were on maintenance HD in the Kumamoto Prefecture. Specifically, 4807 of these patients at 58 institutions were enrolled. Patients who exhibited lower serum albumin and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were defined as "malnourished" and "inflamed", respectively, compared with the median values. Patients who underwent invasive procedures for atherosclerotic diseases were defined as "atherosclerotic". The 36-month all-cause mortality rate in Japanese HD patients was 12.4%. This rate directly correlated with the number of MIA factors. The odds ratio of the all-cause mortality rate markedly and significantly increased as the number of factors increased. The presence of 3 MIA factors in HD patients was a significant predictor of mortality, as evidenced by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. This study clearly demonstrated the close association between MIA syndrome and high mortality in Japanese HD patients. Early detection and the adjustment of MIA factors are mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  10. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  11. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  12. Mortality rates in pediatric septic shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusmawatiningtyas, Desy; Nurnaningsih, Nurnaningsih

    2017-01-01

    .... Recent investigations from developed countries have reported mortality rates of 20-30%. Few studies have reported mortality rates from pediatric septic shock in intensive care settings in developing countries with limited resources.  Objective...

  13. Mortality rates in pediatric septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Rusmawatiningtyas; Nurnaningsih Nurnaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Background Septic shock remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children admitted to the intensive care unit. Recent investigations from developed countries have reported mortality rates of 20-30%. Few studies have reported mortality rates from pediatric septic shock in intensive care settings in developing countries with limited resources.  Objective  To determine the current mortality rates for pediatric patients with septic shock in a developing country. Methods A retr...

  14. The national perinatal mortality rate in the State of Qatar during 2011; trends since 1990 and comparative analysis with selected high-income countries: the PEARL study project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeri, Nuha; Rahman, Sajjad; El Tinay, Sarah; El Ansari, Walid; Tamano, Emirah A; Sellami, Soumaya; Salameh, Khalil; Shaddad, Affaf; Yousafzai, Mohammad Tahir; Bener, Abdulbari

    2013-05-01

    To prospectively ascertain Qatar’s national perinatal mortality rate (PMR) during 2011, compare it with recent data from selected high-income countries, and analyze trends in Qatar’s PMR between 1990 and 2011 using historical data. A national prospective cohort study. National data on live births, stillbirths, and early neonatal mortality (day 0–6) were collected from all public and private maternity units in Qatar (1st January–December 31st 2011) and compared with historical perinatal mortality data (1990–2010) ascertained from the database of maternity and neonatal units of Women’s Hospital and annual reports of Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC). For inter-country comparison, country data were extracted from the World Health Statistics published by WHO in 2011 and from the European Perinatal Health Report published by the Europeristat project in 2008. A total of 20,725 births (20,583 live births plus 142 stillbirths) were recorded during the study period. Qatar’s national PMR during 2011 was 9.55 [early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) 2.7 and stillbirth rate (SBR) 6.85], which was a significant improvement from a PMR of 13.2 in 1990 [risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.89, P=0.002]. This improvement in PMR was more significant in ENMR (Pcountries. An in-depth research to assess the correlates and determinants of stillbirth and perinatal mortality in Qatar is indicated.

  15. Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degomme, Olivier; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2010-01-23

    Several mortality estimates for the Darfur conflict have been reported since 2004, but few accounted for conflict dynamics such as changing displacement and causes of deaths. We analyse changes over time for crude and cause-specific mortality rates, and assess the effect of displacement on mortality rates. Retrospective mortality surveys were gathered from an online database. Quasi-Poisson models were used to assess mortality rates with place and period in which the survey was done, and the proportions of displaced people in the samples were the explanatory variables. Predicted mortality rates for five periods were computed and applied to population data taken from the UN's series about Darfur to obtain the number of deaths. 63 of 107 mortality surveys met all criteria for analysis. Our results show significant reductions in mortality rates from early 2004 to the end of 2008, although rates were higher during deployment of fewer humanitarian aid workers. In general, the reduction in rate was more important for violence-related than for diarrhoea-related mortality. Displacement correlated with increased rates of deaths associated with diarrhoea, but also with reduction in violent deaths. We estimated the excess number of deaths to be 298 271 (95% CI 178 258-461 520). Although violence was the main cause of death during 2004, diseases have been the cause of most deaths since 2005, with displaced populations being the most susceptible. Any reduction in humanitarian assistance could lead to worsening mortality rates, as was the case between mid 2006 and mid 2007. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Overall Postneonatal Mortality and Rates of SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard D; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Sens, Mary Ann; Harty, Brian J; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-01-01

    Reductions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are commonly attributed to modifications in infant sleep environments. Approaches to diagnosis in sudden infant death, death scene investigations, the prevalence of intrinsic risk factors for SIDS, and the potential influence of treatment-related factors on infant vulnerability have also changed. Understanding all contributory factors may help reduce residual SIDS rates. We analyzed US Mortality Multiple Causes Records for 1983 to 2012 to compare SIDS postneonatal mortality rates with a projection applying non-SIDS mortality changes, using those changes as a proxy measure for alterations in intrinsic risk. Composites of neglect-related, unknown, and circumstantial respiratory diagnoses were measured, as was a cumulative composite of unexplained infant death diagnoses. Cluster analysis with leading causes of postneonatal mortality and SIDS mortality rates for low birth weight infants were also examined. SIDS and non-SIDS postneonatal mortality rates were concordant over time. Important variance was seen 1994 to 1996, coinciding with Back-to-Sleep initiation. Other variance, eliminated in the cumulative composite, appeared related to differences in diagnostic practices. Changes in SIDS rates resembled changes in mortality from congenital malformations, respiratory distress of the newborn, and diseases of the circulatory system. SIDS rates for low birth weight infants followed broader postneonatal trends. SIDS mortality followed trends in overall postneonatal mortality, including effects of changes in the infant sleep environment and diagnostic classification. Preventing asphyxia risk in the sleep environment must be coupled with efforts to understand intrinsic biological pathways, some potentially associated with other categories of infant and perinatal mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  19. Infant mortality rates and decentralisation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niringiye, Aggrey

    2015-01-01

    Many countries in the developing world have embarked on the path of decentralisation over the last three decades to improve the provision of public goods such as healthcare services. It is hypothesised that devolving power to local governments would improve efficiency as well as equity and thereby health outcomes by bringing decision makers closer to the people, and by enhancing the participation of the community in the decision-making and implementation processes. This paper aims to assess the impact of decentralisation on infant mortality rates in Uganda. The intervention model was used to analyse national representative data from Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (1988/89, 1995, 2001, 2006). Results indicate that infant mortality rates deteriorated during the decentralisation period in three out of four regions in Uganda, but not overall when analysed for the whole country. Decentralisation was supposed to lead to a decrease in infant mortality rates, however, the opposite effect was seen with rates increasing in individual regions. There is need for further detailed studies to understand why infant mortality rates increased during the period of decentralisation in Uganda.

  20. Severe hypernatremia correction rate and mortality in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayeb, Hala M; Showkat, Arif; Babar, Fatima; Mangold, Therese; Wall, Barry M

    2011-05-01

    Hypernatremia is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to evaluate whether physicians follow the recommended guidelines for the rate of correction of hypernatremia of ≤0.5 mEq/L/hr and to evaluate the effect of the rate of correction of severe hypernatremia on the mortality of hospitalized patients. A retrospective chart review of 131 consecutively hospitalized patients with severe hypernatremia (serum sodium ≥155 mEq/L) was performed. Primary outcomes were 30-day patient mortality and 72-hour hypernatremia correction. The first 24-hour serum sodium (Na(+)) correction rate was tested as a categorical variable; slow rate (hypernatremia was corrected only in 27% of patients after 72 hours of treatment. Thirty-day patient mortality rate was 37%. In multivariable analysis, do not resuscitate status [hazards ratio (HR), 3.85; P hypernatremia (HR, 2.63; P = 0.02) and high heart rate (>100 beats/min; HR, 1.99; P = 0.03) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. In patients with severe hypernatremia, the rate of correction of hypernatremia was slow and resulted in inadequate correction in majority of the patients. Both slow rate of hypernatremia correction during the first 24 hours and do not resuscitate status were found to be significant predictors of 30-day patient mortality.

  1. An analysis of discrepancies in China's child mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H

    1990-01-01

    Data on 5738 women from the Third National Population Census (1982) for China were used to analyze discrepancies in the child mortality rate, especially the infant mortality rate, between regions, socioeconomic groups, and ethnic groups. Mothers who lived in a municipal suburb were less likely to have experienced the death of a child than those in a city or in rural areas. Even when controlling the variables of nationality, education, occupation, and the urban-rural factor, child mortality was higher in western China than in eastern China. This was consistent with the geographical distribution of the level of socioeconomic development. Women of the Han nationality had experienced considerably fewer child deaths than those of the minority nationalities. In fact, the Uighur people had the highest child mortality. Xinjiang region had the highest infant mortality of all 28 provinces, primarily due to its large Uighur population. Infant mortality among the Uighurs in Xinjiang was as high as 45.9%. The higher the educational level of the parents, particularly that of mother's, the lower the child mortality level. Primary education had the greatest effect on reducing child mortality. In fact, of all the variables, mother's education had the greatest effect on improving child survival. In terms of fathers, professional and office worker positions had the lowest child mortality. As for mothers, commercial and service personnel positions had the lowest child mortality.

  2. Growth, Mortality and Exploitation Rates of Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evans

    ABSTRACT. Sarotherodon melanotheron population of Dominli Lagoon in the Western Region of Ghana was studied for its growth and mortality parameters as well as exploitation rate. The study generally aimed at providing basic information necessary for the assessment and management of the fish stock in the lagoon.

  3. Active haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus lupus are associated with a high rate of in-hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Hernández, D; Cruz-Reyes, C; Monsebaiz-Mora, C; Gómez-Bañuelos, E; Ángeles, U; Jara, L J; Saavedra, M Á

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on mortality in hospitalized patients. For that purpose a case-control study of hospitalized patients in a medical referral centre from January 2009 to December 2014 was performed. For analysis, patients hospitalized for any haematological activity of SLE ( n = 103) were compared with patients hospitalized for other manifestations of SLE activity or complications of treatment ( n = 206). Taking as a variable outcome hospital death, an analysis of potential associated factors was performed. The most common haematological manifestation was thrombocytopenia (63.1%), followed by haemolytic anaemia (30%) and neutropenia (25.2%). In the group of haematological manifestations, 17 (16.5%) deaths were observed compared to 10 (4.8%) deaths in the control group ( P < 0.001). The causes of death were similar in both groups. In the analysis of the variables, it was found that only haematological manifestations were associated with intra-hospital death (odds ratio 3.87, 95% confidence interval 1.8-88, P < 0.001). Our study suggests that apparently any manifestation of haematological activity of SLE is associated with poor prognosis and contributes to increased hospital mortality.

  4. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population.Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients' outcomes.Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent predictor for newly ischemic events in ICAS patients.

  6. Production constraints and mortality rate in poultry farms in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that farmers faced severe production limitations particularly disease infestation with a mean value of 4.64, high feed cost (x = 3.98), prevalence of ineffective drugs (x = 3.74) and seasonal glut (x = 3.70). Mortality rate in the poultry farms was high with a percentage of 47%, largely caused by disease infection (x ...

  7. International Variation in Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Bray, Freddie; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Anderson, Benjamin O; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Herein, we examine global trends in female breast cancer rates using the most up-to-date data available. Breast cancer incidence and mortality estimates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012 (globocan.iarc.fr). We analyzed trends from 1993 onward using incidence data from 39 countries from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and mortality data from 57 countries from the World Health Organization. Of 32 countries with incidence and mortality data, rates in the recent period diverged-with incidence increasing and mortality decreasing-in nine countries mainly in Northern/Western Europe. Both incidence and mortality decreased in France, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Spain. In contrast, incidence and death rates both increased in Colombia, Ecuador, and Japan. Death rates also increased in Brazil, Egypt, Guatemala, Kuwait, Mauritius, Mexico, and Moldova. Breast cancer mortality rates are decreasing in most high-income countries, despite increasing or stable incidence rates. In contrast and of concern are the increasing incidence and mortality rates in a number of countries, particularly those undergoing rapid changes in human development. Wide variations in breast cancer rates and trends reflect differences in patterns of risk factors and access to and availability of early detection and timely treatment. Increased awareness about breast cancer and the benefits of early detection and improved access to treatment must be prioritized to successfully implement breast cancer control programs, particularly in transitioning countries. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Ecological integrity of streams related to human cancer mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P; Hendryx, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Assessments of ecological integrity have become commonplace for biological conservation, but their role for public health analysis remains largely unexplored. We tested the prediction that the ecological integrity of streams would provide an indicator of human cancer mortality rates in West Virginia, USA. We characterized ecological integrity using an index of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, SCI) and quantified human cancer mortality rates using county-level data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression and spatial analyses revealed significant associations between ecological integrity and public health. SCI was negatively related to age-adjusted total cancer mortality per 100,000 people. Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and breast cancer rates increased with ecological disintegrity, but genital and oral cancer rates did not. Smoking, poverty, and urbanization were significantly related to total cancer mortality, but did not explain the observed relationships between ecological integrity and cancer. Coal mining was significantly associated with ecological disintegrity and higher cancer mortality. Spatial analyses also revealed cancer clusters that corresponded to areas of high coal mining intensity. Our results demonstrated significant relationships between ecological integrity and human cancer mortality in West Virginia, and suggested important effects of coal mining on ecological communities and public health. Assessments of ecological integrity therefore may contribute not only to monitoring goals for aquatic life, but also may provide valuable insights for human health and safety.

  9. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2014-01-01

    2 myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction is high, reaching approximately 50% after 2 years. Further descriptive and survival studies are needed to improve the scientific evidence on which treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction is based.......BACKGROUND: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During a 1-year period......, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality...

  10. Higher cesarean delivery rates are associated with higher infant mortality rates in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ri-Hua; Gaudet, Laura; Krewski, Daniel; Graham, Ian D; Walker, Mark C; Wen, Shi Wu

    2015-03-01

    Recent data indicate that more than half of high-income industrialized countries have a cesarean delivery rate of  > 25 percent, which is higher than the appropriate level considered by most health professionals worldwide. Data for 31 high-income industrialized countries in 2010 (or the nearest year) obtained from the World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and individual countries were analyzed in this study. We examined the correlation between cesarean delivery rate and infant mortality rate with Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and examined the independent effect of cesarean delivery on infant mortality with multiple linear regression analyses. The cesarean delivery and infant mortality rates varied substantially among the included countries: from 15.6 to 50.0 percent and from 1.9 per to 6.8 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Cesarean delivery rates were positively correlated with infant mortality rates (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.41, p infant sex, per capita GDP, and the Gini index (p rate is associated with higher infant mortality rate among these high-income industrialized countries. One of the mechanisms by which cesarean delivery affects infant mortality is through iatrogenic prematurity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Infant mortality, the birth rate, and development in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J O; Ropes, G

    1980-07-01

    This paper is a product of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Cairo University Health Care Delivery Systems Project which has examined the delivery of health services in Egypt in relation to malnutrition, early childhood mortality, and fertility. Egypt's economic progress since the 1952 Revolution has had only limited effect on high mortality among preschool children, infants and a high rate of population growth. This paper uses governorate data and simple analytical methods. 10% of Egyptian children die in the 1st year of life; subsequent mortality is also extensive in the preschool age children. The crude birthrate remains in the high 30s and overall population growth continues unabated. Early childhood mortality reflects the interplay of malnutrition and infection and population growth is caused by the fact that children, especially males, are considered economic assets. High fertility is a reflection of high mortality to a significant degree. 4 dimensions of development in Egypt are: 1) an urban cluster, 2) poverty, 3) the incidence of women in the paid labor force, 4) development in the rural sector, and 5) population density. Agricultural income increases as women enter the paid labor force and agricultural productivity is weakly related to the practice of women working for pay. Infant mortality in Egypt varies with and is most influenced by population pressures on the land, including urban crowdedness and by the proportion of households living below the poverty line. Female employment adds to family income and affects infant mortality indirectly. Policy implications are: 1) the government must deal with the density factor, 2) it must pursue a development strategy that stimulates productivity and raises the resource base of society, and 3) the government must address infant mortality along with malnutrition and morbidity. The author concludes that: 1) variation in the birth rate is less than variation in the infant mortality rate, 2) mortality and

  12. High mortality rate of unintentional poisoning due to prescription opioids in adults enrolled in Medicaid compared to those not enrolled in Medicaid in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jessie C; Campana, David; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional death due to prescription drug-related poisoning has been a growing problem nationally. Some sub-populations have been shown to be at higher risk than others. In 2014, we matched death records to Medicaid eligibility files to determine enrollment status at the time of unintentional death from prescription opioid poisoning from 2003 to 2012 in Montana. Medicaid prescription claims for decedents were used to assess prescribing patterns and time between refills. The age-adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 from opioid poisoning for adults aged 18-64 years and enrolled in Medicaid at the time of death was eight times higher than the rate for non-Medicaid Montana adults (38.2 [95% CI (30.7-45.7)] vs. 4.7 [95% CI (4.1-5.3)]). Twenty-eight percent of unintentional poisoning deaths during this time frame were among Medicaid members. Only 33% of the Medicaid decedents had a claim for an opioid prescription during the month before their death. Our findings suggest that more needs to be done to address prescription opioid use in Montana. Adults enrolled in Medicaid continue to be at high risk for prescription opioid unintentional poisoning deaths. Data on prescribing practices suggest that there are opportunities to intervene and provide education on use of opioid medications for Medicaid members and prescribing providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mortality hazard rates and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Kaas, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the relation between mortality hazards and life expectancy for men and women in the Netherlands and in England. Halving the lifetime mortality hazards increases life expectancy at birth by only 9%.

  14. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably......, they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association......-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry, including patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, who are known to suffer from increased senescence rates (n = 302,455), and patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n = 74,490). From age 20 to 70, senescence rates were comparable when...

  15. State infant mortality: an ecologic study to determine modifiable risks and adjusted infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David A; Mackley, Amy; Locke, Robert G; Stefano, John L; Kroelinger, Charlan

    2009-05-01

    To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Factors investigated using multivariable linear regression included state racial demographics, ethnicity, state population, median income, education, teen birth rate, proportion of obesity, smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, cesarean delivery, prenatal care, health insurance, self-report of mental illness, and number of in-vitro fertilization procedures. Final risk adjusted IMR's were standardized and states were compared with the United States adjusted rates. Models for IMR in individual states in 2001 (r2 = 0.66, P rate, and smoking during pregnancy remained independently associated with state infant mortality rates for 2001 and 2002. Ninety five percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated around the regression lines to model the expected IMR. After adjustment, some states maintained a consistent IMR; for instance, Vermont and New Hampshire remained low, while Delaware and Louisiana remained high. However, other states such as Mississippi, which have traditionally high infant mortality rates, remained within the expected 95% CI for IMR after adjustment indicating confounding affected the initial unadjusted rates. Non-modifiable demographic variables, including the percentage of non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic populations of the state are major factors contributing to individual variation in state IMR. Race and ethnicity may confound or modify the IMR in states that shifted inside or outside the 95% CI following adjustment. Other factors including smoking during pregnancy and teen birth rate, which are potentially modifiable, significantly contributed to differences in state IMR. State risk

  16. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  17. High mortality in the Thule cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study mortality in the Thule cohort in order to clarify whether it is a selected population and to ascertain the possibility of misinterpretation when national mortality rates are used as reference in the analysis of occupational mortality....

  18. Mortality Rates in a Genetically Heterogeneous Population of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Anne; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    1994-02-01

    Age-specific mortality rates in isogenic populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans increase exponentially throughout life. In genetically heterogeneous populations, age-specific mortality increases exponentially until about 17 days and then remains constant until the last death occurs at about 60 days. This period of constant age-specific mortality results from genetic heterogeneity. Subpopulations differ in mean life-span, but they all exhibit near exponential, albeit different, rates of increase in age-specific mortality. Thus, much of the observed heterogeneity in mortality rates later in life could result from genetic heterogeneity and not from an inherent effect of aging.

  19. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  20. the traditional birth attendant and the high. nigeria's maternal mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    June 2002, Vol.5 (1); 69—70. THE TRADITIONAL ... Despite the safe motherhood initiatives, maternal mortality rate continues to ... despite a prevailing restrictive abortion laws, Nigeria has extremely high rate of abortion and abortion related morbidity and mortality. With maternal among the highest in Africa, Nigeria currently ...

  1. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Low rates of antibiotic resistance and infectious mortality in a cohort of high-risk hematology patients: A single center, retrospective analysis of blood stream infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Conn

    Full Text Available Febrile neutropenia (FN is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period. In this cohort, the 30-day mortality following confirmed blood stream infection (BSI was 5.9%, which is lower than most reports in the recent literature. We compared the blood culture results of inpatients undergoing induction chemotherapy and outpatients presenting with fevers and found a significantly higher rate of proven BSI in the outpatient group. In all settings, gram-negative organisms were most common. The rate of resistance to first-line empiric antibiotics among pathogenic isolates was 11.6% in the whole cohort, independent of blood culture circumstances. There was a trend to higher resistance rates among inpatients undergoing induction chemotherapy compared to patients presenting to the emergency department (17.4% vs 7.5% but this did not reach statistical significance. We also report low rates of ciprofloxacin resistance (5% of isolates, in a center where universal fluoroquinolone prophylaxis is not employed. Our low resistance and mortality rates support our current therapeutic strategies, however presence of resistant organisms across the spectrum of indications for BC collection highlights the importance of surveilling local patterns, escalating antimicrobial therapy in the deteriorating patient, and considering advanced techniques for the rapid identification of resistance in this patient population.

  3. Mortality of marine planktonic copepods : global rates and patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, A.G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    copepod longevity with predation-free laboratory longevity, we are able to make the first global approximations of the natural rates of predation mortality. Predation and total mortality both increase with increasing temperature; however, the proportion that predation makes of total adult mortality...

  4. Hospital Incidence and Mortality Rates of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Carolin; Thomas-Rueddel, Daniel O; Hartmann, Michael; Hartog, Christiane S; Welte, Tobias; Heublein, Steffen; Dennler, Ulf; Reinhart, Konrad

    2016-03-11

    Sepsis, the most severe manifestation of acute infection, poses a major challenge to health care systems around the world. To date, adequate data on the incidence and mortality of sepsis in Germany have been lacking. Nationwide case-related hospital DRG statistics for the years 2007-2013 were used to determine the in-hospital incidence and mortality of sepsis. Cases were identified on the basis of the clinical and pathogen-based ICD-10 codes for sepsis. The statistical evaluation was standardized for age and sex and carried out separately for each age group. The number of cases of sepsis rose by an average of 5.7% per year, from 200 535 in 2007 to 279 530 in 2013, corresponding to an increase in the adjusted in-hospital incidence from 256 to 335 cases per 100 000 persons per year. The percentage of patients with severe sepsis rose from 27% to 41%. The in-hospital mortality of sepsis fell over the same period by 2.7%, to 24.3%. In 2013, 67 849 persons died of sepsis in German hospitals (or died of another disease, but also had sepsis). The incidence was highest in the youngest and oldest age groups, and the in-hospital mortality rose nearly linearly with age from age 40 onward. Sepsis and death from sepsis are markedly more common in Germany than previously assumed, and they are on the rise. Sepsis statistics should become a standard component of federal statistical reports on public health, as well as of hospital statistics. Preventive measures and evidencebased treatment should be implemented across the nation.

  5. Morbidity and mortality rates after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Emergency abdominal surgery results in a high rate of post-operative complications and death. There are limited data describing the emergency surgical population in details. We aimed to give a detailed analyses of complications and mortality in a consecutive group of patients undergoing...... acute abdominal surgery over a 4-year period. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark. All patients scheduled for emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy were included. Pre-, intra-, and post-operative data were collected from...... medical records. Complications were registered according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4,346 patients underwent emergency surgery, of whom 14 % had surgical complications and 23 % medical complications...

  6. Heart rate variability predicts mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Juan; Tang, Wen; Li, Li-Xian; Su, Chun-Yan; Wang, Tao

    2015-08-01

    The predictive value of heart rate variability (HRV) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) has never been tested. In this study, the associations between HRV measures and the mortality in 81 PD patients were analyzed. HRV was measured by using 5-min recordings of a stationary system by a standardized method. Both time domain and frequency domain parameters were analyzed. During a follow-up period of 43.78 ± 14.77 months, 25 patients died, four patients were transferred to hemodialysis. Of the 81 patients, the time domain parameters, such as the standard deviation of differences between adjacent normal sinus to normal sinus (NN) intervals (SDSD) and the square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal NN intervals (RMSSD), were higher; the frequency domain parameters, such as the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power (LF/HF) and the normalized LF, were lower, and the normalized HF was higher in the non-survived group as compared with the survived group. A Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed that, of the HRV measures, decrease of the normalized LF, LF/HF and increase of rMSSD, SDSD, normalized HF had significant predictive value for mortality. After adjustment for other univariate predictors including age, urine volume, renal Kt/V, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), the predictive value of decreased LF/HF remained significant. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed mortality rate was much higher in patients with a low LF/HF (median value of 1.56). The decreases of LF/HF which reflects impaired sympathetic nerve regulation is an independent predictor of mortality in PD patients.

  7. The struggle to reduce high maternal mortality in Nigeria | Harrison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to UNICEF estimates for Nigeria, maternal mortality ratio is 1100 per 100,000 live births, antenatal care coverage 47 percent, institutional delivery rate 33 percent, and each woman bears six children on the average. Reducing the high maternal mortality ratio, which is the prime concern, has hitherto concentrated ...

  8. Spatial analysis of perinatal mortality rates with geographic information systems in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, O; Çepni, M S; Etiler, N

    2013-04-01

    To determine the spatial patterns of perinatal mortality in Kocaeli, Turkey using geographic information systems (GIS); to examine whether regional differences exist for the period selected; and whether these differences are linked to regional risk factors. Ecological research. Data were obtained from the linked birth-death records data registry maintained by Kocaeli Provincial Health Directorate. Mortality data are added to the geodatabase on a monthly basis. Spatial patterns of mortality rates were determined with GIS by mapping the case differences in the districts, and spatial autocorrelation was used to examine the spatial pattern of mortality rates in the region. Various risk factors contributing to spatial variation of perinatal mortality were revealed in the region. Districts with high mortality rates were shown to be sensitive to these risk factors. The results of this study confirm the direct link between perinatal mortality and poor environmental conditions in the study region. The analyses applied in the study showed that some complex demographic and socio-economic factors should be associated with perinatal mortality rates to identify the geographic patterns of mortality. Implementation of spatial tools within GIS for mortality data showed the efficiency of GIS in perinatal mortality surveillance. This study also demonstrated the capability and utility of GIS to clarify the geographical distribution of perinatal mortality rates in the study area. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  10. Malignant melanoma mortality rates in Chile (1988-98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, Vivian; Garmendia, M L; Kirschbaum, A

    2002-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) mortality has increased in the Caucasian population many fold over the past several decades. In this study, we analyzed the Chilean-specific, age-adjusted MM mortality rates per 100,000 population during the decade 1988-98 in order to establish changes in that period. We analyzed all death certificates from the Chilean Death Registry Office (1988-98) and retrieved the deaths attributed to MM. The data were categorized according to sex and age group. The annual age-adjusted and sex-specific rates of MM mortality per 100,000 population were calculated. Chilean MM mortality rates increased by 14% between 1988 and 1998. The relative risk for males vs. females was 1.3 with a tendency to rise, showing an increase of 30%. The relative risk of dying from MM in Chile increased linearly with age. An individual of 75 years or older had a 44.24 times greater risk of dying of MM than an individual in the 0-44-year age group. The rates in the > 75-year age group also showed a tendency to rise over the decade, with an increase of 64% (1988-98). The Chilean MM mortality rates are lower than the world standardized rates. The total Chilean MM mortality rates showed an increase over the decade 1988-98, mainly due to MM mortality in males. The MM mortality in Chilean females was lower than that in males, and was unchanged over the decade; this is in agreement with the results reported in other countries. This is one of the first studies of MM mortality in the Chilean population. The results are important when the geographic location of Chile is considered.

  11. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  12. Evaluation of cardiac surgery mortality rates: 30-day mortality or longer follow-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Sabrina; Groenwold, Rolf H H; de Mol, Bas A J M; Speekenbrink, Ron G H; Versteegh, Michel I M; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J; Bots, Michiel L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate early mortality after cardiac surgery and to determine the most adequate follow-up period for the evaluation of mortality rates. Information on all adult cardiac surgery procedures in 10 of 16 cardiothoracic centres in Netherlands from 2007 until 2010 was extracted from the database of Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (n = 33 094). Survival up to 1 year after surgery was obtained from the national death registry. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Benchmarking was performed using logistic regression with mortality rates at different time points as dependent variables, the logistic EuroSCORE as covariate and a random intercept per centre. In-hospital mortality was 2.94% (n = 972), 30-day mortality 3.02% (n = 998), operative mortality 3.57% (n = 1181), 60-day mortality 3.84% (n = 1271), 6-month mortality 5.16% (n = 1707) and 1-year mortality 6.20% (n = 2052). The survival curves showed a steep initial decline followed by stabilization after ∼60-120 days, depending on the intervention performed, e.g. 60 days for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and 120 days for combined CABG and valve surgery. Benchmark results were affected by the choice of the follow-up period: four hospitals changed outlier status when the follow-up was increased from 30 days to 1 year. In the isolated CABG subgroup, benchmark results were unaffected: no outliers were found using either 30-day or 1-year follow-up. The course of early mortality after cardiac surgery differs across interventions and continues up to ∼120 days. Thirty-day mortality reflects only a part of early mortality after cardiac surgery and should only be used for benchmarking of isolated CABG procedures. The follow-up should be prolonged to capture early mortality of all types of interventions.

  13. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oudin Åström

    Full Text Available On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia.We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia.We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement.We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  14. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  15. Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Edward A. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    We use two rate-process models to describe cell mortality at elevated temperatures as a means of understanding vascular cambium cell death during surface fires. In the models, cell death is caused by irreversible damage to cellular molecules that occurs at rates that increase exponentially with temperature. The models differ in whether cells show cumulative effects of...

  16. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in Isfahan; maternal mortality and morbidity rates among the women who underwent peripartum hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mostajeran Gurtani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion : This study indicated the high rate of mortality among patients underwent peripartum hysterectomy. Evaluation of management during referring the patients and designing more studies to evaluate the mortality and morbidities are warranted.

  17. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant and fetal mortality among a high fertility and mortality population in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous populations experience higher rates of poverty, disease and mortality than non-indigenous populations. To gauge current and future risks among Tsimane Amerindians of Bolivia, I assess mortality rates and growth early in life, and changes in risks due to modernization, based on demographic interviews conducted Sept. 2002-July 2005. Tsimane have high fertility (total fertility rate = 9) and infant mortality (13%). Infections are the leading cause of infant death (55%). Infant mortality is greatest among women who are young, monolingual, space births close together, and live far from town. Infant mortality declined during the period 1990-2002, and a higher rate of reported miscarriages occurred during the 1950-1989 period. Infant deaths are more frequent among those born in the wet season. Infant stunting, underweight and wasting are common (34%, 15% and 12%, respectively) and greatest for low-weight mothers and high parity infants. Regression analysis of infant growth shows minimal regional differences in anthropometrics but greater stunting and underweight during the first two years of life. Males are more likely to be underweight, wasted, and spontaneously aborted. Whereas morbidity and stunting are prevalent in infancy, greater food availability later in life has not yet resulted in chronic diseases (e.g. hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes) in adulthood due to the relatively traditional Tsimane lifestyle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant and fetal mortality among a high fertility and mortality population in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous populations experience higher rates of poverty, disease and mortality than non-indigenous populations. To gauge current and future risks among Tsimane Amerindians of Bolivia, I assess mortality rates and growth early in life, and changes in risks due to modernization, based on demographic interviews conducted Sept. 2002–July 2005. Tsimane have high fertility (Total Fertility Rate = 9) and infant mortality (13%). Infections are the leading cause of infant death (55%). Infant mortality is greatest among women who are young, monolingual, space births close together, and live far from town. Infant mortality declined during the period 1990–2002, and a higher rate of reported miscarriages occurred during the 1950–1989 period. Infant deaths are more frequent among those born in the wet season. Infant stunting, underweight and wasting are common (34%, 15% and 12%, respectively) and greatest for low-weight mothers and high parity infants. Regression analysis of infant growth shows minimal regional differences in anthropometrics but greater stunting and underweight during the first two years of life. Males are more likely to be underweight, wasted, and spontaneously aborted. Whereas morbidity and stunting are prevalent in infancy, greater food availability later in life has not yet resulted in chronic diseases (e.g. hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes) in adulthood due to the relatively traditional Tsimane lifestyle. PMID:23092724

  20. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  1. Impact of definitions on trauma center mortality rates and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, Robert M; Thorson, Chad M; Curia, Emiliano; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas; Livingstone, Alan S; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2012-12-01

    Trauma center performance depends on quality metrics, such as mortality rates, but there have been few studies on how an exact definition of death can influence these statistics. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the mortality rate at one trauma center could be influenced by the interpretation of "dead on arrival." Personal communication suggests that this definition is applied variably throughout our state. All deaths at our Level I trauma center from January 2009 to April 2011 were reviewed. There were 11,121 trauma admissions, predominantly male (75%), with mean +/- SD of 39 +/- 20, 72% blunt, 22% penetrating, and 7% burn injuries. There were 661 deaths, of which 582 were "hospital deaths" and an additional 79 were classified as "dead on arrival," defined as patients arriving with no vital signs and receiving no hospital intervention. However, 23% (n = 136) of the hospital deaths also arrived with no vital signs but received some lifesaving intervention, for example, tube thoracostomy (n = 95, 70%), thoracotomy (n = 48, 35%), and/or central venous catheter (n = 21, 15%). The state-reported mortality rate each month was 5.3 +/- 1.4%. If those who arrived with no vital signs were excluded, the mortality rate each month was 4.0 +/- 1.2% (p definition is not audited. Therefore, unless there is strict compliance and standardized definitions, any comparison of trauma center quality based on mortality could be questioned. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  2. Mortality Trajectories at Exceptionally High Ages: A Study of Supercentenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A; Krut'ko, Vyacheslav N

    2017-01-01

    The growing number of persons surviving to age 100 years and beyond raises questions about the shape of mortality trajectories at exceptionally high ages, and this problem may become significant for actuaries in the near future. However, such studies are scarce because of the difficulties in obtaining reliable age estimates at exceptionally high ages. The current view about mortality beyond age 110 years suggests that death rates do not grow with age and are virtually flat. The same assumption is made in the new actuarial VBT tables. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the mortality of supercentenarians (persons living 110+ years) is constant and does not grow with age, and we analyze mortality trajectories at these exceptionally high ages. Death records of supercentenarians were taken from the International Database on Longevity (IDL). All ages of supercentenarians in the database were subjected to careful validation. We used IDL records for persons belonging to extinct birth cohorts (born before 1895) since the last deaths in IDL were observed in 2007. We also compared our results based on IDL data with a more contemporary database maintained by the Gerontology Research Group (GRG). First we attempted to replicate findings by Gampe (2010), who analyzed IDL data and came to the conclusion that "human mortality after age 110 is flat." We split IDL data into two groups: cohorts born before 1885 and cohorts born in 1885 and later. Hazard rate estimates were conducted using the standard procedure available in Stata software. We found that mortality in both groups grows with age, although in older cohorts, growth was slower compared with more recent cohorts and not statistically significant. Mortality analysis of more numerous 1884-1894 birth cohort with the Akaike goodness-of-fit criterion showed better fit for the Gompertz model than for the exponential model (flat mortality). Mortality analyses with GRG data produced similar results. The remaining life

  3. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate. PMID:26971697

  4. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  5. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  6. Twenty years trends in mortality rates from stroke in Klaipeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Henrikas A; Raskauskiene, Nijole; Radziuviene, Rima; Janusonis, Vinsas

    2016-08-01

    During the past decades, mortality from stroke decreased in many western European countries; however, changes concerning long-term stroke mortality in eastern European countries are less evident. To assess age- and gender-specific trends in stroke mortality in Klaipeda (Lithuania) from 1994 to 2013. Descriptive epidemiological study. Permanent population of Klaipeda. Data on 2509 permanent residents of Klaipeda aged 35-79 years who died from stroke between 1994 and 2013 were gathered. Directly, age-standardized (European population) stroke mortality rates were analyzed using joinpoint regression separately for specific age groups (35-64, 65-79, and 35-79 years) and by gender. Annual percentage change (APC) and 95% CIs were presented. Stroke mortality in the 35- to 79-year-old age group peaked in 1994-1997, it then decreased by -9.9% (95% CI: -18.7, -0.2) yearly up until 2001 and leveled off by -0.2% (-5.1, 4.9) between 2001 and 2013. Among men aged 35-64 years, mortality decreased substantially by 12.8% (-21.5, -3.3) per year from 1994 to 2001 and turned positive by 6.3% (0.8, 12.1) between 2000 and 2013. Among women aged 35-64 years, mortality decreased significantly by 15.5% (-28.1, -0.7) from 1994 to 2000. There was evidence of recent plateauing of trends for 35- to 64-year-old women between 2000 and 2013. In the 65- to 79-year-old age group, mortality decreased from 1994 onward yearly by -5.5% (-7.9, -3.0) in women and by -3.3% (-5.6, -0.9) in men. Joinpoint regression revealed steadily decreasing trend in stroke mortality between 1994 and 2001. The decline in death rates flattened out in the recent decade. Mortality rates varied among age groups and were more pronounced in adults aged 35-64 years. It is essential to monitor and manage stroke risk factors, especially among middle-aged population.

  7. A comprehensive hip fracture program reduces complication rates and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Moltke, Finn Borgbjerg; Schousboe, B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the rate of postoperative complications, length of stay, and 1-year mortality before and after introduction of a comprehensive Multidisciplinary fast-track treatment and care program for hip fracture patients (the optimized program). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review...... community dwellers before the fracture and 159 (29.7%) were admitted from nursing homes. INTERVENTION: The fast-track treatment and care program included a switch from systemic opiates to a local femoral nerve catheter block; an earlier assessment by the anesthesiologist; and more-systematic approach...... group (P = .02). Overall 12-month mortality was 29% in the control group and 23% in the intervention group (P = .2). CONCLUSION: The optimized hip fracture program reduced the rate of in-hospital postoperative complications and mortality. Randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results...

  8. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a comparison of adjusted mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S S; Schaubel, D E; Desmeules, M; Morrison, H I; Mao, Y; Copleston, P; Jeffery, J R; Kjellstrand, C M

    1997-09-01

    Although kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment method for patients with ESRD, most patients are placed on dialysis either while awaiting transplantation or as their only therapy. The question of which dialytic method provides the best patient survival remains unresolved. Survival analyses comparing hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis/continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/CCPD), a newer and less costly dialytic modality, have yielded conflicting results. Using data obtained from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, we compared mortality rates between hemodialysis and CAPD/CCPD among 11,970 ESRD patients who initiated treatment between 1990 and 1994 and were followed-up for a maximum of 5 years. Factors controlled for include age, primary renal diagnosis, center size, and predialysis comorbid conditions. The mortality rate ratio (RR) for CAPD/CCPD relative to hemodialysis, as estimated by Poisson regression, was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 0.78). No such relationship was found when an intent-to-treat Cox regression model was fit. Decreased covariable-adjusted mortality for CAPD/CCPD held within all subgroups defined by age and diabetes status, although the RRs increased with age and diabetes prevalence. The increased mortality on hemodialysis compared with CAPD/CCPD was concentrated in the first 2 years of follow-up. Although continuous peritoneal dialysis was associated with significantly lower mortality rates relative to hemodialysis after adjusting for known prognostic factors, the potential impact of unmeasured patient characteristics must be considered. Notwithstanding, we present evidence that CAPD/CCPD, a newer and less costly method of renal replacement therapy, is not associated with increased mortality rates relative to hemodialysis.

  9. Fiscal decentralisation and infant mortality rate: the Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Farfan, Maria Isabel; Lorant, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of research analysing the influence of fiscal decentralisation on health outcomes. Colombia is an interesting case study, as health expenditure there has been decentralising since 1993, leading to an improvement in health care insurance. However, it is unclear whether fiscal decentralisation has improved population health. We assess the effect of fiscal decentralisation of health expenditure on infant mortality rates in Colombia. Infant mortality rates for 1080 municipalities over a 10-year period (1998-2007) were related to fiscal decentralisation by using an unbalanced fixed-effect regression model with robust errors. Fiscal decentralisation was measured as the locally controlled health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure. We also evaluated the effect of transfers from central government and municipal institutional capacity. In addition, we compared the effect of fiscal decentralisation at different levels of municipal poverty. Fiscal decentralisation decreased infant mortality rates (the elasticity was equal to -0.06). However, this effect was stronger in non-poor municipalities (-0.12) than poor ones (-0.081). We conclude that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to municipalities decreased infant mortality rates. However, this improved health outcome effect depended greatly on the socio-economic conditions of the localities. The policy instrument used by the Health Minister to evaluate municipal institutional capacity in the health sector needs to be revised. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  11. Mass ethion poisoning with high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Aruna; Patel, Ashwin B; Pal, Ramavati R; Jani, Umesh J; Singel, Vinu C; Panchal, Maulik D

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen people who consumed a meal during a social ceremony at a remote farm developed symptoms and signs of organophosphate poisoning. Information was gathered from villagers and doctors at the primary health center and district hospital. Serial measurements of plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase activity levels were carried out and the organophosphate compound was identified in blood samples. Clinical toxicity included abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, excessive secretions, and respiratory distress. The victims were taken to a community health center about 30 km away where three people died. The others were taken to the district level hospital at Palanpur where five died. Of the seven remaining victims who were transferred to a tertiary care hospital at Ahmedabad, one died during transport and another succumbed within a few hours. The remaining five people were hospitalized. Three recovered within a week but two developed complications: one had a lung infection and the other had cerebral anoxia following cardiorespiratory arrest. The person with cerebral anoxia died after eight and a half months. Red blood cell cholinesterase levels on the day of admission correlated well with clinical severity and outcome of the patients. The pesticide was identified as ethion. Pesticide poisonings in developing countries have high morbidity and mortality rates, as facilities for immediate treatment are not readily available. Such incidents should sensitize clinical toxicologists, health authorities, and policy makers to the problems of pesticide poisoning in third world countries.

  12. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  13. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E Robinson

    Full Text Available The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT, as well as direct questioning (DQ. Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates.

  14. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  15. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janine E; St John, Freya A V; Griffiths, Richard A; Roberts, David L

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates.

  16. Comparisons of causes of death and mortality rates among HIV-infected persons: analysis of the pre-, early, and late HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Nancy F; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Wegner, Scott; Agan, Brian K; Tasker, Sybil A; Spooner, Katherine M; Armstrong, Adam W; Fraser, Susan; Wallace, Mark R

    2006-02-01

    Comparisons of death-related variables during the 3 eras were performed. The number of deaths declined over the study period, with 987 deaths in the pre-HAART era, 159 deaths in the early HAART era (1997-1999), and 78 deaths in the late HAART era (2000-2003) (P persons in the late HAART era (P infection decreased, but infection remained the leading cause of death in our cohort, followed by cancer. Of those who died, there was an increasing proportion of non-HIV-related deaths (32% vs. 9%; P liver disease, although the numbers are small. Despite increasing concerns regarding antiretroviral resistance, the death rate among HIV-infected persons in our cohort continues to decline. Our data show a lower death rate than that reported among many other US HIV-infected populations; this may be the result of open access to health care. A shift in the causes of death toward non-HIV-related causes suggests that a more comprehensive health care approach may be needed for optimal life expectancy; this may include enhanced screening for malignancy and heart disease as well as preventive measures for liver disease and accidents.

  17. Rate and time trend of perinatal, infant, maternal mortality, natality and natural population growth in kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. THE DATA WERE TAKEN FROM: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality

  18. COPD mortality rates in Andalusia, Spain, 1975-2010: a joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, J L; Ruiz-Ramos, M; Soriano, J B

    2013-01-01

    To describe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality rates in Andalusia, Spain, between 1975 and 2010 using a joinpoint regression analysis. Mortality figures for Andalusian residents aged >40 years from 1975 to 2010 were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. Causes of death were classified based on the 8th, 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases. Crude, standardised (SMR) and 40- to 70-year truncated mortality rates were calculated. Trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis to identify significant trend changes, and an annual percentage of change (APC) was computed from each trend. Mortality rates showed a downward trend for both sexes. The SMR ranged from 109.9 to 98.0 deaths/100 000 males, and between 35.8 and 12.0 deaths/100 000 females. An increase in the average age at death for men and women with COPD was also observed. Both sexes experienced an increase in SMR in the early 1980s, although female mortality rates began to decline in 1985 (APC -5.8% thereafter), whereas those for males remained high until 1998 (APC -4% thereafter). COPD mortality remains higher in male than female inhabitants of Andalusia. These rates have decreased following different sex- and age-dependent patterns.

  19. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  20. Effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkuk Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children and to identify the blood glucose level that influences prognosis. Methods : From July 2006 to June 2008, a total of 206 patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU at Asan Medical Center and who survived for more than 7 days were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the maximum glucose value within 7 days in PICU, PRISM-III score and SOFA score within 24 hours, and mortality. We did not perform an adjustment analysis of drugs affecting glucose level. Results : The maximum glucose level within 7 days in PICU was higher in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group. Using 4 cutoff values (125, 150, 175, and 200 mg/dL, the mortality of patients with hyperglycemia was found to be 13.0 %, 14.4%, 19.8%, and 21.1%, respectively, and the cutoff values of 175 and 200 mg/dL revealed significant differences in mortalities between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups. The PRISM-III score was not significantly different between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups under a glucose cutoff value of 175 mg/dL, but the SOFA score was higher in the hyperglycemic group. Under a glucose cutoff value of 200 mg/dL, the PRISM-III score was higher in the hyperglycemic group, and the SOFA score did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusion : Hyperglycemia with a maximal glucose value ?#241;75 mg/dL during the first 7 days after PICU admission was associated with increased mortality in critically ill children.

  1. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Contemporary Incidence and Mortality Rates of Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanee, Shaheen; Moore, Aaron; Nutt, Max; Holland, Bradley; Dynda, Danuta; El-Zawahry, Ahmed; McVary, Kevin T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an update ever the incidence and mortality for neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) in the United States. Using a large national database, we examined changes in age-adjusted incidence (AAIR), mortality rates (MR) and 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for 378 patients diagnosed with NEPC between 1992 and 2011. Analysis was performed for all NEPC and for its two major sub-groups [small cell carcinoma (SCC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC)]. AAIR of NEPC continues to rise in recent years (2004-2011:+6.8%/year, p>0.05). AAIR of SCC has been increasing significantly by 6.94%/year since 2001 (from 0.470 to 0.582/1,000,000 person years, pAAIR of SCC is increasing with no change in the MR of NEPC over the past 20 years. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. PRRSV outbreak with high mortality in northern part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Rathkjen, P. H.

    , respectively, due to their geographical origin. In Denmark the type 1 virus was first recognized in 1992, and since 1996 both types of PRRSV are widely spread. Approximately 50 % of the herds are seropositive for PRRSV antibodies against either or both types of PRRSV. In November 2010, a severe case of PRRSV...... with high mortality rate in piglets occurred in Northern Jutland. PRRSV type 2 was detected by real-time RT-PCR in lung tissue from 10 days old piglets. The outbreak was treated by extensive vaccination with Ingelvac® PRRS MLV and strict management procedures. 6 weeks later, the mortality of liveborn...

  4. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  5. Correlation of Cesarean rates to maternal and infant mortality rates: an ecologic study of official international data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Fernando Madalena

    2011-05-01

    To correlate international official data on Cesarean delivery rates to infant and maternal mortality rates and low weight-at-birth rates; and to test the hypothesis that Cesarean rates greater than 15% correlate to higher maternal and infant mortality rates. Analyses were based on the most recent official data (2000-2009) available for 193 countries. Exponential models were compared to quadratic models to regress infant mortality rates, neonatal mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, and low weight-at-birth rates to Cesarean rates. Separate regressions were performed for countries with Cesarean rates greater than 15%. In countries with Cesarean rates less than 15%, higher Cesarean rates were associated to lower infant, neonatal, and maternal mortality rates, and to lower rates of low weight-at-birth. In countries with Cesarean rates greater than 15%, Cesarean rates were not significantly associated with infant or maternal mortality rates. There is an inverse exponential relation between countries' rates of Cesarean deliveries and infant or maternal mortality rates. Very low Cesarean rates (less than 15%) are associated with poorer maternal and child outcomes. Cesarean rates greater than 15% were neither correlated to higher maternal nor child mortality, nor to low weight-at-birth.

  6. Age-period-cohort analysis of suicide mortality rates in Spain, 1959-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granizo, J J; Guallar, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    1996-08-01

    Although there is evidence that suicide rates may be increasing in Spain, formal epidemiological studies have been limited to specific cities or counties. The objective of this study was to investigate nationwide trends in suicide mortality from 1959 to 1991 in Spain, with emphasis on age, period, and cohort effects. Age- and sex-specific suicide mortality rates from 1959 until 1991 were obtained from official vital statistics tables from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, the official registry of vital statistics in Spain. Poisson regression and graphical methods were used to model and estimate age, period and cohort effects. Suicide mortality rates increased with age, with a proportional increment for each decade of life of 45% (95% confidence interval: 45-46%). In both males and females, age-adjusted suicide mortality rates decreased from 1959 until the late 1970s and early 1980s. In 1982, trends started to increase, returning to the levels of 1959 in less than 6 years. Cohort effects were small for cohorts born prior to 1940. For cohorts born after 1950, suicide rates increased markedly. The increase in suicide mortality in younger cohorts and the high rates of suicide in the elderly demand further investigation to establish causal mechanisms and preventive strategies.

  7. Genetic determination of mortality rate in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality has been steadily increasing during the last two decades in Denmark. This study aims to verify whether genetic mechanisms might be contributing to this increase. To do so, the records of 880,480 Holstein, 142,306 Jersey and 85,206 Red Danish dairy cows calving from 1990 to 2006...... were retrieved form the Danish Cattle register. Two causes of culling of cows were considered: death and slaughtering. Bivariate competing risk genetic models with a sire model structure were used to describe the death and the slaughtering rates simultaneously. The models included two random components...

  8. Mortality rate associated with hospital acquired infections among burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Aslam Bharwana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hospital acquired infections (HAIs are the major contributors of mortality associated with burn injuries. The aim of this research was to document the antecedents affiliated with major burn injuries, hospitalization and mortality in burn patients. We performed a single center prospective study of patients admitted during 3 months period (April-June 2014 in burn wards of government hospital. There were 100 patients in this investigation which were observed weekly. The inclusion criterion was based on the shifting of patients from emergency to the wards after initial treatment of more than 24 h. Variables included were age and gender of the patient, the percent total body surface area (%TBSA burn, the cause of the burn. Mean age of patients was 30.29 years. More females (55.67% were admitted than males (44.32%. The total body surface area (%TBSA burnt were from 15%- 95% respectively moreover children were more sensitive to hospital acquired infections (HAIs and mortality rate was 34% in children with mean age of 5 years and disability of body parts were 42% among 75% were females. Whereas the most common (HAIs were primary blood stream (PBS with mean value of 30.50, wound infections (WIS were at second prevalence with mean value of 27.50, followed by sepsis (S and pneumonia (P 10.33, eye infections (EIs 4.833 and urinary tract infections (UTIs 2.667. Factors significantly (p-value= 0.000 associated with increased duration of hospitalization caught HAIs mortality include the age and gender of the patient, the cause of burn, inhalation injury, the region affected and %TBSA burnt. It concluded that the mortality was very much dependent on age and gender of the patient, burn causes, affected area as well as %TBSA burnt are considerable factors in determining the relationship of HAIs and whether the patients will survive or knuckle to injuries. Better compliance techniques, stricter control over disinfection and sterilization practices and usage of

  9. Heart rate is associated with mortality in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojin; Lee, Yeonhee; Jang, Heejoon; Moon, Hongran; Kim, Dong Ki; Han, Seung Seok

    2017-09-01

    Heart rate (HR) is an essential vital sign based on the finding that HR beyond its normal range is associated with several conditions or diseases, including high mortality in several clinical settings. Nevertheless, the clinical implications of HR remain unresolved in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This retrospective cohort study included 828 patients who underwent CRRT due to acute kidney injury between 2010 and 2014. HR and other baseline parameters at the time of CRRT initiation were retrieved. The odds ratio (OR) of 30-day mortality was calculated using a multivariate logistic model. CRRT significantly lowered the HR of patients such that the pre- and post-CRRT HRs (average 6 hours) were 107 beats/min and 103 beats/min, respectively (P CRRT initiation, but not pre- or post-CRRT HR, had a significant relationship with mortality outcome. Based on this result, we divided patients into quartiles of HR at the time of CRRT initiation. Mortality OR in the 4th quartile HR group was 2.6 (1.78-3.92) compared with the 1st quartile HR group. This relationship remained consistent despite adjusting for 28 baseline covariates: OR, 1.7 (1.09-2.76); P = 0.020. However, HR was not associated with the weaning rate from CRRT. High HR at the time of CRRT initiation is subsequently related with high mortality. These results can be a basis for a future predictive model of CRRT-related mortality.

  10. EVALUATING MORTALITY RATE CAUSED BY ELECTROLYTE ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khorasani

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustment of composition of body fluids and electrolytes is one of the most important aspects of patients care. Sodium and Potassium are the most important body cations, the improper adjustment of them will cause sever disorders in neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Acute renal failure indicated by increase in creatinine and nitrogen urea, brings an accumulation of fluids, salts and metabolites of nitrogen in body. This study intends to assess the status of electrolyte abnormalities and mortality rates of the patients hospitalized in ICU wards in our country. This is a descriptive and retrospective study on the records of 378 patients hospitalized in ICU. A questionnaire was prepared and the data were entered in SPSS system. They were statistically analyzed by using chi-square and fisher's Exact test methods. Out of 378 patients hospitalized in ICU, over 2/3 of them were male and over half of them were>45 years old. Frequency distribution of electrolyte abnormalities was as follows: Hyponatremia 59% hypernatremia 23% hypokalemia 37% hyperkalemia 28%, 35% and 21% of patients had respectively BUN and creatinine more than the normal range. 26% of patients hospitalized in ICU had nonsurgical problems and 74% of the patients had surgical problems. Average time of hospitalization in ICU was 85 days and mortality rate was 35%. The most common electrolyte abnormality was related to variation in serum sodium levels in the form of hyponatremia. And the highest prevalence electrolyte abnormality in dead patients was hyponatremia. This study proves that the prevalence of electrolyte abnormalities is directly related to mortality and increase in hospitalization period and those having undergone surgical operations during hospitalization in ICU, manifested more abnormalities.

  11. Mortality rates among children and teenagers living in Inuit Nunangat, 1994 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lisa N; Peters, Paul A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2012-09-01

    Because Vital Statistics data do not include information on Inuit identity in all jurisdictions, mortality rates cannot be calculated specifically for Inuit. However, Inuit in Canada are geographically concentrated--78% live in Inuit Nunangat, and 82% of the area's total population identify as Inuit. While there are limitations, geographic approaches can be employed to calculate mortality for the population of that area. The Vital Statistics Database (1994 to 2008) and population estimates were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) in five-year intervals around the 1996 and 2006 Census years. Mortality rates were calculated for 1- to 19-year-olds living in Inuit Nunangat and those living elsewhere in Canada. The ASMR in 2004-2008 for 1- to 19-year-olds in Inuit Nunangat was 188.0 deaths per 100,000 person-years at risk, five times the rate (35.3) elsewhere in Canada. The disparity had not narrowed over the previous decade. In Inuit Nunangat, injuries were responsible for 64% of deaths of children and teenagers, compared with 36% in the rest of Canada. The persistently high mortality rates for children and teenagers living in Inuit Nunangat, compared with the rest of Canada, are important in understanding the health and socio-economic situation of residents of this region.

  12. Incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Ron; Kapiev, Andronik; Poluksht, Natan; Halevy, Ariel; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide. The incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel have not been studied in depth. The aim of our study was to try and investigate the aforementioned issues in Israel in different ethnic groups. This retrospective study is based on the data of The Israel National Cancer Registry and The Central Bureau of Statistics. Published data from these two institutes were collected, summarized, and analyzed in this study. Around 650 new cases of gastric cancer are diagnosed yearly in Israel. While we noticed a decline during the period 1990-2007 in the incidence in the Jewish population (13.6-8.9 and 6.75-5.42 cases per 100,000 in Jewish men and women, respectively), an increase in the Arab population was noticed (7.7-10.2 and 3.7-4.2 cases per 100,000 in men and women, respectively). Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 cases of gastric cancer decreased significantly, from 7.21 in 1990 to 5.46 in 2007, in the total population. The 5-year relative survival showed a slight increase for both men and women. There is a difference in the incidence and outcome of gastric cancer between the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. The grim prognosis of gastric cancer patients in Israel is probably due to the advanced stage at which gastric cancer is diagnosed in Israel.

  13. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  14. [Changes of mortality rate for cervical cancer during 1970's and 1990's periods in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Huangpu, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Si-wei; Lu, Feng-zhu; Sun, Xiu-di; Sun, Jie; Mu, Ren; Li, Lian-di; Qiao, You-lin

    2003-08-01

    To describe the distribution changes of the mortality rate for cervical cancer in China between the 1970's and 1990's and provide the scientific evidence for the prevention and control strategies for cervical cancer campaign in China between next century. Data from two National Surveys for the Causes of Death in 1970's and 1990's in China. The crude and adjusted mortality rates for the cervical cancer and the distributions based on age and area were calculated and described. The comparison of the differences of changes between two mortality rates periods and together with its trends were shown based on the age-standardized. During two decades, the mortality rate for cervical cancer was 10.7 per 100,000 in 1970's which declined to 3.89 per 100,000 in 1990's, and from the 3rd ranking among all female malignant tumors to the 6th in 1990's (decreased about 63.64%). But the declination was not evenly. There have still been some high-risk areas, most located in rural countries in the mid-west of China, with rates remain unchanged and even at the highest level in the world, such as Wudu in Gansu and Yangcheng in Shanxi. A big difference was showed between rural country and city, but in both of them, the mortality rates in 1990's were significantly much lower than in 1970's (P = 0.001) at each five-year age group. And in the city, there was a much sharper increased trend in young women in 1990's. The mortality rate for cervical cancer campaign in China has been substantially declined during past twenty years, but it's still a major health problem for women, especially in rural China. The focus of the prevention and control for the cervical cancer in the next century should put on rural areas, especially in mid-west of China and young women in the city.

  15. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-11-01

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  16. Mortality Rate and Predictive Factors for Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Experience in Siriraj Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premyot Ngaotepprutaram, M.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the mortality rate and prognostic factors in patients with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in Siriraj Hospital. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with a definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis were recruited from October 2003 to September 2014. The mortality rate was retrieved, and the impacts of underlying diseases, clinical presentation, disease extension, fungal types, antifungal drugs, and time to treatment were statistically analyzed. Results: The overall mortality rate was 23.1%. All patients except one were immunocompromised. Cranial nerve involvement was the most common symptom. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected intranasal site (46.2%, and the majority of extranasal lesions were located in the orbit (17.9%. Most patients were affected by Aspergillus spp. (64.1%. Alteration of consciousness and periorbital pain were significant negative prognostic factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 10.37 (1.31–82.07 and 8.67 (1.30–57.88, respectively]. Other factors such as time to treatment, age, and central nervous system involvement had no effect on mortality. Conclusion: The mortality rate of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in this study was 23.1%. Negative prognostic factors were alteration of consciousness and periorbital pain. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, and aggressive treatment should be considered.

  17. Temporal and spatial evolution of maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Brazil, 1997–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Brazil's neonatal mortality rate has improved in recent times, but maternal mortality rates have stagnated, failing to meet the Millennium Development Goals. Public policies and intersectoral efforts may contribute to improvements in these health indicators.

  18. Estimation of mortality rates in stage-structured population

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Simon N

    1991-01-01

    The stated aims of the Lecture Notes in Biomathematics allow for work that is "unfinished or tentative". This volume is offered in that spirit. The problem addressed is one of the classics of statistical ecology, the estimation of mortality rates from stage-frequency data, but in tackling it we found ourselves making use of ideas and techniques very different from those we expected to use, and in which we had no previous experience. Specifically we drifted towards consideration of some rather specific curve and surface fitting and smoothing techniques. We think we have made some progress (otherwise why publish?), but are acutely aware of the conceptual and statistical clumsiness of parts of the work. Readers with sufficient expertise to be offended should regard the monograph as a challenge to do better. The central theme in this book is a somewhat complex algorithm for mortality estimation (detailed at the end of Chapter 4). Because of its complexity, the job of implementing the method is intimidating. Any r...

  19. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in New Zealand 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maize C; Chancellor, Andrew; Charleston, Alison; Dragunow, Mike; Scotter, Emma L

    2018-01-30

    We determined the mortality rates of motor neuron disease (MND) in New Zealand over 22 years from 1992 to 2013. Previous studies have found an unusually high and/or increasing incidence of MND in certain regions of New Zealand; however, no studies have examined MND rates nationwide to corroborate this. Death certificate data coded G12.2 by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 coding, or 335.2 by ICD-9 coding were obtained. These codes specify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, or other motor neuron diseases as the underlying cause of death. Mortality rates for MND deaths in New Zealand were age-standardized to the European Standard Population and compared with rates from international studies that also examined death certificate data and were age-standardized to the same standard population. The age-standardized mortality from MND in New Zealand was 2.3 per 100,000 per year from 1992-2007 and 2.8 per 100,000 per year from 2008-2013. These rates were 3.3 and 4.0 per 100,000 per year, respectively, for the population 20 years and older. The increase in rate between these two time periods was likely due to changes in MND death coding from 2008. Contrary to a previous regional study of MND incidence, nationwide mortality rates did not increase steadily over this time period once aging was accounted for. However, New Zealand MND mortality rate was higher than comparable studies we examined internationally (mean 1.67 per 100,000 per year), suggesting that further analysis of MND burden in New Zealand is warranted.

  20. Heart rate is associated with mortality in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate (HR is an essential vital sign based on the finding that HR beyond its normal range is associated with several conditions or diseases, including high mortality in several clinical settings. Nevertheless, the clinical implications of HR remain unresolved in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 828 patients who underwent CRRT due to acute kidney injury between 2010 and 2014. HR and other baseline parameters at the time of CRRT initiation were retrieved. The odds ratio (OR of 30-day mortality was calculated using a multivariate logistic model. Results: CRRT significantly lowered the HR of patients such that the pre- and post-CRRT HRs (average 6 hours were 107 beats/min and 103 beats/min, respectively (P < 0.001. When we explored the relationship with 30-day mortality, only HR at the time of CRRT initiation, but not pre- or post-CRRT HR, had a significant relationship with mortality outcome. Based on this result, we divided patients into quartiles of HR at the time of CRRT initiation. Mortality OR in the 4th quartile HR group was 2.6 (1.78–3.92 compared with the 1st quartile HR group. This relationship remained consistent despite adjusting for 28 baseline covariates: OR, 1.7 (1.09–2.76; P = 0.020. However, HR was not associated with the weaning rate from CRRT. Conclusion: High HR at the time of CRRT initiation is subsequently related with high mortality. These results can be a basis for a future predictive model of CRRT-related mortality.

  1. Gaming in risk-adjusted mortality rates: effect of misclassification of risk factors in the benchmarking of cardiac surgery risk-adjusted mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Sabrina; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Versteegh, Michel I M; Noyez, Luc; ter Burg, Willem Jan P P; Bots, Michiel L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A

    2013-03-01

    Upcoding or undercoding of risk factors could affect the benchmarking of risk-adjusted mortality rates. The aim was to investigate the effect of misclassification of risk factors on the benchmarking of mortality rates after cardiac surgery. A prospective cohort was used comprising all adult cardiac surgery patients in all 16 cardiothoracic centers in The Netherlands from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009. A random effects model, including the logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) was used to benchmark the in-hospital mortality rates. We simulated upcoding and undercoding of 5 selected variables in the patients from 1 center. These patients were selected randomly (nondifferential misclassification) or by the EuroSCORE (differential misclassification). In the random patients, substantial misclassification was required to affect benchmarking: a 1.8-fold increase in prevalence of the 4 risk factors changed an underperforming center into an average performing one. Upcoding of 1 variable required even more. When patients with the greatest EuroSCORE were upcoded (ie, differential misclassification), a 1.1-fold increase was sufficient: moderate left ventricular function from 14.2% to 15.7%, poor left ventricular function from 8.4% to 9.3%, recent myocardial infarction from 7.9% to 8.6%, and extracardiac arteriopathy from 9.0% to 9.8%. Benchmarking using risk-adjusted mortality rates can be manipulated by misclassification of the EuroSCORE risk factors. Misclassification of random patients or of single variables will have little effect. However, limited upcoding of multiple risk factors in high-risk patients can greatly influence benchmarking. To minimize "gaming," the prevalence of all risk factors should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological pattern and mortality rates for hepatitis A in Brazil, 1980-2002--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitral, Claudia L; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Souto, Francisco José D

    2006-03-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is high in developing countries, in which low standards of sanitation promote the transmission of the virus. In Latin America, which is considered an area of high HAV endemicity, most HAV-positive individuals are infected in early childhood However recent studies have shown that prevalence rates are decreasing. Herein, we review the data on HAV prevalence and outbreaks available in scientific databases. We also use official government data in order to evaluate mortality rates in Brazil over the last two decades. Studies conducted in the northernmost regions of Brazil have indicated that, although improved hygiene has led to a reduction in childhood exposure to HAV, the greatest exposure still occurs early in life. In the Southeastern region, the persistence of circulating HAV has generated outbreaks among individuals of low socioeconomic status, despite adequate sanitation. Nationwide, hepatitis A mortality rates declined progressively from 1980 to 2002. During that period, mortality rates in the Northern region consistently exceeded the mean national rate and those for other regions. Excluding the North, the rates in all regions were comparable. Nevertheless, the trend toward decline observed in the South was paralleled by a similar trend in the North.

  3. Epidemiological pattern and mortality rates for hepatitis A in Brazil, 1980-2002: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia L Vitral

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection is high in developing countries, in which low standards of sanitation promote the transmission of the virus. In Latin America, which is considered an area of high HAV endemicity, most HAV-positive individuals are infected in early childhood. However, recent studies have shown that prevalence rates are decreasing. Herein, we review the data on HAV prevalence and outbreaks available in scientific databases. We also use official government data in order to evaluate mortality rates in Brazil over the last two decades. Studies conducted in the northernmost regions of Brazil have indicated that, although improved hygiene has led to a reduction in childhood exposure to HAV, the greatest exposure still occurs early in life. In the Southeastern region, the persistence of circulating HAV has generated outbreaks among individuals of low socioeconomic status, despite adequate sanitation. Nationwide, hepatitis A mortality rates declined progressively from 1980 to 2002. During that period, mortality rates in the Northern region consistently exceeded the mean national rate and those for other regions. Excluding the North, the rates in all regions were comparable. Nevertheless, the trend toward decline observed in the South was paralleled by a similar trend in the North.

  4. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  5. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. Study Design and Setting: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  6. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Mubanga, Mwenya; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Pandie, Shaheen; Magazi, Beki T.; Gumedze, Freedom; Myer, Landon; Gumbo, Tawanda; Mayosi, Bongani M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pericarditis is considered to be a paucibacillary process; the large pericardial fluid accumulation is attributed to an inflammatory response to tuberculoproteins. Mortality rates are high. We investigated the role of clinical and microbial factors predictive of tuberculous pericarditis mortality using the artificial intelligence algorithm termed classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Methods Patients were prospectively enrolled and followed in the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis (IMPI) registry. Clinical and laboratory data of 70 patients with confirmed tuberculous pericarditis, including time-to-positive (TTP) cultures from pericardial fluid, were extracted and analyzed for mortality outcomes using CART. TTP was translated to log10 colony forming units (CFUs) per mL, and compared to that obtained from sputum in some of our patients. Findings Seventy patients with proven tuberculous pericarditis were enrolled. The median patient age was 35 (range: 20–71) years. The median, follow up was for 11.97 (range: 0·03–74.73) months. The median TTP for pericardial fluid cultures was 22 (range: 4–58) days or 3.91(range: 0·5–8·96) log10CFU/mL, which overlapped with the range of 3.24–7.42 log10CFU/mL encountered in sputum, a multi-bacillary disease. The overall mortality rate was 1.43 per 100 person-months. CART identified follow-up duration of 5·23 months on directly observed therapy, a CD4 + count of ≤ 199.5/mL, and TTP ≤ 14 days (bacillary load ≥ 5.53 log10 CFU/mL) as predictive of mortality. TTP interacted with follow-up duration in a non-linear fashion. Interpretation Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal

  7. CCURRENT TRENDS IN INFANT MORTALITY AND PERINATAL LOSS RATES IN ST. PETERSBURG

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    N. V. Andriyanycheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the positive trends in the demographic indicators of St. Petersburg are related, among the others, to the sustainable reduction of infant mortality, however the specifics of demography of a large city of federal importance is characterized by high migratory increase. Now the megalopolis is the region with the lowest infant mortality rates. This target demographic indicator is the pride of St. Petersburg and is closely monitored. Achievements in reducing of infant mortality were fulfilled through a system of work with pregnant women and newborns with low, very low and extremely low birth weight. Significant impact has also been adopted by the legislative acts, which, at present, are included into a single normative document — «Social code of St. Petersburg». The main purpose of the article is an extended analysis of the mortality rate due to transition to the new medical criteria of birth. The analysis demonstrates that the transition to the new criteria of live birth has made changes in the structure of infant and perinatal mortality, which requires further improvement and new approaches to the executive monitoring of this important social marker.

  8. Mortality patterns in geographical areas with a high vs. low Sami population density in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, Magritt; Pettersen, Torunn; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to study mortality patterns in the population in different geographical locations in northern Norway on the basis of Sami population density. Mortality statistics by sex and age from 1991 to 2006 were obtained from Statistics Norway. Mortality rates, including infant mortality rates, were compared across geographical locations. The data material was divided into within and outside the the geographical areas of the Sami Development Fund (SUF) and into coastal and inland residence. Differences in mortality rates were tested by chi-quadrate tests. Overall, no pronounced difference in mortality rate was found in the population between geographical areas. For men, mortality rates differed only between geographical residence in the time intervals 1991-95 and 1996-2000 for the age groups 45-59 years and 60-74 years, respectively, with outside SUF area, inland having the lowest rate. For women, there were no differences between geographical areas except for the age group 60-74 years in the time period 1991-95, where SUF coast had the highest mortality rate. For the SUF area, men had the lowest probabilities for surviving the age of 74 years and women had among the highest. No geographical difference was found in infant mortality. During the time period 1991-2006, the outside SUF area, inland had an average infant mortality rate of 1.8/1000 per year, and for SUF coast it was 6.2/1000 per year. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.08). Overall, mortality rates were similar across geographical areas with low and with high Sami population density. However, indications of geographical differences in infant mortality should be investigated further.

  9. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) mortality and recovery rates vary by wing molt status at time of banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery (i.e., shot, retrieved, and reported) rates and daily mortality risk of 52,330 adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) leg-banded during pre-molt, in-molt, or post-molt during 1985–2011 were evaluated to better understand mortality during wing molt in dynamics of the Mallard population in California, USA. Recovery rates and non-hunting mortality risk varied by molt status at time of banding and California region where banded. Mallards banded during post-molt were 1.22 (95% credible interval = 1.10–1.32) times more likely to be recovered than Mallards banded pre-molt; recovery probability was similar for pre-molt and in-molt Mallards. Mallards banded post-molt had 0.43 (0.17–0.98) and in-molt 0.87 (0.51–1.49) times the daily risk of non-hunting mortality as Mallards banded pre-molt. Mallards were 0.92 (0.86–0.98) times as likely to be recovered, and daily risk of non-hunting mortality was 2.93 (1.79–4.94) times greater, if banded in Northeastern California than in California's Central Valley. Results indicate that high mortality during the molt period, especially in Northeastern California where most Mallards that breed in California molt, might be negatively affecting recovery (and potentially annual survival) of Mallards in California. Thus, conservation programs that reduce mortality during molt could help attain the desired population size for Mallards nesting in California.

  10. Assessing the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality rate in Asia and North Africa: an application of latent growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, F; Talebi Ghane, E; Borumandnia, N

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major global health challenge. This study evaluates the change of HIV/AIDS mortality rates in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. HIV/AIDS mortality rates were derived from the GBD database from 1990 to 2010, for 52 countries in Asia and North Africa. First, a Latent Growth Model was employed to assess the change in AIDS mortality rate over time in six different regions of Asia, and also the change in AIDS mortality rate over time for males and females in Asia and North Africa. Finally, Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMMs) were applied to identify distinct groups in which countries within each group have similar trends over time. Our results showed that increase in mortality rate over time for males is about three times greater than for females. The highest and lowest trend of AIDS mortality rates were observed in South-East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions, respectively. The LGMM allocated most countries in the South and South-East region into two classes with the highest trend of AIDS mortality rates. Although the HIV/AIDS mortality rates are decreasing in some countries and clusters, the general trend in the Asian continent is upwards. Therefore, it is necessary to provide programmes to achieve the goal of access to HIV prevention measures, treatment, care, and support for high-risk groups, especially in countries with a higher trend of AIDS mortality rates.

  11. Temporal and spatial evolution of maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Brazil, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Barros, Mônica Barros de Lima; Pereira Neto, André; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Andrade, Mônica Kramer de Noronha; Flynn, Matthew Brian; Lino, Valéria Teresa Saraiva

    Maternal and neonatal mortality are important public health issues in low-income countries. This study evaluated spatial and temporal maternal and neonatal mortality trends in Brazil between 1997 and 2012. This study employed spatial analysis techniques using death records from the mortality information system. Maternal mortality rates per 100,000 and neonatal mortality rates (early and late) per 1000 live births were calculated by state, region, and period (1997-2000, 2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012). Multivariate negative binomial models were used to explain the risk of death. The mean Brazilian maternal mortality rate was 55.63/100,000 for the entire 1997-2012 period. The rate fell 10% from 1997-2000 (58.92/100,000) to 2001-2004 (52.77/100,000), but later increased 11% during 2009-2012 (58.69/100,000). Early and late neonatal mortality rates fell 33% (to 7.36/1000) and 21% (to 2.29/1000), respectively, during the 1997-2012 period. Every Brazilian region witnessed a drop in neonatal mortality rates. However, maternal mortality increased in the Northeast, North, and Southeast regions. Brazil's neonatal mortality rate has improved in recent times, but maternal mortality rates have stagnated, failing to meet the Millennium Development Goals. Public policies and intersectoral efforts may contribute to improvements in these health indicators. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxication with insecticides was also determined. The highest CO2 production and mortality rate was observed after mealworms exposition to neonicotinoid insecticide. The results suggest that high CO2 release after intoxication is adequate to the intensity of the non-specific action of the xenobiotic (e.g. hyperactivity of neuromuscular system, rather than the intensity of detoxification processes, and it is correlated with mealworms mortality.

  13. Association of Changing Hospital Readmission Rates With Mortality Rates After Hospital Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Wang, Yongfei; Lin, Zhenqiu; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Ross, Joseph S; Horwitz, Leora I; Desai, Nihar R; Suter, Lisa G; Drye, Elizabeth E; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-07-18

    The Affordable Care Act has led to US national reductions in hospital 30-day readmission rates for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. Whether readmission reductions have had the unintended consequence of increasing mortality after hospitalization is unknown. To examine the correlation of paired trends in hospital 30-day readmission rates and hospital 30-day mortality rates after discharge. Retrospective study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older hospitalized with HF, AMI, or pneumonia from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014. Thirty-day risk-adjusted readmission rate (RARR). Thirty-day RARRs and 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) after discharge were calculated for each condition in each month at each hospital in 2008 through 2014. Monthly trends in each hospital's 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were examined for each condition. The weighted Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for hospitals' paired monthly trends in 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge for each condition. In 2008 through 2014, 2 962 554 hospitalizations for HF, 1 229 939 for AMI, and 2 544 530 for pneumonia were identified at 5016, 4772, and 5057 hospitals, respectively. In January 2008, mean hospital 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were 24.6% and 8.4% for HF, 19.3% and 7.6% for AMI, and 18.3% and 8.5% for pneumonia. Hospital 30-day RARRs declined in the aggregate across hospitals from 2008 through 2014; monthly changes in RARRs were -0.053% (95% CI, -0.055% to -0.051%) for HF, -0.044% (95% CI, -0.047% to -0.041%) for AMI, and -0.033% (95% CI, -0.035% to -0.031%) for pneumonia. In contrast, monthly aggregate changes across hospitals in hospital 30-day RAMRs after discharge varied by condition: HF, 0.008% (95% CI, 0.007% to 0.010%); AMI, -0.003% (95% CI, -0.005% to -0.001%); and pneumonia, 0.001% (95% CI, -0.001% to 0.003%). However, correlation coefficients in

  14. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim; Hurtado, A M; Walker, R S

    2007-04-01

    Extant apes experience early sexual maturity and short life spans relative to modern humans. Both of these traits and others are linked by life-history theory to mortality rates experienced at different ages by our hominin ancestors. However, currently there is a great deal of debate concerning hominin mortality profiles at different periods of evolutionary history. Observed rates and causes of mortality in modern hunter-gatherers may provide information about Upper Paleolithic mortality that can be compared to indirect evidence from the fossil record, yet little is published about causes and rates of mortality in foraging societies around the world. To our knowledge, interview-based life tables for recent hunter-gatherers are published for only four societies (Ache, Agta, Hadza, and Ju/'hoansi). Here, we present mortality data for a fifth group, the Hiwi hunter-gatherers of Venezuela. The results show comparatively high death rates among the Hiwi and highlight differences in mortality rates among hunter-gatherer societies. The high levels of conspecific violence and adult mortality in the Hiwi may better represent Paleolithic human demographics than do the lower, disease-based death rates reported in the most frequently cited forager studies.

  15. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum......(3), >50 mum s(-1)) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing....

  16. An Investigation of the Mortality Rate and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the serious challenges facing neonatal medicine is meconium aspiration syndrome, delays in the treatment of which can lead to high mortality. Objectives This study was designed and conducted with the aim of determining the mortality rate and risk factors affecting this rate in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective descriptive research on newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Fatemieh and Be’sat hospitals in Hamadan city during a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Demographic information of the mother and the newborn, hospitalization course, the need for mechanical ventilation, and complications and outcomes of disease were extracted and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results Sixty-three newborn infants, diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome, were entered in this study, 40% of them were male, 85.7% wighed more than 2500 g, and 17.5% were post term, 25.3% had a five-minute Apgar Score (AS5min of less than seven, 39.6% were nonvigorous at birth, 31.8% needed to be placed on mechanical ventilation, and 14.3% died during the hospitalization course. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation, nonvigorous state at the birth, complications of disease and mortality rate. Conclusions Despite the progress made in medicine, meconium aspiration syndrome is still one of the causes of newborn infants’ mortality. The mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced by improvement in perinatal care, prevention of post term delivery, timely caesarean and effective neonatal resuscitation at birth.

  17. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteractiondisease risk. Conclusions Both sexes face increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease with lower estimated glomerular filtration rates and higher albuminuria. These findings were robust across a large global consortium. PMID:23360717

  18. Changes in Under-5 Mortality Rate and Major Childhood Diseases: A Country-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Cho, Youngtae

    2016-03-01

    Under-5 child mortality decreased throughout the world by 49% from 1990 to 2013. However, it is unknown if this reduction was more effectively achieved in countries with a higher child mortality burden. We investigated the reduction of cause-specific global child mortality burden in 2000-2010. A total of 195 countries were selected for this analysis. A random-effect or fixed-effect model was chosen based on the Hausman test. Countries with a higher child mortality rate performed better with regard to the prevention of child deaths from major infectious diseases, but cause-specific progress was highly variable by disease within each country. Pneumonia-specific progress was much slower than that for diarrhea, and neonatal-specific child mortality increased in some countries. With a few exceptions, the overall performance in the countries with the largest share of child deaths was not good. This study identified priority interventions for child survival in the post-2015 period. © 2015 APJPH.

  19. An ecological analysis of PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality rates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Lin, Gang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Qiao

    2015-11-24

    To explore the association between Particulate Matter (PM)2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) and lung cancer mortality rates and to estimate the potential risk of lung cancer mortality related to exposure to high PM2.5 concentrations. Geographically weighted regression was performed to evaluate the relation between PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality for males, females and for both sexes combined, in 2008, based on newly available long-term data. Lung cancer fatalities from long-term exposure to PM2.5 were calculated according to studies by Pope III et al and the WHO air quality guidelines (AQGs). 31 provinces in China. PM2.5 was associated with the lung cancer mortality of males, females and both sexes combined, in China, although there were exceptions in several regions, for males and females. The number of lung cancer fatalities calculated by the WHO AQGs ranged from 531,036 to 532,004, whereas the number calculated by the American Cancer Society (ACS) reached 614,860 after long-term (approximately 3-4 years) exposure to PM2.5 concentrations since 2008. There is a positive correlation between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality rate, and the relationship between them varies across the entire country of China. The number of lung cancer fatalities estimated by ACS was closer to the actual data than those of the WHO AQGs. Therefore, the ACS estimate of increased risk of lung cancer mortality from long-term exposure to PM2.5 might be more applicable for evaluating lung cancer fatalities in China than the WHO estimate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb-Rinker, Paromita; León, Juan Andrés; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates...... by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age-and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality. RESULTS: Proportion of live births ....02%), Canada (0.07%) and United States (0.08%). At 22-23 weeks, neonatal mortality rates were highest in Canada (892.2 per 1000 live births), Denmark (879.3) and Iceland (1000.0), moderately high in the United States (724.1), Finland (794.3) and Norway (739.0) and low in Sweden (561.2). Stillbirth:live birth...

  1. Long-term mortality rates and spatial patterns in an old-growth forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Silver; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Tuomas Aakala; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Understanding natural mortality patterns and processes of forest tree species is increasingly important given projected changes in mortality owing to global change. With this need in mind, the rate and spatial pattern of mortality was assessed over an 89-year period in a natural-origin Pinus resinosa (Aiton)-dominated system to assess these processes...

  2. Mortality rate and years of life lost from unintentional injury and suicide in South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    mortality rate for unintentional injuries and suicides combined was 137.1, with 54.9 for unintentional injuries and 82.2 for suicides respectively. Hanging and self-poisoning with pesticides were the preferred means of suicide. Unintentional injuries and suicides resulted in 26.9% of total life years lost......We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... over the study period while 18.9% of all deaths in the population were attributable to unintentional injuries and suicides in the same period. The high burden is particularly notable in the 15-29 age group, where up to 70% of years of life lost are due to injury. The burden of injuries reported...

  3. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  4. Persisting high hospital and community childhood mortality in an urban setting in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, Sidu; Jakobsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    in a community-based longitudinal surveillance system. Paediatric hospitalization rates, risk factors for hospitalizations, community mortality, in-hospital mortality and the proportion of deaths occurring at hospital were examined. RESULTS: Almost 15% of infants and 45% of children less than 5 years of age had...... been hospitalized, and 24% of all deaths in the community occurred in-hospital. Community infant and under-three mortality rates were 110 and 207 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In-hospital mortality remained persistently high from 1991 to 1996 and the overall in-hospital mortality was 12......AIM: To describe paediatric hospitalization in a West African capital in relation to overall childhood mortality in the community and to evaluate the potential impact of improved management at the hospital. METHODS: Hospital data on child admissions in a 6-year period were linked to information...

  5. Health trends in Sub-Saharan Africa: conflicting evidence from infant mortality rates and adult heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2010-07-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1961. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Six-fold difference in the stomach cancer mortality rate between northern and southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Kazem; Marzban, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Jafari, Nahid

    2012-12-01

    Stomach cancer is the most common cancer in Iran. A multi-ethnic population and wide variation in the environmental risk factors may lead to variations in cancer risk within this country. We have designed an ecological study and evaluated geographical variation regarding mortality from stomach cancer and its established risk factors in Iran.  We used the Iranian National Causes of Death Registry and estimated the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of stomach cancer in 29 Iranian provinces, stratified by sex and area of residence (rural/urban).  The average ASMR of stomach cancer among Iranian males was 15 per 100,000 and for females it was 8.1 per 100,000. The highest and lowest mortality rates were observed in Kurdistan with an ASMR of 29.1 per 100,000 in northwestern Iran and Hormozgan that had an ASMR of 5.0 per 100,000 in southern Iran. Males had approximately a two-fold higher ASMR compared to females, as did rural residents when compared with urban residents. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was about 90% in the province of Ardabil (a high-risk area) and 27% in the province of Sistan-Baluchistan (a low-risk area).  The wide geographical variation and high mortality rate of stomach cancer in Iran is likely due to differences in the exposure to the environmental risk factors among people living in the high- and low-risk areas, particularly H. pylori infection, a well-established risk factor of stomach cancer.

  7. Assessing the reduction in infant mortality rates in Malawi over the 1990-2010 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Imelda K; Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Jusrut, Poonam; Iwelunmor, Juliet I

    2017-06-01

    One of the key objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was to improve the lives of infants and children, particularly the reduction of high infant and childhood mortality rates throughout the developing world. This paper examines the experiences of Malawi in tackling the problem of high infant and childhood mortality over recent decades, 1990-2010. We highlight the strategies that were used in Malawi which led to Malawi's stellar performance in achieving the targets set by the MDGs with reference to infant and childhood mortality. The data for the analysis were obtained from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the various censuses the country has conducted. Regression analysis using district as the unit of observation reveals several important factors that have led to the commendable declines in infant mortality. Significant factors included immunisation of infants as well as increasing levels of female education and the availability of skilled birth attendants. What Malawi's case demonstrates is that given a correct mix of strategies, even a poor country such as Malawi can meet some of the lofty targets set by the MDGs.

  8. International Ranking of Infant Mortality Rates: Taiwan Compared with European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Lea-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Rankings of infant mortality rates are commonly cited international comparisons to assess the health status of individual countries. We compared the infant mortality rate of Taiwan with those of European countries for 2004 according to two definitions. First, the countries were ranked on the basis of crude infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates. The countries were then ranked according to the mortality rates calculated after exclusion of live births with a known birth weight of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates, respectively. The ranks were 12(th), 16(th), and 15(th), respectively, for mortality rates, excluding live births with a birth weight of mortality rate ratios statistically significantly lower than Taiwan in infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality, respectively, according to the second definition. The ranking of Taiwan was similar (11(th) vs. 12(th)) according the two definitions. However, after consideration of the confidence interval, only six countries (Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, and Germany) had infant mortality rates statistically significantly lower than those of Taiwan in 2004. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Rates and Risk Factors for Mortality among Tuberculosis Patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to identify risk factors associated with mortality during TB treatment and report on other treatment outcome within the National tuberculosis and leprosy treatment control programme (NTBLCP) programme in rural primary health care centres in Nigeria. Retrospective, cohort study. This study was ...

  10. Has reducing fine particulate matter and ozone caused reduced mortality rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2015-03-01

    Between 2000 and 2010, air pollutant levels in counties throughout the United States changed significantly, with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) declining over 30% in some counties and ozone (O3) exhibiting large variations from year to year. This history provides an opportunity to compare county-level changes in average annual ambient pollutant levels to corresponding changes in all-cause (AC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates over the course of a decade. Past studies have demonstrated associations and subsequently either interpreted associations causally or relied on subjective judgments to infer causation. This article applies more quantitative methods to assess causality. This article examines data from these "natural experiments" of changing pollutant levels for 483 counties in the 15 most populated US states using quantitative methods for causal hypothesis testing, such as conditional independence and Granger causality tests. We assessed whether changes in historical pollution levels helped to predict and explain changes in CVD and AC mortality rates. A causal relation between pollutant concentrations and AC or CVD mortality rates cannot be inferred from these historical data, although a statistical association between them is well supported. There were no significant positive associations between changes in PM2.5 or O3 levels and corresponding changes in disease mortality rates between 2000 and 2010, nor for shorter time intervals of 1 to 3 years. These findings suggest that predicted substantial human longevity benefits resulting from reducing PM2.5 and O3 may not occur or may be smaller than previously estimated. Our results highlight the potential for heterogeneity in air pollution health effects across regions, and the high potential value of accountability research comparing model-based predictions of health benefits from reducing air pollutants to historical records of what actually occurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the ...

  13. Fasting proinsulin levels are significantly associated with 20 year cancer mortality rates. The Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, I; van 't Riet, E; Stehouwer, C D A; Polak, B C P; Moll, A C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2013-05-01

    Proinsulin is possibly associated with cancer through activation of insulin receptor isoform A. We sought to investigate the associations between proinsulin and 20 year cancer mortality rates. The study was performed within the Hoorn Study, a population-based study of glucose metabolism in individuals aged 50-75 years in the Dutch population. Fasting proinsulin levels were measured twice by a double-antibody radioimmunoassay. Participants were continuously followed to register mortality; causes of death were derived from medical records. Cox survival analyses were performed to assess the 20 year risk of death from cancer in relation to proinsulin. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, with additional adjustments for traditional risk factors. The effect modification of glucose metabolism and sex was tested. Proinsulin levels were measured in 438 individuals (41% normal glucose tolerance, 35.7% impaired glucose metabolism, 23.3% type 2 diabetes). Of these participants, 53 died from cancer. After adjustment for age and sex, proinsulin >16.5 pmol/l (the upper tertile) was significantly associated with a twofold risk of cancer mortality (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.16, 3.46) compared with individuals with lower proinsulin levels. Additional adjustment for glucose metabolism, BMI and smoking did not substantially change the results (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04, 3.52). No interaction with glucose metabolism or sex was observed. Individuals with fasting proinsulin levels >16.5 pmol/l have a twofold risk of cancer mortality over a 20 year time span. These findings provide population-based evidence for the independent association between high proinsulin levels and cancer mortality rates.

  14. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  15. Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas-Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO. Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%. Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%, Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8% and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6% presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%, Paraiba (APC=11.9%, and Piaui (APC=10.9%. CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually, considerable inequalities are found, with rate decline or stabilization in states with higher socioeconomic levels and a substantial increase in those with lower socioeconomic levels.

  16. Age-specific trends in cardiovascular mortality rates in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Peeters (Anna); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); C. Stevenson (Christopher); E.J. Boyko (Edward); L. Moon (Lynelle); A. Tonkin (Andrew)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecent analyses suggest the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates is slowing in younger age groups in countries such as the US and the UK. This work aimed to analyse recent trends in cardiovascular mortality rates in the Netherlands. Analysis was of annual all circulatory,

  17. Risk factors and mortality rate of severely asphyxiated neonates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors and mortality rate of severely asphyxiated neonates in a tertiary centre in north-central Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2013) > ... Aim: The study was carried out to determine the maternal and foetal risk factors for the occurrence of severe birth asphyxia and the mortality rate of babies affected with this ...

  18. Infant and under five mortality rates for districts of Kwazulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infant and under five mortality rates are key indicators used internationally as sensitive but non-specific ways of comparing health status and development. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare infant and under-5 mortality rates for eleven health districts of KwaZulu-Natal province for priority health ...

  19. When heart goes “BOOM” to fast. Heart rate greater than 80 as mortality predictor in acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan; Dimitijevic, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Janicijevic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Many prospective studies established association between high heart rate and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors. Heart rate over 80 beats per minute more often leads to atherosclerotic plaque disruption, the main step in developing acute coronary syndrome. Purpose was to investigate the incidence of higher heart rate levels in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation and the influence of heart rate on ...

  20. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  1. Infant Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Danielle M; Driscoll, Anne K; Matthews, T J

    2017-09-01

    Key findings Data from the National Vital Statistics System ● Infant mortality rates decreased as urbanization level increased, from 6.55 deaths per 1,000 births in rural counties to 6.20 in small and medium urban counties and 5.44 in large urban counties. ● Neonatal mortality rates were higher in rural counties than in large urban counties, and postneonatal mortality rates decreased as urbanization level increased. ● Mortality rates decreased as urbanization level increased for infants of mothers aged 20-29, 30-39, and 40 and over. ● For infants of non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black mothers, mortality rates were lowest in large urban counties. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  2. When heart goes "BOOM" to fast. Heart rate greater than 80 as mortality predictor in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan; Dimitijevic, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Janicijevic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Many prospective studies established association between high heart rate and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors. Heart rate over 80 beats per minute more often leads to atherosclerotic plaque disruption, the main step in developing acute coronary syndrome. Purpose was to investigate the incidence of higher heart rate levels in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation and the influence of heart rate on mortality. Research included 140 patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac in the period from January 2001-June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission. Other risk factors were also followed to determine their connection with elevated heart rate. Results showed that the majority of patients survived (over 70%). In a total number of patients, more than 75% had a heart rate levels greater than 80 beats per minute. There was a significant difference in heart rate on addmision between survivors and patients who died, with a greater levels in patients with fatal outcome. Both, univariate and multivariate regression analysis singled out heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute as independent mortality predictor in these patients. Heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute is a major, independent risk factor for morbidity and important predictor of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  3. The impact of debt relief on under five mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, John Bosco; Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena; Picone, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative on under five mortality rate (U5MR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative involves debt forgiveness and the redirection of funds that were meant to service external debt towards the provision of social services and poverty reduction in eligible countries. The Initiative is akin to a natural experiment since some countries benefited while some did not, and the timing of debt forgiveness varied across countries. We exploit these variations to identify the impact of HIPC Initiative on child mortality using a dynamic panel data estimator. We find that participation in HIPC Initiative is associated with statistically significant decreases in U5MR. On the other hand, the impact of actual debt cancelled is statistically insignificant.

  4. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (pbroiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  5. Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh Silva

    Full Text Available Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used.Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility.Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong assumptions about recent mortality

  6. Operative Mortality Rates of Acoustic Neuroma Surgery: A National Cancer Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Ellen; Murphy, James D; Jaboin, Jerry J

    2017-06-01

    Optimal acoustic neuroma (AN) management involves choosing between three treatment modalities: microsurgical excision, radiation, or observation with serial imaging. The reported in-hospital mortality rate of surgery for AN in the United States is 0.5%. However, there has yet to be a nationwide examination of the AN surgery mortality rate encompassing the period beyond initial hospital discharge. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) from 2004 to 2013 identified AN patients receiving surgery. Multivariate logistic regression assessed 30-day operative mortality, adjusting for several variables including patient age, race, sex, income, geographic region, primary payer for care, tumor size, and medical comorbidities. Ten thousand one hundred thirty six patients received surgery as solitary treatment for AN. Mortality at 30 days postoperatively occurred in 49 patients (0.5%); only a Charlson/Deyo score of 2 (odds ratio [OR] = 6.6;95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-16.6; p = 0.002) was predictive of increased mortality. No other patient demographic including African-American race, minimum age of 65 or government insurance was predictive of 30-day operative mortality. The 30-day mortality rate following surgery for AN is 1 of 200 (0.5%), equivalent to the established in-hospital operative mortality rate, and 2.5 times higher than the cumulative assessment from single-center studies. No patient demographic other than increasing medical comorbidities reached significance in predicting 30-day operative mortality. The nearly identical rates of 30-day and in-hospital mortality from separate nationwide analyses indicate that nearly all of the operative mortality occurs before initial postoperative discharge from the hospital. This mortality rate provides a framework for comparing the true risks and benefits of surgery versus radiation or observation for AN.

  7. Countries with high circumcision prevalence have lower prostate cancer mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell S Wachtel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the relationship of male circumcision (MC prevalence with prostatic carcinoma mortality rate in the 85 countries globally for which data on each were available. MC prevalence in different countries were obtained from a WHO report and allocated to WHO categories of 81%-100%, 20%-80%, and 0%-19%. Prostatic carcinoma mortality data were from Globoscan, gross national income per capita as well as male life expectancy were from a World Bank report, and percentages of Jews and Muslims by country were from the Pew Research Institute and the North American Jewish Data Bank. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate prostatic carcinoma mortality rate ratios. Compared to countries with 81%-100% MC prevalence, prostatic carcinoma mortality rate was higher in those with MC prevalence of 0%-19% (adjusted OR [adjOR] =1.82; 95% CI 1.14, 2.91 and 20%-80% (adjOR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16, 2.78. Higher Muslim percentage (adjOR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.87, 0.98] for each 10% increase and longer life expectancy (adjOR = 0.82 [95% CI 0.72, 0.93] for each 5 additional years were associated with lower prostatic carcinoma mortality. Higher gross national income per capita (adjOR = 1.10 [95% CI 1.01, 1.20] for double this parameter correlated with higher mortality. Compared with American countries, prostatic carcinoma mortality rate was similar in Eastern Mediterranean countries (adjOR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.58, 1.76, but was lower in European (adjOR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.50, 0.74 and Western Pacific countries (adjOR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.37, 0.78. Thus, prostate cancer mortality is significantly lower in countries in which MC prevalence exceeds 80%.

  8. Systematic review of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality rates among hepatitis B virus-infected renal transplant recipients, with supplemental analyses of liver failure and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare the mortality rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seropositive renal transplant (RT) patients versus HBsAg-seropositive persons of the general population. A comprehensive search was performed to identify cohort studies of HBsAg-seropositive RT patients with at least 4 years of follow-up. Data were analyzed as outlined below. HCC was a rare event in regions of low and intermediate seroprevalence of HBsAg. Subsequently, studies from low and intermediate seroprevalence areas were analyzed separately from those of high seroprevalence areas. Thirty-one retrospective studies that followed 1277 seropositive RT patients were identified for inclusion. The studies were pooled and compared to four different general population studies that included 12558 seropositive persons using Poisson methods. The mortality rate of HCC was increased in low and intermediate seroprevalence areas (RR 7.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.93-15.0; RR 9.92, 95% CI 5.38-18.3). In high seroprevalence areas, the mortality rate of HCC was increased compared to one population study, but not another (RR 2.76, 95% CI 1.64-4.63; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.61-1.69). Mortality due to HCC was increased in low and intermediate seroprevalence areas, but the evidence was inconclusive for high seroprevalence areas. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of morbidity and mortality rate in cattle in village areas of Pune division in the Maharashtra state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Wakchaure

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to analyse morbidity and mortality rate in cattle in village areas of Pune division in the Maharashtra state. Materials and Methods: The data of total 1538 cattle were collected from 421 cattle owners by stratified two-stage random sampling design and analysed statistically by SAS 9.3 software for evaluation of Chi-square analysis. Result: Overall morbidity and mortality rates in cattle were 22.24% & 4.42%, respectively. Reproductive (7.09% and digestive (5.14% diseases were major causes of morbidity in the study area. Adult cattle showed high (28.97% morbidity due to reproductive problems which are major challenges under village conditions in study area. Digestive (1.43% and nutritional (0.85% diseases were major causes of mortality of cattle. Chi-square analysis revealed that the morbidity was significantly (p<0.01 related with age groups while mortality was significantly (p<0.01 related with age and sex. Highest mortality rate (16.81% were observed among calves and male were at higher (17.86% mortality risk than that of female. Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality studies provide an important tool for determining the health status and guidelines for managemental practices, which will ultimately help in increasing the milk production and improve the economic status of livestock owners. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 512-515

  10. Trends of mortality rates during the last thirty years in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, George; Zavras, Dimitrios; Bonikos, Dionysis; Kyriopoulos, John

    2004-12-01

    General mortality rates and specific mortality rates by major causes of death (coronary disease, cancer, tuberculosis, traffic accidents, suicide, vascular disorders of central neural system) in Greece have been studied throughout the 30-year period 1967--1996 and time trends have being calculated by nonlinear models of trend analysis. The results confirm the general pattern of decrease of mortality in Greece during the particular period of time as a result of the combination of the impact of two controversial trends: on one hand the decrease of infant mortality and mortality from infectious disorders and on the other the relatively slower and more gradual increase in mortality rates by disorders related to the western lifestyle culture, such as cardiovascular disorders and cancer. During the period under study in Greece the impact of the second trend seems to inflict less severe implication in the formulation of the pattern of general mortality especially as women are concerned. This statistically significant and gradually increasing difference in mortality between men and women in Greece has been confirmed in general mortality time trends as well as in the evaluation of the relatively better pattern of mortality trends of women from particular "western lifestyle" disorders.

  11. Abdominal injuries after high falls: high incidence and increased mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hensbroek, P. Boele; van Ooijen, M.; Lamers, A. B. G. N.; Ponsen, K.-J.; Goslings, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Falls from height are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Injuries to the extremities and head are common. However, little has been reported on abdominal injuries or their treatment. This study aims to assess the abdominal injuries, treatment, and mortality after falls from height. We searched

  12. Falling status epilepticus mortality rates in England and Wales: 2001-2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neligan, Aidan; Walker, Matthew C

    2016-07-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with significant mortality and accounts for ~10% of epilepsy-related deaths. Epilepsy and SE mortality data from 2001 to 2013, in addition to annual age group populations for England and Wales, were obtained from the Office of National Statistics website (www.ons.gov.uk). Age-adjusted mortality rates for epilepsy and SE with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the European Standard Population. Trends in mortality rates for both epilepsy and SE were investigated using the Spearman coefficient. The crude mean epilepsy mortality rate per 100,000 person-years between 2001 and 2013 was 1.87 (95% CI 1.83-1.91), with a corresponding SE mortality rate of 0.14 (95% CI 0.13-0.15). The mean age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rate per 100,000 person years was 3.24 (95% CI 3.12-3.35), with a corresponding SE mortality rate of 0.24 (95% CI 0.21-0.27). All epilepsy deaths significantly decreased from 2001 to 2013 (Spearman's ρ -0.733, p = 0.004); this decrease was predominantly due to a decrease in SE deaths (Spearman's ρ -0.917, p Wales. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Ecological context of infant mortality in high-focus states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladusingh, Laishram; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Awdhesh

    2016-01-01

    This goal of this study was to shed light on the ecological context as a potential determinant of the infant mortality rate in nine high-focus states in India. Data from the Annual Health Survey (2010-2011), the Census of India (2011), and the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08) were used in this study. In multiple regression analysis explanatory variable such as underdevelopment is measured by the non-working population, and income inequality, quantified as the proportion of households in the bottom wealth quintile. While, the trickle-down effect of education is measured by female literacy, and investment in health, as reflected by neonatal care facilities in primary health centres. A high spatial autocorrelation of district infant mortality rates was observed, and ecological factors were found to have a significant impact on district infant mortality rates. The result also revealed that non-working population and income inequality were found to have a negative effect on the district infant mortality rate. Additionally, female literacy and new-born care facilities were found to have an inverse association with the infant mortality rate. Interventions at the community level can reduce district infant mortality rates.

  14. Lower Mortality Rate in Elderly Patients With Community‐Onset Pneumonia on Treatment With Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Cangemi, Roberto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Calvieri, Camilla; Barillà, Francesco; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Palange, Paolo; Taliani, Gloria; Venditti, Mario; Violi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is complicated by high rate of mortality and cardiovascular events (CVEs). The potential benefit of aspirin, which lowers platelet aggregation by inhibition of thromboxane A2 production, is still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of aspirin on mortality in patients with pneumonia. Methods and Results Consecutive patients admitted to the University‐Hospital Policlinico Umberto I (Rome, Italy) with community‐onset pneumonia were recruited and prospectively followed up until discharge or death. The primary end point was the occurrence of death up to 30 days after admission; the secondary end point was the intrahospital incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. One thousand and five patients (age, 74.7±15.1 years) were included in the study: 390 were receiving aspirin (100 mg/day) at the time of hospitalization, whereas 615 patients were aspirin free. During the follow‐up, 16.2% of patients died; among these, 19 (4.9%) were aspirin users and 144 (23.4%; Paspirin nonusers. Overall, nonfatal CVEs occurred in 7% of patients, 8.3% in nonaspirin users, and 4.9% in aspirin users (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 3.04; P=0.040). The Cox regression analysis showed that pneumonia severity index (PSI), severe sepsis, pleural effusion, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio aspirin therapy was associated with improved survival. Compared to patients receiving aspirin, the propensity score adjusted analysis confirmed that patients not taking aspirin had a hazard ratio of 2.07 (1.08 to 3.98; P=0.029) for total mortality. Conclusions This study shows that chronic aspirin use is associated with lower mortality rate within 30 days after hospital admission in a large cohort of patients with pneumonia. PMID:25564372

  15. Evaluating mortality rates with a novel integrated framework for nonmonogamous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenan, Simone; Iemma, Aaron; Bragalanti, Natalia; Pedrini, Paolo; De Barba, Marta; Randi, Ettore; Groff, Claudio; Genovart, Meritxell

    2016-12-01

    The conservation of wildlife requires management based on quantitative evidence, and especially for large carnivores, unraveling cause-specific mortalities and understanding their impact on population dynamics is crucial. Acquiring this knowledge is challenging because it is difficult to obtain robust long-term data sets on endangered populations and, usually, data are collected through diverse sampling strategies. Integrated population models (IPMs) offer a way to integrate data generated through different processes. However, IPMs are female-based models that cannot account for mate availability, and this feature limits their applicability to monogamous species only. We extended classical IPMs to a two-sex framework that allows investigation of population dynamics and quantification of cause-specific mortality rates in nonmonogamous species. We illustrated our approach by simultaneously modeling different types of data from a reintroduced, unhunted brown bear (Ursus arctos) population living in an area with a dense human population. In a population mainly driven by adult survival, we estimated that on average 11% of cubs and 61% of adults died from human-related causes. Although the population is currently not at risk, adult survival and thus population dynamics are driven by anthropogenic mortality. Given the recent increase of human-bear conflicts in the area, removal of individuals for management purposes and through poaching may increase, reversing the positive population growth rate. Our approach can be generalized to other species affected by cause-specific mortality and will be useful to inform conservation decisions for other nonmonogamous species, such as most large carnivores, for which data are scarce and diverse and thus data integration is highly desirable. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. State-level analysis of variation in infant mortality rate: A socio-ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sobiech, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infant mortality has been used as a predictor of population health, and was higher in the United States compared to other developed countries. The rate of infant mortality varies greatly at the State level, with infants born in southern States having an increase risk. ^ Methods: This paper investigates influential variables in all five dimensions of the socio-ecological model on State infant mortality in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the amount ...

  17. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P < 0.001). There was no meaningful relationship between the mortality rate of patients with MI who were either opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  18. Perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands compared to other European countries: a secondary analysis of Euro-PERISTAT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ank; Baron, Ruth; Westerneng, Myrte; Twisk, Jos; Hutton, Eileen K

    2013-08-01

    the poor perinatal mortality ranking of the Netherlands compared to other European countries has led to questioning the safety of primary care births, particularly those at home. Primary care births are only planned at term. We therefore examined to which extent the perinatal mortality rate at term in the Netherlands contributes to its poor ranking. secondary analyses using published data from the Euro-PERISTAT study. women that gave birth in 2004 in the 29 European regions and countries called 'countries' included in the Euro-PERISTAT study (4,328,441 women in total and 1,940,977 women at term). odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the comparison of perinatal mortality rates between European countries and the Netherlands, through logistic regression analyses using summary country data. combined perinatal mortality rates overall and at term. Perinatal deaths below 28 weeks, between 28 and 37 weeks and from 37 weeks onwards per 1000 total births. compared to the Netherlands, perinatal mortality rates at term were significantly higher for Denmark and Latvia and not significantly different compared to seven other countries. Eleven countries had a significantly lower rate, and for eight the term perinatal mortality rate could not be compared. The Netherlands had the highest number of perinatal deaths before 28 weeks per 1000 total births (4.3). the relatively high perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands is driven more by extremely preterm births than births at term. Although the PERISTAT data cannot be used to show that the Dutch maternity care system is safe, neither should they be used to argue that the system is unsafe. The PERISTAT data alone do not support changes to the Dutch maternity care system that reduce the possibility for women to choose a home birth while benefits of these changes are uncertain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of differential unemployment rate increases of occupation groups on changes in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, P T; Valkonen, T

    1998-12-01

    This study estimated the effects of changes in unemployment rates of occupation groups on changes in mortality in a period of increasing unemployment. Census records for all 20- to 64-year-old economically active Finnish men in 1985 were linked to information on unemployment and deaths in 1987 through 1993. Change in mortality was similar in occupation groups in which unemployment rates increased at a different pace. These relationships were similar for all age groups and for mortality from diseases as well as accidents and violence. Unemployment does not seem to cause mortality in the short term. Excess mortality rates among unemployed individuals observed in previous studies may have been due in part to selection.

  20. Mortality rates in Israel from causes amenable to health care, regional and international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberger Nehama; Haklai Ziona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mortality from causes amenable to health care is a valuable indicator of quality of the health care system, which can be used to assess inter-regional differences and trends over time. This study investigates these mortality rates in Israel over time, and compares inter-regional and international rates in recent years. Results Age-adjusted amenable mortality rates have been decreasing steadily in Israel, by 31% for males and 28% for females between 1998–2000 and 2007–2009....

  1. How are mortality rates affected by population density?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei; Di, Zengru; Roehner, Bertrand M

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have found that the death rate of cells in culture depends upon their spatial density. Permanent "Stay alive" signals from their neighbours seem to prevent them from dying. In a previous paper (Wang et al. 2013) we gave evidence for a density effect for ants. In this paper we examine whether there is a similar effect in human demography. We find that although there is no observable relationship between population density and overall death rates, there is a clear relationship between density and the death rates of young age-groups. Basically their death rates decrease with increasing density. However, this relationship breaks down around 300 inhabitants per square kilometre. Above this threshold the death rates remains fairly constant. The same density effect is observed in Canada, France, Japan and the United States. We also observe a striking parallel between the density effect and the so-called marital status effect in the sense that they both lead to higher suicide rates and are both enhanced fo...

  2. Annual all-cause mortality rate for patients with diabetic kidney disease in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Gary Ang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study estimated the annual all-cause mortality rate for Singaporean patients with diabetic kidney disease by CKD stages and identified predictors of all-cause mortality. This study has affirmed the poor prognosis of these patients and an urgency to intervene early so as to retard the progression to later stages of CKD.

  3. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for non-Hispanic white women. For non-Hispanic black women, preterm-related causes of death account for most of their higher infant mortality ... Infant mortality rates were higher for non-Hispanic black than for non-Hispanic ... of the causes of death shown in ( Figure 3 ). The largest difference was ...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4022, App. A Appendix A to Part 4022—Lump Sum Mortality...

  5. Mortality rate will likely increase under Senate healthcare bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Today (6/27/17 an article was published in the Annals of Internal Medicine by Steffie Woolhandler and David Himmelstein from New York University on the effects of health insurance on mortality (1. The article has special significance because of pending healthcare legislation in the Senate. The Annals article concludes that the odds of dying among the insured relative to the uninsured is 0.71 to 0.97. However, the authors acknowledge that this is a very difficult study to conduct because of the nonrandomized, observational nature of the studies and lack of a strict separation between covered and uncovered Americans. For example, many people cycle in and out of insurance diluting differences between groups. Of course, what is needed is a randomized trial, and surprisingly, one does exist which is discussed in the Annals article (1,2. In 2008, Oregon initiated a limited expansion of its Medicaid program for about 6,000 poor, able-bodied, uninsured …

  6. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  7. New myocardial infarction definition affects incidence, mortality, hospitalization rates and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Fernando; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Sala, Joan; Masiá, Rafael; Ramos, Rafel; Grau, María

    2015-10-01

    To analyse differences in myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and hospitalization rates, 28-day case-fatality and two-year prognosis using two myocardial infarction case definitions: the classical World Health Organization definition (1994) and the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition (2000), which added cardiac troponin as a diagnostic biomarker. Population-based cohort of 4170 consecutive myocardial infarction patients aged 35-74 years from Girona (Spain) recruited between 2002 and 2009. Incidence, mortality rates standardized to the European population and 28-day case-fatality were calculated. To estimate the association between case definition and prognosis, Cox models were fitted. Use of the 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition significantly increased myocardial infarction incidence per 100,000 population (238.3 vs. 274.5 in men and 54.1 vs. 69.7 in women). Applying this definition decreased the 28-day case-fatality rate from 26.9% to 23.4% in men, and from 31.0% to 24.1% in women. In the acute phase, patients diagnosed only by increased troponins were significantly less treated with thrombolysis (34.4% vs. 2.0%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (71.7% vs. 65.0%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (41.1% vs. 31.7%). Case-fatality at 28 days was significantly better in cases diagnosed only by troponin increase (0.2 % vs. 9.7%), but two-year cardiovascular mortality was higher (7.5% vs. 3.7%). Inclusion of cardiac troponins in myocardial infarction diagnosis increased annual incidence and decreased case-fatality. Diagnosis based only on increased troponins was associated with worse outcome. This group of patients at high risk of death should receive aggressive secondary prevention therapy. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  8. Decline of infant and child mortality rates in rural Senegal over a 37-year period (1963-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, V; Etard, J F; Préziosi, M P; Marra, A; Simondon, F

    2001-12-01

    In spite of an improving trend, childhood mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa remains high and has recently risen in some countries. The factors associated with the long-term decline in childhood mortality are poorly known, due to a lack of data. A Senegalese rural population has been under demographic surveillance since 1963. Infant and under-5 mortality rates were calculated for different periods to generate a long-term trend in childhood mortality. Evolution of age and seasonal patterns of mortality were observed. During the observation period (1963-1999), infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 223 per thousand to 80 per thousand and 485 per thousand to 213 per thousand , respectively, with a constant annual rate of decline in the probability of dying since the 1960s (-3.7% and -3.1%, respectively). The age pattern of the under-5 mortality changed drastically, with a large decrease in the death rate between 6 and 24 months of age (from 321 per thousand to 87 per thousand ). This change took place during the 1970s. The seasonal variation, characterized by a greater proportion of deaths during the rainy season, was very marked during the 1960s, then decreased during the 1980s but it has tended to increase again in the 1990s, particularly among children 1-4 years old. This study confirms the long-term trend of decrease in child mortality in rural West Africa. Historical knowledge on healthcare developments suggests that immunizations have contributed to the decrease and the change in the age pattern. The re-emergence of malaria seems the most likely explanation for the recent rebound in seasonal variation. Attention to immunization and malaria should continue to be a priority.

  9. Characteristics and mortality rate of neonates with congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in the hospital. Although all patients with hepato/splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia were investigated for CMV infection, not all of them had positive results. Therefore, in this study we compared. CMV-infected and -uninfected neonates among those who were.

  10. Forecasting the mortality rates using Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R. I.; Ngataman, N.; Abrisam, W. N. A. Wan Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Improvement in life expectancies has driven further declines in mortality. The sustained reduction in mortality rates and its systematic underestimation has been attracting the significant interest of researchers in recent years because of its potential impact on population size and structure, social security systems, and (from an actuarial perspective) the life insurance and pensions industry worldwide. Among all forecasting methods, the Lee-Carter model has been widely accepted by the actuarial community and Heligman-Pollard model has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. Therefore, this paper only focuses on Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model. The main objective of this paper is to investigate how accurately these two models will perform using Malaysian data. Since these models involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 8.0 (MATLAB 8.0) software will be used to estimate the parameters of the models. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) procedure is applied to acquire the forecasted parameters for both models as the forecasted mortality rates are obtained by using all the values of forecasted parameters. To investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecasted results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The results indicate that both models provide better results for male population. However, for the elderly female population, Heligman-Pollard model seems to underestimate to the mortality rates while Lee-Carter model seems to overestimate to the mortality rates.

  11. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... rate in the 1st year of life and a much lower rate in the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that survival was lower in the winter months for ringing data during 1920–2002 but not for radiotagged owls during 2005–2008 that experienced the highest mortality rates during...

  12. Mortality rate in children caused by traffic accidents according to geographical regions - Brazil, 1997 - 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Maria; Arruda, Celso; Loffredo, Leonor de Castro Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Fatal injuries in children caused by motor vehicle accidents represent a common situation in many countries worldwide. The present study addresses the mortality rate in children as vehicle passengers in Brazil, from 1997 to 2005. To evaluate mortality rates, the number of deaths was collected from the National Mortality Information System (SIM) and the population size was obtained using the Brazilian Bureau Census (IBGE) data available at DATASUS. Mortality rates were estimated in three-year periods and analyzed according to age groups (younger than 1 year old, 1-4 years old, 5-9 years old) and geographical regions using a 95% confidence interval. Overall results showed mortality rates of 5.68, 7.32 and 6.78 (per 1,000,000) for the 1997-1999, 2000-2002 and 2003-2005 periods, respectively for the whole country. Children younger than 1 year old had a mortality rate of 10.18 (per 1,000,000), which was higher than for the other age groups. For the period analyzed, the highest rates were observed for the Mid-West and South regions of Brazil, with rates of 13.88 and 11.47 (per 1,000,000), respectively. These results show the risk of fatal injury in children caused by motor vehicle accidents and may contribute to the establishment of educational campaigns aiming injury prevention in children as vehicle passengers.

  13. Oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in Mexico, 1979-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Saavedra, Gabriela; Ramírez-Amador, Velia; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Zimbrón-Romero, Araceli; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, information on oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) is scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the trends in OPC mortality rates in Mexico from 1979 through 2003 and to describe the distribution of OPC deaths for selected socio-demographic variables for the period of 2001-2003. Annual crude and age-adjusted mortality rates were obtained by gender and site of lesion, using the 2003 WHO World standard million population. The Poisson regression model was used to detect a trend in the mortality rates, testing the hypothesis beta(1) = 0. Also, the annual percentage change (APC) was computed over the age-adjusted rates. The total number of OPC deaths during the period 1979-2003 was 15,576. The age-adjusted mortality rate was 1.13/100,000 in 1979 and 1.08/100,000 in 2003. Oral cancer was more frequently found than salivary gland and pharyngeal cancer (41.5% vs. 13.4% and 17.1%). The tongue (19%) was the most frequent oral affected site. The Poisson regression analysis indicated a stationary trend in cancer mortality rate; also, the APC regression model showed no increase or decrease in OPC from 1979 to 2003. Oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in Mexico were low compared to most countries, and remained stable in the past two decades.

  14. Self-rated versus Caregiver-rated Health for Patients with Mild Dementia as Predictors of Patient Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Siersma, Volkert; Vogel, Asmus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-assessment of health is a strong and independent predictor of mortality for cognitively intact people. Because the ability of patients with dementia to rate their own health is questionable, caregiver-rated health for patients may serve as a proxy. The authors aimed to validate an...

  15. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring : a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. METHODS: From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified

  16. Heart rate variability predicts 30-day all-cause mortality in intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HRV), has shown promise in predicting clinically important outcomes in the critical care setting; however, there is debate concerning its utility. ... Keywords: APACHE II, autonomic nervous system, critical care, heart rate variability, mortality ...

  17. NCHS - Infant and neonatal mortality rates: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rates are infants (under 1 year) and neonatal (under 28 days) deaths per 1,000 live births. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data-visualization/mortality-trends/

  18. Mesocosms adrift: a method to estimate fish egg and larvae mortality rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houde, E.D; Gamble, J.C; Dorsey, S.E; Cowan, J.H

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a method to deploy mesocosms from a research vessel that would allow estimates of mortality rates of fish eggs and larvae to be obtained over periods of one to three days...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES High AIDS-related mortality among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mortality. KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) is at the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in South Africa.1 As the HIV I AIDS epidemic has matured there have been anecdotal ..... August 2007, Vol. 97, No. 8 SAMJ. Although the overall death rates were similar for both men and women, viz. 31 (25 - 37)/1 000 person-years for men.

  20. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods: Data about live births, stillbirths...... and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating...... risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results: Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10...

  1. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar A; Wang, Alex Y; Hilder, Lisa; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Farquhar, Cindy; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2018-02-01

    Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 non-ART and 15 416 ART)-393 491 singletons and 10 877 twins or high order multiples. All births (≥20 weeks of gestation and/or ≥400 g of birthweight) in five states and territories in Australia during the period 2007-2009 were included in the study, using National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC). Primary outcome measures were rates of stillbirth, neonatal and perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the likelihood of perinatal death. Rates of multiple birth and low birthweight were significantly higher in ART group compared to the non-ART group (P ART births (16.5 per 1000 births, 95% CI 14.5-18.6), compared to non-ART births (11.3 per 1000 births, 95% CI 11.0-11.6) (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.68). However, gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births (including both singletons and multiples) was lower for very preterm (ART births. Congenital abnormality and spontaneous preterm were the most common causes of neonatal deaths in both ART and non-ART group. Due to different cut-off limit for perinatal period in Australia, the results of this study should be interpreted with cautions for other countries. Australian definition of perinatal period commences at 20 completed weeks (140 days) of gestation and ends 27 completed days after birth which is different from the definition by World Health Organisation (commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of

  2. US County-Level Trends in Mortality Rates for Major Causes of Death, 1980–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W.; Morozoff, Chloe; Kutz, Michael J.; Huynh, Chantal; Barber, Ryan M.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE County-level patterns in mortality rates by cause have not been systematically described but are potentially useful for public health officials, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve health and reduce geographic disparities. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the use of a novel method for county-level estimation and to estimate annual mortality rates by US county for 21 mutually exclusive causes of death from 1980 through 2014. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Redistribution methods for garbage codes (implausible or insufficiently specific cause of death codes) and small area estimation methods (statistical methods for estimating rates in small subpopulations) were applied to death registration data from the National Vital Statistics System to estimate annual county-level mortality rates for 21 causes of death. These estimates were raked (scaled along multiple dimensions) to ensure consistency between causes and with existing national-level estimates. Geographic patterns in the age-standardized mortality rates in 2014 and in the change in the age-standardized mortality rates between 1980 and 2014 for the 10 highest-burden causes were determined. EXPOSURE County of residence. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cause-specific age-standardized mortality rates. RESULTS A total of 80 412 524 deaths were recorded from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2014, in the United States. Of these, 19.4 million deaths were assigned garbage codes. Mortality rates were analyzed for 3110 counties or groups of counties. Large between-county disparities were evident for every cause, with the gap in age-standardized mortality rates between counties in the 90th and 10th percentiles varying from 14.0 deaths per 100 000 population (cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases) to 147.0 deaths per 100 000 population (cardiovascular diseases). Geographic regions with elevated mortality rates differed among causes: for example, cardiovascular disease mortality tended to be highest along the

  3. Extremely preterm infant mortality rates and cesarean deliveries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton, Beau; Burnett, Christopher; Verhulst, Steven; Batton, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    To estimate trends in infant mortality rates and cesarean delivery rates for extremely preterm infants born in the United States. This national population-based study used public data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to investigate extremely preterm infants born alive between 22 0/7 and 27 6/7 weeks of gestational age from 1999 to 2005. There were 177,552 extremely preterm infant births (fewer than 1% of all births) from 1999 to 2005. The number of annual extremely preterm births increased by 7% compared with a 4.5% increase for births at all gestations. During the study years, the extremely preterm infant mortality rate (percentage of infants who died in the first year) remained steady (range 33-34%; P=.22), whereas the cesarean delivery rate increased from 43% to 54% (Pinfant mortality rate after cesarean delivery increased from 24% to 26% (P=.012). At each gestational age, the annual cesarean delivery rate increased over time (Pinfant mortality rates were unchanged except for a 2% decline from 2004 to 2005 for infants born at 24 weeks of gestation (P=.01). A significant rise in the cesarean delivery rate in the United States from 1999 to 2005 for infants born at less than 28 weeks of gestation was not associated with an improvement in the infant mortality rate.

  4. Mortality rates in OECD countries converged during the period 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremberg, Sven G

    2017-06-01

    Since the scientific revolution of the 18th century, human health has gradually improved, but there is no unifying theory that explains this improvement in health. Studies of macrodeterminants have produced conflicting results. Most studies have analysed health at a given point in time as the outcome; however, the rate of improvement in health might be a more appropriate outcome. Twenty-eight OECD member countries were selected for analysis in the period 1990-2010. The main outcomes studied, in six age groups, were the national rates of decrease in mortality in the period 1990-2010. The effects of seven potential determinants on the rates of decrease in mortality were analysed in linear multiple regression models using least squares, controlling for country-specific history constants, which represent the mortality rate in 1990. The multiple regression analyses started with models that only included mortality rates in 1990 as determinants. These models explained 87% of the intercountry variation in the children aged 1-4 years and 51% in adults aged 55-74 years. When added to the regression equations, the seven determinants did not seem to significantly increase the explanatory power of the equations. The analyses indicated a decrease in mortality in all nations and in all age groups. The development of mortality rates in the different nations demonstrated significant catch-up effects. Therefore an important objective of the national public health sector seems to be to reduce the delay between international research findings and the universal implementation of relevant innovations.

  5. Economic impacts of the mortality rate for suckling pigs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-09-15

    To measure economic impacts attributable to the mortality rate for suckling pigs in the United States. Economic analysis that incorporated data from various sources. Suckling pigs on U.S. swine farms. Economic impacts associated with the mortality rate for suckling pigs during 1995 were estimated from supply-and-demand curves for pork and from an estimate of the elasticity of production for pigs entering the grower-finisher phase of production. A decrease in the mortality rate for suckling pigs would have caused an increase in pork production and a decrease in price and total value of production. Assuming no suckling pigs had died during 1995, consumer surplus would have increased by (mean +/- SE) 430 +/- 160 million dollars, whereas producer surplus would have decreased by 180 +/- 140 million dollars. The total gain to the US economy would have been 250 +/- 30 million dollars. Researchers who attempt to estimate the economic impact of mortality and morbidity rates of livestock should not ignore the influence of demand and the possibility of price adjustments. Consumers would stand to benefit from an increase in pork production associated with a reduction in the mortality rate for suckling pigs, whereas the swine industry would experience an economic loss. Individual producers need to compare the costs of measures intended to reduce the mortality rate for suckling pigs with the anticipated benefits.

  6. Mortality rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with a FIGO score of ≥13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Riedl, Cécilia; Massardier, Jérôme; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; You, Benoit; Schott, Anne-Marie; Hajri, Touria; Golfier, François

    2016-03-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases include premalignant (partial and complete hydatidiform moles) and malignant entities referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Use of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics prognostic score is encouraged in cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia to predict the potential for the development of resistance to single-agent chemotherapy. An International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics score of ≥7 defines a high-risk patient and requires combination chemotherapy. Appropriate and rapid diagnosis, treatment by specialized centers, and reduction of early deaths at the time of chemotherapy initiation have led to significant improvements in survival for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. There is a crucial need for the early identification of high-risk patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who have an increased death risk to organize their treatment in highly specialized centers. The purpose of this study was to describe cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that have resulted in death, particularly in a subgroup with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics prognostic score of ≥13, for whom low-dose etoposide and cisplatin induction chemotherapy recently was shown to reduce early death rate. We identified 974 patients from the French Center for Trophoblastic Diseases who had a diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia from November 1999 to March 2014. Among 140 patients who were at high risk of resistance to single-agent chemotherapy (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics score, ≥7), 29 patients (21%) had a score of ≥13. Mortality rate was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The 5-year overall mortality rate, after the exclusion of placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, was 2% for patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (95% confidence interval, 1

  7. Relationship of metal metabolism to vascular disease mortality rates in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, E B; Frey, M J; Moore, T D; McGanity, W J

    1978-07-01

    The annual mortality rates for 1968 of six types of cardiovascular diseases among those persons over 45 years of age in 24 Texas communities were compared with respective community drinking water and urine metal levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lithium, strontium, and silicon. Numerous inverse correlations were found between mortality rates and the levels of various metals in both drinking water and urine. Positive correlations were also observed between several of the mortality rates and the ratio of the concentration of sodium to that of the other metals in both water and urine. Mean community urinary levels of lithium, magnesium, strontium, and silicon showed a direct correlation to the levels of exposure via the drinking water. The results of this study suggest that calcium, magnesium, lithium strontium, and silicon may protect against cardiovascular mortality; possibly, by competing with sodium and potassium for transport in the intestinal lumen, increasing excretion of sodium, or other mechanism.

  8. Militarism and mortality. An international analysis of arms spending and infant death rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U

    1985-06-15

    Examination of data from 141 countries showed that infant mortality rates for 1979 were positively correlated with the proportion of gross national product devoted to military spending (r = 0.23, p less than 0.01) and negatively correlated with indicators of economic development, health resources, and social spending. In a multivariate analysis controlling for per caput gross national product, arms spending remained a significant positive predictor of infant mortality rate (p less than 0.0001), while the proportion of the population with access to clean water, the number of teachers per head, and caloric consumption per head were negative predictors. The multivariate model accounted for much of the observed variance in infant mortality rate (R2 = 0.78, p less than 0.0001), and showed good fit to similar data for the year 1972 (R2 = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). The model was also predictive of infant mortality rates in subgroup analysis of underdeveloped, middle developed, and developed nations. Analysis of time trends confirmed that an increase in military spending presages a poor record of improvement in infant mortality rate. These findings support the hypothesis that arms spending is causally related to infant mortality.

  9. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  10. Mortality rates in Israel from causes amenable to health care, regional and international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Nehama; Haklai, Ziona

    2012-10-25

    Mortality from causes amenable to health care is a valuable indicator of quality of the health care system, which can be used to assess inter-regional differences and trends over time. This study investigates these mortality rates in Israel over time, and compares inter-regional and international rates in recent years. Age-adjusted amenable mortality rates have been decreasing steadily in Israel, by 31% for males and 28% for females between 1998-2000 and 2007-2009. Amenable mortality was lower in the center of the country than in the Northern, Southern, and Haifa districts. The proportion of mortality from circulatory diseases was highest in the North and Haifa districts and from cancer in the Tel-Aviv and Central districts. A higher proportion of infectious diseases was seen in the Southern district.In comparison with amenable mortality rates in 20 European countries, Israel ranked 8th lowest for males and 12th lowest for females, in 2008. The rate was lower than in Britain, Ireland, and Portugal; lower than in Germany, Spain, Austria, and Finland for males; and higher than France, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Italy. But Israel ranked higher in the decrease in amenable mortality rates between 2001 and 2007 for females than males in a 19 country comparison. Genitourinary diseases were a larger component in Israel than other countries and circulatory diseases were smaller. The indicator of amenable mortality shows improvement in health outcomes over the years, but continuing improvement is needed in health care and education, in particular in the periphery of Israel and for females.

  11. Mortality rates in Israel from causes amenable to health care, regional and international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberger Nehama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from causes amenable to health care is a valuable indicator of quality of the health care system, which can be used to assess inter-regional differences and trends over time. This study investigates these mortality rates in Israel over time, and compares inter-regional and international rates in recent years. Results Age-adjusted amenable mortality rates have been decreasing steadily in Israel, by 31% for males and 28% for females between 1998–2000 and 2007–2009. Amenable mortality was lower in the center of the country than in the Northern, Southern, and Haifa districts. The proportion of mortality from circulatory diseases was highest in the North and Haifa districts and from cancer in the Tel-Aviv and Central districts. A higher proportion of infectious diseases was seen in the Southern district. In comparison with amenable mortality rates in 20 European countries, Israel ranked 8th lowest for males and 12th lowest for females, in 2008. The rate was lower than in Britain, Ireland, and Portugal; lower than in Germany, Spain, Austria, and Finland for males; and higher than France, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Italy. But Israel ranked higher in the decrease in amenable mortality rates between 2001 and 2007 for females than males in a 19 country comparison. Genitourinary diseases were a larger component in Israel than other countries and circulatory diseases were smaller. Conclusion The indicator of amenable mortality shows improvement in health outcomes over the years, but continuing improvement is needed in health care and education, in particular in the periphery of Israel and for females.

  12. High readmission rates and mental distress after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease requiring lengthy hospitalisation. Little is known about patients' recovery after IE. The aims of this study in IE patients were; (i) to describe mortality, readmission, self-reported health and rehabilitation up to 1year post-discharge,......-off score of 8. Almost half (47%) had not been offered cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CONCLUSIONS: After IE, mortality and readmission rates were high and self-reported physical and mental health poor. These findings call for changes in in-hospital and post-discharge management....... in a questionnaire survey (responders n=122). Responses were compared with those of a background reference population and a heart valve surgery population. Mortality and readmission data from registers 12months post-discharge were investigated. RESULTS: Patients discharged after treatment for IE had a mortality...

  13. Kidney Transplantation and Waitlist Mortality Rates among Candidates Registered as Willing to Accept a Hepatitis C Infected Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brittany A; Sawinski, Deirdre; Mehta, Shikha; Reed, Rhiannon D; MacLennan, Paul A; Locke, Jayme E

    2017-12-26

    HCV-infected (HCV+) ESRD patients derive significant survival benefit from kidney transplantation (KT) over remaining on dialysis. Given high mortality rates on dialysis and the unique ability to accept HCV+ and HCV- donor kidneys, understanding their access to KT is essential. 3,963 adult kidney-only candidates reported as willing to accept an HCV+ kidney from 2008-2014 were identified and assumed to be HCV+. Time-at-risk began at date of listing. Cumulative incidence of transplant and waitlist mortality were assessed using competing risks, and separate mixed effects Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine waitlist mortality and transplantation rates. All models were adjusted for candidate demographic and clinical characteristics with a random effect for listing OPO with nested listing center. HCV+ candidates were commonly older (>50 years: 82.6%), African-American (52.8%), and male (73.6%). Five years after listing 35.5% of candidates were transplanted with an HCV+ donor kidney, 9.7% transplanted with an HCV- donor kidney, and 23.6% died on the waitlist. Overall transplant rates exceeded waitlist mortality rates (22.69 vs. 11.45 per 100 person-years [PY]), largely driven by transplantation with HCV+ donor kidneys. Utilization of HCV+ donor kidneys was associated with increased transplantation rate (17.72 per 100 PY) while rate of transplant with HCV- donor kidneys was much lower (4.97 per 100 PY) than waitlist mortality (11.45 per 100 PY). In light of effective HCV therapies, it may be prudent to institute strategies to decrease waiting time and waitlist mortality for HCV+ candidates by increasing utilization of HCV+ donor kidneys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing and mapping spatial associations among oral cancer mortality rates, concentrations of heavy metals in soil, and land use types based on multiple scale data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2014-02-21

    In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk.

  15. Change in the structures, dynamics and disease-related mortality rates of the population of Qatari nationals: 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohamed H; Sadoun, Eman; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Khalifa, Shamseldin A; Sayegh, Suzan; Badawi, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Developing effective public health policies and strategies for interventions necessitates an assessment of the structure, dynamics, disease rates and causes of death in a population. Lately, Qatar has undertaken development resurgence in health and economy that resulted in improving the standard of health services and health status of the entire Qatari population (i.e., Qatari nationals and non-Qatari residents). No study has attempted to evaluate the population structure/dynamics and recent changes in disease-related mortality rates among Qatari nationals. The present study examines the population structure/dynamics and the related changes in the cause-specific mortality rates and disease prevalence in the Qatari nationals. This is a retrospective, analytic descriptive analysis covering a period of 5years (2007-2011) and utilizes a range of data sources from the State of Qatar including the population structure, disease-related mortality rates, and the prevalence of a range of chronic and infectious diseases. Factors reflecting population dynamics such as crude death (CDR), crude birth (CBR), total fertility (TFR) and infant mortality (IMR) rates were also calculated. The Qatari nationals is an expansive population with an annual growth rate of ∼4% and a stable male:female ratio. The CDR declined by 15% within the study period, whereas the CBR was almost stable. The total disease-specific death rate, however, was decreased among the Qatari nationals by 23% due to the decline in mortality rates attributed to diseases of the blood and immune system (43%), nervous system (44%) and cardiovascular system (41%). There was a high prevalence of a range of chronic diseases, whereas very low frequencies of the infectious diseases within the study population. Public health strategies, approaches and programs developed to reduce disease burden and the related death, should be tailored to target the population of Qatari nationals which exhibits characteristics that vary from

  16. Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    diagnostic categories. Mortality rates were examined as a function of number and type of co-occurring diagnoses. Results: Psychiatric outcomes for 1247 subjects were associated with 157 deaths. Early mortality risk in psychiatric patients correlated with the number of diagnostic categories (Wald ¿² = 25.......0, df = 1, P anxiety and personality disorders, but not for schizophrenia and substance abuse, which had intrinsically high mortality rates with no comorbidities. Conclusions: Risk of early mortality among psychiatric patients appears to be a function of both...

  17. Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    diagnostic categories. Mortality rates were examined as a function of number and type of co-occurring diagnoses. Results: Psychiatric outcomes for 1247 subjects were associated with 157 deaths. Early mortality risk in psychiatric patients correlated with the number of diagnostic categories (Wald χ² = 25.......0, df = 1, P anxiety and personality disorders, but not for schizophrenia and substance abuse, which had intrinsically high mortality rates with no comorbidities. Conclusions: Risk of early mortality among psychiatric patients appears to be a function of both...

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  19. Comparison of Mortality Rates in Different Categories of Pigs and Cattle during Transport for Slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The death of animals during transport for slaughter is a major factor indicating the level of welfare in transported animals. However, research data that report the level of animal welfare as reflected in transport-related mortality rates of individual animal species and categories are missing. The present study focused on losses of pigs and cattle in the period from 1997 to 2006. Transport-related mortality rates were recorded by species and categories of animals and also for the following travel distances: up to 50 km, 51-100 km, 101-200 km, 201-300 km, and over 300 km. Rates differed according to species and category. The highest mortality rates were found in young sows, sows, and boars (0.2562% followed by fattened pigs (0.1075%, excluded dairy cows (0.0396%, calves (0.0269%, and fattened cattle (0.0069%. Significant differences were found among mortality rates (p 300 km, with a significant difference (p < 0.05 between short and long travel distances being found in fattened pigs, fattened cattle and dairy cows. Mortality rates in animals during transport for slaughter show young sows, sows, and boars to be the most susceptible to transport-related stress, followed by fattened pigs, dairy cows, and calves, whereas the highest resistance was observed in fattened cattle.

  20. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia has already achieved the one health center for 25,000 population plan. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, the physicians and hospitals to population ratios were extremely low, which have probably contributed to the high maternal and perinatal mortality in the last three decades. KEYWORDS: Ethiopia, hospitals, maternal ...

  2. Parental mortality rates in a western country after the death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Smits, Luc J.M.; Li, Jiong

    2010-01-01

    to unnatural death (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.84–1.77). Bereaved fathers who had lost a son had similar mortality as those bereaved by the death of a daughter (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86–1.40). Bereaved mothers who had lost a daughter had similar mortality as those bereaved by the death of a son (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0...... identified as the bereaved (exposed) group. Mortality rates of parents within the same-sex parent-child dyad were compared with mortality rates of parents within the opposite-sex parent-child dyad. Separate analyses were performed for bereaved fathers and for bereaved mothers, and additional analyses were...... fathers). Bereaved parents who had lost a child of the same sex had similar overall mortality as bereaved parents who had lost a child of the opposite sex (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.85–1.22). Similar findings were observed for mortality due to natural death (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78–1.18) or mortality due...

  3. Infant mortality rates according to socioeconomic status in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zubaran Goldani

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Data from municipal databases can be used to plan interventions aimed at reducing inequities in health care. The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of infant mortality according to an urban geoeconomic classification using routinely collected municipal data. METHODS: All live births (total of 42,381 and infant deaths (total of 731 that occurred between 1994 and 1998 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were considered. Four different geoeconomic areas were defined according to the family head's income in each administrative urban zone. RESULTS: The trends for infant mortality rate and its different components, neonatal mortality rate and post-neonatal mortality rate, decreased in Ribeirão Preto from 1994 to 1998 (chi-square for trend, p<0.05. These rates were inversely correlated with the distribution of lower salaries in the geoeconomic areas (less than 5 minimum wages per family head, in particular the post-neonatal mortality rate (chi-square for trend, p<0.05. Finally, the poor area showed a steady increase in excess infant mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that infant mortality rates are associated with social inequality and can be monitored using municipal databases. The findings also suggest an increase in the impact of social inequality on infant health in Ribeirão Preto, especially in the poor area. The monitoring of health inequalities using municipal databases may be an increasingly more useful tool given the continuous decentralization of health management at the municipal level in Brazil.

  4. Infant mortality rates according to socioeconomic status in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Data from municipal databases can be used to plan interventions aimed at reducing inequities in health care. The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of infant mortality according to an urban geoeconomic classification using routinely collected municipal data. METHODS: All live births (total of 42,381 and infant deaths (total of 731 that occurred between 1994 and 1998 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were considered. Four different geoeconomic areas were defined according to the family head's income in each administrative urban zone. RESULTS: The trends for infant mortality rate and its different components, neonatal mortality rate and post-neonatal mortality rate, decreased in Ribeirão Preto from 1994 to 1998 (chi-square for trend, p<0.05. These rates were inversely correlated with the distribution of lower salaries in the geoeconomic areas (less than 5 minimum wages per family head, in particular the post-neonatal mortality rate (chi-square for trend, p<0.05. Finally, the poor area showed a steady increase in excess infant mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that infant mortality rates are associated with social inequality and can be monitored using municipal databases. The findings also suggest an increase in the impact of social inequality on infant health in Ribeirão Preto, especially in the poor area. The monitoring of health inequalities using municipal databases may be an increasingly more useful tool given the continuous decentralization of health management at the municipal level in Brazil.

  5. A review of Aboriginal infant mortality rates in Canada: striking and persistent Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Fell, Deshayne; Ohlsson, Arne

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Working Group on First Nations, Indian, Inuit, and Métis Infant Mortality of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System is a collaboration of national Aboriginal organizations and federal and provincial/territorial stakeholders. Our objective was to better understand what is currently known about Aboriginal infant mortality rates (IMR) in Canada. As part of a larger international systematic review of Indigenous IMR calculation, we searched the published literature for original research regarding the calculation of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis infant mortality rates at the national and provincial/territorial level. We identified major deficiencies in the coverage and quality of infant mortality data for Aboriginal populations in Canada. The review of provincial and territorial reporting of infant mortality for Aboriginal populations revealed substantial provincial and territorial variation in the way that birth and death data were collected. With respect to coverage, high-quality IMRs were available only for Status Indians and communities with a high proportion of Inuit residents. No rates were available for Métis or non-Status Indians. Striking and persistent disparities persist in the IMRs for Status Indians and in communities with a high proportion of Inuit residents, compared to the general Canadian population. There is an urgent need to work in partnership with First Nations, Indian, Inuit, and Métis stakeholder groups to improve the quality and coverage of Aboriginal IMR information and to acquire information that would help to better understand and address the underlying causes of disparities in infant mortality between the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population in Canada.

  6. Factors Influencing The Six-Month Mortality Rate In Patients With A Hip Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodovic Tanja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several potential risk factors in patients with a hip fracture for a higher rate of mortality that include: comorbid disorders, poor general health, age, male gender, poor mobility prior to injury, type of fracture, poor cognitive status, place of residence. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of potential risk factors for six-month mortality in hip fracture patients.

  7. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    -rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus......) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants...

  8. Correlation Among Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates and Internet Searches in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Mackenzie R; Nead, Kevin T; Linos, Eleni

    2017-09-01

    Population-level disease metrics are critical to guide the distribution of resources and implementation of public health initiatives. Internet search data reflect population interest in health topics and may be an alternative metric of disease characteristics when traditional sources are lacking, such as in basal and squamous cell carcinomas, which are not included in national cancer registries. However, these data are not yet well validated or understood. To evaluate whether state-specific normalized internet search volume correlates with incidence and mortality rates of common cancers in the United States, including melanoma. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Google search volume index data and US cancer incidences and mortalities of 8 of the most incident cancers in the United States in 2009 to 2013, at the state level, per the National Program of Cancer Registries. Participants were people performing Google searches and patients diagnosed as having cancers reported to cancer registries. Correlation between Google search volumes, normalized to total Google search volume, and National Program of Cancer Registries recorded cancer incidence and mortality rates. By state, relative Google search volume statistically significantly correlated with cancer incidence rates in 5 of 8 commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States (colon cancer: R = 0.61; P search volume also correlated with mortality rates. Population-level internet search behavior may be a valuable real-time tool to estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates, especially for cancers not included in national registries, such as basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  9. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in acute coronary syndromes: Different equations, different mortality risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Inês; Caetano, Francisca; Barra, Sérgio; Madeira, Marta; Mota, Paula; Leitão-Marques, António

    2016-06-01

    Renal dysfunction is a powerful predictor of adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome. Three new glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations recently emerged, based on serum creatinine (CKD-EPIcreat), serum cystatin C (CKD-EPIcyst) or a combination of both (CKD-EPIcreat/cyst), and they are currently recommended to confirm the presence of renal dysfunction. Our aim was to analyse the predictive value of these new estimated GFR (eGFR) equations regarding mid-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and compare them with the traditional Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-4) formula. 801 patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (age 67.3±13.3 years, 68.5% male) and followed for 23.6±9.8 months were included. For each equation, patient risk stratification was performed based on eGFR values: high-risk group (eGFRformula, the CKD-EPIcyst equation accurately reclassified a significant percentage of patients into more appropriate risk categories (net reclassification improvement index of 11.9% (p=0.003)). The CKD-EPIcyst equation added prognostic power to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score in the prediction of mid-term mortality. The CKD-EPIcyst equation provides a novel and improved method for assessing the mid-term mortality risk in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome, outperforming the most widely used formula (MDRD-4), and improving the predictive value of the GRACE score. These results reinforce the added value of cystatin C as a risk marker in these patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  10. Relationship of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy-related mortality and morbidity rates and effectiveness with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagin, Y F; Atayan, Y; Erdoğan, M A; Bilgic, Y

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is insertion of a tube to stomach through abdominal wall for provision of nutrition in patients who couldn't be fed by oral route. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate PEG procedures performed in our facility regarding indication, complication and effectiveness and to determine whether these characteristics have a relationship with advancing age. In this descriptive study, we reviewed clinical and endoscopic records of 300 patients who underwent PEG procedure between May 2009 and December 2011. The patients were divided into 2 groups(group 1 > 75, group 2 PEG was neurological (67.3%). Wound infection (6.0%) was most common early complication while tube occlusion (4.7%) was most common late complication. No significant difference was detected between groups regarding morbidity and mortality (p 0.05). PEG should be preferred at early period in patients who couldn't be fed by oral route for prolonged time as it is a minimally invasive, simple, inexpensive, highly effective, physiologic and safe. PEG was found to have no relationship with advancing age regarding indications, morbidity, mortality rate and effectiveness. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  11. Age-standardized mortality rates related to viral hepatitis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Hugo; Pacheco, Antonio G; Luz, Paula M; Castro, Rodolfo; Hyde, Chris; Fittipaldi, Juliana; Rigolon, Caroline; Cardoso, Sandra W; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G

    2017-07-31

    Liver-related mortality has been increasing worldwide. We aimed to estimate the age-standardized mortality rates from viral hepatitis in Brazil. The Brazilian National Death Registry was analyzed from 2008 to 2014. Viral hepatitis deaths were defined by the following ICD-10 codes in the death certificate: hepatitis A [B15.0; B15.9]; hepatitis B [B16.2; B16.9; B18.1]; hepatitis C [B17.1; B18.2]; hepatitis Delta [B16.0; B16.1; B18.0; B17.0] and other viral hepatitis [B17.2; B17.8; B18.8; B18.9; B19.0; B19.9]. Crude mortality rates were calculated by the ratio between total number of deaths and estimated population. Mortality rates were age-standardized by the direct method using the WHO standard population. Thirty four thousand ,nine hundred seventy eight deaths had viral hepatitis mentioned in their death certificate [65% male, aged 58 years, 73% associated with hepatitis C]. Age-standardized mortality rate (95% CI) due to viral hepatitis was 2.695 (2.667-2.724) deaths per 100,000 inhabitants: South region had the higher rates [3.997 (3.911-4.085)]. Mortality rates associated with hepatitis A and Delta were 0.032 (0.029-0.035) and 0.028 (0.025-0.031), respectively. Hepatitis C mortality rates were 4-fold higher than those associated with hepatitis B [1.964 (1.940-1.989) vs 0.500 (0.488-0.512)]. South region had the higher rates for hepatitis C [3.163 (3.087-3.241)] and North had the higher rates for hepatitis A [0.066 (0.049-0.087)], B [0.986 (0.918-1.058)] and Delta [0.220 (0.190-0.253)]. Viral hepatitis remains a major public health issue in Brazil. Mortality rates were not homogeneous across the country, suggesting that health policies should be customized according to geographical location.

  12. Morbidity and mortality rates in a NOVA SCOTIA First Nations Community, 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Stevens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Despite an abundance of data and analysis of First Nations morbidity and mortality rates, accurate data have not been available to serve the First Nations community in Eastern Canada. Data for Eskasoni, the largest Mi'kmaq community, were obtained for 1996 through 1999 and Cape Breton and Nova Scotia were used as regional and provincial reference populations respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks (AARR) were calculated for overall mortality and disease-specific hospital admissions. Eskasoni's mortality AARR was greater than 1.0 in 3 of the 4 years studied, although the data may understate Eskasoni's mortality rates. Eskasoni's total admission AARRs were significantly greater than the two reference populations. Neoplasm admission rates were generally lower, while circulatory disease admission AARRs were significantly higher. A rise in diabetic admission rates was noted with the AARR reaching statistical significance in the final years of the study. Respiratory disease was the leading cause of hospitalization with significantly greater rates of admission than regional or provincial rates. Pneumonia and influenza accounted for more than one half of respiratory admissions. Infectious disease admissions were more prevalent in Eskasoni while rates of liver disease were generally low. Results suggest that members of the largest Mi'kmaq band are at greater risk for a number of disease categories and health promotion should be targeted toward respiratory ailments, circulatory disease and diabetic management. Further analysis, however, remains an important priority.

  13. High Levels Of Bed Occupancy Associated With Increased Inpatient And Thirty-Day Hospital Mortality In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Ladelund, Steen; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    to low bed occupancy rates. Being admitted to a hospital outside of normal working hours or on a weekend or holiday was also significantly associated with increased mortality. The health risks of bed shortages, including mortality, could be better documented as a priority health issue. Resources should......High bed occupancy rates have been considered a matter of reduced patient comfort and privacy and an indicator of high productivity for hospitals. Hospitals with bed occupancy rates of above 85 percent are generally considered to have bed shortages. Little attention has been paid to the impact...... of these shortages on patients' outcomes. We analyzed all 2.65 million admissions to Danish hospitals' departments of medicine in the period 1995-2012. We found that high bed occupancy rates were associated with a significant 9 percent increase in rates of in-hospital mortality and thirty-day mortality, compared...

  14. Elevated infant mortality rate among Dutch oral cleft cases: a retrospective analysis from 1997 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Pieter Frederik Van Nunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: First, to determine the infant mortality rate for Dutch patients with isolated oral clefts as well as for patients with clefts seen in association with other malformations. Second, to conduct a similar analysis per cleft type: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate (including Robin sequence. Third, to examine the underlying causes of death. Material and methods: A retrospective review of the charts of patients with oral clefts born in the period 1997-2011 and treated in three regional cleft centers in the Netherlands. Results: 1530 patients with oral clefts were born during the study period and treated in the cleft centers. The overall infant mortality rate for all clefts was 2.09%, significantly higher than the general Dutch infant mortality rate of 0.45%. In a subanalysis per cleft type the infant mortality rates were 1.22%, 1.38%, 2.45% and 3.62% for cleft lip, cleft lip with cleft palate, cleft palate and Robin sequence. The mortality rates for isolated oral clefts did not differ significantly from the general Dutch rate. Causes of death were congenital malformations of the heart in 40.6%, airway / lungs in 15.6%, nervous system in 15.6%, infectious disease in 12.5% and other or unknown in 15.6%. Conclusion: The elevated infant mortality rate observed in Dutch patients with oral clefts is almost exclusively caused by associated congenital malformations. After diagnosis of an oral cleft an in-depth medical examination and a consult by the pediatrician and clinical geneticist is imperative to instigate the appropriate medical management.

  15. Disparities in mortality rates among US infants born late preterm or early term, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk.

  16. Investigating the Decline of Fetal and Infant Mortality Rates in Alaska During 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Cheryl B; Young, Margaret B; Sappenfield, William; Parrish, Jared W

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. infant mortality rate has been steadily declining since 2007. Although the downward trend has been notable in Alaska since 2006 when the rate was 6.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births, a dramatic drop in infant mortality occurred in 2010 and 2011 when the infant mortality rate fell to 3.8 infant deaths per 1000 live births during both years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sudden decrease in fetal and infant mortality rates (FIMR) using the perinatal periods of risk (PPOR) method, an approach that has not been used previously in Alaska. The study was conducted for 251 fetal and infant deaths in 2004-2006, 265 deaths in 2007-2009, and 129 deaths in 2010-2011. Data were stratified by Alaska Native (AN) and White maternal race and urban/rural residence. Among both urban and rural White women, the rate ratios (RR) for FIMRs between the earlier and later time periods were not significantly different. The postneonatal mortality rate (PNMR) among AN infants living in rural areas decreased significantly (RR 0.40; 95 % confidence interval 0.21-0.76) between 2007-2009 and 2010-2011. An unexplained increase in sudden unexplained infant death was noted in 2009, followed by a precipitous decrease in 2010-2011. No other unusual distribution of the cause specific mortality rates was observed. The decrease in the Alaska Native FIMR might have been due to focused efforts for preventing postneonatal sleep associated deaths. Education for prevention of sleep related deaths, particularly in rural communities, is necessary to maintain Alaska's low PNMR.

  17. Disparities in Mortality Rates Among US Infants Born Late Preterm or Early Term, 2003–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazmararian, Julie A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks gestation) and early term (37–38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003–2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85,9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk. PMID:23519825

  18. Canada's pregnancy-related mortality rates: doing well but room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Barbara S E; Mijovic-Kondejewski, Jane; Takeda, Jun; Tanaka, Satomi; Olson, David M

    2015-02-06

    Canada's perinatal, infant and maternal mortality rates were examined and compared with other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The type and the quality of the available data and best practices in several OECD countries were evaluated. A literature search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Vital statistics data were obtained from the OECD Health Database and Statistics Canada and subjected to secondary analysis. Overall, Canadian pregnancy mortality rates have fallen dramatically since the early 1960's. Perinatal and infant mortality rates remain low and stable, but the maternal mortality rate has increased slightly and both mortality rates have declined in their relative OECD rankings over the last 20 years. Data quality and coverage across Canada and internationally, especially for Indigenous peoples, is inconsistent and registration practices differ greatly, making comparisons difficult. Available data do show that Indigenous people's perinatal and infant mortality rates are nearly twice those of the general population. Best practices in other OECD countries include Australia's National Maternity Services plan to improve Aboriginal perinatal health, the Netherlands' midwifery services and National Perinatal Registry and Japan's national pregnancy registration and Maternal Handbook. To diminish Canadian disparities in perinatal health rates and improve health outcomes we recommend a) uniform registration practices across Canada, b) better data quality and coverage especially among Indigenous communities, c) adoption of a national pregnancy registration and a maternal handbook along with d) improved midwifery and primary practice services to rural and remote communities. At a time when Canada is focusing upon improving pregnancy health in developing nations, it also needs to address its own challenges in improving pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Community-based incidence rate of cardiovascular disease and mortality in 50-75 year old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, A; Bascuñana-Quirell, A; Elvira-González, J; Beltrán-Robles, M; Aboza-Lobatón, A; Solís-Díaz, R

    2013-01-01

    Updated information on the incidence of the principal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality is not available in Spain. We have studied the incidence rate of new cases of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and cardiovascular mortality in the adult population in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain). A community-based prospective follow-up study was conducted. The study enrolled 858 participants aged 50-75 years who were randomly selected from the population and followed-up for 5 years. Age and gender-adjusted incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality were calculated, obtaining complete information for 855 participants. Prognostic risk factors of new cases of cardiovascular disease were obtained using Cox proportional hazard modeling. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure was 455/100.000 persons-year. The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality (506, 216 and 225/100.000 persons-year, respectively) was also very elevated. Male gender, family history of early cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and sedentary life style were independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain) is very high, and it is the first to be reported in Spain. The incidence of myocardial infarction is among the highest in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  1. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women.

  2. Asbestos in Belgium: an underestimated health risk. The evolution of mesothelioma mortality rates (1969–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although Belgium was once a major international manufacturer of asbestos products, asbestos-related diseases in the country have remained scarcely researched. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a descriptive analysis of Belgian mesothelioma mortality rates in order to improve the understanding of asbestos health hazards from an international perspective. Methods: Temporal and geographical analyses were performed on cause-specific mortality data (1969–2009) using quantitative demographic measures. Results were compared to recent findings on global mesothelioma deaths. Results: Belgium has one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates in the world, following the UK, Australia, and Italy. With a progressive increase of male mesothelioma deaths in the mid-1980s, large differences in mortality rates between sexes are apparent. Mesothelioma deaths are primarily concentrated in geographic areas with proximity to former asbestos industries. Conclusions: Asbestos mortality in Belgium has been underestimated for decades. Our findings suggest that the location of asbestos industries is correlated with rates of mesothelioma, underlining the need to avert future asbestos exposure by thorough screening of potential contaminated sites and by pursuing a global ban on asbestos. PMID:24999848

  3. Asbestos in Belgium: an underestimated health risk. The evolution of mesothelioma mortality rates (1969-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although Belgium was once a major international manufacturer of asbestos products, asbestos-related diseases in the country have remained scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to provide a descriptive analysis of Belgian mesothelioma mortality rates in order to improve the understanding of asbestos health hazards from an international perspective. Temporal and geographical analyses were performed on cause-specific mortality data (1969-2009) using quantitative demographic measures. Results were compared to recent findings on global mesothelioma deaths. Belgium has one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates in the world, following the UK, Australia, and Italy. With a progressive increase of male mesothelioma deaths in the mid-1980s, large differences in mortality rates between sexes are apparent. Mesothelioma deaths are primarily concentrated in geographic areas with proximity to former asbestos industries. Asbestos mortality in Belgium has been underestimated for decades. Our findings suggest that the location of asbestos industries is correlated with rates of mesothelioma, underlining the need to avert future asbestos exposure by thorough screening of potential contaminated sites and by pursuing a global ban on asbestos.

  4. Differential Neonatal and Postneonatal Infant Mortality Rates across US Counties: The Role of Socioeconomic Conditions and Rurality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. Methods: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship…

  5. Perioperative mortality in cats and dogs undergoing spay or castration at a high-volume clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A

    2017-06-01

    High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forecasting the mortality rates of Malaysian population using Heligman-Pollard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Mohd, Razak; Ngataman, Nuraini; Abrisam, Wan Nur Azifah Wan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Actuaries, demographers and other professionals have always been aware of the critical importance of mortality forecasting due to declining trend of mortality and continuous increases in life expectancy. Heligman-Pollard model was introduced in 1980 and has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. This paper aims to estimate an eight-parameter model based on Heligman and Pollard's law of mortality. Since the model involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 7.0 (MATLAB 7.0) software will be used in order to estimate the parameters. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be applied to forecast all the parameters according to Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). The empirical data sets of Malaysian population for period of 1981 to 2015 for both genders will be considered, which the period of 1981 to 2010 will be used as "training set" and the period of 2011 to 2015 as "testing set". In order to investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecast results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The result shows that Heligman-Pollard model fit well for male population at all ages while the model seems to underestimate the mortality rates for female population at the older ages.

  7. Background mortality rates for recovering populations of Acropora cytherea in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M S; Pisapia, C; Sheppard, C R C

    2013-05-01

    This study quantified background rates of mortality for Acropora cytherea in the Chagos Archipelago. Despite low levels of anthropogenic disturbance, 27.5% (149/541) of A. cytherea colonies exhibited some level of partial mortality, and 9.0% (49/541) of colonies had recent injuries. A total of 15.3% of the overall surface area of physically intact A. cytherea colonies was dead. Observed mortality was partly attributable to overtopping and/or self-shading among colonies. There were also low-densities of Acanthaster planci apparent at some study sites. However, most of the recent mortality recorded was associated with isolated infestations of the coral crab, Cymo melanodactylus. A. cytherea is a relatively fast growing coral and these levels of mortality may be biologically unimportant. However, few studies have measured background rates of coral mortality, especially in the absence of direct human disturbances. These data are important for assessing the impacts of increasing disturbances, especially in projecting likely recovery. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Do Mortality Rates in Eating Disorders Change over Time? A Longitudinal Look at Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Krishna, Meera; Davis, Martha C.; Keel, Pamela K.; Herzog, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate, our understanding of the timing and predictors of mortality in eating disorders is limited. The authors investigated mortality in a long-term study of patients with eating disorders. Method Beginning in 1987, 246 treatment-seeking women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa were interviewed every 6 months for a median of 9.5 years to obtain weekly ratings of eating disorder symptoms, comorbidity, treatment participation, and psychosocial functioning. From January 2007 to December 2010 (median follow-up of 20 years), vital status was ascertained with a National Death Index search. Results Sixteen deaths (6.5%) were recorded (lifetime anorexia nervosa, N=14; bulimia nervosa with no history of anorexia nervosa, N=2). The standardized mortality ratio was 4.37 [95% CI=2.4-7.3] for lifetime anorexia nervosa and 2.33 [95% CI=0.3-8.4] for bulimia nervosa with no history of anorexia nervosa. Risk of premature death among women with lifetime anorexia nervosa peaked within the first 10 years of follow-up resulting in a standardized mortality ratio of 7.7 [95% CI=3.7-14.2]. The standardized mortality ratio varied by duration of illness and was 3.2 [95% CI=0.9-8.3] for women with lifetime anorexia nervosa for 0-15 years (4/119 died), and 6.6 [95% CI=3.2-12.1] for women with lifetime anorexia nervosa for >15-30 years (10/67 died). Multivariate predictors of mortality included alcohol abuse (panorexia nervosa. PMID:23771148

  9. Delayed heart rate recovery after adenosine stress testing with supplemental arm exercise predicts mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Gregory, Shawn A; Kardan, Arash; Zervos, Gerasimos D; Thomas, Gregory S; Gewirtz, Henry; Yasuda, Tsunehiro

    2009-01-01

    Delayed heart rate (HR) recovery after treadmill exercise testing predicts mortality. Patients with suspected ischemic heart disease who cannot perform adequate treadmill exercise are typically evaluated with pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies, but little prognostic significance has been attributed to the hemodynamic response to vasodilator stress testing with low-level exercise. We hypothesized that a delay in HR recovery after adenosine stress testing with arm exercise is associated with increased mortality. Technetium 99m-Sestamibi MPI was performed in 1,455 consecutive patients (70 +/- 12 years, 50.2% men) with adenosine stress and supplemental arm exercise. HRs were recorded at rest, continuously during infusion, and then 5 minutes post-infusion. Delayed HR recovery was defined as a decline of mortality (16.5% vs 5.3% in those with normal HR recovery, P testing with arm exercise is a readily available and powerful predictor of all-cause mortality.

  10. Trends in infant mortality rates in Hungary between 1963 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyári, Csaba; Nyári, Tibor András; McNally, Richard J Q

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated annual and seasonal death trends for infants of infant deaths were obtained from the published nationwide population register. Negative binomial regression was applied to investigate the yearly trends in rates and also the effect of possible risk factors - low birthweight, maternal education and sex - on infant mortality. Cyclic trends were investigated using logistic regression. Annual infant mortality declined significantly (p mortality was revealed, with a peak in deaths in late February for all infants and a double peak, in May and November, in the group of cases who died during the early neonatal period. This Hungarian study suggests that there was a significant seasonal effect on neonatal and infant mortality at the end of winter between 1963 and 2012. We speculate that this may have been related to respiratory infections. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165946.html Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference Signs of ... News) -- High rates of suicide among people with autism are drawing specialists to a conference this week ...

  12. Mortality of emergency abdominal surgery in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Surgical mortality data are collected routinely in high-income countries, yet virtually no low- or middle-income countries have outcome surveillance in place. The aim was prospectively to collect worldwide mortality data following emergency abdominal surgery, comparing findings across countries with a low, middle or high Human Development Index (HDI). This was a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Self-selected hospitals performing emergency surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive patients from at least one 2-week interval during July to December 2014. Postoperative mortality was analysed by hierarchical multivariable logistic regression. Data were obtained for 10 745 patients from 357 centres in 58 countries; 6538 were from high-, 2889 from middle- and 1318 from low-HDI settings. The overall mortality rate was 1·6 per cent at 24 h (high 1·1 per cent, middle 1·9 per cent, low 3·4 per cent; P high 4·5 per cent, middle 6·0 per cent, low 8·6 per cent; P surgery (high 74·2 per cent, middle 68·8 per cent, low 60·5 per cent). After adjustment, 30-day mortality remained higher in middle-income (odds ratio (OR) 2·78, 95 per cent c.i. 1·84 to 4·20) and low-income (OR 2·97, 1·84 to 4·81) countries. Surgical safety checklist use was less frequent in low- and middle-income countries, but when used was associated with reduced mortality at 30 days. Mortality is three times higher in low- compared with high-HDI countries even when adjusted for prognostic factors. Patient safety factors may have an important role. NCT02179112 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Declines in mortality rates and changes in causes of death in HIV-1-infected children during the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael T; Oleske, James M; Williams, Paige L; Elgie, Carol; Mofenson, Lynne M; Dankner, Wayne M; Van Dyke, Russell B

    2010-01-01

    Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly decreased mortality in HIV-1-infected adults and children. Although an increase in non-HIV-related mortality has been noted in adults, data in children are limited. To evaluate changes in causes and risk factors for death among HIV-1-infected children in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C. Multicenter, prospective cohort study designed to evaluate long-term outcomes in HIV-1-exposed and infected US children. There were 3553 HIV-1-infected children enrolled and followed up between April 1993 and December 2006, with primary cause of mortality identified in the 298 observed deaths. Mortality rates per 100 child-years overall and by demographic factors; survival estimates by birth cohort; and hazard ratios for mortality by various demographic, health, and antiretroviral treatment factors were determined. Among 3553 HIV-1-infected children followed up for a median of 5.3 years, 298 deaths occurred. Death rates significantly decreased between 1994 and 2000, from 7.2 to 0.8 per 100 person-years, and remained relatively stable through 2006. After adjustment for other covariates, increased risk of death was identified for those with low CD4 and AIDS-defining illness at entry. Decreased risks of mortality were identified for later birth cohorts, and for time-dependent initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (hazard ratio 0.54, P causes of death were "End-stage AIDS" (N = 48, 16%) and pneumonia (N = 41, 14%). The proportion of deaths due to opportunistic infections (OIs) declined from 37% in 1994-1996 to 24% after 2000. All OI mortality declined during the study period. However, a greater decline was noted for deaths due to Mycobacterium avium complex and cryptosporidium. Deaths from "End-stage AIDS," sepsis and renal failure increased. Overall death rates declined from 1993 to 2000 but have since stabilized at rates about 30 times higher than for the general US pediatric population

  14. Excess mortality rate associated with hepatitis C virus infection: A community-based cohort study in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Aya; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Medhat, Ahmed; Mikhail, Nabiel N; Chesnais, Cédric B; Arafa, Naglaa; Bakr, Iman; El Hoseiny, Mostafa; El-Daly, Mai; Esmat, Gamal; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    >80% of people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) live in resource-limited countries, yet the excess mortality associated with HCV infection in these settings is poorly documented. Individuals were recruited from three villages in rural Egypt in 1997-2003 and their vital status was determined in 2008-2009. Mortality rates across the cohorts were compared according to HCV status: chronic HCV infection (anti-HCV antibody positive and HCV RNA positive), cleared HCV infection (anti-HCV antibody positive and HCV RNA negative) and never infected (anti-HCV antibody negative). Data related to cause of death was collected from a death registry in one village. Among 18,111 survey participants enrolled in 1997-2003, 9.1% had chronic HCV infection, 5.5% had cleared HCV infection, and 85.4% had never been infected. After a mean time to follow-up of 8.6years, vital status was obtained for 16,282 (89.9%) participants. When compared to those who had never been infected with HCV in the same age groups, mortality rate ratios (MRR) of males with chronic HCV infection aged <35, 35-44, and 45-54years were 2.35 (95% CI 1.00-5.49), 2.87 (1.46-5.63), and 2.22 (1.29-3.81), respectively. No difference in mortality rate was seen in older males or in females. The all-cause mortality rate attributable to chronic HCV infection was 5.7% (95% CI: 1.0-10.1%), while liver-related mortality was 45.5% (11.3-66.4%). Use of a highly potent new antiviral agent to treat all villagers with positive HCV RNA may reduce all-cause mortality rate by up to 5% and hepatic mortality by up to 40% in rural Egypt. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Level I verification is associated with a decreased mortality rate after major torso vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Scott; Cook, Alan D; Berne, John D

    2011-01-01

    Major torso vascular injuries (MTVIs) are frequently fatal. Our purpose was to determine whether the American College of Surgeons' (ACS) trauma center level of verification was associated with reduced mortality rates in a rural population-based community trauma center. Patients with blunt and penetrating MTVIs were retrospectively reviewed. Mortality rates were compared between Level II and Level I verification time periods. The primary outcome measured was death from MTVIs. Two hundred seventy-four patients (blunt, 167 [61%]; penetrating, 107 [39%]) representing 1.5 per cent of all trauma admissions were studied. Mortality decreased from 41 of 80 (51%) (Level II) to 60 of 194 (31%) (Level I) (P = 0.002) for the entire group. Mortality reduction occurred primarily in the subgroup with blunt and penetrating thoracic injuries (Level II, 24 of 33 [73%] vs Level I, 25 of 82 [30%]; P < 0.001). A significant reduction was not observed in patients with major abdominal vascular injuries (Level II, 17 of 47 [36%] vs Level I, 35 of 112 [31%]; P = 0.581). Level I status was associated with an overall decreased mortality rate from MTVIs despite low patient numbers. The commitment of hospital resources that are required to achieve Level I ACS verification in a community hospital improves survival, particularly in patients with blunt and penetrating thoracic injuries.

  16. Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights

    OpenAIRE

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent...

  17. Changes in causes of death and mortality rates among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen-Larsen, Birger; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions.......This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions....

  18. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data: An Analysis of Data From the ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Jacob J. E.; Rozing, Maarten P.; Kramer, Anneke; Abad, José M.; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; de Meester, Johan M. J.; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably,

  19. Diet and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stages in the nutrition transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last century we have seen wide-reaching changes in diet, nutritional status and life expectancy. The change in diet and physical activity patterns has become known as the nutrition transition. At any given time, a country or region within a country may be at different stages within this transition. This paper examines a range of nutrition-related indicators for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and attempts to develop a typical model of a country in transition. Methods Based on the availability of data, 40 countries in SSA were selected for analysis. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation, Demographic and Health Surveys and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA was used to explore the determinants of infant mortality. A six point score was developed to identify each country's stage in the nutrition transition. Results MLRA showed that underweight-for-age, protein and the percentage of exclusively breastfed infants were associated with the infant mortality rate (IMR. The majority of countries (n = 26 used in the analysis had nutrition transition scores of zero and one. Most of them had a high prevalence of infant mortality, children that were stunted or underweight-for-age, small percentages of women that were overweight and obese, and low intakes of energy, protein, and fat. Countries with the highest scores include South Africa, Ghana, Gabon, Cape Verde and Senegal which had relatively low IMRs, high levels of obesity/overweight, and low levels of underweight in women, as well as high intakes of energy and fat. These countries display classic signs of a population well established in the nutrition-related non-communicable disease phase of the nutrition transition. Conclusions Countries in SSA are clearly undergoing a nutrition transition. More than half of them are still in the early stage, while a few have reached a point where

  20. Gaussian and Affine Approximation of Stochastic Diffusion Models for Interest and Mortality Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus C. Christiansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the actuarial literature, it has become common practice to model future capital returns and mortality rates stochastically in order to capture market risk and forecasting risk. Although interest rates often should and mortality rates always have to be non-negative, many authors use stochastic diffusion models with an affine drift term and additive noise. As a result, the diffusion process is Gaussian and, thus, analytically tractable, but negative values occur with positive probability. The argument is that the class of Gaussian diffusions would be a good approximation of the real future development. We challenge that reasoning and study the asymptotics of diffusion processes with affine drift and a general noise term with corresponding diffusion processes with an affine drift term and an affine noise term or additive noise. Our study helps to quantify the error that is made by approximating diffusive interest and mortality rate models with Gaussian diffusions and affine diffusions. In particular, we discuss forward interest and forward mortality rates and the error that approximations cause on the valuation of life insurance claims.

  1. Brazil's conditional cash transfer program associated with declines in infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs are innovative social safety-net programs that aim to relieve poverty. They provide a regular source of income to poor families and are "conditional" in that they require poor families to invest in the health and education of their children through greater use of educational and preventive health services. Brazil's Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program, created in 2003, is the world's largest program of its kind. During the first five years of the program, it was associated with a significant 9.3 percent reduction in overall infant mortality rates, with greater declines in postneonatal mortality rates than in mortality rates at an earlier age and in municipalities with many users of Brazil's Family Health Program than in those with lower use rates. There were also larger effects in municipalities with higher infant mortality rates at baseline. Programs like Bolsa Família can improve child health and reduce long-standing health inequalities. Policy makers should review the adequacy of basic health services to ensure that the services can respond to the increased demand created by such programs. Programs should also target vulnerable groups at greatest risk and include careful monitoring and evaluation.

  2. High bit rate BPSK receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Marti, J. A.; Sieiro, J. J.; Lopez-Villegas, J. M.

    2005-06-01

    This work presents a simple differentially BPSK receiver front-end using a novel schema without the need of an explicit carrier recovery system. The main principle of operation is the conversion of the incoming BPSK signal into an ASK signal having the same modulation pattern. Two versions of the system have been designed. One is intended to work at the 433.92 MHz ISM band and the other at 2 GHz frequency band. Accordingly, two prototypes of the system core, the BPSK to ASK converter circuit, have been implemented and tested. First a hybrid version for the low frequency operation and, second a multi chip module (MCM) for the 2 GHz frequency band. The system performance has been evaluated using Agilent Technologies Advanced Design System (ADS) platform. The ability to jointly perform system, circuit and EM simulations and co-simulations is the main advantage of this design tool. Obtained results indicate that modulation rates up to 20 Mbits/s for the hybrid version and up to 80 Mbits/s for the MCM version can be reached.

  3. mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Department of Pediatric Surgery, Aseer Central Hospital', Abha, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: taam .... Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and early postoperative mortality - T. A.Al-Malki et al further supported by the presence .... nal (e.g. premature rupture of membranes) or neonatal fac- tors (e.g. impaired host ...

  4. The Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Taleghani Educational and Treatment Center, Tabriz, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Abbasian; Mariye Mahmoodi Yegane; Mina karimi; Faezeh Ahmadi; khadijeh Pazani; Zohreh Tahmasbi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Information about nosocomial infections (NIs) is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. Neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at high-risk of developing nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate of nosocomial infections and the distribution of pathogens among newborns who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Taleghani educatio...

  5. Lost in follow-up rates in TRACER, ATLAS ACS 2, TRITON and TRA 2P trials: challenging PLATO mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Can, Mehmet Mustafa; Serebruany, Victor L

    2013-04-15

    Extreme rates of vascular and all-cause mortality especially in the clopidogrel arm of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) non-USA cohort raise concerns of data integrity, and call for independent verification of vital records in the national death registries. Four recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials: Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER), Anti-Xa therapy to lower cardiovascular events in addition to standard therapy in subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ATLAS-ACS 2), Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel (TRITON), and the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2P), provide a valuable opportunity to match lost in follow-up (LIFU) with mortality rates among similar ACS studies. To compare the LIFU from PLATO, TRACER, ATLAS-ACS 2, TRITON-TIMI 38 and TRA 2P trials. The disturbingly high (8.9%-14.7%) LIFU in PLATO was no match to LIFU in TRACER (0.1%), ATLAS ACS 2 (0.3%), TRITON (0.1%) and TRA 2P (0.1%). In fact, such an astronomical (49-147 fold higher) PLATO LIFU rate should result in less mortality compared to the other ACS trials since no event can be reported or adjudicated if the patient has been lost. Adjusting LIFU rate revealed that vascular (5.55%) and all cause (6.05%) mortality in PLATO was even more disparate than in TRACER (3.2% and 4.9%), ATLAS-ACS 2 (4.1% and 4.5%), TRITON-TIMI 38 (2.4% and 3.2%) and TRA 2P (3.0% and 5.3%) control arms, respectfully. Moreover, the incomplete CV follow-up in the ATLAS ACS 2 trial was later revealed to be around 12%, which lead to the rejection of rivaroxaban for the treatment of ACS. PLATO's LIFU rate was just as high, if not higher, than seen in ATLAS ACS 2. The chance to die in PLATO far exceeds the mortality risks observed in the clopidogrel arms of four recent ACS trials, which becomes especially evident after

  6. Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314418059; Egenvall, A.; Hagman, R.; Gustas, P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975760; Meij, B.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805; Lagerstedt, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2012, Vol. 240, No. 11, Pages 1300-1309 doi: 10.2460/javma.240.11.1300 Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration–related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs Niklas Bergknut, Dr med vet, PhD; Agneta Egenvall, Dr

  7. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  8. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  9. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-05

    Diana Khuu discusses Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010.  Created: 1/5/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/7/2015.

  10. Economic values of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Besson, M.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to derive the economic value (s) (EVs) of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A smallholder production system where fish are cultured in earthen ponds and oxygen is a limiting factor for

  11. Pattern and Mortality Rate of traumatic Injuries in a Tertiary Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of injuries and mortality rates in our hospital. Methods: Demographic and clinical data of patients that sustained injuries due to trauma to all regions of the body were included in the ...

  12. Genotype X Season interaction effects on the mortality rates of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype X Season interaction effects on the mortality rates of the Nigerian local chicken and its crosses with the barred Plymouth rocks. FUC Mmerole, I Bratte, SI Omeje. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 7(1) 2006: 19-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. The effect of public health spending on under-five mortality rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies indicate that under-five mortality rates have remained stagnant and Uganda failed to meet the Millennium Development Goals target and hence unlikely to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. Although effective health reforms and programs such as the Immunization Integrated Management of ...

  14. Infant Mortality Rates: Socioeconomic Factors. United States. National Vital Statistics System, Series 22, Number 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistics are presented on infant mortality rates according to race, sex, family income, education of mother, and education of father. The statistics are based on data collected by a questionnaire mailed to mothers of legitimate births and to medical care facilities and mothers of legitimate infant deaths. Samples were selected from records of…

  15. International Ranking of Infant Mortality Rates: Taiwan Compared with European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The ranking of Taiwan was similar (11th vs. 12th according the two definitions. However, after consideration of the confidence interval, only six countries (Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, and Germany had infant mortality rates statistically significantly lower than those of Taiwan in 2004.

  16. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...... to employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...

  17. Measured glomerular filtration rate does not improve prediction of mortality by cystatin C and creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Per-Ola; Sjöström, Per; Jones, Ian; Olsson, Lovisa A; Udumyan, Ruzan; Grubb, Anders; Lindström, Veronica; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR. A secondary aim was to evaluate the utility of combining cystatin C and creatinine to predict mortality risk. Cox regression was used to assess the associations of cystatin C and creatinine with mortality in 1157 individuals referred for assessment of plasma clearance of iohexol. Since cystatin C and creatinine are inversely related to mGFR, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 were used. After adjustment for mGFR, lower cystatin C - 1 (higher cystatin C concentration) and higher creatinine - 1 (lower creatinine concentration) were independently associated with increased mortality. When nested models were compared, avoiding the potential influence of multicollinearity, the independence of the associations was supported. Among models combining the markers of GFR, adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 combined explained the largest proportion of variance in associations with mortality risk ( R 2  = 0.61). Addition of mGFR did not improve the model. Our results suggest that both creatinine and cystatin C have independent associations with mortality not explained entirely by mGFR and that mGFR does not offer a more precise mortality risk assessment than these endogenous filtration markers combined.

  18. Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, William M; MacDorman, Marian F; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-01-01

    The US infant mortality rate has been steadily decreasing in recent years as has the preterm birth rate; preterm birth is a major factor associated with death during the first year of life. The degree to which changes in gestational age-specific mortality and changes in the distribution of births by gestational age have contributed to the decrease in the infant mortality rate requires clarification. The objective of the study was to better understand the major contributors to the 2007-2013 infant mortality decline for the total population and for infants born to non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women. We identified births and infant deaths from 2007 and 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System's period linked birth and infant death files. We included all deaths and births for which there was a reported gestational age at birth on the birth certificate of 22 weeks or greater. The decrease in the infant mortality rate was disaggregated such that all of the change could be attributed to improvements in gestational age-specific infant mortality rates and changes in the distribution of gestational age, by week of gestation, using the Kitagawa method. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for records in which the obstetric estimate of gestational age was missing and for deaths and births less than 22 weeks' gestation. Maternal race and ethnicity information was obtained from the birth certificate. The infant mortality rates after exclusions were 5.72 and 4.92 per 1000 live births for 2007 and 2013, respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.80 (14% decrease). Infant mortality rates declined by 11% for non-Hispanic whites, by 19% for non-Hispanic blacks, and by 14% for Hispanics during the period. Compared with 2007, the proportion of births in each gestational age category was lower in 2013 with the exception of 39 weeks during which there was an increase in the proportion of births from 30.1% in

  19. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  1. Association of Primary Care Characteristics with Variations in Mortality Rates in England: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Louis S.; Bankart, John; Khunti, Kamlesh; Baker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Wide variations in mortality rates persist between different areas in England, despite an overall steady decline. To evaluate a conceptual model that might explain how population and service characteristics influence population mortality variations, an overall null hypothesis was tested: variations in primary healthcare service do not predict variations in mortality at population level, after adjusting for population characteristics. Methodology/Principal Findings In an observational study of all 152 English primary care trusts (geographical groupings of population and primary care services, total population 52 million), routinely available published data from 2008 and 2009 were modelled using negative binomial regression. Counts for all-cause, coronary heart disease, all cancers, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were analyzed using explanatory variables of relevant population and service-related characteristics, including an age-correction factor. The main predictors of mortality variations were population characteristics, especially age and socio-economic deprivation. For the service characteristics, a 1% increase in the percentage of patients on a primary care hypertension register was associated with decreases in coronary heart disease mortality of 3% (95% CI 1–4%, p = 0.006) and in stroke mortality of 6% (CI 3–9%, p<0.0001); a 1% increase in the percentage of patients recalling being better able to see their preferred doctor was associated with decreases in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality of 0.7% (CI 0.2–2.0%, p = 0.02) and in all cancer mortality of 0.3% (CI 0.1–0.5%, p = 0.009) (continuity of care). The study found no evidence of an association at primary care trust population level between variations in achievement of pay for performance and mortality. Conclusions/Significance Some primary healthcare service characteristics were also associated with variations in mortality at

  2. Neighborhood poverty rate and mortality in patients receiving critical care in the academic medical center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zager, Sam; Mendu, Mallika L; Chang, Domingo; Bazick, Heidi S; Braun, Andrea B; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2011-06-01

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of chronic illness but its contribution to critical care outcome is not well defined. We performed a multicenter observational study of 38,917 patients, aged ≥ 18 years, who received critical care between 1997 and 2007. The patients were treated in two academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Data sources included 1990 US census and hospital administrative data. The exposure of interest was neighborhood poverty rate, categorized as 40%. Neighborhood poverty rate is the percentage of residents below the federal poverty line. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis. Logistic regression examined death by days 30, 90, and 365 post-critical care initiation and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted ORs were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Sensitivity analysis was performed for 1-year postdischarge mortality among patients discharged to home. Following multivariable adjustment, neighborhood poverty rate was not associated with all-cause 30-day mortality: 5% to 10% OR, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.14; P = .2); 10% to 20% OR, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.87-1.06; P = .5); 20% to 40% OR, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.96-1.22; P = .2); > 40% OR, 1.20 (95% CI, 0.90-1.60; P = .2); referent in each is poverty rate was not associated with 1-year-postdischarge mortality. Our study suggests that there is no relationship between the neighborhood poverty rate and mortality up to 1 year following critical care at academic medical centers.

  3. Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and its relationship to neonatal and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yang; Chauhan, Suneet P; Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2011-06-01

    To examine the association between electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and neonatal and infant mortality, as well as neonatal morbidity. We used the United States 2004 linked birth and infant death data. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were fitted to estimate risk ratio for association between electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and mortality, while adjusting for potential confounders. In 2004, 89% of singleton pregnancies had electronic fetal heart rate monitoring. Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring was associated with significantly lower infant mortality (adjusted relative risk, 0.75); this was mainly driven by the lower risk of early neonatal mortality (adjusted relative risk, 0.50). In low-risk pregnancies, electronic fetal heart rate monitoring was associated with decreased risk for Apgar scores electronic fetal heart rate monitoring was associated with a substantial decrease in early neonatal mortality and morbidity that lowered infant mortality. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    in one region). PARTICIPANTS: All births that occurred between 22+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestation in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Neonatal death rate adjusted for rate of delivery at this gestation. RESULTS: Rate of delivery of all births at 22+0-31+6 weeks of gestation and live births only were calculated......% CI 9.6 to 11.8), Eastern and Central Netherlands (10.6, 95% CI 9.7 to 11.6), Eastern Denmark (11.2, 95% CI 10.1 to 12.4) and Lazio in Italy (11.0, 95% CI 10.1 to 11.9). Similar trends were seen in live birth data. Published rates of neonatal death for each region were then adjusted by applying: a...

  5. Typology and description of the endemic areas with a long-time and smallest colorectal mortality rates within Silesia voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2013-09-01

    equaled to 27.9/100 thousands (Ruda Śl., town for men and 16.5/100 thousands (Mysłowice, town for women. The endemic areas of the biggest mortality rates for colorectal cancer among males, it following administrative units: Częstochowa (town and with Mysłowice (town, and among females it: Sosnowiec (town with Mysłowice (town and Chorzów with Ruda Śl. (towns (fig. 1D and 2D. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation (coherence between the biggest mortality rates for colorectal cancer among males and females for endemic areas of towns (Chorzów + Ruda Śl.; as well a high risk to Częstochowa (males and Sosnowiec and Mysłowice (females. These populations should have priming in screening examinations

  6. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  7. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  8. Antiretroviral Treatment Scale-Up and Tuberculosis Mortality in High TB/HIV Burden Countries: An Econometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Isabel; Bendavid, Eran; Korenromp, Eline L

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates. National coverage with ART, as proportion of HIV-infected people in need, was obtained from UNAIDS. We applied panel linear regressions controlling for HIV prevalence (5-year lagged), coverage of TB interventions (estimated by WHO and UNAIDS), gross domestic product per capita, health spending from domestic sources, urbanization, and country fixed effects. Models suggest that that increasing ART coverage was followed by reduced TB mortality, across multiple specifications. For death notifications at 2 to 5 years following a given ART scale-up, a 1% increase in ART coverage predicted 0.95% faster mortality rate decline (p = 0.002); resulting in 27% fewer TB deaths in 2011 alone than would have occurred without ART. Based on WHO death estimates, a 1% increase in ART predicted a 1.0% reduced TB death rate (peconometric analysis supports a substantial impact of ART on population-level TB mortality realized already within the first decade of ART scale-up, that is apparent despite variable-quality mortality data.

  9. Is Self-Rated Health an Independent Index for Mortality among Older People in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nawi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Santosa, Ailiana; Byass, Peter; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Wall, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Background Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH) and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Indonesia. Methods In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES). Results During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04–1.31). After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0–4.4) and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2–7.4), respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex. Conclusions This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions. PMID:22523584

  10. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology......, and unplanned cesarean section rates in the eight regions were all without significant association to the perinatal mortality in the same regions. For births after the 35th completed week of gestation, this study could not confirm a relationship between different degrees of use of birth-related technologies...... index (0-10) was calculated for each maternity unit according to its use of ante and intra partum fetal heart rate monitoring (FHM), hormone analysis (human placental lactogen (HPL) and/or estriol (O3)), fetal blood samples (scalp-pH), intrauterine catheter and umbilical cord-pH. Maternity units using...

  11. AKI complications in critically ill patients: association with mortality rates and RRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libório, Alexandre Braga; Leite, Tacyano Tavares; Neves, Fernanda Macedo de Oliveira; Teles, Flávio; Bezerra, Candice Torres de Melo

    2015-01-07

    AKI is associated with short- and long-term mortality. However, the exact contribution of AKI complications to the burden of mortality and whether RRT has any beneficial effect on reducing mortality rates in critically ill AKI patients are unknown. This was a retrospective analysis using data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II project. A total of 18,410 adult patients were enrolled from four intensive care units from a university hospital from 2001 to 2008. Overall, 10,245 patients developed AKI. After adjustments, the odds ratios (ORs) for hospital mortality were 1.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.52 to 1.98) for AKI stage 1, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.57 to 2.25) for stage 2, and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.41 to 3.46) for stage 3. Totals of 33%, 59%, and 70% of the excess mortality rates associated with AKI stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were attenuated by the inclusion of each AKI-related complication in the model. The main burden of excess hospital mortality associated with AKI was attenuated by metabolic acidosis and cumulative fluid balance. Long-term mortality was not attenuated by any of the associated complications. Next, we used two different approaches to explore the associations between RRT, AKI complications, and hospital mortality: multivariate analysis and propensity score matching. In both approaches, the sensitivity analysis for RRT was associated with a better hospital survival in only the following AKI-related subgroups: hyperkalemia (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.85), metabolic acidosis (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.92), cumulative fluid balance >5% of body weight (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.88), and azotemia (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.81). A majority of the excess risk of mortality associated with AKI was attenuated by its fluid volume and metabolic complications, particularly in severe AKI. In addition, this study demonstrated that RRT is associated with a better outcome in patients with AKI-related complications

  12. Deconstructing Ixodes ricinus: a partial matrix model allowing mapping of tick development, mortality and activity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A; Estrada-Sánchez, D

    2014-03-01

    A stage-structured Leslie matrix model of a partial, discrete population of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks was developed to elucidate the impact of climate trends on the distribution and phenology of this species in the western Palaearctic. The model calculates development and mortality rates for each instar and evaluates recruitment rates based on the development of the tick population. The model captures the changes in development and mortality rates, providing a coherent index of performance correlated with the tick's geographic range. Maximum development rates are recorded for latitudes south of 36 °N and are spatially correlated with sites of maximum temperature, highest saturation deficit and highest mortality. The maximum available developmental time (the total annual time during which temperature allows development) for I. ricinus in the western Palaearctic is < 45% of the total year. North of 60 °N, available developmental time decreases sharply to only 15% of the year. The latitudinal boundary at which survival rates sharply drop is 43-46 °N, clearly delimiting the classically recognized extent of the main tick populations. The pattern of activity for larval-nymphal synchrony shows a clear west-east pattern. The model demonstrates the impact of climate according to tick stage and geographic location, and provides a practical framework for testing how the tick's lifecycle is affected by climate change. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries: artifacts of birth registration or evidence of true differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb-Rinker, Paromita; León, Juan Andrés; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Rouleau, Jocelyn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I; Gissler, Mika; Mortensen, Laust H; Skjærven, Rolv; Vollset, Stein Emil; Zhang, Xun; Shah, Prakesh S; Sauve, Reg S; Kramer, Michael S; Joseph, K S

    2015-09-04

    Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates were artifacts of birth registration or reflected true differences in health status. A retrospective population-based cohort study was done using data from Canada, United States, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden from 1995-2005. Main outcome measures included live births by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age-and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality. Proportion of live births mortality rates were highest in Canada (892.2 per 1000 live births), Denmark (879.3) and Iceland (1000.0), moderately high in the United States (724.1), Finland (794.3) and Norway (739.0) and low in Sweden (561.2). Stillbirth:live birth ratios at 22-23 weeks were significantly lower in the United States (79.2 stillbirths per 100 live births) and Finland (90.8) than in Canada (112.1), Iceland (176.2) and Norway (173.9). Crude neonatal mortality rates were 83% higher in Canada and 96% higher in the United States than Finland. Neonatal mortality rates among live births ≥ 28 weeks were lower in Canada and United States compared with Finland. Post-neonatal mortality rates were higher in Canada and United States than in Nordic countries. Live birth frequencies and stillbirth and neonatal mortality patterns at the borderline of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality.

  14. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  15. Hurricane Sandy (New Jersey): Mortality Rates in the Following Month and Quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Rajan, Mangala; Thomas, Pauline; Tsai, Stella; Tan, Christina; Davidow, Amy

    2017-08-01

    To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level. In elderly persons, all-cause mortality rates increased 10% (95% CI = 5%, 15%) and 13% (95% CI = 10%, 16%) in the month and quarter, respectively. Deaths that were cardiovascular disease-related increased by 6% in both periods, noninfectious respiratory disease-related by 24% in the quarter, infection-related by 20% in the quarter, and unintentional injury-related by 23% in the month. Mortality increased, heterogeneous by cause, for both periods after Hurricane Sandy, particularly in communities more severely affected and in the elderly, who may benefit from supportive services.

  16. Newborn mortality and fresh stillbirth rates in Tanzania after helping babies breathe training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msemo, Georgina; Massawe, Augustine; Mmbando, Donan; Rusibamayila, Neema; Manji, Karim; Kidanto, Hussein Lesio; Mwizamuholya, Damas; Ringia, Prisca; Ersdal, Hege Langli; Perlman, Jeffrey

    2013-02-01

    Early neonatal mortality has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a novel educational program using basic interventions to enhance delivery room stabilization/resuscitation, has been developed to reduce the number of these deaths. Master trainers from the 3 major referral hospitals, 4 associated regional hospitals, and 1 district hospital were trained in the HBB program to serve as trainers for national dissemination. A before (n = 8124) and after (n = 78 500) design was used for implementation. The primary outcomes were a reduction in early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of fresh stillbirths (FSB). Implementation was associated with a significant reduction in neonatal deaths (relative risk [RR] with training 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.65; P ≤ .0001) and rates of FSB (RR with training 0.76; 95% CI 0.64-0.90; P = .001). The use of stimulation increased from 47% to 88% (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.82-1.90; P ≤ .0001) and suctioning from 15% to 22% (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.33-1.46; P ≤ .0001) whereas face mask ventilation decreased from 8.2% to 5.2% (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.60-0.72; P ≤ .0001). HBB implementation was associated with a significant reduction in both early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of FSB. HBB uses a basic intervention approach readily applicable at all deliveries. These findings should serve as a call to action for other resource-limited countries striving to meet Millennium Development Goal 4.

  17. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  18. Predictors of mortality among HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njom Nlend, A E; Loussikila, A B

    2017-02-01

    The mortality rate of HIV-infected children can be reversed under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The impact of HAART on the mortality of HIV-infected children in Cameroon has not been extensively documented. We aimed to measure the mortality rate of HIV-infected children under HAART and to identify predictive factors of mortality. Retrospective cohort study of 221 children initiated on HAART from 2005 to 2009 and followed-up until 2013. Survival data was analyzed using Kaplan Meier method and Cox regression model to identify independent predictors of child mortality on HAART. Overall, 9.9% of children (n=22) died over a follow-up period of 755 child-years (mortality of 2.9 per 100 child-years); 70% of deaths occurred during the first six months of HAART. The probability of survival after four years of treatment was 88.7% (95% CI=[84.2-93.3]). During the multivariate analysis of baseline variables, we observed that the WHO clinical stages III and IV (HR: 3.55 [1.09-13.6] and HR: 7.7 [3.07-31.2]) and age≤1year at HAART initiation were independently associated with death (HR: 2.1 [1.01-5.08]). Neither orphanhood, baseline CD4 count or hemoglobin level nor low nutritional status predicted death in this cohort. The mortality of children receiving HAART was low after five years of follow-up and it was strongly associated with WHO stages III and IV and a younger age at treatment initiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mortality Prediction with a Single General Self-Rated Health Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Karen B; Bloser, Nicole; Reynolds, Kristi; He, Jiang; Muntner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    objective Health planners and policy makers are increasingly asking for a feasible method to identify vulnerable persons with the greatest health needs. We conducted a systematic review of the association between a single item assessing general self-rated health (GSRH) and mortality. Data Sources Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE database searches for studies published from January 1966 to September 2003. Review Methods Two investigators independently searched English language prospective, community-based cohort studies that reported (1) all-cause mortality, (2) a question assessing GSRH; and (3) an adjusted relative risk or equivalent. The investigators searched the citations to determine inclusion eligibility and abstracted data by following a standarized protocol. Of the 163 relevant studies identified, 22 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. Using a random effects model, compared with persons reporting “excellent” health status, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 1.23 [1.09, 1.39], 1.44 [1.21, 1.71], and 1.92 [1.64, 2.25] for those reporting “good,”“fair,” and “poor” health status, respectively. This relationship was robust in sensitivity analyses, limited to studies that adjusted for co-morbid illness, functional status, cognitive status, and depression, and across subgroups defined by gender and country of origin. Conclusions Persons with “poor” self-rated health had a 2-fold higher mortality risk compared with persons with “excellent” self-rated health. Subjects' responses to a simple, single-item GSRH question maintained a strong association with mortality even after adjustment for key covariates such as functional status, depression, and co-morbidity. PMID:16336622

  1. Heart rate recovery: autonomic determinants, methods of assessment and association with mortality and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Silva-Júnior, Natan Daniel; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction seems to be related to the genesis of several CVDs and is also linked to the increased risk of mortality in CVD patients. The quantification of heart rate decrement after exercise - known as heart rate recovery (HRR) - is a simple tool for assessing cardiac autonomic activity in healthy and CVD patients. Furthermore, since The Cleveland Clinic studies, HRR has also been used as a powerful index for predicting mortality. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has been interested in proposing methods and protocols to investigate HRR and understand its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about HRR, including its potential primary and secondary physiological determinants, as well as its role in predicting mortality. Published data show that HRR can be modelled by an exponential curve, with a fast and a slow decay component. HRR may be influenced by population and exercise characteristics. The fast component mainly seems to be dictated by the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, probably promoted by the deactivation of central command and mechanoreflex inputs immediately after exercise cessation. On the other hand, the slow phase of HRR may be determined by cardiac sympathetic withdrawal, possibly via the deactivation of metaboreflex and thermoregulatory mechanisms. All these pathways seem to be impaired in CVD, helping to explain the slower HRR in such patients and the increased rate of mortality in individuals who present a slower HRR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae in the central Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L8=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year-1, and t0=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality were 0.54 year-1 and 0.39 year-1, respectively. The exploitation ratio (E was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 79-88. Epub 2009 June 30.

  3. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  4. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%).

  5. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were...... with a PARIS score ≥3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤1 had a low mortality (≤1%); with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%); and ≥3, high mortality (≥10%). CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day mortality...... can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values....

  6. Comparison of Hospital Mortality and Readmission Rates for Medicare Patients Treated by Male vs Female Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Yusuke; Jena, Anupam B.; Figueroa, Jose F.; Orav, E. John; Blumenthal, Daniel M.; Jha, Ashish K.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Studies have found differences in practice patterns between male and female physicians, with female physicians more likely to adhere to clinical guidelines and evidence-based practice. However, whether patient outcomes differ between male and female physicians is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine whether mortality and readmission rates differ between patients treated by male or female physicians. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We analyzed a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years or older hospitalized with a medical condition and treated by general internists from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014. We examined the association between physician sex and 30-day mortality and readmission rates, adjusted for patient and physician characteristics and hospital fixed effects (effectively comparing female and male physicians within the same hospital). As a sensitivity analysis, we examined only physicians focusing on hospital care (hospitalists), among whom patients are plausibly quasi-randomized to physicians based on the physician’s specific work schedules. We also investigated whether differences in patient outcomes varied by specific condition or by underlying severity of illness. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patients’ 30-day mortality and readmission rates. RESULTS A total of 1 583 028 hospitalizations were used for analyses of 30-day mortality (mean [SD] patient age, 80.2 [8.5] years; 621 412 men and 961 616 women) and 1 540 797 were used for analyses of readmission (mean [SD] patient age, 80.1 [8.5] years; 602 115 men and 938 682 women). Patients treated by female physicians had lower 30-day mortality (adjusted mortality, 11.07% vs 11.49%; adjusted risk difference, −0.43%; 95% CI, −0.57% to −0.28%; P < .001; number needed to treat to prevent 1 death, 233) and lower 30-day readmissions (adjusted readmissions, 15.02% vs 15.57%; adjusted risk difference, −0.55%; 95% CI, −0.71% to −0.39%; P < .001; number

  7. Metropolitan social environments and pre-HAART/HAART era changes in mortality rates (per 10,000 adult residents among injection drug users living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R Friedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was developed. METHODS: This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. RESULTS: In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be

  8. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  9. Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Warren K.; Alomari, Ihab; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J.; Zhao, Xin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Eapen, Zubin J.; Yancy, Clyde; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long‐term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines®–Heart Failure. Cox proportional‐hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all‐cause mortality, all‐cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ≥75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats‐per‐minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all‐cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF. PMID:25904590

  10. Insurance Rating of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Report of a Conference on Morbidity and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan T Beck

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient members reported to the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of Canada (CCFC about their difficulties to obtain insurance. In 1991, the Lay Board of the CCFC requested its Medical Advisory Board (MAB to investigate this problem. At that time, insurance ratings could be illustrated by the 1985 edition of Brackenridge’s monograph on life risks. The MAB found that data on mortality were outdated. A conference on morbidity and mortality of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD was organized by the authors and held in May 1992. Based on questionnaires to patients, evidence provided by invited speakers and the results of small group conferences, it was concluded that patients with IBD have difficulties in obtaining insurance, even though the quality of life and mortality of IBD patients is not very different from that of the general population. However, the mortality rate of the healthy insured population is lower than that of the general population, and thus much lower than that of IBD patients. Patients have a better chance to obtain insurance if there is a close cooperation between the treating physician and the medical officer of the insurance company. Changes have occurred since the conference held in May 1992. The recent edition of Brackenridge’s text (1992 provides a better prognosis but unfortunately unchanged rating for patients with IBD than did the 1985 edition. Close cooperation between the Patient Advisory Committee of the CCFC and the Executives of the Canadian Life Insurance Medical Officers Association may further improve the insurance rating of patients with IBD.

  11. Elevated Infant Mortality Rate among Dutch Oral Cleft Cases: A Retrospective Analysis from 1997 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Daan Pieter Frederik Van Nunen; van den Boogaard, Marie-José H; J. Peter W. eDon Griot; Mike eRüttermann; Lars TJ Van der Veken; Corstiaan eBreugem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: First, to determine the infant mortality rate for Dutch patients with isolated oral clefts as well as for patients with clefts seen in association with other malformations. Second, to conduct a similar analysis per cleft type: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate (including Robin sequence). Third, to examine the underlying causes of death. Material and methods: A retrospective review of the charts of patients with oral clefts born in the period 1997-2011 and treate...

  12. Homicide mortality rates in Canada, 2000-2009: Youth at increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, C Andrew; Snider, Carolyn

    2016-10-20

    To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001. Both death and population counts were organized into five-year age groups. A random effects negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to estimate age group-specific rates, rate ratios, and trends in homicide mortality. There were 9,878 homicide deaths in Canada during the study period. The increase in the overall homicide mortality rate (HMR) of 0.3% per year was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.1% to +1.8%). Canadians aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years had the highest HMRs during the study period, and experienced statistically significant annual increases in their HMRs of 3% and 4% respectively (p < 0.05). A general, though not statistically significant, decrease in the HMR was observed for all age groups 50+ years. A fixed effects negative binomial regression model showed that the HMR for males was higher than for females over the study period [RRfemale/male = 0.473 (95% CI: 0.361, 0.621)], but no significant difference in sex-specific trends in the HMR was found. An increasing risk of homicide mortality was identified among Canadian youth, ages 15-24, over the 10-year study period. Research that seeks to understand the reasons for the increased homicide risk facing Canada's youth, and public policy responses to reduce this risk, are warranted.

  13. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ2 and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  14. Delivery indications at late-preterm gestations and infant mortality rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uma M; Ko, Chia-Wen; Raju, Tonse N K; Willinger, Marian

    2009-07-01

    The rate of preterm births has been increasing in the United States, especially for births 34 to 36 weeks of gestation (late preterm), which now constitute 71% of all preterm births. The causes for these trends remain unclear. We characterized the delivery indications for late preterm births and their potential impact on neonatal and infant mortality rates. Using the 2001 US Birth Cohort Linked birth/death files of 3 483 496 singleton births, we categorized delivery indications as follows: (1) maternal medical conditions; (2) obstetric complications; (3) major congenital anomalies; (4) isolated spontaneous labor: vaginal delivery without induction and without associated medical/obstetric factors; and (5) no recorded indication. Of the 292 627 late-preterm births, the first 4 categories (those with indications and isolated spontaneous labor) accounted for 76.8%. The remaining 23.2% (67 909) were classified as deliveries with no recorded indication. Factors significantly increasing the chance of no recorded indication were older maternal age; non-Hispanic, white mother; >/=13 years of education; Southern, Midwestern, and Western region; multiparity; or previous infant with a >/=4000-g birth weight. The neonatal and infant mortality rates were significantly higher among deliveries with no recorded indication compared with deliveries secondary to isolated spontaneous labor but lower compared with deliveries with an obstetric indication or congenital anomaly. A total of 23% of late preterm births had no recorded indication for delivery noted on birth certificates. Patient factors may be playing a role in these deliveries. It is concerning that these infants had higher mortality rates compared with those born after spontaneous labor at similar gestational ages. Given the excess risk of mortality, patients and providers need to discuss the risks of delivering a preterm infant in the absence of medical indications at 34 to 36 weeks.

  15. Discordance between physician and patient self-rated health and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Karen B; Muntner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-assessments of health are a strong predictor of mortality. Whether self-assessment of health provides additional information beyond a physician's assessment is unclear. We analyzed data on 14,530 US adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. General self-rated health (GSRH)-"In general, would you say your health is Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor?"-and a single question to physician examiners following a medical examination rating participants' health, both on a 5-point scale of Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor were assessed for the period 1988-1994. All-cause mortality was assessed through December 31, 2006 (n  =  3,460 deaths). Agreement between participant GSRH and physician-assessed health was 53.8% (42.1% Excellent/Very Good, 8.7% Good, and 3.0% Fair/Poor; weighted Kappa statistic  =  0.20). After adjustment, participants who reported better GSRH compared to the physician assessment of their health experienced lower mortality (hazard ratio  =  0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.87). Also, participants reporting worse health than the physician assessment experienced higher mortality (hazard ratio  =  1.45, 95% CI 1.24-1.70). Individuals who reported worse health than was assessed by a physician had increased mortality. These results warrant evaluation of whether GSRH collection in the clinical setting improves outcomes.

  16. Mortality rate and longevity of food-restricted exercising male rats: a reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloszy, J O

    1997-02-01

    Food restriction increases the maximal longevity of rats. Male rats do not increase their food intake to compensate for the increase in energy expenditure in response to exercise. However, a decrease in the availability of energy for growth and cell proliferation that induces an increase in maximal longevity in sedentary rats only results in an improvement in average survival, with no extension of maximal life span, when caused by exercise. In a previous study (J.O. Holloszy and K.B. Schechtman. J. Appl. Physiol. 70:1529-1535, 1991), to test the possibility that exercise prevents the extension of life span by food restriction, wheel running and food restriction were combined. The food-restricted runners showed the same increase in maximal life span as food-restricted sedentary rats but had an increased mortality rate during the first one-half of their mortality curve. The purpose of the present study was to determine the pathological cause of this increased early mortality. However, in contrast to our previous results, the food-restricted wheel-running rats in this study showed no increase in early mortality, and their survival curves were virtually identical to those of sedentary animals that were food restricted so as to keep their body weights the same as those of the runners. Thus it is possible that the rats in the previous study had a health problem that had no effect on longevity except when both food restriction and exercise were superimposed on it. Possibly of interest in this regard, the rats in this study did considerably more voluntary running than those in the previous study. It is concluded that 1) moderate caloric restriction combined with exercise does not normally increase the early mortality rate in male rats, 2) exercise does not interfere with the extension of maximal life span by food restriction, and 3) the beneficial effects of food restriction and exercise on survival are not additive or synergistic.

  17. Mortality Rates of Traumatic Traffic Accident Patients at the University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate hospitalization and mortality rates in patients admitted to the University Hospital due to traffic accidents, and to determine the mean cost of the applicants in the hospital due to traffic accident. In this retrospective study data were obtained from the records of a university research and practice hospital. There were 802 patients admitted to emergency and other outpatient clinics of the University Hospital because of traffic accidents throughout the year 2012. Out of these patients, 166 (20.7% were hospitalized, and the annual mortality rate was 0.87%. The total cost was 322,545.2 euro and 402.2 euro per patient. Road traffic accident detection reports covered only the numbers of fatal injuries and injuries that happened at the scene of accidents. Determination of the number of the dead and wounded with overall mortality rate would be supposed to reveal the magnitude of public health problem caused by traffic accidents.

  18. Characteristics, outcome and predictors of one year mortality rate in patients with acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acute heart failure (AHF is one of the most common diseases in emergency medicine, associated with poor prognosis and high in-hospital and longterm mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics, outcomes and one year mortality of patients with AHF in the local population. Methods. This prospective study consisted of 64 consecutive unselected patients treated in the Coronary Care Unit of the Emergency Centre (Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade and were followed for one year after the discharge. Results. Mean age of the patients was 63.6 ± 12.6 years and 59.4% were males. Acute congestion (43.8% and pulmonary edema (39.1% were the most common presentations of AHF. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 39.7% ± 9.25%, while 44.4% of the patients had LVEF ≥ 50%. At discharge, 55.9% of the patients received therapy with β-blockers, 94.9% diuretics, out of which 47.7% spironolactone, 94.9% patients were given ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blokcers (ARB. The 12-month all-cause mortality was 26.5%. Independent predictors of one year mortality were previous hospitalization due to heart disease, reduced LVEF, reduced fraction of shortening (FS and a higher tricuspid velocity. Conclusion. One year mortality of our patients with AHF was high, similar to the known European studies. Independent predictors of one year mortality were previous hospitalization due to heart disease, reduced LVEF and LVFS and a higher tricuspid velocity.

  19. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, Miriam J.; Rutten, Frans H.; De Boer, Anthonius; Hoes, Arno W.; De Bruin, Marie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and

  20. Why was Infant Mortality so High in Eastern England in the mid Nineteenth Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Andrew; Fairhurst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper re-examines the high rates of infant mortality observed in rural areas of eastern England in the early years of civil registration. Infant mortality rates in some rural registration districts in the East Riding of Yorkshire, Cambridgeshire and Norfolk were higher than those in the mill towns of Lancashire. After describing the areas affected, this paper considers three potential explanations: environmental factors, poor-quality child care associated with the employment of women in agriculture, and the possibility that the high rates were the artefactual consequence of migrant women workers bringing their children to these areas. These explanations are then assessed using a range of evidence. In the absence of reliable cause of death data, recourse is had to three alternative approaches. The first involves the use of the exceptionally detailed tabulations of ages at death within the first year of life provided in the Registrar General's Annual Reports for the 1840s to assess whether the 'excess' infant deaths in rural areas of eastern England happened in the immediate post-natal period or later in the first year of life. Second, data on the seasonality of mortality in the 1840s are examined to see whether the zone of 'excess' infant mortality manifested a distinctive seasonal pattern. Finally, a regression approach is employed involving the addition of covariates to regression models. The conclusion is that no single factor was responsible for the 'excess' infant mortality, but a plausible account can be constructed which blends elements of all three of the potential explanations mentioned above with the specific historical context of these areas of eastern England.

  1. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  2. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  4. Regional variation in the predictive validity of self-rated health for mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Berchick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a commonly used measure for assessing general health in surveys in the United States. However, individuals from different parts of the United States may vary in how they assess their health. Geographic differences in health care access and in the prevalence of illnesses may make it difficult to discern true regional differences in health when using SRH as a health measure. In this article, we use data from the 1986 and 1989–2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files and estimate Cox regression models to examine whether the relationship between SRH and five-year all-cause mortality differs by Census region. Contrary to hypotheses, there is no evidence of regional variation in the predictive validity of SRH for mortality. At all levels of SRH, and for both non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black respondents, SRH is equally and strongly associated with five-year mortality across regions. Our results suggest that differences in SRH across regions are not solely due to differences in how respondents assess their health across regions, but reflect true differences in health. Future research can, therefore, employ this common measure to investigate the geographic patterning of health in the United States.

  5. Gumboro Disease Outbreaks Cause High Mortality Rates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Thirty nine outbreak farms (5 keeping broilers, 19 keeping layers and 15 keeping indigenous flock) were visited; vaccination history collected, clinical signs observed, flock size ... Keywords: Infectious bursal disease, vaccination failure, disease control, chicken production ...

  6. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities: Does For-Profit Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuseputro, Peter; Chalifoux, Mathieu; Bennett, Carol; Gruneir, Andrea; Bronskill, Susan E; Walker, Peter; Manuel, Douglas

    2015-10-01

    To establish if proprietary status (ie, for-profit or not-for-profit) is associated with mortality and hospitalizations among publicly funded long-term care (nursing) homes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new admissions in 640 publicly funded long-term care facilities in Ontario, Canada (384 for-profit, 256 not-for-profit). A population-based cohort of 53,739 incident admissions into long-term care facilities between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2012, was observed. We measured adjusted rates of hospital admissions and mortality, per 1000 person-years (PY) of follow-up, among for-profit and not-for-profit facilities at 3, 6, and 12 months postadmission. Rates were measured postadmission and until discharge or death, whichever came first. One year after admission and before discharge, 11.7% of residents died and 25.7% had at least one hospitalization. After 12 months of follow-up, residents in for-profit facilities had a hospitalization rate of 462 per 1000 PY versus 358 per 1000 PY in not-for-profit facilities. During this period, the crude mortality rate in for-profit facilities was 208 per 1000 PY versus 185 per 1000 PY in not-for-profit facilities. At 3, 6, and 1 year after admission, for-profit facilities had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.43), 1.33 (95% CI 1.27-1.39), and 1.25 (95% CI 1.21-1.30) for hospitalizations and hazards of 1.20 (95% CI 1.11-1.29), 1.16 (95% CI 1.09-1.24), and 1.10 (95% CI 1.05-1.16) for mortality, respectively. Publicly funded for-profit facilities have significantly higher rates of both mortality and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA; Eugenia TĘGOWSKA

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxic...

  8. High mortality among children with gastroschisis after the neonatal period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Husby, Steffen; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    the neonatal period and four died after the neonatal period. Parenteral nutrition (PN) induced liver failure and suspected adhesive small bowel obstruction were the causes of deaths after the neonatal period. Overall mortality was high in the "complex" group compared to the simple group (3/7 (42.9%) vs 4/64 (6...... closure was done in 5/12 (41.7%) who developed small bowel obstruction vs 11/35 (31.43%) without small bowel obstruction, p=0.518. A GORE(®)DUALMESH was used in 16 children (22.5%). Of these 2 were complex and 14 were simple cases. Prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain was 22.5% (9/40) among children...... of abdominal wall closure nor categorization into simple and complex cases can predict the risk of adhesive small bowel obstruction. With improved administration of PN and timely information and attention to the risk of the small bowel obstruction there is good possibility that the associated mortality could...

  9. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks.

  10. Inequalities in suicide mortality rates and the economic recession in the municipalities of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Marzo, Manel; Saez, Marc

    2015-09-08

    While previous research already exists on the impact of the current economic crisis and whether it leads to an increase in mortality by suicide, our objective in this paper is to determine if the increase in the suicide rate in Catalonia, Spain from 2010 onwards has been statistically significant and whether it is associated with rising unemployment. We used hierarchical mixed models, separately considering the crude death rate of suicides for municipalities with more than and less than 10,000 inhabitants as dependent variables both unstratified and stratified according to gender and/or age group. In municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants there was an increase in the relative risk of suicide from 2009 onwards. This increase was only statistically significant for working-aged women (16-64 years). In municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants the relative risk showed a decreasing trend even after 2009. In no case did we find the unemployment rate to be associated (statistically significant) with the suicide rate. The increase in the suicide rate from 2010 in Catalonia was not statistically significant as a whole, with the exception of working-aged women (16-64 years) living in municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants. We have not found this increase to be associated with rising unemployment in any of the cases. Future research into the effects of economic recessions on suicide mortality should take into account inequalities by age, sex and size of municipalities.

  11. Predictors of the excessive mortality rates of dialysis patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, A R

    1994-05-01

    It is now well recognized that the United States has the highest mortality rate for end-stage renal disease patients receiving dialysis among the industrialized nations. The possible causes of this almost 25% gross mortality rate (23.6% in 1992) are becoming clearer. After numerous investigations of the various possibilities, it is now evident that the causes are multifactorial. Basically, the US reimbursement for dialysis payment rate has been kept low (essentially no increase since 1973) by allowing inflation to advance and maintaining the actual costs. The industry has responded in a number of ways, some of which have proven harmful. For example, the reuse of dialyzers was probably reasonable and has not proven to be a problem: reductions in staff for older and sicker populations has probably been harmful to the patient's well being; and the shortening of dialysis treatments may have produced more problems than any other change. Essentially, as patients receive less dialysis they feel worse and lose their appetite, thus resulting in weight loss. Frequently dialysis is reduced further because of reduction in certain chemical markers, eg, blood urea nitrogen, that nephrologists use as clinical measurements. This results in a malnourished patient with a low serum albumin level. It is believed but not yet proven that an increase in the dialysis prescription, ie, more dialysis, can reverse this decline. Currently the United States faces the challenges of reducing its mortality rate for end-stage renal disease patients to compare with that of other industrial countries while remaining at the current reimbursement rate, which is less than half that of Germany and one quarter that of Japan.

  12. Five-year follow-up study of disability pension rates in first-onset schizophrenia with special focus on regional differences and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marjo; Suvisaari, Jaana; Pirkola, Sami; Läksy, Kristian; Häkkinen, Unto; Isohanni, Matti; Hakko, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the rate and regional determinants of disability pension in first-admission schizophrenia. In addition, we investigated whether patients with disability pension had increased mortality rates during follow-up. A nationwide register-based 5-year follow-up study of all patients with onset of schizophrenia between 1998 and 2001 (n=3,875). A total of 1944 (50.2%) first-onset schizophrenia patients retired on disability pension during the 5-year follow-up. Males retired on pension at an earlier age and more often than females. Regional disability pension rates and retirement times for schizophrenia varied between hospital districts. Patients on disability pension had lower overall and suicide mortality, and they had less physical illness, depression and more psychotropic medication use than patients without disability pension. In regions with a short median time from onset time to retirement, there was significantly higher regional overall mortality and suicide mortality. Disability pension rates were also higher in regions with high involuntary treatment rate. Half of the schizophrenia patients were pensioned off in 5 years. Lower mortality, especially suicide mortality among disability pensioners, suggests that the decision on a permanent disability pension, indicating for its part the activation of the service system, might be a relief to schizophrenic patients, helping them cope with illness. The retirement process has regional differences, which may be caused by the regional nature of treatment and resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Congruencies in increased mortality rates, years of potential life lost, and causes of death among public mental health clients in eight states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colton, Craig W; Manderscheid, Ronald W

    2006-01-01

    .... Elevated mortality rates among individuals with mental illness have been reported in various studies, but very little focus has been placed on interstate comparisons and congruency of mortality...

  14. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country. Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud

    1998-01-01

    % in the three programmes. Standardized mortality rates (SMR) were calculated in relation to mortality rates in the municipality of Copenhagen and in the whole country in three age groups and the two genders. SMR values in the whole sample including non-participants were similar to rates for Copenhagen...... of Copenhagen. In two of the studies, subjects were randomly selected, using the Danish Central Population Registry, within certain age groups and area-restricted sectors of the Greater Copenhagen. In the third study, men employed in 14 companies participated. Participation rates were between 78% and 87...... Male Study, where only employed men were included, showed the lowest mortality rates, and higher rates were found in the study from the central part of the City (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) compared to the study from the suburbs (the Glostrup Population Studies). The difference between mortality...

  15. The Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of Taleghani Educational and Treatment Center, Tabriz, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Abbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Information about nosocomial infections (NIs is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. Neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU are at high-risk of developing nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate of nosocomial infections and the distribution of pathogens among newborns who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Taleghani educational and treatment center, Tabriz. Material and Methods : This was a cross-sectional study. The sampling method was census. The inclusion criteria were dead infants who developed signs of infection after 48 hours of hospitalization and those who had symptoms at the admission were excluded. Data were collected through hospital records and were analyzed using Excel software. Results: From 904 infants admitted to NICU, 39 (4.3% acquired hospital infection. Mortality from nosocomial infections in NICU was 20.5% that was 12% of the total deaths. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal Cook (37.5% and Escherichia coli (25% were the most commonly identified agents among dead neonates. Conclusion: For more reduction in nosocomial infection and its mortality rate, mercury hygiene principles and also optimizing bed spaces are recommended. ​

  16. Inflammation, Depression, and Slow Gait: A High Mortality Phenotype in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Roose, Steven P; Zhang, Jun; Wall, Melanie; Rutherford, Bret R; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Butters, Meryl A; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation, slow gait, and depression individually are associated with mortality, yet little is known about the trajectories of these measures, their interrelationships, or their collective impact on mortality. Longitudinal latent class analysis was used to evaluate trajectories of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression ≥ 10), slow gait (inflammation (interleukin 6 > 3.2 pg/mL) using data from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. Logistic regression was used to identify their associations with mortality. For each outcome, low-probability (n inflammation = 1,656, n slow gait = 1,471, n depression = 1,458), increasing-probability (n inflammation = 847, n slow gait = 880, n depression = 1,062), and consistently high-probability (n inflammation = 572, n slow gait = 724, n depression = 555) trajectories were identified, with 22% of all participants classified as having increasing or consistently high-probability trajectories on inflammation, slow gait, and depression (meaning probability of impairment on each outcome increased from low to moderate/high or remained high over 10 years). Trajectories of slow gait were associated with inflammation (r = .40, p inflammation were independently associated with mortality (p inflammation and slow gait (n = 247) have an adjusted-morality rate of 85.2%, greater than all other classification permutations. Comprehensive assessment of older adults is warranted for the development of treatment strategies targeting a high-mortality risk phenotype consisting of inflammation, depression, and slow gait speed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Favorable liver cancer mortality-to-incidence ratios of countries with high health expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Peng, Cheng-Ming; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Yang, Tzu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Wei; Lin, Chun-Che

    2017-12-01

    Health expenditure is a marker associated with an advanced healthcare system, which contributes toward the good prognosis of patients. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) are one of the predictors that reflect the prognosis of cancer patients. There remains some uncertainty on the correlation of MIRs of liver cancer with the health expenditure of countries. We therefore analyzed the correlation of MIRs from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database with the WHO rankings and the total expenditures on health/gross domestic product from WHO by linear regression analyses. A total of 29 countries were selected in this study according to the data quality and the incidence number. The results showed high rates of incidence/mortality and MIRs in less developed regions (0.92 vs. 0.96 for more vs. less developed regions). Among the continents, Asia has the highest incidence/mortality in case number, crude rate, and age-standardized rate. In terms of the MIR, Northern America has the lowest MIR and Latin America and the Caribbean have the highest MIRs (0.82 and 1.04, respectively). Finally, favorable MIRs are associated significantly with good WHO ranking and high expenditures on gross domestic product (P=0.048 and 0.025, respectively). The MIR variation for liver cancer is thus found to be associated with the health expenditure and WHO ranking.

  18. Prediction of hospital acute myocardial infarction and heart failure 30-day mortality rates using publicly reported performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, David S; Bardach, Naomi S; Lin, Grace A; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Goldman, L Elizabeth; Dudley, R Adams

    2013-01-01

    To identify an approach to summarizing publicly reported hospital performance data for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart failure (HF) that best predicts current year hospital mortality rates. A total of 1,868 U.S. hospitals reporting process and outcome measures for AMI and HF to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from July 2005 to June 2006 (Year 0) and July 2006 to June 2007 (Year 1). Observational cohort study measuring the percentage variation in Year 1 hospital 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate explained by denominator-based weighted composite scores summarizing hospital Year 0 performance. Data were prospectively collected from hospitalcompare.gov. Percentage variation in Year 1 mortality was best explained by mortality rate alone in Year 0 over other composites including process performance. If only Year 0 mortality rates were reported, and consumers using hospitals in the highest decile of mortality instead chose hospitals in the lowest decile of mortality rate, the number of deaths at 30 days that potentially could have been avoided was 1.31 per 100 patients for AMI and 2.12 for HF (p < .001). Public reports focused on 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate may more directly address policymakers' goals of facilitating consumer identification of hospitals with better outcomes. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  19. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  20. Trends and Age-Period-Cohort Effects on the Incidence and Mortality Rate of Cervical Cancer in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Oh, Chang-Mo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jong-Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lim, Myong Cheol; Ki, Moran

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to describe the trends and age-period-cohort effects on the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in Korea. The incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer among ≥ 20-year-old women from 1993 to 2012 were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Statistical Information Service. Age-standardized rates were calculated and Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate the trends in the incidence and mortality rate. Age-period-cohort analysis was performed to investigate the independent effects of age, period and cohort. The incidence of cervical cancer decreased from 32.8 per 100,000 in 1993 to 15.9 per 100,000 in 2012 (annual percent change [APC], -3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.2% to -3.6%). The mortality rate decreased from 5.2 per 100,000 in 1993 to 2.1 per 100,000 in 2012 (APC, -4.8%; 95% CI, -5.1% to -4.4%); however, the incidence and mortality rates among young women (age-period-cohort model of the incidence and mortality rate showed decreasing period effects between 1993 and 2008 and decreasing cohort effects between 1928 and 1973, while birth cohorts after 1973 exhibited slight increases in the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer. Recent decreases in the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer were due to decreases in the period and cohort effects, which reflect the implementation of a cancer screening program and changes in lifestyle. However, our findings also highlighted an increase in cohort effects on the incidence and mortality rate among young women born after 1973.

  1. Persistent socioeconomic disparities in infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates in the United States, 1969-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Kogan, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    This study examines changing patterns of inequalities in US infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates between 1969 and 2001 by area deprivation and maternal education. A deprivation index was linked to county vital records data to derive annual infant mortality rates by deprivation quintiles from 1969 to 2000. Rates by maternal education were computed for 1986, 1991, 1996, and 2001 using national linked birth/infant death files. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate relative risks of infant mortality by deprivation and time period. Cox regression was used to model overall and birth weight-specific infant mortality risks by maternal education after adjusting for covariates. Temporal disparities were summarized by log-linear regression and inequality indices. Although absolute disparities have narrowed over time, relative socioeconomic disparities in infant mortality have increased since 1985. In 1985-1989, infants in the most deprived group had, respectively, 36% and 57% higher risks of neonatal and postneonatal mortality than infants in the least deprived group. The corresponding relative risks increased to 43% and 96% in 1995-2000. The adjusted risk of infant mortality was 22% higher in 1986 for mothers with or = 16 years of education, with the relative risk increasing to 41% in 2001. Disparities were greatest among normal birth weight infants, with education-specific relative risks of neonatal and postneonatal mortality increasing significantly between 1986 and 2001. Dramatic declines in infant mortality among all of the socioeconomic groups during 1969-2001 represent a major public health success. However, substantial socioeconomic disparities persisted in both neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Relatively larger declines in infant and postneonatal mortality among higher socioeconomic groups have contributed to the widening gap in mortality since 1985. Persistent disparities in infant mortality may reflect increasing polarization among

  2. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-01-01

    .01 (95% CI 0.72-1.42) and 2.04 (1.43-2.91) for patients with non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy respectively at baseline compared with patients with no retinopathy. After adjusting for proteinuria, HR among patients with proliferative retinopathy lost statistical significance, but still...... remained 1.48 (95% CI 0.98-2.23). The 10 year survival rate of patients who had proliferative retinopathy as well as proteinuria at baseline was 22.2% and significantly lower (pproteinuria only (70.3%), proliferative retinopathy only (79.0%) or neither (86.6%). CONCLUSIONS....../INTERPRETATION: Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate....

  3. [Under-5-mortality rate and causes of death in China, 2000 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang; Yuan, Xiu-qin; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-hong; Miao, Lei; He, Chun-hua; Wang, Yan-ping

    2012-06-01

    To assess the changes and the leading cause of deaths for children under 5 years old, in China, during 2000 - 2010, with the aim of evaluation on the progress in achieving the relative goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001 - 2010)", and understanding the related challenges. Data used in this study were collected from the population-based National Maternal and Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Under-5-mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of deaths for under-5 children were analyzed. Nationwide IMR and U5MR in 2010 dropped by 59.3% and 58.7% respectively, compared to that in 2000. Decreases by 50.8% and 47.1% in IMR and U5MR were observed in urban areas, and 56.5% and 56.0% in rural areas during this period. Compared with data from 2000, the leading causes-specific U5MR in 2010 had significantly declined. The top 5 leading causes of death in 2010 were premature birth/low birth weight, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease and accidental suffocation, but were different in urban and rural areas. In 2010, both IMR and U5MR from the rural areas were 2.8-folds than that of the urban areas. In addition, IMRs in the Middle and Western parts of China were 1.5 and 2.3-folds respectively of that in the East, and U5MR in Middle and West was 1.5 and 2.2-folds respectively of that in East. IMR, U5MR and the leading causes specific mortality rate in China declined remarkably from 2000 to 2010, and the goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001 - 2010)" had been successfully achieved. However, the disparity on child's health in regions and in urban or rural areas, still remained a challenge.

  4. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seena Fazel

    Full Text Available To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services.We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder on outcomes.Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949 after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%, and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613 with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied-substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes.Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses.

  5. Simplified HIV Testing and Treatment in China: Analysis of Mortality Rates Before and After a Structural Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zunyou; Zhao, Yan; Ge, Xianmin; Mao, Yurong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shi, Cynthia X; Chen, Chi; Li, Yong; Qiu, Xuejun; Nong, Guide; Huang, Shanhui; Luo, Shen; Wu, Shaohui; He, Wenzhen; Zhang, Mingjie; Shen, Zhiyong; Jin, Xia; Li, Jian; Brookmeyer, Ron; Detels, Roger; Montaner, Julio; Wang, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Multistage stepwise HIV testing and treatment initiation procedures can result in lost opportunities to provide timely antiretroviral therapy (ART). Incomplete patient engagement along the continuum of HIV care translates into high levels of preventable mortality. We aimed to evaluate the ability of a simplified test and treat structural intervention to reduce mortality. In the "pre-intervention 2010" (from January 2010 to December 2010) and "pre-intervention 2011" (from January 2011 to December 2011) phases, patients who screened HIV-positive at health care facilities in Zhongshan and Pubei counties in Guangxi, China, followed the standard-of-care process. In the "post-intervention 2012" (from July 2012 to June 2013) and "post-intervention 2013" (from July 2013 to June 2014) phases, patients who screened HIV-positive at the same facilities were offered a simplified test and treat intervention, i.e., concurrent HIV confirmatory and CD4 testing and immediate initiation of ART, irrespective of CD4 count. Participants were followed for 6-18 mo until the end of their study phase period. Mortality rates in the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases were compared for all HIV cases and for treatment-eligible HIV cases. A total of 1,034 HIV-positive participants (281 and 339 in the two pre-intervention phases respectively, and 215 and 199 in the two post-intervention phases respectively) were enrolled. Following the structural intervention, receipt of baseline CD4 testing within 30 d of HIV confirmation increased from 67%/61% (pre-intervention 2010/pre-intervention 2011) to 98%/97% (post-intervention 2012/post-intervention 2013) (all p Mortality decreased from 27%/27% to 10%/10% for all cases (all p test and treat intervention was significantly associated with decreased mortality rates compared to pre-intervention 2011 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.385 [95% CI 0.239-0.620] and 0.380 [95% CI 0.233-0.618] for the two post-intervention phases, respectively, for all

  6. “Dhoulath's method” – An investigative probe into mortality rate to aid diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dhoulath Beegum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the urgent need to save life, during cardiac arrest, time is an important factor, and time factors, if not speeded up, may lead to death. Baby cries proved to be an obstacle for cardiac diagnosis. To speed up the diagnoses, ‘Dhoulath's method’ was proposed and result proved that the data quality of cardiac data, ‘aortic regurgitation sound’ from a mixture of ‘crying baby's cry’ was faithfully separated out. This separation, by utilizing the features of blind source component separation, in the case of medical emergency, can lead to a speedy diagnoses, to reduce the mortality rate.

  7. Adult mortality in a low-density tree population using high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, James R; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    We developed a statistical framework to quantify mortality rates in canopy trees observed using time series from high-resolution remote sensing. By timing the acquisition of remote sensing data with synchronous annual flowering in the canopy tree species Handroanthus guayacan, we made 2,596 unique detections of 1,006 individual adult trees within 18,883 observation attempts on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) during an 11-yr period. There were 1,057 observation attempts that resulted in missing data due to cloud cover or incomplete spatial coverage. Using the fraction of 123 individuals from an independent field sample that were detected by satellite data (109 individuals, 88.6%), we estimate that the adult population for this species on BCI was 1,135 individuals. We used a Bayesian state-space model that explicitly accounted for the probability of tree detection and missing observations to compute an annual adult mortality rate of 0.2%·yr -1 (SE = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45). An independent estimate of the adult mortality rate from 260 field-checked trees closely matched the landscape-scale estimate (0.33%·yr -1 , SE = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.12-0.74). Our proof-of-concept study shows that one can remotely estimate adult mortality rates for canopy tree species precisely in the presence of variable detection and missing observations. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. While Mortality Rates Differ After Dysvascular Partial Foot and Transtibial Amputation, Should They Influence the Choice of Amputation Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael; Fatone, Stefania; Quigley, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Although there is strong evidence to show that the risk of dying after transtibial amputation is higher than partial foot amputation, we are concerned by the implication that amputation level influences mortality, and that such interpretations of the evidence may be used to inform decisions about the choice of amputation level. We argue that the choice of partial foot or transtibial amputation does not influence the risk of mortality. The highest mortality rates are observed in studies with older people with more advanced systemic disease and multiple comorbidities. Studies that control for the confounding influence of these factors have shown no differences in mortality rates by amputation level. These insights have important implications in terms of how we help inform difficult decisions about amputation at either the partial foot or transtibial level, given a more thoughtful interpretation of the published mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High mortality among heart failure patients treated with antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veien, Karsten Tang; Videbæk, Lars; Schou, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether pharmacologically treated depression was associated with increased mortality risk in systolic heart failure (SHF) patients.......This study was designed to assess whether pharmacologically treated depression was associated with increased mortality risk in systolic heart failure (SHF) patients....

  10. Diabetes mellitus increased all-cause mortality rate among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the incidence density of mortality and identified the risk factors of mortality. The all-cause mortality of newly-diagnosed TB patients progressively increased with an average rate of 16.5% during 2000-2010. DM is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality with HRs 1.17-1.27 by various models. TB patients with ages above 75years had the highest risk of mortality (HR=11.93) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, cancer, peptic ulcer disease, gout, and autoimmune disease had higher mortality compared to those without the aforementioned factors. The one-year all-cause mortality after TB diagnosis was high among TB patients in Taiwan and it tended to increase in the past decade. While treating these newly-diagnosed TB patients, it is crucial to detect the factors predisposing to death, such as old age, male gender, certain kinds of aforementioned factors and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intra-dialytic hypertension is associated with high mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Intra-dialytic hypertension (IDH is emerging as an important issue in hemodialysis patients. Its risk factors and clinical outcomes are unclear.A total of 73 prevalent hemodialysis patients were enrolled. They included 14 (19.2% patients with baseline IDH and 59 patients without IDH. Their clinical parameters, laboratory parameters, and mortality were investigated over 78 months.The risks factor of IDH included low serum potassium levels, low ultrafiltration, and low arm muscle area. Lower median survival was evident in the IDH group compared to the non-IDH group, but was not significantly different. After adjusting for relevant confounders for age, the IDH group displayed 2.846 times higher mortality rate than the non-IDH Group (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.846; 95% confidence interval: 1.081-7.490; P = 0.034.IDH is associated with high mortality in hemodialysis patients. Clinicians should be aware of the risk factors. Future research studies are needed to explore the mechanisms involved in the association between IDH and mortality.

  12. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  13. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  14. Mortality rate after open Roux-in-Y gastric bypass: a 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Bruschi Kelles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased to epidemic status worldwide. Thousands of morbidly obese individuals undergo bariatric surgery for sustained weight loss; however, mid- and long-term outcomes of this surgery are still uncertain. Our objective was to estimate the 10-year mortality rate, and determine risk factors associated with death in young morbidly obese adults who underwent bariatric surgery. All patients who underwent open Roux-in-Y gastric bypass surgery between 2001 and 2010, covered by an insurance company, were analyzed to determine possible associations between risk factors present at the time of surgery and deaths related and unrelated to the surgery. Among the 4344 patients included in the study, 79% were female with a median age of 34.9 years and median body mass index (BMI of 42 kg/m2. The 30-day and 10-year mortality rates were 0.55 and 3.34%, respectively, and 53.7% of deaths were related to early or late complications following bariatric surgery. Among these, 42.7% of the deaths were due to sepsis and 24.3% to cardiovascular complications. Male gender, age ≥50 years, BMI ≥50 kg/m2, and hypertension significantly increased the hazard for all deaths (P<0.001. Age ≥50 years, BMI ≥50 kg/m2, and surgeon inexperience elevated the hazard of death from causes related to surgery. Male gender and age ≥50 years were the factors associated with increased mortality from death not related to surgery. The overall risk of death after bariatric surgery was quite low, and half of the deaths were related to the surgery. Older patients and superobese patients were at greater risk of surgery-related deaths, as were patients operated on by less experienced surgeons.

  15. The pattern of association between U.S. economic indicators and infant mortality rates at the state level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Anne; Price, Joshua; Nagle, Nicholas N; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2014-08-01

    This cross-sectional ecological study examines the pattern of association of state income and income inequality (measured by Gini coefficient) with state infant mortality rates (IMRs) in the U.S. Scatter plots and correlation coefficients were used to examine bivariate associations and bubble plots to examine three-way relationships. Infant mortality rate was positively associated with Gini (R=0.397, p=.004) and negatively with income (R=-0.482, p <.001). However using Black and White IMRs, the associations with Gini were non-significant, but with income remained significant. The bubble plot of Gini versus White IMR (income represented by bubble size) showed increasing IMR as Gini increases and income decreases, except for a subgroup of high-gini, high-income states with low IMRs. State income appears to be a stronger and more consistent predictor of U.S. IMRs for both Black and White races and can explain the pattern of association of White IMR with state Gini coefficient.

  16. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province.

  17. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy.

  18. Extremely low birth weight and infant mortality rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carissa; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wingate, Martha S; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2013-05-01

    Infant mortality rates (IMR) and neonatal mortality rates (NMR) in the United States have not decreased recently. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of birth weight and gestational age subgroups to the IMR and NMR in the United States. We used the most recent (1983-2005) US linked birth and infant death data and simple regression analysis to determine the contributions of specific birth weight and gestational age subgroups to trends in IMR and NMR. IMR and NMR decreased between 1983 and 2005 for all birth weight and gestational age subgroups. There was an increase in births of very low birth weight infants from 1.2% to 1.5% (P infant deaths increased from 42.9% to 54.8%, resulting in recent nonsignificant declines in IMR and NMR. The proportion of live-birth infants infants infants infants infants contribute greatly to the lack of a decrease in IMR and NMR from 2000 to 2005, although birth weight- and gestational age-specific IMR and NMR continue to decrease.

  19. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  20. The Relation of Ambulatory Heart Rate with All-Cause Mortality among Middle-Aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Kittel, France; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; Holtermann, Andreas; Clays, Els

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22–8.44). No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers. PMID:25811891

  1. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using......), but only during periods of low stock size. Our results indicate that the long-term decrease and the present poor state of the Kattegat cod stock is likely caused by high total mortality rates and stock-size dependent effects of climate which together are currently preventing recovery. In addition, we...... illustrate how only a drastic reduction in total mortalities, primarily by limiting unintended bycatch and discards, may promote a recovery of the stock. This knowledge is important for evaluating the success or failure of various management measures which have been employed to recover the stock...

  2. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Boffetta, Paolo; Powles, John; Popova, Svetlana; Zatoński, Witold

    2007-04-01

    There is a west-east mortality gradient in Europe, more pronounced in men. The objective of this article was to quantify the contribution of alcohol use to the gap in premature adult mortality between three old (France, Sweden and United Kingdom) and four new (Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Poland) European Union (EU) member states for the year 2002. Russia was added as an external comparator. Exposure data were taken from surveys and per capita consumption records from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Alcohol Database. Mortality data were taken from the WHO databank. The risk relationships were taken from published meta-analyses and from the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment project. Alcohol exposure and relative risk information was combined to derive alcohol-attributable fractions for relevant causes of premature mortality. Alcohol consumption was responsible for 14.6% of all premature adult mortality in the eight countries, 17.3% in men and 8.0% in women. This proportion was clearly higher in the new EU member states and Russia compared with the comparison countries from the old EU. For men, Russia with 29.0 alcohol-attributable premature deaths per 10,000 population had a more than 10-fold higher rate compared with Sweden (2.7 deaths/10,000). For women, the ratio between Hungary (5.0 alcohol-attributable deaths/10,000) and Russia (4.7 deaths/10,000) compared with Sweden (0.5 deaths/10,000) was almost as high, but the rates were much lower. The Czech Republic and Poland showed proportionally less alcohol-attributable premature mortality than the other new EU member states or Russia for both genders, which, however, was still higher than in any of the old EU member states. Alcohol is a strong contributor to the health gap between western and central and eastern Europe, with both average volume of consumption and patterns of drinking contributing to burden of disease and injury. Alcohol also contributes substantially to male-female differences in

  4. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59). The major causes of death were...... did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients.......BACKGROUND: Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non...

  5. The reliability of perinatal and neonatal mortality rates: Differential under-reporting in linked professional registers vs. Dutch civil registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graafmans, W.C.; Dorrepaal, C.A.; Borkent-Polet, M.; Hemel, O.J.S. van; Jansen, F.H.M.; Lya Ouden, A. den

    2001-01-01

    Official Dutch perinatal mortality rates are based on birth and death certificates. These civil registration data are not detailed enough for international comparisons or extensive epidemiological research. In this study, we linked and extrapolated three national incomplete, professional registers

  6. A Review of Aboriginal Infant Mortality Rates in Canada: Striking and Persistent Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Inequities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janet Smylie; Deshayne Fell; Arne Ohlsson

    2010-01-01

    ... of national Aboriginal organizations and federal and provincial/territorial stakeholders. Our objective was to better understand what is currently known about Aboriginal infant mortality rates (IMR) in Canada. Methods...

  7. Higher Resident Neuroticism Is Specifically Associated With Elevated State Cancer and Heart Disease Mortality Rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart J. H. McCann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relations between state-aggregated responses of 619,397 residents to the neuroticism items of the Big Five Inventory and 2005-2007 age-adjusted state cancer, heart disease, total all-cause, other-disease, and non-disease mortality rates for the 50 states were examined. Partial correlations controlling for four state demographic variables and three risk variables showed neuroticism correlated significantly only with cancer mortality (.34 and heart disease mortality (.31. Hierarchical regression with demographic variables entered first, neuroticism second, and risk variables last showed neuroticism accounted for another significant 7.6% of cancer mortality variance and an additional significant 4.6% of heart disease mortality variance. Significant βs of .28 and .30, respectively, showed higher neuroticism was associated with higher cancer and heart disease mortality when all seven demographic and risk variables were controlled. Overall, the results show resident neuroticism is related to state cancer and heart disease mortality rates but not to total all-cause, other-disease, or non-disease mortality rates.

  8. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... a linear elastic specimen to reach a state of constant strain rate before fracture. This was in contrast to ductile materials, which are widely tested with for the High-speed servohydraulic test machine. The development of the analysis and the interpretation of the results, were based on the experience...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...

  9. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  10. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  11. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods: Total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66 and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44 groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008. Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001. In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02 predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009 and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02 predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  12. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  13. High readmission rate after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, K L; Berg, S K; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2015-01-01

    age (hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.3 (1.0-1.6)), male sex (1.2 (1.0-1.5)), mitral valve surgery (1.3 (1.0-1.6)), and infective endocarditis after surgery (1.8 (1.1-3.0), p: 0.01) predicted readmission, whereas higher age (2.3 (1.0-5.4)), higher comorbidity score (3.2 (1.8-6.0)), and infective endocarditis......BACKGROUND: After heart valve surgery, knowledge on long-term self-reported health status and readmission is lacking. Thus, the optimal strategy for out-patient management after surgery remains unclear. METHODS: Using a nationwide survey with linkage to Danish registers with one year follow-up, we...... included all adults 6-12 months after heart valve surgery irrespective of valve procedure, during Jan-June 2011 (n = 867). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding health-status (n = 742), and answers were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Readmission rates and mortality were...

  14. High mortality among heart failure patients treated with antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veien, Karsten T; Videbæk, Lars; Schou, Morten

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess whether pharmacologically treated depression was associated with increased mortality risk in systolic heart failure (SHF) patients. METHODS: Patients (n=3346) with SHF (left ventricular ejection fraction......BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess whether pharmacologically treated depression was associated with increased mortality risk in systolic heart failure (SHF) patients. METHODS: Patients (n=3346) with SHF (left ventricular ejection fraction...

  15. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  16. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study aims to report the incidence of treatment-induced acute toxicities, local control and survival of patients with cervix cancer treated by external beam radiotherapy (EBR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy concomitant with weekly Cisplatin chemotherapy. Methods: Forty patients with FIGO Stages IB2 ...

  17. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Moura, Lenildo de; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-06-27

    To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. Descrever a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil e regiões, antes e após as correções por sub-registro de óbitos, redistribuição de causas mal definidas e causas inespecíficas. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos por câncer de pulmão da população de 30 a 69 anos, notificados ao Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre 1996 e 2011, corrigidos para sub-registro de óbitos, declaração de sexo e idade ignorados e causas com códigos mal definidos e inespecíficos segundo sexo, idade e região. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade para dados brutos e corrigidos. Realizou-se análise da tendência temporal da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão por meio do modelo de regressão com erros autorregressivos. O câncer de pulmão no Brasil apresentou taxas mais elevadas em homens que em mulheres e a região Sul foi a que apresentou maior risco de morte em 1996 e

  18. Completeness and underestimation of cancer mortality rate in Iran: a report from Fars Province in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Maryam; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Dortaj, Eshagh; Bahrampour, Abbas; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2015-03-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of cancer are increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. Valid data are needed for measuring the cancer burden and making appropriate decisions toward cancer control. We evaluated the completeness of death registry with regard to cancer death in Fars Province, I. R. of Iran. We used data from three sources in Fars Province, including the national death registry (source 1), the follow-up data from the pathology-based cancer registry (source 2) and hospital based records (source 3) during 2004 - 2006. We used the capture-recapture method and estimated underestimation and the true age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for cancer. We used log-linear (LL) modeling for statistical analysis. We observed 1941, 480, and 355 cancer deaths in sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. After data linkage, we estimated that mortality registry had about 40% underestimation for cancer death. After adjustment for this underestimation rate, the ASMR of cancer in the Fars Province for all cancer types increased from 44.8 per 100,000 (95% CI: 42.8 - 46.7) to 76.3 per 100,000 (95% CI: 73.3 - 78.9), accounting for 3309 (95% CI: 3151 - 3293) cancer deaths annually. The mortality rate of cancer is considerably higher than the rates reported by the routine registry in Iran. Improvement in the validity and completeness of the mortality registry is needed to estimate the true mortality rate caused by cancer in Iran.

  19. Self-rated health and all-cause and cause-specific mortality of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Juerges, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    .79–2.99), respectively. These associations were evident: for cardiovascular and, to a lesser extent, cancer mortality, and within-study, within-subgroup analyses. Accounting for lifestyle, sociodemographic, somatometric factors and, subsequently, for medical history explained only a modest amount of the unadjusted...... associations. Factors favourably associated with SRH were: sex (males), age (younger-old), education (high), marital status (married/cohabiting), physical activity (active), body mass index (non-obese), alcohol consumption (low to moderate) and previous morbidity (absence). Conclusion SRH provides a quick...

  20. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  1. The effect of levamisole on mortality rate among patients with severe burn injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Hamid; Akbari, Hossein; Alinejad, Faranak; Saberi, Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Soltani, Majid; Taghavi, Shahrzad; Payandan, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Burn injuries are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world and burn patients have higher chances for infection due to their decreased immune resistance. Levamisole, as an immunomodulation agent, stimulates the immune response against infection. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Motahari Burn Center, Tehran, Iran. Patients who had second- or third-degree burn with involvement of more than 50% of total body surface area (TBSA) were studied. The levamisole group received levamisole tablet, 100 mg per day. Meantime, both the levamisole and control groups received the standard therapy of the Burn Center, based on a standard protocol. Then, the outcome of the patients was evaluated. Results: 237 patients entered the study. After excluding 42 patients with inhalation injury, electrical and chemical burns, and the patients who died in the first 72 h, 195 patients remained in the study, including 110 patients in the control group and 85 in the treatment group. The mean age of all patients (between 13 to 64 years) was 33.29 ± 11.39 years (Mean ± SD), and it was 33.86 ± 11.45 years in the control group and 32.57 ± 11.32 years in the treatment group. The mean percentage of TBSA burn was 64.50 ± 14.34 and 68.58 ± 14.55 for the levamisole and control groups, respectively, with the range of 50-100% and 50-95% TBSA. The mortality rate was 68 (61.8%) patients in the control group and 50 (58.8%) patients in the treatment group (P = 0.8). Conclusion: According to this study, there was no significant relationship between improvement of mortality and levamisole consumption. PMID:24381625

  2. The effect of levamisole on mortality rate among patients with severe burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injuries are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world and burn patients have higher chances for infection due to their decreased immune resistance. Levamisole, as an immunomodulation agent, stimulates the immune response against infection. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Motahari Burn Center, Tehran, Iran. Patients who had second- or third-degree burn with involvement of more than 50% of total body surface area (TBSA were studied. The levamisole group received levamisole tablet, 100 mg per day. Meantime, both the levamisole and control groups received the standard therapy of the Burn Center, based on a standard protocol. Then, the outcome of the patients was evaluated. Results: 237 patients entered the study. After excluding 42 patients with inhalation injury, electrical and chemical burns, and the patients who died in the first 72 h, 195 patients remained in the study, including 110 patients in the control group and 85 in the treatment group. The mean age of all patients (between 13 to 64 years was 33.29 ± 11.39 years (Mean ± SD, and it was 33.86 ± 11.45 years in the control group and 32.57 ± 11.32 years in the treatment group. The mean percentage of TBSA burn was 64.50 ± 14.34 and 68.58 ± 14.55 for the levamisole and control groups, respectively, with the range of 50-100% and 50-95% TBSA. The mortality rate was 68 (61.8% patients in the control group and 50 (58.8% patients in the treatment group (P = 0.8. Conclusion: According to this study, there was no significant relationship between improvement of mortality and levamisole consumption.

  3. Decreasing trends of neonatal and infant mortality rates in Korea: compared with Japan, USA, and OECD nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyung Suk; Hahn, Won-Ho; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yong-Sung; Shim, Kye Shik; Bae, Chong-Woo

    2011-09-01

    Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are two of the most important indices reflecting the level of public health of a country. In this review, we investigated changes in NMR and IMR in Korea and compared the results with those of Japan, USA, and OECD nations. During the past 20 yr, NMR and IMR have lowered remarkably from 6.6 and 9.9 in 1993 to 1.7 and 3.2 in 2009, respectively, in Korea. It is an impressive finding that Korean IMR (3.2 in 2009) is lower than the average of OECD nations (4.7 in 2008), and USA (6.3 in 2009), although higher than Japanese IMR (2.8 in 2009). The proportion of NMR among the IMR calculation decreased from 66.7% in 1993 to 53.1% in 2009. The reason the value of Korea was higher than Japan but lower than USA was speculated to be an aspect of the health care service system. Several suggestions in perinatal, neonatal and infantile health care such as establishment of perinatal care center, research network system, regionalization, and new policies for care of pre-term and high risk pregnancy, are elucidated to achieve further improvement on NMR and IMR in Korea.

  4. Infant mortality rates regressed against number of vaccine doses routinely given: Is there a biochemical or synergistic toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neil Z; Goldman, Gary S

    2011-01-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most important indicators of the socio-economic well-being and public health conditions of a country. The US childhood immunization schedule specifies 26 vaccine doses for infants aged less than 1 year—the most in the world—yet 33 nations have lower IMRs. Using linear regression, the immunization schedules of these 34 nations were examined and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.70 (p infants. Nations were also grouped into five different vaccine dose ranges: 12–14, 15–17, 18–20, 21–23, and 24–26. The mean IMRs of all nations within each group were then calculated. Linear regression analysis of unweighted mean IMRs showed a high statistically significant correlation between increasing number of vaccine doses and increasing infant mortality rates, with r = 0.992 (p = 0.0009). Using the Tukey-Kramer test, statistically significant differences in mean IMRs were found between nations giving 12–14 vaccine doses and those giving 21–23, and 24–26 doses. A closer inspection of correlations between vaccine doses, biochemical or synergistic toxicity, and IMRs is essential. PMID:21543527

  5. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  6. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  7. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  8. Five-year mortality rate in an ophthalmic ward in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamidzai Madzima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mortality rate in the ophthalmic ward at the Sekuru KaguviHospital Eye Unit (SKHEU, Zimbabwe, from January 2009 to December 2013 and to identify the causes of death.Design: A hospital-based clinical audit.Methods: Data from completed hospital death notification forms and medical records of patients who had died in the ward during the review period were collected that included age, gender, diagnoses, date of admission, date of death and cause of death. The data were analysed using Epi Info7 software.Setting: The audit was conducted at SKHEU, the largest tertiary eye unit in Zimbabwe. It comprises an ophthalmic ward with 30 beds and caters for about 900 patients per year. Patients are admitted via the Out-patients Department where about 30 000 patients are seen yearly. SKHEU is part of the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, which is one of the four major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe.Results: Of the 4722 ophthalmic admissions at SKHEU during the 5-year study period, therewere 15 (0.3% deaths, with a male:female ratio of 3:2 giving a mortality rate of 0.3% and an average of 3 deaths per year. The highest number of deaths was in 2009 when 7 deaths occurred, whilst the lowest number was 1 death in 2010 and 1 in 2013. Of the 15 deaths,4 (26.7% were children < 12 years old and 11 (73.3% were adults; of whom 12 (80% patients had orbital malignancies, 2 (13.3% had orbital cellulitis and 1 (6.7% had ocular trauma. Theorbital malignancies included ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN, retinoblastomaand non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL. The most common probable cause of death was OSSN which accounted for 9 (60% of the deaths.Conclusion: The mortality rate at SKHEU was 0.3%, with approximately 3 deaths occurring per year. The most common attributable cause of death was OSSN.

  9. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: the influence of bacterial resistance, prescription errors, and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy on mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Souza-Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most prevalent nosocomial infection in intensive care units and is associated with high mortality rates (14–70%. Aim This study evaluated factors influencing mortality of patients with Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, including bacterial resistance, prescription errors, and de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. Methods This retrospective study included 120 cases of Ventilator-associated pneumonia admitted to the adult adult intensive care unit of the Federal University of Uberlândia. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. Student's t-test was used for quantitative variables and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of mortality. Findings De-escalation of antibiotic therapy and resistant bacteria did not influence mortality. Mortality was 4 times and 3 times higher, respectively, in patients who received an inappropriate antibiotic loading dose and in patients whose antibiotic dose was not adjusted for renal function. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the incorrect adjustment for renal function was the only independent factor associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Prescription errors influenced mortality of patients with Ventilator-associated pneumonia, underscoring the challenge of proper Ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment, which requires continuous reevaluation to ensure that clinical response to therapy meets expectations.

  10. Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Gagnon

    Full Text Available The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics.

  11. Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S; Hallman, Stacey A; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D Ann; Earn, David J D; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics.

  12. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  13. Mortality in over 350,000 Insured Swedish dogs from 1995–2000: I. Breed-, Gender-, Age- and Cause-specific Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson P

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study presents data on over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 years of age contributing to over one million dog-years at risk (DYAR during 1995–2000. A total of 43,172 dogs died or were euthanised and of these 72% had a claim with a diagnosis for the cause of death. The overall total mortality was 393 deaths per 10,000 DYAR. Mortality rates are calculated for the 10 most common breeds, 10 breeds with high mortality and a group including all other breeds, crudely and for general causes of death. Proportional mortality is presented for several classifications. Five general causes accounted for 62% of the deaths with a diagnosis (i.e. tumour (18%, trauma (17%, locomotor (13%, heart (8% and neurological (6%. Mortality rates for the five most common diagnoses within the general causes of death are presented. These detailed statistics on mortality can be used in breed-specific strategies as well as for general health promotion programs. Further details on survival and relative risk by breed and age are presented in the companion paper 14.

  14. Impact of closure devices on vascular complication and mortality rates in TAVI procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Zisis; Scholtz, Werner; Börgermann, Jochen; Wiemer, Marcus; Piper, Cornelia; Vlachojannis, Mario; Gummert, Jan; Horstkotte, Dieter; Ensminger, Stephan; Faber, Lothar; Scholtz, Smita

    2017-08-15

    Currently two closure devices are available for the vascular access in TAVI procedures. Their impact on vascular complications and mid-term mortality is yet unknown. Between 2009 and 2014, 398 patients underwent TAVI TF procedures in which two different closure devices were used, Prostar® XL (n=215) and Perclose-Proglide® (n=183). In the cases with Prostar we used one device and in cases with Perclose-Proglide, two devices. The two groups were compared with respect to the criteria of the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) II. The mean follow-up period was 679.7±481.8 (727) days. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of both patient groups. In the Prostar® group, complications were more frequent (26.6% vs. 12.6%, p=0.005); in detail, these were bleeding (14.9% vs. 7.1%, [p]=0.02), suture rupture (4.7% vs. 1.3%, p=0.04), and pseudoaneurysms (10.2% vs. 1.2%, p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed two predictors for vascular complications: female sex (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-3.8, p=0.002) and closure devices (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8, p=0.007) in favour of Proglide®. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality (Prostar: 5.6±1.6% vs. Proglide: 4.9±1.6%). However, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significantly higher survival rate over the entire follow-up period for the Proglide® group (p=0.03). Vascular complications occurred more often in the Prostar® group. Although 30-day mortality showed no significant difference between the groups, the mortality over complete follow-up was significantly lower in the Proglide® group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  16. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, Ethel Mary; Rajkumar, Anto P; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-03-09

    Gender inequality weakens maternal health and harms children through many direct and indirect pathways. Allied biological disadvantage and psychosocial adversities challenge the survival of children of both genders. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has recently developed a Gender Inequality Index to measure the multidimensional nature of gender inequality. The global impact of Gender Inequality Index on the child mortality rates remains uncertain. We employed an ecological study to investigate the association between child mortality rates and Gender Inequality Indices of 138 countries for which UNDP has published the Gender Inequality Index. Data on child mortality rates and on potential confounders, such as, per capita gross domestic product and immunization coverage, were obtained from the official World Health Organization and World Bank sources. We employed multivariate non-parametric robust regression models to study the relationship between these variables. Women in low and middle income countries (LMICs) suffer significantly more gender inequality (p infant (β = 70.28; 95% CI 51.93-88.64) and under five mortality rates (β = 68.14; 95% CI 49.71-86.58), after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders (p mortality rates. Our results suggest that the initiatives to curtail child mortality rates should extend beyond medical interventions and should prioritize women's rights and autonomy. We discuss major pathways connecting gender inequality and child mortality. We present the socio-economic problems, which sustain higher gender inequality and child mortality in LMICs. We further discuss the potential solutions pertinent to LMICs. Dissipating gender barriers and focusing on social well-being of women may augment the survival of children of both genders.

  17. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  18. Variations of Infant and Under-five Child Mortality Rates around the World, the Role of Human Development Index (HDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Human Development Index (HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators, which apart from measuring the socio-economic development of countries can predict health outcomes. The current study aimed at determination of the effects of HDI individual components on infant and child mortality. Materials and Methods: At a cross- sectional study,data on infant and child mortality rates and values for HDI individual components were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO and the World Bank respectively. The effect of HDI individual components on infant and child mortality were derived from linear regression models. Results: During 1990-2015, infant and child mortality have declined in all countries. Most proportion of child mortality is attributed to death in infants. All HDI individual components significantly  inversely were related to infant mortality rate (IMR and among them expected years of schooling has the strongest effect with regression coefficient of β= -5.9 (95% CI: -6.63, -5.13. Conclusion: The highest IMRs have been observed for EMRO and AFRO regions of the WHO. Policies targeting women health and empowerment can have a tremendous impact on reducing child mortality rates around the world.

  19. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam J Warnier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non-fatal pulmonary endpoints. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 405 elderly patients with COPD was performed. All patients underwent extensive investigations, including electrocardiography. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained by linking the cohort to the Dutch National Cause of Death Register and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the follow-up 132 (33% patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59. The major causes of death were cardiovascular and respiratory. The relative risk of all-cause mortality increased with 21% for every 10 beats/minute increase in heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.21 [1.07-1.36], p = 0.002. The incidence of major non-fatal pulmonary events was 145/1000 py (120-168. The risk of a non-fatal pulmonary complication increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96-1.18], p = 0.208. CONCLUSIONS: Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients.

  20. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; de Boer, Anthonius; Hoes, Arno W; De Bruin, Marie L

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non-fatal pulmonary endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 405 elderly patients with COPD was performed. All patients underwent extensive investigations, including electrocardiography. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained by linking the cohort to the Dutch National Cause of Death Register and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59). The major causes of death were cardiovascular and respiratory. The relative risk of all-cause mortality increased with 21% for every 10 beats/minute increase in heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.21 [1.07-1.36], p = 0.002). The incidence of major non-fatal pulmonary events was 145/1000 py (120-168). The risk of a non-fatal pulmonary complication increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96-1.18], p = 0.208). Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients.

  1. Evaluation and Estimation of the Provincial Infant Mortality Rate in China's Sixth Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Song Bo; Wang, Fang; Yu, Chuan Hua

    2015-06-01

    To assess the data quality and estimate the provincial infant mortality rate (1q0) from China's sixth census. A log-quadratic model is applied to under-fifteen data. We analyze and compare the average relative errors (AREs) for 1q0 between the estimated and reported values using the leave-one-out cross-validation method. For the sixth census, the AREs are more than 100% for almost all provinces. The estimated average 1q0 level for 31 provinces is 12.3‰ for males and 10.7‰ for females. The data for the provincial 1q0 from China's sixth census have a serious data quality problem. The actual levels of 1q0 for each province are significantly higher than the reported values. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia......, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000 and 2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100 000 per year. Although MSSA CFR was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community......-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR....

  3. Socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as determinants of regional mortality rates in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Rosic, Martin; Zezula, Ivan; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Regional differences in mortality might reflect socioeconomic and ethnic differences between regions. The present study examines the relationship between education, unemployment, income, Roma population and regional mortality in the Slovak Republic. Separately for males and females, data on

  4. Regional socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as predictors of regional infant mortality rate in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Kollarova, Jana; Rosic, Martin; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exploring the associations of regional differences in infant mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity could offer important clues for designing public health policy measures. Methods Data included perinatal and infant mortality in the 79 districts of the Slovak

  5. A web tool for age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Philip S; Check, David P; Anderson, William F

    2014-11-01

    Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly Web tool. Input data for the Web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates, period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift), and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The Web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats, including R and Excel. APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely available user-friendly Web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. The Web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Pesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men or increasing (in women, the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  7. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  8. Congenital heart disease in 37,294 births in Tunisia: birth prevalence and mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Dorra; Elloumi, Anis; Abid, Leila; Mallek, Souad; Aloulou, Hajer; Chabchoub, Imen; Bouraoui, Amira; Thabet, Afef; Gargouri, Lamia; Zribi, Malek; Yaich, Sourour; Hachicha, Mongia; Gargouri, Abdellatif; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid; Maatoug, Samir; Dammak, Jamel; Kammoun, Samir

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the previously unknown birth incidence, treatment, and mortality of children with congenital heart disease in Tunisia. We undertook a retrospective review of medical records of all patients who were born in 2010 and 2011, and were diagnosed in Sfax (Tunisia) with congenital heart defect. Among 37,294 births, 255 children were detected to have congenital heart disease, yielding a birth incidence of 6.8 per 1000. The most frequently occurring conditions were ventricular septal defects (31%), ostium secundum atrial septal defects (12.9%), and pulmonary valve abnormalities (12%). Coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, univentricular physiology, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, and transposition of the great arteries were found in 4.3%, 6.2%, 3.4%, 2.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. During the follow-up of 1 year, 23% of the children died. About three-quarters of those deaths happened before surgery. The present study is in line with the general estimates in the world. It has revealed a high case of mortality among the patients awaiting corrective surgery. These children need more facilities.

  9. Long-term impact of arsenic in drinking water on bladder cancer health care and mortality rates 20 years after end of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mario I; López, J Francisco; Vivaldi, Bruno; Coz, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    In this study we assessed bladder cancer health care and mortality trends in recent decades in a well studied arsenic exposed area in Northern Chile. Arsenic levels in the affected region were obtained for the last 60 years, and correlated with bladder cancer hospital discharge and mortality rates in recent decades. Bladder cancer hospital discharge rates were significantly higher in the affected region (peak RR 3.6, 95% CI 3.0-4.7). Mortality rates for bladder cancer showed a trend of increase during the period analyzed, reaching peak mortality rates of 28.4 per 100,000 for men and 18.7 per 100,000 for women in the last 10 years. Poisson regression models showed an increased mortality risk in the studied region compared to the rest of the country until the present for men (IRR 5.3, 95% CI 4.8-5.8) and women (IRR 7.8, 95% CI 7.0-8.7). Mean age at cancer specific death was significantly lower in the exposed region (69.6 years, 95% CI 68.4-70.7 vs 73.7 years, 95% CI 73.3-74.2, p <0.01). Exposure to arsenic is related to a significant need for bladder cancer health care and to high mortality rates even 20 years after having controlled arsenic levels in drinking water. Affected individuals should be aware of the significant impact of this ecological factor. Further research is required to identify strategies for the management of bladder cancer in arsenic exposed populations. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  11. High-titer measles vaccination before 9 months of age and increased female mortality: do we have an explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-07-01

    In 1989, high-titer (HT) Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine with a titer more than 10(4.7) plaque-forming-units was recommended by the World Health Organization for use in areas with a high incidence of measles in children younger than 9 months. In 1992, the recommendation was rescinded following reports from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Haiti showing an increased incidence of female mortality occurring after administration of HT Edmonston-Zagreb vaccination. We reviewed 9 studies of HT measles vaccines that reported data on mortality. These reports included 4 randomized trials comparing HT vaccine administered to children younger than 9 months with standard-titer (ST) vaccines (10(3.0) to 10(4.0) plaque-forming-units) given at 9 months of age. Five studies from Zaire, Haiti, Senegal, Rwanda, and Zaire had no control group receiving ST vaccine at 9 months of age, but investigators were able to examine the female-to-male mortality ratio within these HT studies. Investigators have hypothesized that HT vaccine had caused immune suppression similar to that of measles infection. The present review suggests first that the HT vaccine itself is unlikely to be the cause because the effect was not found in all studies. Second, the increased mortality started only after 9 to 10 months of age when controls received ST measles vaccine, and HT groups received the "control vaccine." It was not found in the studies that provided another measles vaccine instead of control vaccine. Third, because the HT studies with excess mortality rates showed increased female mortality rates, we need to find environmental or contextual conditions associated with increased female mortality rates in some studies to explain the problem associated with HT measles vaccination.

  12. Why are hospital admission and mortality rates for childhood asthma higher in New Zealand than in the United Kingdom?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, E.A.; Anderson, H R; Freeling, P; White, P T

    1990-01-01

    New Zealand has higher mortality and hospital admission rates for asthma than England and Wales. To determine the reasons for this the available data on asthma mortality and hospital admissions from the Auckland region of New Zealand were compared with data from the South West Thames Region of England for 1979-86 and data from previous surveys on prevalence of wheeze (Auckland 1985, Croydon 1978). In addition, a survey of general practitioners was carried out to determine their approach to th...

  13. [The Nordic cervical screening programmes through 1995. Evaluation of incidence and mortality rates, targeted age groups and screening intervals.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-11-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. The Nordic countries have a long experience in cervical cancer screening. Based on this experience this study evaluates the UICC and EC guidelines regarding the effectiveness of organized vs. spontaneous screening, targeted age groups and screening intervals. The study analyses the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programmes and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. It also analyses the trends for cytologic preinvasive lesions at first visit and at second and later visits after a normal test(s). The frequency of histologic lesions was calculated for the birth cohort 1920-1926 from the age of 60 and among women referred for colposcopic examination in 1994. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries except Norway soon after 1960. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland. All countries intensified the screening intervals after 1985. The reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland and Finland, intermediate in Sweden and Denmark, and lowest in Norway but in that country organized screening started in 1994. The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno-and adenosquamous carcinomas. The prevalence of preinvasive disease has increased significantly since 1980. The rate of moderate to high-grade cytologic changes begins increasing as early as at 20 years of age and moderate to high-grade histologic lesions start to accumulate at 24 to 36 months after a normal smear. The rate of these lesions decreases with the number of negative smears taken. Moderate to high-grade histologic lesions and invasive cancer are

  14. Scaling of growth rate and mortality with size and its consequence on size spectra of natural microphytoplankton assemblages in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Chang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allometric scaling of body size versus growth rate and mortality has been suggested to be a universal macroecological pattern, as described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE. However, whether such scaling generally holds in natural assemblages remains debated. Here, we test the hypothesis that the size-specific growth rate and grazing mortality scale with the body size with an exponent of −1/4 after temperature correction, as MTE predicts. To do so, we couple a dilution experiment with the FlowCAM imaging system to obtain size-specific growth rates and grazing mortality of natural microphytoplankton assemblages in the East China Sea. This novel approach allows us to achieve highly resolved size-specific measurements that would be very difficult to obtain in traditional size-fractionated measurements using filters. Our results do not support the MTE prediction. On average, the size-specific growth rates and grazing mortality scale almost isometrically with body size (with scaling exponent ∼0.1. However, this finding contains high uncertainty, as the size-scaling exponent varies substantially among assemblages. The fact that size-scaling exponent varies among assemblages prompts us to further investigate how the variation of size-specific growth rate and grazing mortality can interact to determine the microphytoplankton size structure, described by normalized biomass size spectrum (NBSS, among assemblages. We test whether the variation of microphytoplankton NBSS slopes is determined by (1 differential grazing mortality of small versus large individuals, (2 differential growth rate of small versus large individuals, or (3 combinations of these scenarios. Our results indicate that the ratio of the grazing mortality of the large size category to that of the small size category best explains the variation of NBSS slopes across environments, suggesting that higher grazing mortality of large microphytoplankton may release the small

  15. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  16. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffle, H.; Thomsen, M. S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m -2, high 4.5 kg WW m -2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 °C) and elevated temperatures (21 °C and 27 °C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l -1 at 18 °C compared to 3.7 mmol l -1 at 27 °C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf elongation rates being negatively affected, while the leaf plastochrone interval increased. Relative growth rate was significantly higher at 21 °C than at 18 °C or 27 °C, whereas rhizome elongation was significantly lowest at 27 °C. Elemental sulphur content in the plant tissues increased significantly with temperature and was up to 34 times higher (S 0 in rhizomes) at 27 °C compared to the lower temperatures. In contrast to the temperature effects, cover by G. vermiculophylla did not cause significant effects on any seagrass responses. However, there was a (non-significant) negative effect of algal cover at the highest temperature, where the seagrass is already stressed. The latter results suggest that more studies should test for interaction effects between temperature and other anthropogenic stressors given that temperature is predicted to increase in the near future.

  17. Increased non-Gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro eHayano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Gaussianity index (λ is a new index of heart rate variability (HRV that characterizes increased probability of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A previous study has reported that increased λ is an independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic heart failure. The present study examined predictive value of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-hr Holter monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power, scaling exponent α1 of detrended fluctuation analysis, deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT. At baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV indices (|r| <0.4 with either indices and was decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04. During a median follow up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7% patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac and 39 recurrent nonfatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P <0.0001. The predictive power of increased λ was significant even after adjustments for clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI], 1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01. The prognostic power of increased λ for cardiac death was also independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive power is independent of clinical risk factors and

  18. [Necrotizing fasciitis: study of 17 cases presenting a low mortality rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibadi, K; Forli, A; Martin Des Pallieres, T; Debus, G; Moutet, F; Corcella, D

    2013-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a hypodermis, muscular fascia then dermis necrotizing infection. The originality of this study is to present a series of necrotizing fasciitis treated and followed these last five years, and to compare the therapeutic results with those of the literature. We led a retrospective study on the patients treated for necrotizing fasciitis between 2005 and 2009 by bringing together the demographic and clinical data, the bacteriological examinations and the results of management. Follow-up data from these patients during period of study (five years) were notified. Seventeen patients were treated (11 men and six women). The average age of the patients was 52 years (ranging from 28 to 82 years). Risk factors of necrotizing fasciitis for our patients were: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (82.2%), cutaneous wound (76.4%), obesity (29.4%), oto-rhino-laryngologic diseases (23.5%), alcoholic and drug addicts (23.5%), and diabetis (11.7%). The most isolated and responsible germ was Streptococcus pyogenes in 75.5% of cases. Culture of specimens collected before antibiotic treatment showed that the bacterium was sensible to the antibiotics being administered (clindamycin in 70.5% of cases). The surgical management was early done with an average delay of 2.7 days (ranging from 1 to 15 days). We observed a low mortality rate (11.7%). One patient died during the period of follow-up after one year (average follow-up of 2.0 years; 1-3 years). Contrary to the data from the literature, this study presents a decrease of the mortality in necrotizing fasciitis with an early treatment and an adequate management. The precocity and the quality of surgical procedures as well as the presence of an underlying disease are determining factors for successful management of necrotizing fasciitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. US infant mortality trends attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed from 1984 through 2004: are rates increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Kimball, Melissa; Tomashek, Kay M; Anderson, Robert N; Blanding, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    Accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, a subgroup of sudden, unexpected infant deaths, is a leading mechanism of injury-related infant deaths. We explored trends and characteristics of these potentially preventable deaths. In this descriptive study, we analyzed US infant mortality data from 1984 through 2004. To explore trends in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed and other sudden, unexpected infant deaths, we calculated cause-specific infant mortality rates and estimated proportionate mortality. Sudden, unexpected infant death was defined as a combination of all deaths attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, sudden infant death syndrome, and unknown causes. Finally, we examined factors that were reported as contributing to these accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed deaths. Between 1984 and 2004, infant mortality rates attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed increased from 2.8 to 12.5 deaths per 100000 live births. These rates remained relatively stagnant between 1984 and 1992 and increased between 1992 and 2004; the most dramatic increase occurred between 1996 and 2004 (14% average annual increase). In contrast, total sudden, unexpected infant death rates remained stagnant between 1996 and 2004, whereas the proportion of deaths attributed to sudden infant death syndrome declined and to unknown cause increased. Black male infants Infant mortality rates attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed have quadrupled since 1984. The reason for this increase is unknown. Prevention efforts should target those at highest risk and focus on helping parents and caregivers provide safer sleep environments.

  20. Rate of ankle-brachial index decline predicts cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Michio; Hasumi, Syoko; Mandai, Shintaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Shikuma, Satomi; Akita, Wataru; Mori, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Sei

    2014-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular events (CVEs). We obtained baseline data regarding blood biochemistry, ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and echocardiographic parameters from 300 patients on hemodialysis in 2005. We also measured ABI and baPWV annually from June 2005 until June 2012 and calculated rates of changes in ABI and baPWV to identify factors associated with CVEs. Seventy-three patients died of cardiovascular disease and 199 CVEs occurred in 164 patients during the study period. Cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease (PAD) events occurred in 124, 43 and 32 patients, respectively, and 30 patients had more than two types of CVEs. Analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that a higher rate of decline in ABI (hazard ratio [HR], 4.034; P hemodialysis in Japan. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  1. Heritability of resting heart rate and association with mortality in middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Wod, Mette; Galatius, Søren

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR...... in RHR. CONCLUSIONS: RHR is a trait with a genetic influence in middle-aged and elderly twins free of cardiovascular disease. RHR is independently associated with longevity even when familial factors are controlled for in a twin design....... and mortality. METHODS: In total, 4282 twins without cardiovascular disease were included from the Danish Twin Registry, hereof 1233 twin pairs and 1816 'single twins' (twins with a non-participating co-twin); mean age 61.7 (SD 11.1) years; 1334 (31.2%) twins died during median 16.3 (IQR 13.8-16.5) years......OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR...

  2. How can we make international comparisons of infant mortality in high income countries based on aggregate data more relevant to policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylbersztejn, Ania; Gilbert, Ruth; Hjern, Anders; Hardelid, Pia

    2017-12-19

    Infant mortality rates are commonly used to compare the health of populations. Observed differences are often attributed to variation in child health care quality. However, any differences are at least partly explained by variation in the prevalence of risk factors at birth, such as low birth weight. This distinction is important for designing interventions to reduce infant mortality. We suggest a simple method for decomposing inter-country differences in crude infant mortality rates into two metrics representing risk factors operating before and after birth. We used data from 7 European countries participating in the EURO-PERISTAT project in 2010. We calculated crude and birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates using Norway as the standard population. We decomposed between-country differences in crude stillbirth and infant mortality rates into the within-country difference in crude and birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates (metric 1), reflecting prenatal risk factors, and the between-country difference in birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates (metric 2), reflecting risk factors operating after birth. We also calculated birth weight-specific mortality. Using our metrics, we showed that for England, Wales and Scotland risk factors before and after birth contributed equally to the differences in crude stillbirth and infant mortality rates relative to Norway. In Austria, Czech Republic and Switzerland the differences were driven primarily by metric 1, reflecting high rate of low birth weight. The highest values of metric 2 observed in Poland partially reflected high rates of congenital anomalies. Our suggested metrics can be used to guide policy decisions on preventing infant deaths through reducing risk factors at birth or improving the care of babies after birth. Aggregate data tabulated by birth weight/gestational age should be routinely collected and published in high-income countries where

  3. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y. Jeon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Methods Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. Results In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. Conclusion In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies—suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country’s unique situation.

  4. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  5. Quality Indicators but Not Admission Volumes of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Are Effective in Reducing Mortality Rates of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochow, Niels; Landau-Crangle, Erin; Lee, Sauyoung; Schünemann, Holger; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how two different strategies to form larger neonatal intensive care units (NICU) impact neonatal mortality rates. Cross-sectional study modeling admission volumes and mortality rates of 177,086 VLBW infants aggregated into 862 NICUs. Cumulative 3-year data was abstracted from Vermont Oxford Network. The model simulated a reduction in number of NICUs by stepwise exclusion using either admission volume (VOL) or quality (QUAL) cut-offs. After randomly redirecting infants of excluded to remaining NICUs resulting system mortality rates were calculated with and without adjusting for effects of experience levels (EL) using published data to reflect effects of different team-to-patient exposure. The quality-based strategy is more effective in reducing mortality; while VOL alone was not able to reduce system mortality, QUAL already achieved a 5% improvement after reducing 8% of NICUs and redirecting 6% of infants. Including "EL", a 5% improvement of mortality was achieved by reducing 77% (VOL) vs. 7% (QUAL) of NICUs and redirecting 54% (VOL) vs. 5% (QUAL) of VLBW infants, respectively. While a critical number of admissions is needed to maintain skills this study emphasizes the importance of including quality parameters to restructure neonatal care. The findings can be generalized to other medical fields.

  6. Sex/gender and socioeconomic differences in the predictive ability of self-rated health for mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nishi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that the predictive ability of self-rated health (SRH for mortality varies by sex/gender and socioeconomic group. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this relationship in Japan and explore the potential reasons for differences between the groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analyses in the study were based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study's (AGES 2003 Cohort Study in Chita Peninsula, Japan, which followed the four-year survival status of 14,668 community-dwelling people who were at least 65 years old at the start of the study. We first examined sex/gender and education-level differences in association with fair/poor SRH. We then estimated the sex/gender- and education-specific hazard ratios (HRs of mortality associated with lower SRH using Cox models. Control variables, including health behaviors (smoking and drinking, symptoms of depression, and chronic co-morbid conditions, were added to sequential regression models. The results showed men and women reported a similar prevalence of lower SRH. However, lower SRH was a stronger predictor of mortality in men (HR = 2.44 [95% confidence interval (CI: 2.14-2.80] than in women (HR = 1.88 [95% CI: 1.44-2.47]; p for sex/gender interaction = 0.018. The sex/gender difference in the predictive ability of SRH was progressively attenuated with the additional introduction of other co-morbid conditions. The predictive ability among individuals with high school education (HR = 2.39 [95% CI: 1.74-3.30] was similar to that among individuals with less than a high school education (HR = 2.14 [95% CI: 1.83-2.50]; p for education interaction = 0.549. CONCLUSIONS: The sex/gender difference in the predictive ability of SRH for mortality among this elderly Japanese population may be explained by male/female differences in what goes into an individual's assessment of their SRH, with males apparently weighting depressive symptoms more than

  7. High Reliability Pediatric Septic Shock Quality Improvement Initiative and Decreasing Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Roni D; Funai, Tomohiko; Reeder, Ron; Larsen, Gitte Y

    2016-10-01

    Septic shock impacts mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. A quality improvement (QI) initiative was launched to improve early recognition and timely treatment of patients with septic shock in a pediatric emergency department (PED). Our primary aim was to describe the longitudinal effectiveness of the program, iterative changes in clinical practice, and associated outcomes. We implemented multiple interventions during our QI initiative (February 2007 to December 2014). Analysis of compliance and outcomes focused on a bundle consisting of: (1) timely antibiotics, (2) intravenous fluids (IVF) for rapid reversal of perfusion abnormalities and/or hypotension. Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for death and pediatric ICU (PICU) admission. A total of 1380 patients were treated for septic shock; 93% met screening criteria at triage. Implementation of the various processes improved timely interventions. One example included implementation of a sepsis order set, after which the mean proportion of patients receiving timely antibiotics increased to its highest rate. The odds of death were 5 times as high for children who did not receive bundle-compliant care (OR, 5.0 [95% Confidence Interval 1.9, 14.3]) compared with those who did (OR, 0.20 [95% Confidence Interval 0.07, 0.53]). Among PICU admitted patients, the odds of mortality were greater for children who presented with abnormal mental status and a higher pediatric index of mortality 2 score. QI methodology improved septic shock program goal adherence and decreased mortality without increasing PICU admissions or PED length of stay over the 8-year period, supporting continued emphasis on early recognition, timely IVF resuscitation, and antibiotic administration. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

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    Julia M.M. Lopes

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  9. Hospitalization rates and post-operative mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysm in Italy over the period 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sensi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported declines in incidence, prevalence and mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs in various countries, but evidence from Mediterranean countries is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the trend of hospitalization and post-operative mortality rates for AAAs in Italy during the period 2000-2011, taking into account the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR in 1990s. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with 4.5 million inhabitants. A total of 19,673 patients hospitalized for AAAs between 2000 and 2011, were identified from the hospital discharge records (HDR database. Hospitalization rates, percentage of OSR and EVAR and 30-day mortality rates were calculated for unruptured (uAAAs and ruptured AAAs (rAAAs. RESULTS: Adjusted hospitalization rates decreased on average by 2.9% per year for uAAAs and 3.2% for rAAAs (p<0.001. The temporal trend of 30-day mortality rates remained stable for both groups. The percentage of EVAR for uAAAs increased significantly from 2006 to 2011 (42.7 versus 60.9% respectively, mean change of 3.9% per year, p<0.001. No significant difference in mortality was found between OSR and EVAR for uAAAs and rAAAs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and trend of hospitalization rates for rAAAs and uAAAs decreased significantly in the last decade, while 30-day mortality rates in operated patients remained stable. OSR continued to be the most common surgery in rAAAs, although the gap between OSR and EVAR recently declined. The EVAR technique became the preferred surgery for uAAAs since 2008.

  10. Mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning across Canada: a trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Weichenthal, Scott; Wong, Joan; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Dugandzic, Rose; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of mortality and morbidity from carbon monoxide poisoning in Canada has received little attention. Our objective was to evaluate trends in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning across Canada. Age- and sex-standardized mortality (1981-2009) and hospital admission (1995-2010) rates by age group, sex and site of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated for each province and for all of Canada. We quantified the long-term trends by calculating the average annual percent change. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of carbon monoxide poisoning across age groups, sex and month of occurrence. In Canada, there were 1808 unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning deaths between 1981 and 2009 and 1984 admissions to hospital between 1995 and 2010. Average annual decreases of 3.46% (95% confidence interval [CI] -4.59% to -2.31%) and 5.83% (95% CI -7.79% to -3.83%) were observed for mortality and hospital admission rates, respectively. Mortality (IRR 5.31, 95% CI 4.57 to 6.17) and hospital admission (IRR 2.77, 95% CI 2.51 to 3.03) rates were elevated in males compared with females. Decreased trends in the rates were observed for all sites of carbon monoxide exposure, but the magnitude of this decrease was lowest in residential environments. Deaths and admissions to hospital were most frequent from September to April, with peaks in December and January. Mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning in Canada have declined steadily. Continued efforts should focus on reducing carbon monoxide poisoning during the cooler months and in residential environments.

  11. Severe Congenital Deficiency of Factor XIII: A Brief Report of Morbidity and Mortality Rates of Severe Congenital Deficiency of Factor 13 in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Dorgalaleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factor XIII (FXIII deficiency is a bleeding disorder and it inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. in areas where consanguineous marriage is common, it has high prevalence. Iran as a Middle East country comprise the high rate of consanguinity in nearly half of patients with severe congenital FXIII deficiency (FXIIID. The most common mutation in Iranian population is Trp187Arg. In these patients occure life- threatening bleeding including central nervous system (CNS bleeding, umbilical cord bleeding and recurrent miscarriage that have high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate morbidity and mortality rate among these patients and the reasons for it. Materials and Methods:In this systematic review we  studied all published paper in the field of FXIIID factor deficiency in Iran until 2015 via searching in databases and search engine such as Sciencedirect, scientific information database (SID, PubMed and Google scholar. Results: Among 308 patients with FXIIID, 108 cases had experienced CNS bleeding (CNSB that in 23 cases had associated with rebleeding. in 72 patients have occured different types of neurological complications after  central nervous system bleeding. A total of 63 recurrent miscarriages were observed in 30 women and 21 deaths were registered due to umbilical cord bleeding or mucosal bleedings. Conclusion: Due to high rate of morbidity and mortality among patients with FXIIID, early diagnosis of disease, prophylaxis treatment and intensive health care should be considered among these patients.

  12. Risk factors associated with spatio-temporal clusters of high mortality in Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Ersbøll, Annette; Bihrmann, Kristine

    What were our motivation and objective? Mortality data are recorded to fulfill the European Commission requirements which ensures a continuous data flow for a surveillance system. Before using these data as part of a syndromic surveillance system, it is necessary to understand why increasing...... changes in mortality happen. The aim of this study was to identify spatio-temporal clusters of high mortality in Danish swine herds and associated risk factors....

  13. Longer-Term Impact of High and Low Temperature on Mortality: An International Study to Clarify Length of Mortality Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Leon Guo, Yue-Liang; Guo, Yuming; Goodman, Patrick; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Lavigne, Eric; Michelozzi, Paola; Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Schwartz, Joel; Scortichini, Matteo; Sera, Francesco; Tobias, Aurelio; Tong, Shilu; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Zeka, Ariana; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2017-10-27

    In many places, daily mortality has been shown to increase after days with particularly high or low temperatures, but such daily time-series studies cannot identify whether such increases reflect substantial life shortening or short-term displacement of deaths (harvesting). To clarify this issue, we estimated the association between annual mortality and annual summaries of heat and cold in 278 locations from 12 countries. Indices of annual heat and cold were used as predictors in regressions of annual mortality in each location, allowing for trends over time and clustering of annual count anomalies by country and pooling estimates using meta-regression. We used two indices of annual heat and cold based on preliminary standard daily analyses: a) mean annual degrees above/below minimum mortality temperature (MMT), and b) estimated fractions of deaths attributed to heat and cold. The first index was simpler and matched previous related research; the second was added because it allowed the interpretation that coefficients equal to 0 and 1 are consistent with none (0) or all (1) of the deaths attributable in daily analyses being displaced by at least 1 y. On average, regression coefficients of annual mortality on heat and cold mean degrees were 1.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3, 3.1] and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.6, 1.6) per degree, respectively, and daily attributable fractions were 0.8 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.3) and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 1.4). The proximity of the latter coefficients to 1.0 provides evidence that most deaths found attributable to heat and cold in daily analyses were brought forward by at least 1 y. Estimates were broadly robust to alternative model assumptions. These results provide strong evidence that most deaths associated in daily analyses with heat and cold are displaced by at least 1 y. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1756.

  14. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    YamazakI, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. PMID:23179377

  15. Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rate and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Griffin, Simon J; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    -based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and cardiovascular events. METHODS: This register-based, non-randomised, controlled trial included men and women aged 40-69 years without known diabetes who were registered with a general practice in Denmark (n = 1......-screening group (HR 0.99 [0.96, 1.02], p = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A population-based stepwise screening programme for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among all middle-aged adults in Denmark was not associated with a reduction in rate of mortality or cardiovascular events between 2001...... were invited to visit their GP for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk (screening group). The 1,759,285 individuals registered with all other general practices in Denmark constituted the retrospectively constructed no-screening (control) group. Outcomes were mortality rate...

  16. Estimation of peacock bass (Cichla spp. mortality rate during catch-release fishing employing different post-capture procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. A. Barroco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of catch-and-release fishing on the survival of peacock bass (Cichla spp. was evaluated by comparing two types of artificial bait (jig and shallow-diver plugs and two types of post-catch confinement. Two experiments were conducted during the periods January-February and October-November 2012 in the Unini River, a right-bank tributary of the Negro River. In total, 191 peacock bass were captured. Both groups of fish were subjected to experimental confinement (collective and individual for three days. Additionally, 11 fish were tagged with radio transmitters for telemetry monitoring. Mortality rate was estimated as the percentage of dead individuals for each type of bait and confinement. For peacock bass caught with jig baits, mortality was zero. The corresponding figure for shallow-diver bait was 1.66% for fish in collective containment, 18.18% for fish monitored by telemetry and 0% for individuals confined individually. Our results show low post-release mortality rates for peacock bass. Furthermore, neither the type of confinement nor the type of bait had a statistically significant influence on mortality rates. While future studies could include other factors in the analysis, our results show that catch-and-release fishing results in low mortality rates.

  17. Estimation of peacock bass (Cichla spp.) mortality rate during catch-release fishing employing different post-capture procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L S A; Freitas, C E C; Lima, Á C

    2017-08-17

    The effect of catch-and-release fishing on the survival of peacock bass (Cichla spp.) was evaluated by comparing two types of artificial bait (jig and shallow-diver plugs) and two types of post-catch confinement. Two experiments were conducted during the periods January-February and October-November 2012 in the Unini River, a right-bank tributary of the Negro River. In total, 191 peacock bass were captured. Both groups of fish were subjected to experimental confinement (collective and individual) for three days. Additionally, 11 fish were tagged with radio transmitters for telemetry monitoring. Mortality rate was estimated as the percentage of dead individuals for each type of bait and confinement. For peacock bass caught with jig baits, mortality was zero. The corresponding figure for shallow-diver bait was 1.66% for fish in collective containment, 18.18% for fish monitored by telemetry and 0% for individuals confined individually. Our results show low post-release mortality rates for peacock bass. Furthermore, neither the type of confinement nor the type of bait had a statistically significant influence on mortality rates. While future studies could include other factors in the analysis, our results show that catch-and-release fishing results in low mortality rates.

  18. Temporal changes in rates of stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality among triplet gestations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Darios; Amre, Devendra K; Ananth, Cande V; Demissie, Kitaw; Rhoads, George G

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine temporal changes in stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality rates among triplet births in the US, and to assess the contributions of triplet delivery at infant deaths (1990-2002) delivered at > or = 22 weeks and fetuses weighing > or = 500 g (n = 66,986) were derived from the US linked birth/infant death data files. Relative risk (RR), quantifying changes in triplet stillbirth, neonatal (death within the first 28 days) and infant mortality (death within the first year) rates between 1990 and 1991 and 2001 and 2002, were derived. Temporal changes in triplet births at infant mortality rates were examined through logistic regression models before and after adjusting for confounders. Triplet births at infant mortality rates declined by 52% (RR 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.63), 32% (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58-0.80), and 38% (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.71), respectively, between 1990 and 1991 and 2001 and 2002. The increase in triplet births at infant deaths, respectively. Our findings suggest that the increase in triplet births at infant mortality.

  19. Assessing the impact of paternal involvement on racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Kornosky, Jennifer L; Wathington, Deanna; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-02-01

    We sought to assess the contribution of paternal involvement to racial disparities in infant mortality. Using vital records data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2005, we generated odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and preventative fractions to assess the association between paternal involvement and infant mortality. Paternal involvement status was based on presence/absence of paternal first and/or last name on the birth certificate. Disparities in infant mortality were observed between and within racial/ethnic subpopulations. When compared to Hispanic (NH)-white women with involved fathers, NH-black women with involved fathers had a two-fold increased risk of infant mortality whereas infants born to black women with absent fathers had a seven-fold increased risk of infant mortality. Elevated risks of infant mortality were also observed for Hispanic infants with absent fathers (OR = 3.33. 95%CI = 2.66-4.17). About 65-75% of excess mortality could be prevented with increased paternal involvement. Paternal absence widens the black-white gap in infant mortality almost four-fold. Intervention programs to improve perinatal paternal involvement may decrease the burden of absent father-associated infant mortality.

  20. Race Matters: Analyzing the relationship between colorectal cancer mortality rates and various factors within respective racial groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eVeach

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of mortality due to cancer (with over 50,000 deaths annually, representing 9% of all cancer deaths in the United States (American Cancer Society, 2013. In particular, the African American CRC mortality rate is among the highest reported for any race/ethnic group. Meanwhile, the CRC mortality rate for Hispanics is 15%-19% lower than that for non-Hispanic Caucasians (Horner et al., 2009. While factors such as obesity, age, and socio-economic status are known to associate with CRC mortality, do these and other potential factors correlate with CRC death in the same way across races? This research linked CRC mortality data obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI with data from the United States Census Bureau, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the National Solar Radiation Database to visually examine geographic and racial/ethnic differences, and develop a spatial regression model that adjusted for several factors that may attribute to health disparities among ethnic/racial groups. This analysis showed that sunlight, obesity, and socio-economic status were significant predictors of CRC mortality. The study is significant because it not only verifies known factors associated with the risk of CRC death but, more importantly, demonstrates how these factors vary within different racial groups. Accordingly, education on reducing risk factors for CRC should be directed at specific racial groups above and beyond creating a generalized education plan.

  1. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency) and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; René, Jean Pascal; Phimmasane, Maniphet

    2015-03-01

    Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency) occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos. Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009). Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months) living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2%) were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%). In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8) died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths) was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6%) were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2%) reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4%) respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6%) had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8%) possible thiamine deficiency. Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity of

  2. Impact of Starting an Emergency Medicine Residency Program on Overall Mortality Rate in a Regional Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blow, Osbert; Herrick, John; Richman, Peter

    2016-02-01

    CHRISTUS Spohn Hospital Corpus Christi - Memorial began an Emergency Medicine Residency Program in March 2007. During each of the three years of their residency, residents are required to complete a trauma surgery rotation. These emergency medicine residents are the only residents participating on this rotation as there is no surgical residency. The Department of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care analyzed the impact of the residents on trauma patient care outcomes with the hypothesis that there were no differences. Data including length of stay in the hospital, length of stay in the intensive care unit, time spent in the emergency department (ED), morbidities and mortalities were compiled from the trauma registry for patients from the year before the residents began (March 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007) and compared with patients from the first year the residents began their trauma rotations (March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008). T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare continuous variables and a Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical variable (mortality). Linear and logistic regression analyses were also performed in order to adjust for potential confounding factors. Trauma patient admission rates were 1,316 before and 1,391 after the residents began. No statistically significant differences were found among all of the outcome variables during the two time periods except for time spent in the ED (P = 0.00), which increased during the year the residents began (236.83 ± 4.53 minutes in 2006 compared to 297.40 ± 5.55 minutes in 2007). Linear and logistic regression analyses confirmed these results with the exception of a statistically significant decrease in mortality with the residents on the trauma service (2.8% in 2006 and 2.1% in 2007, P = 0.00) after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. The addition of emergency medicine residents to the trauma care service did increase ED length of stay, but did not increase

  3. Case-mix and the use of control charts in monitoring mortality rates after coronary artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is debate about the role of crude mortality rates and case-mix adjusted mortality rates in monitoring the outcomes of treatment. In the context of quality improvement a key purpose of monitoring is to identify special cause variation as this type of variation should be investigated to identify possible causes. This paper investigates agreement between the identification of special cause variation in risk adjusted and observed hospital specific mortality rates after coronary artery bypass grafting in New York hospitals. Methods Coronary artery bypass grafting mortality rates between 1994 and 2003 were obtained from the New York State Department of Health's cardiovascular reports for 41 hospitals. Cross-sectional control charts of crude (observed and risk adjusted mortality rates were produced for each year. Special cause variation was defined as a data point beyond the 99.9% probability limits: hospitals showing special cause variation were identified for each year. Longitudinal control charts of crude (observed and risk adjusted mortality rates were produced for each hospital with data for all ten years (n = 27. Special cause variation was defined as a data point beyond 99.9% probability limits, two out of three consecutive data points beyond 95% probability limits (two standard deviations from the mean or a run of five consecutive points on one side of the mean. Years showing special cause variation in mortality were identified for each hospital. Cohen's Kappa was calculated for agreement between special causes identified in crude and risk-adjusted control charts. Results In cross sectional analysis the Cohen's Kappa was 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.28 to 0.78, indicating moderate agreement between the crude and risk-adjusted control charts with sensitivity 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.17–0.69 and specificity 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.95–0.99. In longitudinal analysis, the Cohen's Kappa was 0.61 (95

  4. High-energy, high-rate materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.

    1987-12-01

    The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

  5. Prediction of hospital mortality by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Berzan, E

    2015-03-01

    Deterioration of physiological or laboratory variables may provide important prognostic information. We have studied whether a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value calculated using the (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula) over the hospital admission, would have predictive value. An analysis was performed on all emergency medical hospital episodes (N = 61964) admitted between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2011. A stepwise logistic regression model examined the relationship between mortality and change in renal function from admission to discharge. The fully adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for 5 classes of GFR deterioration showed a stepwise increased risk of 30-day death with OR\\'s of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 1.59 (1.27, 1.99), 2.71 (2.24, 3.27), 5.56 (4.54, 6.81) and 11.9 (9.0, 15.6) respectively. The change in eGFR during a clinical episode, following an emergency medical admission, powerfully predicts the outcome.

  6. Secular trend of infant mortality rate during wars and sanctions in Western Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Zaid R; Al-Hiali, Sahar J; Al-Farraji, Hussain H

    2011-12-01

    To study the infant mortality rate (IMR) trend during wars and sanction periods in Western Iraq. Data collected from the birth and death certificates of Haditha Health Vital Statistics Center, Haditha city (80,000 population), Western Iraq, included name, age, gender, residence, and infant's place and date of births and deaths, in 5 different sanction and war stages of the country from 1987 to 2010, in a study period from July to December, 2010. The IMRs were analyzed and compared between these stages and with other studies. The IMR of last 2 years of the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988) was 35.6/1000 and 33.8/1000, this decreased in the war free period (1989-1990) to 28.6/1000, then increased during the sanction period (1991-2003) to 46/1000 in 2002, decreased to 16/1000 in 2006 during no sanctions but increased violence, then increased to 24.5/1000 in 2010. Approximately two-thirds of deaths occurred during the neonatal period, and one third in the post neonatal periods. Males had higher IMR than females, and rural residence higher than urban. Economic sanctions increased IMR more than wars or violence in Haditha city. When compared with other parts of Iraq, and despite the different conflicts that faced the country during the 24 studied years, Haditha had a lower IMR, however, this was still higher than developed, and many developing countries.

  7. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  8. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Abdoulaye; Hounton, Sennen; Amouzou, Agbessi; Akinyemi, Akanni; Shiferaw, Solomon; Baya, Banza; Bahan, Dalomi; Barros, Aluisio J D; Walker, Neff; Friedman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. The last three Demographic and Health Surveys - conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 - enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR), and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR). Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010), despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving the demand satisfied for modern contraception may result in a reduction

  9. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Maïga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective: This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design: The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR, and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR. Results: Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010, despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions: Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving

  10. Association of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions and smoking with lung cancer mortality rates on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Matzke, Melissa M; Waters, Katrina M; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2013-04-02

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between lung cancer mortality rates, carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, and smoking on a global scale, as well as for different socioeconomic country groups. The estimated lung cancer deaths per 100,000 people (ED100000) and age standardized lung cancer death rate per 100,000 people (ASDR100000) in 2004 were regressed on PAH emissions in benzo[a]pyrene equivalence (BaPeq), smoking prevalence, cigarette price, gross domestic product per capita, percentage of people with diabetes, and average body mass index using simple and multiple linear regression for 136 countries. Using stepwise multiple linear regression, a statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between loge(ED100000) and loge(BaPeq) emissions for high (p-value emissions for the combination of upper-middle and high (p-value emissions in the U.S., Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Brazil, South Africa, Poland, Mexico, and Malaysia could reduce ED100000, while reducing smoking prevalence in Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Nepal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Bangladesh could significantly reduce the ED100000 and ASDR100000.

  11. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Impact on Mortality and Hospitalization Rate in Predialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, N.; Grootendorst, D. C.; Urlings, T. A. J.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Sijpkens, Y. W.; Huisman, R. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Dekker, F. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in both early and very late stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to assess whether anemia is a risk factor for mortality or hospitalization in CKD stage 4-5 predialysis patients not yet on

  12. Major depressive symptoms increase 3-year mortality rate in patients with mild dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Depression and dementia are commonly concurrent and are both associated with increased mortality among older people. However, little is known about whether home-dwelling patients newly diagnosed with mild dementia coexisting with depressive symptoms have excess mortality. We conducted a post hoc ...

  13. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  14. Differential mortality rates in major and subthreshold depression: meta-analysis of studies that measured both

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Vogelzangs, N.; Twisk, J.; Kleiboer, A.M.; Li, J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the association between depression and excess mortality has been well established, it is not clear whether this is greater in major depression than in subthreshold depression. Aims: To compare excess mortality in major depression with that in subthreshold depression. Method: We

  15. Evaluation of the product ratio coherent model in forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy at births by States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shair, Syazreen Niza; Yusof, Aida Yuzi; Asmuni, Nurin Haniah

    2017-05-01

    Coherent mortality forecasting models have recently received increasing attention particularly in their application to sub-populations. The advantage of coherent models over independent models is the ability to forecast a non-divergent mortality for two or more sub-populations. One of the coherent models was recently developed by [1] known as the product-ratio model. This model is an extension version of the functional independent model from [2]. The product-ratio model has been applied in a developed country, Australia [1] and has been extended in a developing nation, Malaysia [3]. While [3] accounted for coherency of mortality rates between gender and ethnic group, the coherency between states in Malaysia has never been explored. This paper will forecast the mortality rates of Malaysian sub-populations according to states using the product ratio coherent model and its independent version— the functional independent model. The forecast accuracies of two different models are evaluated using the out-of-sample error measurements— the mean absolute forecast error (MAFE) for age-specific death rates and the mean forecast error (MFE) for the life expectancy at birth. We employ Malaysian mortality time series data from 1991 to 2014, segregated by age, gender and states.

  16. Secular Trends in Admissions and Mortality Rates from Diabetes Mellitus in the Central Belt of Ghana: A 31-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo-Kantanka, Osei; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Oparebea Ansah, Eunice; Eghan, Benjamin; Ayisi-Boateng, Nana Kwame; Acheamfour-Akowuah, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is currently a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of diabetes cases are now found. Longitudinal profiling of in-patient admissions and mortality trends from diabetes provide useful insights into the magnitude of the burden of diabetes, serve as a sentinel on the state of out-patient diabetes care and provide effective tools for planning, delivering and evaluating the health care needs relating to the disease in sub-Saharan Africa. To evaluate the 31-year trend in diabetic admissions and mortality rates in central Ghana. This is a retrospective analysis of data on diabetes admissions and deaths at a tertiary referral hospital in central Ghana between 1983 and 2014. Rates of diabetes admissions or deaths were expressed as diabetes admissions or deaths divided by the total number of admissions or deaths respectively. Yearly crude fatality rates for diabetes were calculated. Trends were analysed for in patient diabetes admissions and mortality for the period. Predictors of diabetes mortality were determined using multiple logistic regression. A total of 11,414 diabetes patients were admitted over the period with a female predominance; female:male ratio of 1.3:1.0. Over the study period, diabetes admission rates increased significantly from 2.36 per 1000 admissions in 1983 to 14.94 per 1000 admissions in 2014 (plinear trend), representing a 633% rise over the 31-year period. In-patient diabetes fatality rates increased from 7.6 per 1000 deaths in 1983 to 30 per 1000 deaths in 2012. The average 28-day mortality rate was 18.5%. The median age of patients increased significantly over the period. So was the proportion of females admitted over the years. Predictors of in-patient mortality were increasing age- aOR of 1.23 (CI: 1.15-1.32) for age > 80 years compared with diabetic admissions and admissions without end organ complications respectively. Diabetes

  17. Short- and Long-Term Mortality Rates of Elderly Acute Kidney Injury Patients Who Underwent Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harin Rhee

    Full Text Available The world's population is aging faster and the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI needing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is increasing in elderly population. The outcome of AKI needing CRRT in elderly patients is known to be poor. However, the definitions of elderly used in the previous literatures were diverse and, there were few data that compared the long-term mortality rates of these patients with middle aged patients. This study was aimed to evaluate this issue.This study was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent CRRT from January 2013 to December 2015. The patients were divided into the following four age cohorts: middle-aged (55-64, young-old (65-74, middle-old (75-84, and old-old (≥85. The short- and long-term mortality rates for each age cohort were compared.A total of 562 patients met the inclusion criteria. The short-term mortality rate was 57.3% in the entire cohort. Compared with the middle-aged cohort, the middle-old cohort (HR 1.48 (1.09-2.02, p = 0.012 and the old-old cohort (HR 2.33 (1.30-4.19, p = 0.005 showed an increased short-term mortality rate along with an increased SOFA score, acidemia and a prolonged prothrombin time. When we analyzed the long-term mortality rate of the 238 survived patients, the middle-old cohort (HR 3.76 (1.84-7.68, p<0.001, the old-old cohort (HR 4.40(1.20-16.10, p = 0.025, a lower BMI, the presence of liver cirrhosis, the presence of congestive heart failure and a history of sepsis were independent risk factors for the prediction of long-term mortality.Compared with the middle-aged cohort, the middle-old and the old-old cohort showed an increased short-term and long-term mortality rate. However, in the young-old cohort, neither the short-term nor the long-term mortality rate was increased.

  18. Comparison of mortality rates and functional results after transtibial and transfemoral amputations due to diabetes in elderly patients-a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Ali; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Malkoc, Melih; Sonmez, Mehmet Mesut; Mahirogullari, Mahir

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare mortality rates and functional results of transtibial and transfemoral amputations in elderly patients with diabetes. 87 amputees [54 (62.1%) transtibial and 33 (37.9%) transfemoral] were included. Mean ages were 70.7 and 69.3 years in transfemoral and transtibial groups, respectively. Mean follow up time was 41.8 months. Amputee Mobility Predictor scores (with and without prosthesis) and Barthel Daily Living Index were used for functional evaluation of the survivors. First year mortality rates were 29.6% and 30.3% in transtibial and transfemoral groups, respectively. Overall mortality rate of both groups was 65.5% (66.7% in transtibial and 63.6% in transfemoral group). There was no difference between mortality rates of two groups. Duration between surgery and death was significantly shorter in transfemoral group. The mean Amputee Mobility Predictor scores (with prosthesis) of the transtibial and transfemoral groups were 32.3 and 26.9 points, respectively. The average Amputee Mobility Predictor scores (without prosthesis) of the transtibial and transfemoral groups were 29.5 and 22.7 points respectively. The differences between two groups' scores were significant. The mean Barthel Daily Living Index scores of the transtibial and transfemoral groups were 82.5 and 80.2 points respectively. The difference was not significant. High mortality rates and morbidities after major lower limb amputations emphasize the importance of preventive measures and foot care in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Analysis of mortality rate and causes of death among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shujuan; Zhu, Xuena

    2014-06-01

    To understand the age-specific and cause-specific mortality rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012. Death surveillance data of children under the age of 5 were obtained from Beijing children mortality surveillance network from 2003 to 2012. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR), under 5-year old children mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of death for under 5-year old children in urban, suburbs, and outer suburbs in Beijing were analyzed. The NMR, IMR and U5MR in Beijing were 2.08 (253/121 747), 3.11 (379/121 747) and 3.57 (435/121 747) per 1000 live births in 2012, respectively, which declined 54.88%, 50.24% and 54.75% compared with the level in 2003 respectively. The children mortality rates showed a decreasing trend in urban, suburb, and outer suburbs during 2003 and 2012 (NMR was decreased from 0.53%, 0.42%, and 0.48% in 2003 to 0.20%, 0.19%, and 0.23% in 2012; IMR was decreased from 0.73%, 0.58%, and 0.63% in 2003 to 0.30%, 0.29%, and 0.35% in 2012; U5MR was decreased from 0.90%, 0.72%, and 0.82% to 0.33%, 0.34%, and 0.39% in 2012, P traffic accident in Beijing from 2003 to 2012. The mortality rate of congenital heart disease declined from 140.63 to 41.89 per 100 000 live births, birth asphyxia declined from 109.38 to 59.96 per 100 000 live births, premature birth or low birth weight declined from 85.94 to 52.57 per 100 000 live births, traffic accident declined from 26.04 to 6.57 per 100 000 live births (P rate of congenital heart disease declined remarkably from 216.56 to 52.47, from 119.75 to 23.50, and from 134.58 to 63.11 per 100 000 live births in urban, suburb, and outer suburbs(P children under 5 years old declined remarkably in rural areas. They were congenital heart disease, birth asphyxia, premature birth or low birth weight, traffic accident, drowning, and septicemia, and the mortality rate of them declined from 134.58 to 63.11, from 127.85 to 65.54, from 100.94 to 60.69, from 33.65 to 12

  20. Predicting 1-year mortality rate for patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to an intensive care unit: an opportunity for palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzlaff, Cassandra M; Karpman, Craig; Afessa, Bekele; Benzo, Roberto P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to aid clinicians in better predicting 1-year mortality rate for patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) with the goal of earlier initiation of palliative care and end-of-life communications in this patient population. This retrospective cohort study included patients from a medical ICU from April 1, 1995, to November 30, 2009. Data collected from the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III database included demographic characteristics; severity of illness scores; noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation time; ICU and hospital length of stay; and ICU, hospital, and 1-year mortality. Statistically significant univariate variables for 1-year mortality were entered into a multivariate model, and the independent variables were used to generate a scoring system to predict 1-year mortality rate. At 1-year follow-up, 295 of 591 patients died (50%). Age and hospital length of stay were identified as independent determinants of mortality at 1 year by using multivariate analysis, and the predictive model developed had an area under the operating curve of 0.68. Bootstrap analysis with 1000 iterations validated the model, age, and hospital length of stay, entered the model 100% of the time (area under the operating curve=0.687; 95% CI, 0.686-0.688). A simple model using age and hospital length of stay may be informative for providers willing to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with high 1-year mortality rate who may benefit from end-of-life communications and from palliative care. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated infant mortality rates among oral cleft and isolated oral cleft cases: a meta-analysis of studies from 1943 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Lucas; Hatcher, Kristin Ward; Vander Burg, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective : To review available published literature in order to obtain a more comprehensive assessment of the association between infant mortality and oral clefts, overall and isolated. Design : A wide-ranging search of published studies relating infant mortality rates to oral clefts and congenital malformations was conducted, yielding applicable data sets. Settings of the included studies varied to a limited extent, although all were conducted within high-income countries with superior health indicators. These results were tabulated and meta-analyzed. Random effects odds ratios comparing each data set with its respective population have been used to account for differing settings and specific infant mortality rates. Results : Nine articles with relatable data were included in these meta-analyses. The calculated odds ratio of infant mortality associated with oral cleft cases, including those with associated malformations, was substantial: 9.466 (95% confidence interval, 6.153 to 14.560). Excluding oral cleft cases with associated malformations, the odds ratio, although lower, was still significant: 2.073 (95% confidence interval, 1.390 to 3.092). Conclusions : Compared with the overall population, infants with oral clefts have nine times the odds of dying within the first year of life. Furthermore, even without additional malformations, infants with oral clefts are still twice as likely to die before 1 year of age. Current research points to a substantially higher relative risk of infant mortality among oral cleft cases in developing countries. Additional research is essential to determine the sources of these raised infant mortality rates and possible interventions to decrease them.

  2. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  3. High mortality during tuberculosis treatment does not indicate long diagnostic delays in Vietnam: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Dinh N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation may increase disease severity and mortality. In evaluations of tuberculosis control programmes high fatality rates during tuberculosis treatment, are used as an indicator of long delays in low HIV-prevalence settings. However, data for this presumed association between delay and fatality are lacking. We assessed the association between diagnostic delay and mortality of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Vietnam. Methods Follow-up of a patient cohort included in a survey of diagnostic delay in 70 randomly selected districts. Data on diagnosis and treatment were extracted from routine registers. Patients who had died during the course of treatment were compared to those with reported cure, completed treatment or failure (survivors. Results Complete data were available for 1881/2093 (89.9% patients, of whom 82 (4.4% had died. Fatality was 4.5% for patients with ≤ 4 weeks delay, 5.0% for 5- ≤ 8 weeks delay (aOR 1.11, 95%CI 0.67–1.84 and 3.2% for > 9 weeks delay (aOR 0.69, 95%CI 0.37–1.30. Fatality tended to decline with increasing delay but this was not significant. Fatality was not associated with median diagnostic delay at district level (Spearman's rho = -0.08, P = 0.5. Conclusion Diagnostic delay is not associated with treatment mortality in Vietnam at individual nor district level, suggesting that high case fatality should not be used as an indicator of long diagnostic delay in national tuberculosis programmes.

  4. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  5. Linking changes in subcellular cadmium distribution to growth and mortality rates in transplanted freshwater bivalves (Pyganodon grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perceval, Olivier [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie (GRIL), Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)]. E-mail: olivier.perceval@umontreal.ca; Couillard, Yves [Division de l' evaluation des produits chimiques, Environnement Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 Bd Saint-Joseph, Hull, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie (GRIL), Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), Universite du Quebec, 490 de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2006-08-12

    Relationships between Cd accumulation and subcellular distribution, and growth and mortality rates were examined in the freshwater bivalve Pyganodon grandis in a transplant experiment. Organisms were transferred from a clean lacustrine site to four lakes situated along a Cd concentration gradient in the mining region of Rouyn-Noranda. The bivalves were maintained in open enclosures placed in the bottom sediments of the littoral zone of all five lakes for 400 days. At the end of the experiment, metallothionein (MT) was measured in the bivalve gills with a Hg-saturation assay and Cd partitioning among the various cytosolic protein pools was determined by size-exclusion chromatography. Marked differences were observed among the five sites: the range in calculated free-cadmium ion concentrations in water overlying the sediments was 35-fold whereas Cd concentrations in the gill cytosol of the transplanted bivalves varied three-fold. In the transplanted bivalves, the distribution of gill Cd among the various cytosolic complexes also varied significantly among sites. For bivalves transplanted to the three most contaminated sites, Cd concentrations in the high molecular weight pool (HMW > 25 kDa) were significantly higher than the baseline levels determined from bivalves caged at the reference site; a similar trend was seen for Cd concentrations in the metallothionein pool (Cd-MT). For bivalves transferred to two of the high contamination sites, proportionately less of the gill cytosolic Cd was sequestered (i.e. detoxified) by MT-like proteins. Reductions in survival were also observed at these two sites, and these elevated mortalities, in turn, were consistent with the absence of indigenous bivalve populations at these sites. This result is compatible with our recent work on P. grandis populations living in lakes of the Rouyn-Noranda area, in which we demonstrated that excessive accumulation of Cd in the HMW pool of the gill cytosol of the individual mollusks could be

  6. Upgrade Strategy for ALICE at High Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The longterm goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Such a determination of its properties including initial temperature, degrees of freedom, speed of sound, and in general, transport coefficients would be a major achievement. This would go a long way towards a better understanding of QCD as a genuine multi-particle theory. To achieve this goal, high statistics measurements are required, which will give access also to the very rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of QCD. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE central barrel is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz, that would provide an accumulated sample of the order of 10 nb^-1 in the period 2019-2023. In this document we sketch the modifications/replacements needed in all ALICE central barrel detectors and online systems (Trigger, DAQ and HLT) for high luminosity running. As the ALICE for...

  7. High Data Rate Architecture (HiDRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Alan; Raible, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    high-rate laser terminals. These must interface with the existing, aging data infrastructure. The High Data Rate Architecture (HiDRA) project is designed to provide networked store, carry, and forward capability to optimize data flow through both the existing radio frequency (RF) and new laser communications terminal. The networking capability is realized through the Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) protocol, and is used for scheduling data movement as well as optimizing the performance of existing RF channels. HiDRA is realized as a distributed FPGA memory and interface controller that is itself controlled by a local computer running DTN software. Thus HiDRA is applicable to other arenas seeking to employ next-generation communications technologies, e.g. deep space. In this paper, we describe HiDRA and its far-reaching research implications.

  8. Increases in external cause mortality due to high and low temperatures: evidence from northeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Åström, Daniel Oudin

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between temperature and mortality is well established but has seldom been investigated in terms of external causes. In some Eastern European countries, external cause mortality is substantial. Deaths owing to external causes are the third largest cause of mortality in Estonia, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Death rates owing to external causes may reflect behavioural changes among a population. The aim for the current study was to investigate if there is any association between temperature and external cause mortality, in Estonia. We collected daily information on deaths from external causes (ICD-10 diagnosis codes V00-Y99) and maximum temperatures over the period 1997-2013. The relationship between daily maximum temperature and mortality was investigated using Poisson regression, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model considering lag times of up to 10 days. We found significantly higher mortality owing to external causes on hot (the same and previous day) and cold days (with a lag of 1-3 days). The cumulative relative risks for heat (an increase in temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.34) and for cold (a decrease from the 25th to 1st percentile) 1.19 (1.03-1.38). Deaths due to external causes might reflect changes in behaviour among a population during periods of extreme hot and cold temperatures and should therefore be investigated further, because such deaths have a severe impact on public health, especially in Eastern Europe where external mortality rates are high.

  9. Changes in childhood pneumonia and infant mortality rates following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Amaya, Erick; Liu, Lan; Moreno, Gilberto; Rocha, Julio; Briceño, Rafaela; Alemán, Jorge; Hudgens, Michael G; Woods, Christopher W; Weber, David J

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to add 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) to its national immunization schedule, using a "3+0" dosing schedule. We assessed changes in incidence rates of health facility visits for childhood pneumonia and infant mortality after PCV-13 introduction in the Department of León, Nicaragua. We collected visit diagnoses from all 107 public health facilities in León between 2008 and 2012. We compared rates of pneumonia hospitalizations, ambulatory visits for pneumonia and infant mortality during the prevaccine (2008-2010) and vaccine (2011-2012) periods among different age groups of children using generalized estimating equations, accounting for clustering by municipality. Exposure time was estimated by official municipality population estimates. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for pneumonia hospitalization in the vaccine versus prevaccine period was 0.67 (0.59-0.75) among infants and 0.74 (0.67-0.81) among 1-year olds. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for ambulatory visits for pneumonia was 0.87 (0.75-1.01) among infants, and 0.84 (0.74, 0.95) among 1-year olds. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for infant mortality was 0.67 (0.57-0.80). We also observed lower rates of health facility visits for pneumonia among age groups (2- to 4-year old and 5- to 14-year old) not eligible to receive PCV-13. Within the first 2 years of a PCV-13 immunization program in Nicaragua, we observed lower rates of hospitalizations and ambulatory visits for pneumonia among children of all ages and a lower infant mortality rate. Lower rates of pneumonia among age groups not eligible to receive PCV-13 suggest an indirect effect of the vaccine.

  10. Annual Hospital Volume of High Dose Interleukin-2 and Inpatient Mortality in Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy using high dose interleukin-2 (HD IL2 in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC and melanoma is associated with severe toxicities. The association between annual hospital volume of HD IL2 and inpatient mortality is not well studied. In this study we aim to quantify the impact of annual hospital volume of HD IL2 on inpatient mortality using National Inpatient Sample (NIS data.We did a cross-sectional study using NIS, one of the largest inpatient datasets in United States, from 2003 to 2011. Patients with melanoma and RCC receiving HD IL2 were identified by ICD9 procedure code 00.15. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Using Joinpoint regression, which detects change in trend of inpatient mortality with change in annual volume, the hospitals were classified in three volume categories (low: 1-40, medium: 41-120, high: >120. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inpatient mortality controlling for confounders.From 2003 to 2011, 29,532 patients with RCC or melanoma who received HD IL2 were identified, and 124 died during the hospitalization (0.4%. The hospitals with low, medium and high annual volume had significant difference in inpatient mortality (0.83%, 0.29% and 0.13% respectively, p = 0.0003. On multivariate analysis, low volume hospitals were associated with significantly higher odds of inpatient mortality (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.6-23.2, p = 0.003 as compared to high volume hospitals. Additionally, the hospitals with annual volume of 1-20 had even higher rates (1.31% vs. 0.13%, p<0.0001 and multivariate odds (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.4-33.2, p = 0.0006 of inpatient mortality as compared to high volume hospitals.Lower annual hospital volume of HD IL2 is associated with worse outcomes. Annual hospital volume of 1-40 and 1-20 treatments per year is associated with 6 and 9 times higher odds of inpatient mortality respectively as compared to high volume hospitals. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for

  11. Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Sturm-Ramirez, K.; Khan, S. U.

    2017-01-01

    Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify...

  12. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  13. Influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antunovic, B.; Baban, M.; Dobranic, V.; Margeta, V.; Mijic, P.; Njari, B.; Pavicic, Z.; Poljak, V.; Steiner, Z.; Wellbrock, W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds. The investigation included first farrowings of 225 Large White (LW) gilts, 297 Swedish Landrace (SL) gilts and 260 crossbreed gilts (LWxSL)

  14. Trends in racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates in the United States, 1989-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossen, Lauren M; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    ... may have changed over time. We used Birth Cohort Linked Birth-Infant Death Data Files from US Vital Statistics from 1989-1990 and 2005-2006 to examine multigroup indices of racial and ethnic disparities in the overall infant mortality rate (IMR...

  15. Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Center for Accelerator Science and Education

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). Below details the Principal Investigators and contact information. Each PI submits separately for a budget through his corresponding institute. The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-­conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-­antimonide cathodes (BNL – LBNL) b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes (SBU -­ BNL) c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns (SBU) and copper RF photoguns (LBNL) Our work made extensive use of synchrotron radiation materials science techniques, such as powder-­ and single-­crystal diffraction, x-­ray fluorescence, EXAFS and variable energy XPS. BNL and LBNL have many complementary facilities at the two light sources associated with these laboratories (NSLS and ALS, respectively); use of these will be a major thrust of our program and bring our understanding of these complex materials to a new level. In addition, CHESS at Cornell will be used to continue seamlessly throughout the NSLS dark period and

  16. High faecal glucocorticoid levels predict mortality in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan Pride, R

    2005-03-22

    Glucocorticoid levels are commonly used as measures of stress in wild animal populations, but their relevance to individual fitness in a wild population has not been demonstrated. In this study I followed 93 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve in Madagascar, collecting 1089 faecal samples from individually recognized animals, and recording their survival over a 2 year period. I evaluated faecal glucocorticoid levels as predictors of individual survival to the end of the study. Animals with high glucocorticoid levels had a significantly higher mortality rate. This result suggests that glucocorticoid measures can be useful predictors of individual survival probabilities in wild populations. The 'stress landscape' indicated by glucocorticoid patterns may approximate the fitness landscape to which animals adapt.

  17. Men: good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Juel, Knud; Vaupel, James W

    2008-01-01

    -participation and under-reporting of health problems, and delayed seeking of treatment by men. The Nordic countries provide a unique opportunity for such studies, as they have good-quality data in their national health registers, which cover the whole population, and a long tradition of high participation rates......This review examines sex differences in health and survival, with a focus on the Nordic countries. There is a remarkable discrepancy between the health and survival of the sexes: men are physically stronger and have fewer disabilities, but have substantially higher mortality at all ages compared...... with women: the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. A number of proposed explanations for this paradox are rooted in biological, social, and psychological interpretations. It is likely to be due to multiple causes that include fundamental biological differences between the sexes such as genetic...

  18. Endoscopic Injection Therapy in Bleeding Peptic Ulcers. Low Mortality in a High Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaqulm Balanzó

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscoric injection therapy was performed in 341 patients consecutively admitted with a bleeding peptic ulcer at high risk of further hemorrhage, assessed by the presence of active arterial bleeding or a nonbleeding visible vessel at emergency endoscopy. Initial hemostasis was achieved in 111 of 119 actively bleeding patients (93%. Rebleeding ocurred in 75 cases (23%, at a mean interval of 53±52 h. A second emergency injection was a ttempted in 36 therapeutic failures, and was successful in 20 (55%. Emergency surgery was finally required in 52 patients (15%. Overall mortality was 4.9%. Major complications occurred in four patients (1.2% (two perforations and two aspiration pneumonia; therefore, injection therapy is an effective and simple method for treating bleeding ulcers, achieving the initial control of hemorrhage in a majority of cases although the rate of further hemorrhage is not negligible and complications are not irrelevant.

  19. A readout unit for high