WorldWideScience

Sample records for high moral standards

  1. Seeking Moral Autonomy in a Chinese Context: A Study of Elementary Moral Education Standards

    Lee, Lena; Misco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explored Chinese moral education standards for grades one and two by using the heuristic of moral autonomy and by employing a typology of moral autonomy, one based on Kantian and Deweyan ideas about moral autonomy and agency. Given the larger charge for all of schooling to develop independence, problem-solving, and creativity…

  2. Utilitarianism and Double Standards: A Discussion of R. M. Hare's "Moral Thinking."

    Annas, Julia

    1982-01-01

    Criticizes R. M. Hare's theory of moral thinking. Hare identifies two levels of moral thinking: critical and intuitive thinking. The author argues that Hare's theory suggests a double standard and makes moral conflicts appear trivial. (AM)

  3. Males and Morals: Teenage Contraceptive Behavior Amid the Double Standard

    Scales, Peter

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)

  4. Morality and ethics in high technology

    Schroeter, K.U.

    2003-01-01

    The ethical debate about what is feasible culminates, for one side, in the indignant moral question whether man is allowed to do all he is able to do and, for the other side, in the very obligation to keep redefining the limits of creation, and to act accordingly. Consequently, the Young Generation, at their meeting in Gronau, Westphalia (about which we reported), discussed about ''High Technology - Responsible on Ethical and Moral Grounds?'' The paper presented to the participants by pastor Kai Uwe Schroeter reflects this dichotomy, but also takes a clear position in favor of the expansion of nuclear power. This issue of atw contains a revised version of the paper. It is published in the hope that it will furnish arguments for the philosophical and ethical debates about high technology. (orig.) [de

  5. An Empirical Investigation of the Moral Judgment Development of a Sample of High School Kuwaiti Teachers

    Al-Shurai, Saad

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the moral development of one hundred Kuwaiti high school teachers. They ranged in age from 23 to 48 years with a mean of 28.6 years and a standard deviation of 8.3 years. The teachers' individual moral judgment levels were assessed by the Defining Issues Test (DIT)--an objective test designed by James Rest…

  6. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory.

    Clifford, Scott; Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents' classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition.

  7. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory

    Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents’ classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition. PMID:25582811

  8. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering ‘how’ questions, a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering ‘why’ questions promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering “why” (high-level construal vs. “how” (low-level construal questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2. Participants exposed to “why” questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1, showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2, and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2 compared with participants exposed to “how” questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  9. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts.

    Wu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering 'how' questions), a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering 'why' questions) promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering "why" (high-level construal) vs. "how" (low-level construal) questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants exposed to "why" questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1), showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2), and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2) compared with participants exposed to "how" questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  10. Are Military Professionals Bound by a 'Higher' Moral Standard?

    Ficarrotta, J

    1997-01-01

    .... Military education is full of courses on professional ethics. Indeed, from the top down, part of the background noise of professional military life are these 'higher' expectations, and a belief that somehow, this line of work is one shot through with a special moral status, special moral problems, and special moral demands.

  11. Vaginismus and dyspareunia: relationship with general and sex-related moral standards.

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord

    2011-01-01

    Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance behavior, which is at the nucleus of vaginismus. To examine whether indeed strong adherence to conservative morals and/or strict sexual standards may be involved in vaginismus. The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) to investigate the individual's value pattern and the Sexual Disgust Questionnaire (SDQ) to index the willingness to perform certain sexual activities as an indirect measure of sex-related moral standards. The SVS and SDQ were completed by three groups: women diagnosed with vaginismus (N=24), a group of women diagnosed with dyspareunia (N=24), and a healthy control group of women without sexual complaints (N=32). Specifically, the vaginismus group showed relatively low scores on liberal values together with comparatively high scores on conservative values. Additionally, the vaginismus group was more restricted in their readiness to perform particular sex-related behaviors than the control group. The dyspareunia group, on both the SVS and the SDQ, placed between the vaginismus and the control group, but not significantly different than either of the groups. The findings are consistent with the view that low liberal and high conservative values, along with restricted sexual standards, are involved in the development/maintenance of vaginismus. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. The Emotional Foundations of High Moral Intelligence

    Narvaez, Darcia

    2010-01-01

    Moral intelligence is grounded in emotion and reason. Neuroscientific and clinical research illustrate how early life co-regulation with caregivers influences emotion, cognition, and moral character. Triune ethics theory (Narvaez, 2008) integrates neuroscientific, evolutionary, and developmental findings to explain differences in moral…

  13. The contstructivistic defence of the objectivity of moral standards and natural law that does not require the debate on moral realism

    Šljukić Slavenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of Kenneth R. Westphal’s How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law: Justifying Strict Objectivity without Debating Moral Realism is to defend the objectivity of moral standards and natural law and thus avoid the discussion about moral realism and its alternatives by interpreting Hume and Kant in a constructivistic sense. The reason behind the author’s disagreement with both: moral realism and non-realism (its alternative is our inability to properly understand and answer one of the two parts in Socrates’ question to Euthyphro: “Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved?“ Moral realists cannot provide an answer to its second part, since it is not possible to prove that moral standards are not artificial; conversely, moral non-realists cannot provide an answer to its first part, since it is not possible to avoid the relatitvity of moral standards. The author tends to solve this problem by avoiding the confrontation between moral realism and non-realism and thus choosing the constuctivistic stance that, as he argues, can be found in both Hume’s and Kant’s theories. The main point of this stance is that moral standards are indeed artificial, yet not arbitrary. He proves this by pointing out that both Hume and Kant treat the moral standards as a social fact (that is, artificial, but also as objective. Westphal points out that Hume explicitly writes about moral standards as a social fact, while showing that, at the same time, his theory of justice, which precedes all of the moral standards, is established independently of his theory of moral sentiments (potentially leading to moral relativism. In this manner, he provides the objectivity of those standards. On the other hand, Kant’s theory is interpreted as advanced, yet similar to Hume’s in its structure. The crucial similarity is that both Hume and Kant interpret the moral standards as a social fact (that is, as an

  14. Social and moral maturity of high-school students

    Silvana Gasar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of social and moral maturity of high-school students was examined. There were almost no significant differences between the students of two different educational programs. In general, the students' level of social and moral maturity is satisfyingly high, but their social skills are not quite appropriately developed. The results of behaviour in school situations reveal a quite unpleasant picture of interpersonal relations, which is probably a reflection of social relations in society. The absence of correlations between both components of maturity and social skills shows the gap between human's reasoning and behaviour. Students know, which behaviour is moral and socially adapted, but they do not always act in congruence with that, because existing social relations often encourage different behaviour.

  15. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance

  16. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  17. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  18. Zasady moralne prezentowane w blogu nastolatka (MORAL STANDARDS IN ADOLESCENT'S ONLINE DIARIES (BLOGS

    Sylwia Seul-Michałowska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available According to L.Kohlberg's theory about human's moral development we can find level of moral development in awareness, believes and acts. Adolescents (13-16 years old write their online diaries about surrounding reality, express their reactions, thoughts and experiences. They also try to justify behaviors. Analysis of notes from 100 online diaries shows us adolescent's moral rules and enables us confrontation with L. Kohlberg's theory.

  19. High Faculty Morale: What Exemplary Colleges Do Right.

    Rice, R. Eugene; Austin, Ann E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between faculty morale/satisfaction and various dimensions of the organizational culture of liberal arts colleges was examined, with focus on ten colleges. The power of organizational culture is made evident and reinforced through symbolic events and structures. (MLW)

  20. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHER MORALE STUDY--A COMPARISON OF SELECTED FACTORS IN SCHOOLS WHERE THE MORALE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IS "HIGH" WITH SCHOOLS WHERE THE MORALE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IS "LOW".

    BENTLEY, RALPH R.; REMPEL, AVERNO M.

    A STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE WHETHER DIFFERENCES EXISTED WITH RESPECT TO STUDENT ATTITUDE TOWARD THEIR TEACHER, FEELINGS ABOUT SCHOOL WORK PROBLEMS, AND ACADEMIC APTITUDE BETWEEN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS IN WHICH TEACHER MORALE WAS HIGH AND THOSE IN WHICH TEACHER MORALE WAS LOW. THE TEACHER SAMPLE INCLUDED 21 WITH THE HIGHEST…

  1. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Moral emotions and moral behavior.

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

    2007-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy.

  3. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J.; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Currie, Thomas E.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists—it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or ‘moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cro...

  4. MORALE Assignment

    Carienvt

    some aspects of military life are so ingrained in military culture that the ... Military and political leaders around the world regard high morale of the armed .... expensive modern centralised practices borrowed from contemporary business will ..... psychological plan for the management of morale of SANDF soldiers during an.

  5. Familia, Permisividad y Juicio Moral en Estudiantes de Enseñanza Media de la Provincia de Concepción Family, Permissivity, and Moral Judgement of High School Students of Concepción, Chile

    María Elena Mathiesen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la moralidad de estudiantes de enseñanza media de la Provincia de Concepción, Chile, medida por la aceptación de conductas morales cuestionables y el nivel de desarrollo del juicio moral. Se presentan relaciones entre moralidad y características del joven y su familia. Para ello, se aplicó una encuesta de carácter social a una muestra representativa de 546 estudiantes. Los resultados muestran una baja permisividad moral, más alta en sexualidad y más baja en moralidad personal y legal. Menos de la mitad de los jóvenes emitieron juicios morales válidos. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre permisividad moral y juicio moral. Hubo diferencias significativas de moralidad según sexo y religión. Se detectaron relaciones inversas entre permisividad y funcionamiento familiar, y directas, entre rendimiento escolar y juicio moral.This study describes morality in high school students of the Province of Concepción, Chile. The morality was measured through acceptance of questionable moral behaviors and moral judgment development. Relationships between morality and the characteristics of youths an their families are also presented. A social survey was applied to a representative sample of 546 high school students. The results show low moral permissiveness, higher regarding sexuality and lower in personal and legal morality. Less than half of the subjects submitted valid moral judgments. No significant correlations were found between moral permissiveness and moral judgment development. Significant differences of morality were found according to sex and religion. Inverse relationships were found between permissivity and family functioning. Also, direct relationships were found between academic achievement and moral judgment.

  6. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism.

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-10-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people's thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition.

  7. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  8. The Everyday Moral Judge – Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions

    Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699

  9. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    André Körner

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal, goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy. Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  10. Morale of Teachers in High Poverty Schools: A Post-NCLB Mixed Methods Analysis

    Byrd-Blake, Marie; Afolayan, Michael O.; Hunt, John W.; Fabunmi, Martins; Pryor, Brandt W.; Leander, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study tested how well Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action predicted the attitudes and morale of urban teachers in high poverty schools under the pressures of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). NCLB forced local administrators to target schools that had not made adequately yearly progress (AYP) for two or more consecutive years.…

  11. Impaired theory of mind for moral judgment in high-functioning autism.

    Moran, Joseph M; Young, Liane L; Saxe, Rebecca; Lee, Su Mei; O'Young, Daniel; Mavros, Penelope L; Gabrieli, John D

    2011-02-15

    High-functioning autism (ASD) is characterized by real-life difficulties in social interaction; however, these individuals often succeed on laboratory tests that require an understanding of another person's beliefs and intentions. This paradox suggests a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in adults with ASD that has yet to be demonstrated in an experimental task eliciting ToM judgments. We tested whether ASD adults would show atypical moral judgments when they need to consider both the intentions (based on ToM) and outcomes of a person's actions. In experiment 1, ASD and neurotypical (NT) participants performed a ToM task designed to test false belief understanding. In experiment 2, the same ASD participants and a new group of NT participants judged the moral permissibility of actions, in a 2 (intention: neutral/negative) × 2 (outcome: neutral/negative) design. Though there was no difference between groups on the false belief task, there was a selective difference in the moral judgment task for judgments of accidental harms, but not neutral acts, attempted harms, or intentional harms. Unlike the NT group, which judged accidental harms less morally wrong than attempted harms, the ASD group did not reliably judge accidental and attempted harms as morally different. In judging accidental harms, ASD participants appeared to show an underreliance on information about a person's innocent intention and, as a direct result, an overreliance on the action's negative outcome. These findings reveal impairments in integrating mental state information (e.g., beliefs, intentions) for moral judgment.

  12. Moral Emotions and Morals

    Rocío Orsi Portalo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to explore the ambivalent role played by the so called moral emotions in moral thinking, overall when the concept of responsibility is concerned. In the first part of this paper I show how moral emotions such as guilt and shame can appear in circumstances that are not under the agent’s control, and therefore the agent could be though of free or responsibility for them. By contrast, in the second part of this essay I put how the absence of moral emotions, or their twisted development, makes as well the flourishing of individual morality impossible.

  13. Moral intuitions, moral expertise, and moral reasoning

    Musschenga, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral

  14. Talking the Talk, Moral Entrapment, Creeping Commitment? Exploring Narrative Dynamics in Corporate Responsibility Standardization

    Haack, P.; Schoeneborn, D.; Wickert, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the type and temporal development of language in the process of corporate responsibility (CR) standardization. Previous research on CR standardization has addressed the proliferation and organizational embedding of material practices but neglected the analysis of underlying

  15. Moral Appearances: Emotions, Robots, and Human Morality.

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Can we build ‘moral robots’? If morality depends on emotions, the answer seems negative. Current robots do not meet standard necessary conditions for having emotions: they lack consciousness, mental states, and feelings. Moreover, it is not even clear how we might ever establish whether robots

  16. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia.

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas E; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-04-07

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists-it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or 'moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Morale and Productivity

    2015-06-01

    account for valuation of highly technical skill sets and variation among job descriptions. 9 Once morale can be effectively measured and linked to...morale progression through phases (arrival, engagement, acceptance, and reentry), which have corresponding peaks and valleys for morale and, by

  18. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  19. Nietos Morales

    Arriaga

    2015-01-01

    1 Toma en 2 revelados O.I. V. DE GARCIA- Carlota R. 80 años MORALES- Pedro J. 12 años MORALES- Francisco de S. 10 años 6mes. MORALES- Beatriz 09 años Morales- Antonio 07 años MORALES- Manuel 04 años 6mes. MORALES- José 01 año

  20. Obsolete Laws: Economic and Moral Aspects, Case Study-Composting Standards.

    Vochozka, Marek; Maroušková, Anna; Šuleř, Petr

    2017-12-01

    From the early days of philosophy, ethics and justice, there is wide consensus that the constancy of the laws establishes the legal system. On the other hand, the rate at which we accumulate knowledge is gaining speed like never before. Due to the recently increased attention of academics to climate change and other environmental issues, a lot of new knowledge has been obtained about carbon management, its role in nature and mechanisms regarding the formation and degradation of organic matter. A multidisciplinary techno-economic assessment of current composting standards and laws that took into account the current state of knowledge about carbon management was carried out as a case study. Economic and environmental damage caused by outdated laws was revealed. In addition, it was found that the introduction of the best composts into the market is permitted, causing additional negative environmental as well as economic impacts.

  1. Dentistry as a business: in search of the moral high ground.

    Holt, Vernon P

    2010-07-01

    This paper has been developed from a version originally submitted as an assignment for the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) Certificate in Health Services Leadership and Management Course. It has been revised in the light of the independent review led by Professor Jimmy Steele into National Health Service dental services in England (generally referred to as the Steele Report), which has commented on many of the points dealt with here. The paper addresses issues arising from a moral tension often experienced by dentists between the professional desire to serve patients well and the necessity, as practice owners running a business, to survive financially. The need for honest and open recognition of what is truly achievable from the public purse is stressed. Rights and responsibilities are discussed in relation to professional practitioners, their patients, and society in general, in seeking the moral high ground under different funding arrangements. The paper concludes by stressing the need to offer improved health rather than palliation of disease.

  2. China's High-technology Standards Development

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  3. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  4. National standards for high school psychology curricula.

    2013-01-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.

  5. National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…

  6. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  7. Moral Cognition

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  8. Is high recovery more effective than expected recovery in addressing service failure? - a moral judgment perspective

    Chen, Tong; Ma, Ke; Bian, Xuemei; Zheng, Chundong; Devlin, James

    2018-01-01

    In the context of two distinctive consumer categories and two different product settings, this research examines the effects of recovery on recovery performance as a function of consumer moral judgment of service failure. The findings of two studies reveal that consumers' response to recovery anchors on the magnitude of recovery but these responses are adjusted according to consumers' moral judgment of service failure. Specifically, consumers react more positively toward expected recovery tha...

  9. Moral politics

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  10. The Breakdown of Morale

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how morale in teams can break down. It interprets high morale as team members working together productively, either because of a sense of fairness or because of implicit incentives from repeated interactions. Team members learn that lay-offs will occur at a fixed

  11. Moral knowledge and moral factuality

    Ron Wilburn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n1p69For naturalistic and non-intuitionistic moral realists, moral knowledge is more problematic than ordinary and scientific factual knowledge. For without special faculties of moral discernment, how could we ever detect moral facts and properties? Physical facts and properties may be accessible to perceptual recognition. But how could moral facts and properties ever be similarly accessible? To address this challenge, we need a meta-ethical account that does two things. First, it must explain how the discernment of moral facts and properties ultimately consists only of the detection of appropriate physical items. Second, it must explain why, despite this fact, moral perception seems so very puzzling. In this paper I endeavor to provide such an account. It is largely because of the relational nature of moral properties, and the corresponding externalistically determined normative content of moral property terms, I argue, that our epistemic access to moral knowledge appears mysterious. The metaphysics of moral factuality does a lot to explain the seeming elusiveness of moral knowledge, and in ways that are surprisingly mundane.

  12. Moral Disengagement in media and Moral Identity activation: their interactive effect on support of war

    Liebnitzky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    People can disengage from their internalized moral standards and self-regulation in order to perform immoral behaviour by using different Moral Disengagement mechanisms. These mechanisms within media have a positive effect on immoral behaviour. However, Moral Identity activation is said to counter arguments of Moral Disengagement. In this study, both concepts are applied to the context of war. An additional assumption took into account in how far participants’ internalized moral standards con...

  13. The problem of moral choice personality

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the comprehension of the problems of the moral selection of personality. It is substantiated, that the moral consciousness is the complex system, because of which in the society are established the specific rules of interrelations between the people.   The concepts are analyzed: morals, relativity, moral absolutism, general human values, globalization, manipulation by consciousness, spiritual­ moral training. The specific character of the moral relativity, which denies absolute nature, i.e., is established universality and compulsion of morals, emphasizing conditionality and situationality of moral n. Moral absolutism is contradicted to moral relativity. Moral absolutism corresponds to persuasion, that there are absolute standards, which can be used for the permission of questions of morals, and that the specific actions can be correct or incorrect by themselves independent of their context. The two­digit (positive and negative axiological understanding of the phenomenon of globalization, which dually influences our consciousness, spiritual peace and moral selection, is represented. Under the conditions for large­scale information manipulations the translation of moral values as information, modifies their essence. Is shown the role of spiritual­ moral training in the formation, which must be variative and voluntary, allow for the possibility of ideological selection. The moral freedom of each person is manifested in the transformation of moral requirements into the internal needs of personality, into its own persuasions.

  14. Human morality and temperament.

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  15. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  16. Psychology as a Moral Science

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  17. DILEMAS MORALES

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a agente se ve confrontado(a con dos obligaciones morales que le instan a actuar. Un dilema moral es una situación extrema de conflicto moral en la que nuestro(a agente no puede seguir un curso de acción que sea conforme con sus dos obligaciones en conflicto. Para que un conflicto moral tenga el carácter de ser un auténtico dilema moral (genuine moral dilemma y no simplemente un aparente dilema moral (apparent moral di- DILEMAS MORALES SANDRA REALPE Licenciada en Filosofía, Univalle, Maestría en Filosofía, Univalle, Diplomado en Psicología Aplicada, Universidad de Londres, Diplomado en Etica de los Negocios Universidad de Colorado, profesora Universidad Icesi, Facultad de Derecho y Humanidades. E-mail: sandrarealpe@hotmail.com lemma, ninguna de las obligaciones en conflicto es en efecto más fuerte o logra invalidar a la otra obligación. A raíz de un artículo escrito en 1962 por E. J. Lemmon, titulado precisamente “Dilemas morales” (Moral Dilemmas, se abrió un debate entre los filósofos anglosajones contemporáneos acerca de la existencia o no de los auténticos dilemas morales. Informar sobre este debate reciente, esclarecer los argumentos de sus principales protagonistas, y hacer presente en nuestro medio un novedoso debate que es importante para reflexionar sobre un buen número de problemas morales, son nuestros principales propósitos en el presente ensayo. ...

  18. Common morality and moral reform.

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  19. Moral Hindsight.

    Fleischhut, Nadine; Meder, Björn; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    How are judgments in moral dilemmas affected by uncertainty, as opposed to certainty? We tested the predictions of a consequentialist and deontological account using a hindsight paradigm. The key result is a hindsight effect in moral judgment. Participants in foresight, for whom the occurrence of negative side effects was uncertain, judged actions to be morally more permissible than participants in hindsight, who knew that negative side effects occurred. Conversely, when hindsight participants knew that no negative side effects occurred, they judged actions to be more permissible than participants in foresight. The second finding was a classical hindsight effect in probability estimates and a systematic relation between moral judgments and probability estimates. Importantly, while the hindsight effect in probability estimates was always present, a corresponding hindsight effect in moral judgments was only observed among "consequentialist" participants who indicated a cost-benefit trade-off as most important for their moral evaluation.

  20. Moral vindications.

    Kumar, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions. Philosophers can draw on these explanations, in some cases, in order to vindicate episodes of moral change. Explanations can support justifications by showing that they are not mere rationalizations. In addition, philosophical justifications are a fertile source for empirical hypotheses about the rational learning mechanisms that shape moral intuitions and emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Moral virtues

    Georg Spielthenner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been published on virtues in recent years, there is still considerable uncertainty in philosophy (and even more among philosophical laymen about the concept of a virtue and especially about moral virtues. In this article, I will try to clarify these notions. In particular, I want to answer the question: When are virtues moral virtues? Clearly, not every practical virtue is a moral virtue. Why was the courage of the Nazi soldiers in the second world war not a moral virtue, but yet is presumably one if included among the cardinal virtues? To clarify this question, this article will deal with the concept of a virtue but I will also investigate the notion of virtues being of a moral nature. To this end, I propose and explain (I a definition of moral virtues and clarify this definition further in section (II, by explaining why I did not include qualities, which others have considered as essential.

  2. National Identity in Moral Education Textbooks for High School Students in the Philippines: A Content Analysis

    Almonte, Sherlyne A.

    2003-01-01

    The past two consecutive administrations in the Philippines saw the need for developing a greater sense of national identity among Filipinos. In response, the Education Sector strengthened the teaching of values on national ideals and Filipino heritage. One reform was the offering of Moral Education as an independent subject in the secondary…

  3. On The Limits of Rational Moral Education.

    Leming, James S.

    1981-01-01

    Explores reasons for the current ineffectiveness of moral education and offers an alternative perspective on the proper purpose and methods for moral education. This ideal moral education is based primarily on the belief that social interactions during childhood are highly significant in the development of morality and on the functionalist…

  4. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  5. High dose gamma-ray standard

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  6. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  7. Recognizing Moral Identity as a Cultural Construct.

    Jia, Fanli; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Current research on moral identity shows that moral identity predicts moral action in Western cultures but not in non-Western cultures. The present paper argues that this may be due to the fact that the concept of moral identity is culturally biased. In order to remedy this situation, we argue that researchers should broaden their scopes of inquiry by adding a cultural lens to their studies of moral identity. This change is important because although some concept of moral identity likely exists in all cultures, it may function in different ways and at different levels in each place. We propose that moral identity is a context-dependent construct tied to varying social and cultural obligations. We argue that Western moral identity stresses an individually oriented morality, whereas, people from Eastern cultures consider a highly moral person to be societally oriented. We conclude by discussing the implications of this view for future research.

  8. Personal factors of moral responsibility in adolescence

    Sergey V. Molchanov

    2017-12-01

    and the nature of the consequences (damage or profit to the participant of the dilemma on the adolescents’ willingness to accept moral responsibility, as well as the role of moral value orientation in the principle of care and moral self-esteem. It was revealed that the self-esteem of such moral qualities as responsibility, honesty, responsiveness, caring is higher in adolescents, showing a high willingness to accept moral responsibility in a moral dilemma. Moral identity is proved to be a desire to maintain a high positive self-esteem of moral qualities according to the accepted system of values develops the basis of the normative moral self-regulation of the individual.

  9. Moral traditions and norms of education

    Gauhar ALDAMBERGENOVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses moral and political, moral and economic, moral and business, moral and pragmatic, hygienic and other relations. The concept of " ethical tradition" includes not only moral values but also a set of core components associated with the development of ethical and moral qualities that characterize it against the backdrop of life events. Here it is pertinent to note that it is very important to assess personality according to his deeds. Each person has the vision of the concept of " value", which is not formed by itself it is made on the basis of norms , concepts , moral relations , transmitted from generation to generation through the h istorical experience. Monitoring of normative behavior of personality is not a reckless submission standards , it examines the various forms of behavior within a framework . Personality does not simply follow moral standards; on the contrary , it is active an d inquisitive in mastering and applying them in practice.

  10. Morals Coaching Through Tahfizh al-Quran in Islamic Junior High School: A Case Study in PERSIS Islamic Boarding School in Karangpawitan Garut West Jawa

    Laena zakiyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Porn video cases involved to Islamic junior high school and college students which are the umpteenth of juvenile delinquency in any cases. The above case is certainly influenced by any cases that very concern and also shows the loss of moral education in the education world. The Ministry of Religion and the Ministry of National Education have essentially concerned to improving educational system in Indonesia. It is to lead the formation of moral and religious spiritual that is still seemed very minimal. The aim of this study is to answer the question on what is the expected of learning moral in the purposive line of educational activities through the development of student personality. This paper requires a new concept in reconstructing the concept of formal education today to lead the formation of character or morals, and its implication to the improvement of spiritual-religious values among the students. In the case of MTs Karangpawitan Garut, Islamic Union is seeking to maximize the interaction between cognitive and psychomotor aspects in the whole of education process. Unfortunately, much of them are still trying to internalize the values of the Qur'an as God's revelation to be applied in behavior or morals. Based on the background, this study shows that morals coaching through tahfizh al-quran in Islamic Junior High School can be seen one of the learning model to rebuilding the student character.

  11. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  12. Morale Hazard

    Hanming Fang; Giuseppe Moscarini

    2003-01-01

    We interpret workers' confidence in their own skills as their morale, and investigate the implication of worker overconfidence on the firm's optimal wage-setting policies. In our model, wage contracts both provide incentives and affect worker morale, by revealing private information of the firm about worker skills. We provide conditions for the non-differentiation wage policy to be profit-maximizing. In numerical examples, worker overconfidence is a necessary condition for the firm to prefer ...

  13. Philosophy and Morality.

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  14. New wars, new morality?

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  15. The dual moral self: moral centrality and internal moral motivation.

    Krettenauer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between two aspects of the moral self, moral centrality and internal moral motivation, was analyzed. It is argued that these 2 aspects are conceptually distinct but nonetheless empirically related. Based on a cross-sectional study of 205 adolescents (M age = 14.83 years, SD = 2.21 years) it was found that moral centrality and internal moral motivation, even though substantially correlated, interacted in predicting moral emotion expectancies. Even though moral centrality was unrelated to adolescents' age it predicted a longitudinal increase in internal moral motivation over a 1-year interval. Overall, the findings call for a differentiation of moral centrality and internal moral motivation as 2 distinct but interrelated aspects of moral self-development that follow different developmental trajectories and are differentially related to age. At the same time, the study points out that adolescence may be less important for the development of the moral self than commonly assumed.

  16. Individual moral development and moral progress

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  17. Individual Moral Development and Moral Progress

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  18. Moral character in the workplace.

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  19. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The moral challenge of poverty’s impact on individuals

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I want to substantiate the claim that poverty presents one of the most urgent moral challenges facing humanity. Poverty violates moral values about what constitutes a minimally decent human life broadly shared throughout the world and especially the standards for human living defined in Christianity. How can such a claim be substantiated? One has to judge the harmful impact of poverty on individuals and show that the moral repugnance of these effects on human beings makes it obligatory that poverty should be high on the agenda of all people. It is shown how devastating these effects of poverty can be for individual human beings and why poverty is such an affront to a person’s dignity. In the light of the consequences poverty has for the dignity of its sufferers, it is judged that Christians have a strong moral responsibility to become involved with the plight of poor people.

  1. Individual moral development and moral progress

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is not only possible but even a common feature of human development things become blurry, however. For what do we mean by ‘progress’? And what constitutes moral progress? Does the idea of individual m...

  2. Learning from moral inconsistency.

    Campbell, Richmond

    2017-10-01

    Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency. The same psychological process also can function to revise current moral norms when their straightforward applications are morally inconsistent with more basic moral commitments. Through this moral learning and related kinds, people can learn how to identify issues of moral priority when moral norms conflict and, when necessary, how to revise their moral norms. The recent revolution in dominant moral norms around gay sex and gay marriage in Europe and North America provides a possible illustration. When coupled with other modes of moral learning in the context of ambiguous but deeply rooted moral norms, such as those of sanctity and authority, reflection on moral inconsistency can help to justify this large-scale moral change, even among those who find gay sex, by its nature, morally repugnant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Standards for the High School Psychology Course. ERIC Digest.

    Morganett, L. Lee

    The latest contribution to the content standards boom that began in the 1990s comes from the American Psychological Association (APA), which recently published "National Standards for the Teaching of High School Psychology." This Digest discusses: (1) the origin and purposes of the project to develop standards for high school psychology…

  4. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children's Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    Beißert, Hanna M; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children's moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children's daily lives. Participants ( N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that - at least in middle childhood - moral developmental status seems to be independent from children's general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  5. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students

    Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874

  6. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students.

    Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.

  7. Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry instrument calibration standards and working standards

    Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-04-01

    Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared instrument calibration standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a 241 Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these calibration solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage

  8. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  9. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    Evers, Daan

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If this claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  10. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    Evers, H.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If the claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  11. Making snacking less sinful : (Counter-)moralizing obesity in the public discourse differentially affects food choices of individuals with high and low perceived body mass.

    Mulder, Laetitia; Rupp, Deborah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As public discourse surrounding obesity highlights the societal costs of obesity and individual's own responsibility for their weight, being overweight is often framed as immoral. Such 'moralizing' messages about being overweight may be a psychological threat for those with high body

  12. The importance of moral construal: moral versus non-moral construal elicits faster, more extreme, universal evaluations of the same actions.

    Jay J Van Bavel

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions-the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action-than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making.

  13. Moral Punishment in Everyday Life.

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Brandt, Mark J; Wisneski, Daniel C; Rockenbach, Bettina; Skitka, Linda J

    2018-05-01

    The present research investigated event-related, contextual, demographic, and dispositional predictors of the desire to punish perpetrators of immoral deeds in daily life, as well as connections among the desire to punish, moral emotions, and momentary well-being. The desire to punish was reliably predicted by linear gradients of social closeness to both the perpetrator (negative relationship) and the victim (positive relationship). Older rather than younger adults, conservatives rather than people with other political orientations, and individuals high rather than low in moral identity desired to punish perpetrators more harshly. The desire to punish was related to state anger, disgust, and embarrassment, and these were linked to lower momentary well-being. However, the negative effect of these emotions on well-being was partially compensated by a positive indirect pathway via heightened feelings of moral self-worth. Implications of the present field data for moral punishment research and the connection between morality and well-being are discussed.

  14. From Folk Morality to Moral Philosophy

    J Peikani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to our terminology, the mechanism people follow in moral judgments, which is far from the sayings and rules of moral philosophers, is folk morality. Above all, people in moral judgments regard human moral capacity and do not expect full morality of any one. People suppose that perfect moral life is an ideal which is beyond human abilities. This hidden presupposition forms the foundation of human moral behavior. On the other hand, it seems that the moral systems originating from moral philosophy have been constructed a priori and, assuming a perfect man, they expect people to become such a person. It seems that it is necessary for moral philosophers to change their way and begin speculation with respect to people’s moral capacities. In this paper, we argue that minimal ethical speculation increases the level of morality in society. The basis of this turn is new progresses and findings in the field of psychology and the connection between psychology and moral philosophy a connection which will be more and more important for moral philosophers parallel to scientific progresses. Of course, this is an immature idea and therefore confronts with some critiques.

  15. Dimensi moral dalam Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan

    Muchson AR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past times, the moral issue is a core and main face of education. The talks about education, educators, or well-educated people refer ni"'ainfy to illustration of aspect of their morality and personality. Although the paradigm of education as a inheritance of values, especialfy moral values, are considered as an old-fashioned or conseruatiie, but , such education is very relevant for the solution to improve the morality of the nation.  Subjects of Civic Education have distinctive vission, namely the formation of good citizens.  Definition of ''good citizens" shows that the moral content is essential. However it is often based on interpretation of the ruler. As a consequence, these subfects are regarded as more political  than academic and suf?jects with a weak saentificfoundation.  As a part of formal curriatium, the moral dimension in Civic Education should be abso­ lutefy developed from the content or material standards. Beside, teachers with the aTttonomy thry had could inculcate moral values, whether unitersal or contextual or cultural or local. Thus, it is possible for teachers to develop iiformal curriculum or hidden curriculum, beside the formal curriculum

  16. Research ethics and Institutional Review Boards. The influence of moral constraints on emotion research.

    Sontag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the twenty-first century face a set of challenges unknown to researchers a half century ago--the need to justify the moral acceptability of their research methods through formal review processes. However, the role that moral constraints play in the development and demise of scientific theories has largely gone unappreciated. The rise of Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the 1960s compounded the impact of moral constraints on scientific research and on the theories that develop out of such highly monitored research. To demonstrate the effects of moral constraints on scientific theory and research, this paper offers a history and analysis of the interaction between evolving moral standards and twentieth century emotion theory. Recommendations regarding IRB reform are also reviewed. The paper concludes by arguing that, while appropriate IRB reform is important, it cannot eliminate the need for careful reflection on the broader forces that shape scientific practice and understanding.

  17. The role of reason in Kant's moral philosophy | Wolemonwu | Sophia ...

    One of the fundamental preoccupations of philosophers of diverse proclivities has been the quest to define the standard upon which morality could be judged. Whereas some philosophers, like the utilitarians, take a consequentialist stance in defining moral standard, where they believe that morality is based on the greatest ...

  18. Moral Development in Adolescence

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  19. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  20. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  1. Social Studies Education as a Moral Activity: Teaching towards a Just Society

    Byrd, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Many competing ideas exist around teaching "standard" high school social studies subjects such as history, government, geography, and economics. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of social studies teaching and learning as a moral activity. I first propose that current high school curriculum standards in the United States often…

  2. Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.

    Springhall, John

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

  3. High Schools, Race, and America's Future: What Students Can Teach Us about Morality, Diversity, and Community

    Blum, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In "High Schools, Race, and America's Future", Lawrence Blum offers a lively account of a rigorous high school course on race and racism. Set in a racially, ethnically, and economically diverse high school, the book chronicles students' engagement with one another, with a rich and challenging academic curriculum, and with questions that relate…

  4. Morality in everyday life.

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2014-09-12

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. The rise of moral cognition.

    Greene, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  7. The Navy’s Moral Compass: Commanding Officers and Personal Misconduct

    2016-07-01

    commanding officer corps and our service, to take positive action to develop each officer’s moral compass and establish an ethical standard. Step One...high moral ground in their discretionary judgments. Furthermore, the Army Operating Concept of 2010 includes three pages of ethical and behavioral...Journal of Business Ethics 12, no. 6 (1993), p. 265. 24. U.S. Navy Dept., U.S. Navy Regulations (Washington, D.C.: 1990), sec. 802, para. 1. 25

  8. On Shermer on morality.

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    This is my critical commentary on Michael Shermer's paper "Morality is real, objective, and natural." Shermer and I agree that morality is both real and objective. Here I raise serious reservations about both Shermer's account of where morality comes from and his account of what morality tells us to do. His approach to the foundations of morality would allow some very disturbing behaviors to count as moral, and his approach to what morality says does not provide the action guidance we need from a moral theory. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Moralization Through Moral Shock: Exploring Emotional Antecedents to Moral Conviction.

    Wisneski, Daniel C; Skitka, Linda J

    2017-02-01

    The current research tested whether exposure to disgusting images increases moral conviction and whether this happens in the presence of incidental disgust cues versus disgust cues relevant to the target of moralization. Across two studies, we exposed participants to one of the four sets of disgusting versus control images to test the moralization of abortion attitudes: pictures of aborted fetuses, animal abuse, non-harm related disgusting images, harm related disgusting images, or neutral pictures, at either sub- or supraliminal levels of awareness. Moral conviction about abortion increased (compared with control) only for participants exposed to abortion-related images at speeds slow enough to allow conscious awareness. Study 2 replicated this finding, and found that the relationship between attitudinally relevant disgust and moral conviction was mediated by disgust, and not anger or harm appraisals. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for intuitionist theories of morality and moral theories that emphasize harm.

  10. Ethical Perspectives, Reactions to Other's Moral Behavior, and Consequent Moral Action.

    Pope, William R.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    In analyzing various moral and legal philosophies, two perspectives emerge, absolute moral rules/higher law, and situationally-specific moral rules/legal positivism. From these two perspectives, four types of individuals emerge in accordance with their degree of adherence to ideological tenets: (1) situationists (high on idealism and relativism);…

  11. Living up to high standards and psychological distress

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    We argue and demonstrate that setting high standards, an essential aspect of perfectionism, is not associated with maladaptive responses in and of itself. Rather, our findings suggest that people's responses to their perceptions that they consistently fail to meet their own standards are

  12. Ironic Effects of Moral Motivation : Why Working Toward a Moral Goal Reduces Subsequ ent Perspective Taking

    Ståhl, Tomas; Ellemers, N.

    2016-01-01

    People generally consider it more important to reach moral standards than other types of standards (e.g., competence). In this article it is argued that pursuit of goals that have implications for one’s morality (vs. competence) therefore leads to increased engagement of the central executive. A

  13. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  14. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  15. The comparison of high and standard definition computed ...

    The comparison of high and standard definition computed tomography techniques regarding coronary artery imaging. A Aykut, D Bumin, Y Omer, K Mustafa, C Meltem, C Orhan, U Nisa, O Hikmet, D Hakan, K Mert ...

  16. The First Year Out: Understanding American Teens after High School. Morality and Society Series

    Clydesdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…

  17. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  18. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Milliken, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High impact  =  high statistical standards? Not necessarily so.

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Giofré, David; Sella, Francesco; Cumming, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    What are the statistical practices of articles published in journals with a high impact factor? Are there differences compared with articles published in journals with a somewhat lower impact factor that have adopted editorial policies to reduce the impact of limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing? To investigate these questions, the current study analyzed all articles related to psychological, neuropsychological and medical issues, published in 2011 in four journals with high impact factors: Science, Nature, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet, and three journals with relatively lower impact factors: Neuropsychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied and the American Journal of Public Health. Results show that Null Hypothesis Significance Testing without any use of confidence intervals, effect size, prospective power and model estimation, is the prevalent statistical practice used in articles published in Nature, 89%, followed by articles published in Science, 42%. By contrast, in all other journals, both with high and lower impact factors, most articles report confidence intervals and/or effect size measures. We interpreted these differences as consequences of the editorial policies adopted by the journal editors, which are probably the most effective means to improve the statistical practices in journals with high or low impact factors.

  20. High Impact = High Statistical Standards? Not Necessarily So

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Giofré, David; Sella, Francesco; Cumming, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    What are the statistical practices of articles published in journals with a high impact factor? Are there differences compared with articles published in journals with a somewhat lower impact factor that have adopted editorial policies to reduce the impact of limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing? To investigate these questions, the current study analyzed all articles related to psychological, neuropsychological and medical issues, published in 2011 in four journals with high impact factors: Science, Nature, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet, and three journals with relatively lower impact factors: Neuropsychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied and the American Journal of Public Health. Results show that Null Hypothesis Significance Testing without any use of confidence intervals, effect size, prospective power and model estimation, is the prevalent statistical practice used in articles published in Nature, 89%, followed by articles published in Science, 42%. By contrast, in all other journals, both with high and lower impact factors, most articles report confidence intervals and/or effect size measures. We interpreted these differences as consequences of the editorial policies adopted by the journal editors, which are probably the most effective means to improve the statistical practices in journals with high or low impact factors. PMID:23418533

  1. Moral Education in Taiwan.

    Meyer, Jeffrey F.

    1988-01-01

    Reports the attitudes of 80 Taiwanese teachers of morality about moral education in the face of drastic social change and modernization. Discusses the content and nature of traditional Chinese morality, the effects of contemporary culture on children's moral development, and teaching methods. Contains 18 references. (SV)

  2. Moral motivation within groups

    Lee, Romy van der

    2013-01-01

    Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of

  3. Morality in everyday life

    Hofmann, W.; Wisneski, D.C.; Brandt, M.J.; Skitka, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent

  4. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  5. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  6. Defining Legal Moralism

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  7. Foundations for Moral Relativism

    Velleman, J. David

    2015-01-01

    In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism, a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral world...

  8. When moral identity symbolization motivates prosocial behavior: the role of recognition and moral identity internalization.

    Winterich, Karen Page; Aquino, Karl; Mittal, Vikas; Swartz, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article examines the role of moral identity symbolization in motivating prosocial behaviors. We propose a 3-way interaction of moral identity symbolization, internalization, and recognition to predict prosocial behavior. When moral identity internalization is low, we hypothesize that high moral identity symbolization motivates recognized prosocial behavior due to the opportunity to present one's moral characteristics to others. In contrast, when moral identity internalization is high, prosocial behavior is motivated irrespective of the level of symbolization and recognition. Two studies provide support for this pattern examining volunteering of time. Our results provide a framework for predicting prosocial behavior by combining the 2 dimensions of moral identity with the situational factor of recognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Sociological concept of morale

    Marjanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  10. ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT FOR MORAL ...

    Dean SPGS NAU

    elaborated by cognitive-developmental theory, implies a standard of adequacy internal ... child prefers thinking at the next higher moral or logical stage to thinking at his ..... possession of a logical mind – the degree to which he has organized.

  11. Moral identity and the experience of moral elevation in response to acts of uncommon goodness.

    Aquino, Karl; McFerran, Brent; Laven, Marjorie

    2011-04-01

    Four studies using survey and experimental designs examined whether people whose moral identity is highly self-defining are more susceptible to experiencing a state of moral elevation after being exposed to acts of uncommon moral goodness. Moral elevation consists of a suite of responses that motivate prosocial action tendencies. Study 1 showed that people higher (vs. lower) in moral identity centrality reported experiencing more intense elevating emotions, had more positive views of humanity, and were more desirous of becoming a better person after reading about an act of uncommon goodness than about a merely positive situation or an act of common benevolence. Study 2 showed that those high in moral identity centrality were more likely to recall acts of moral goodness and experience moral elevation in response to such events more strongly. These experiences were positively related to self-reported prosocial behavior. Study 3 showed a direct effect on behavior using manipulated, rather than measured, moral identity centrality. Study 4 replicated the effect of moral identity on the states of elevation as well as on self-reported physical sensations and showed that the elevation mediates the relationship between moral identity, witnessing uncommon goodness, and prosocial behavior.

  12. Instrumentation Standard Architectures for Future High Availability Control Systems

    Larsen, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Architectures for next-generation modular instrumentation standards should aim to meet a requirement of High Availability, or robustness against system failure. This is particularly important for experiments both large and small mounted on production accelerators and light sources. New standards should be based on architectures that (1) are modular in both hardware and software for ease in repair and upgrade; (2) include inherent redundancy at internal module, module assembly and system levels; (3) include modern high speed serial inter-module communications with robust noise-immune protocols; and (4) include highly intelligent diagnostics and board-management subsystems that can predict impending failure and invoke evasive strategies. The simple design principles lead to fail-soft systems that can be applied to any type of electronics system, from modular instruments to large power supplies to pulsed power modulators to entire accelerator systems. The existing standards in use are briefly reviewed and compared against a new commercial standard which suggests a powerful model for future laboratory standard developments. The past successes of undertaking such projects through inter-laboratory engineering-physics collaborations will be briefly summarized

  13. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...

  14. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  15. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  16. Safety Standards Plan for Middlesex County Vocational & Technical High Schools.

    Sommer, Cy

    This vocational education safety standards plan outlines rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Education of Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools. The first of eleven chapters presents demographics and a safety organization table for Middlesex County Vocational and Technical Schools. In chapter 2, six safety program…

  17. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children’s Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    Beißert, Hanna M.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests. PMID:28066287

  18. Individual differences in moral development: Does intelligence really affect children’s moral reasoning and moral emotions?

    Hanna Maria Beißert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children’s moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children’s daily lives. Participants (N = 129 completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that – at least in middle childhood – moral developmental status seems to be independent from children’s general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  19. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  20. Moral Education as Intercultural Moral Education

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2018-01-01

    In a diverse country such as Peru, moral education should reflect social, cultural, political and spiritual dilemmas of both indigenous and non-indigenous peoples and their communities. To promote understanding and respect amongst people from different sociocultural backgrounds, moral education should encourage a dialogue between indigenous values…

  1. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  2. Reactions to morally motivated deviance

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; Van den Bos, K.; Van Dijk, E.

    2015-01-01

    People value morality in themselves and others. They want to be moral and good individuals, associate themselves with others who share their moral values, and belong to moral groups. As an ironic consequence of the importance of morality, people sometimes respond negatively to morally motivated

  3. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory.

  4. Moral Education and Caring

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)

  5. Moral Education in Pakistan.

    Haq, Shafiqua

    1980-01-01

    This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

  6. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  7. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  8. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  9. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIAGNOSTIC METHOD OF MORAL ORIENTATIONS

    Irina Sergeevna Slavinskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the developing and standardization of psychodiagnostics test that measures moral orientations for adolescence. The definition of moral orientations as a matter of diagnosis and the justification of chosen stimuli are provided. Respondents evaluate the degree to which 13 values are expressed in the behavior of seven categories of people (from the «native» to the «enemies». Youthful students from 17 to 21 years (N = 330 were used as a standardization sample. Factorial validity of the scales used was tested by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A hierarchical structure of the test (including the common scale and three subscales is confirmed by the CFA. Cronbach’s alpha indicated a high consistency between separate items of the test, demonstrating high reliability of the test’s scales. Criterion validity of the scales is assessed on the basis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by establishing close statistical relations with constructs similar in content. The standards for test’s scales are developed. The results testify the adequacy of this method for the diagnosis of youth moral orientations.

  11. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  12. Choosy moral punishers.

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

  13. Ethical dilemma and moral distress: proposed new NANDA diagnoses.

    Kopala, Beverly; Burkhart, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    To propose two NANDA diagnoses--ethical dilemma and moral distress--and to distinguish between the NANDA diagnosis decisional conflict and the proposed nursing diagnosis of ethical dilemma. Journal articles, books, and focus group research findings. Moral/ethical situations exist in health care. Nurses' experiences of ethical dilemmas and moral distress are extrapolated to the types and categories of ethical dilemmas and moral distress that patients experience and are used as the basis for development of two new nursing diagnoses. The two proposed NANDA diagnoses fill a void in current standardized terminology. It is important that nurses have the ability to diagnose ethical or moral situations in health care. Currently, NANDA does not offer a means to document this important phenomenon. The creation of two sets of nursing diagnoses, ethical dilemma and moral distress, will enable nurses to recognize and track nursing care related to ethical or moral situations.

  14. Knowledge management for assuring high standards in nuclear safety

    Hahn, L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary incentives for introducing knowledge management in organisations active in the nuclear field are the impending loss of knowledge due to an ageing workforce and the necessity to transfer knowledge to the next generation. However, knowledge management may reach much further, and it is shown that ultimately, the goals of knowledge management are congruent with establishing, maintaining and further developing high standards of safety. Knowledge-based activities to reach these goals are discussed, and examples given for producing, utilising and sharing knowledge in organisations and in national and international networks. (author)

  15. Future high precision experiments and new physics beyond Standard Model

    Luo, Mingxing.

    1993-01-01

    High precision (< 1%) electroweak experiments that have been done or are likely to be done in this decade are examined on the basis of Standard Model (SM) predictions of fourteen weak neutral current observables and fifteen W and Z properties to the one-loop level, the implications of the corresponding experimental measurements to various types of possible new physics that enter at the tree or loop level were investigated. Certain experiments appear to have special promise as probes of the new physics considered here

  16. Moral education through literature

    Pantić Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a variety of perspectives on the role of literature in moral education. These proceed from general considerations to more specific issues that remain contested to the present day, such as distinction between individual and social morality. Others bring any literature under suspicion in the post-structuralist era, such as the cultural relativity of morality, distinctions between aesthetic and moral dimensions of literary works, and between moral awareness and behavior. The discussion is illustrated through considerations of the place of literature in English moral education from the Victorians to the present day. The discussion of dilemmas that policy makers and educators face today focuses on three dilemmas that often serve to question a possibility of justifying the morally educative power of literature: cultural relativism in literature and ideology (and its implications for the canon, the distinction between an aesthetic and moral power of literature, and finally, the doubts about the transferability of moral awareness acquired through literature to actual moral conduct. .

  17. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  18. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  19. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  20. Re-Conceptualizing Extra Help for High School Students in a High Standards Era.

    Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James; Shaw, Alta

    The push for higher academic standards has resulted in an increase in the numbers of high school students needing extra help. The need for extra help is most pervasive in high-poverty areas and most high school students need extra help not in traditional basic elementary skills but in reading, mathematics, and advanced reasoning skills. Most…

  1. Explaining Moral Behavior.

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex

    2017-03-01

    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  2. Moral realism in nursing.

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Morale in the market

    Ognedal, Tone

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in morale as a potential substitute for sanctions, encouraged by exerimental evidence that people's morale affect their economic decisions. I show that while morale may be a substitute for sanctions for each citizen, it is not a substitute in the market. In a model where employed and self-employed differ in their opportunities for tax evasion, I demonstrate that a higher fraction of tax compliant citizens may reduce social surplus and tax revenues. In contrast to s...

  4. Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral ...

    Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral Development of ... The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  6. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  8. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  9. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthan...

  10. On the Morality of Machiavellian Deceivers.

    Martinez, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=324) completed questionnaires measuring Machiavellianism (interpersonal deception and manipulation) and sociopolitical ideology along dimensions of traditional moralism, new left philosophy, and revolutionary tactics. Analyses showed considerable similarity between low- and high-Machiavellian subjects on sociopolitical and…

  11. Multiphoton production at high energies in the standard model. II

    Mahlon, G.

    1993-01-01

    We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the standard model in the high-energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We utilize currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates n photons. Only one end of the charged line is off shell in these currents, which are known for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photons. We obtain a wide variety of helicity amplitudes for processes involving two pairs of charged particles by considering combinations of four currents. We examine the situation with respect to currents which have both ends of the charged line off shell, and present solutions for the case of like-helicity photons. These new currents may be combined with two of the original currents to produce additional amplitudes involving Higgs bosons, longitudinal Z, or neutrino pairs

  12. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  13. Neural evidence for moral intuition and the temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional processes and moral cognition.

    Gui, Dan-Yang; Gan, Tian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neurological studies have revealed that emotions influence moral cognition. Although moral stimuli are emotionally charged, the time course of interactions between emotions and moral judgments remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the interaction between emotional processes and moral cognition. The results revealed that when making moral judgments, the time course of the event-related potential (ERP) waveform was significantly different between high emotional arousal and low emotional arousal contexts. Different stages of processing were distinguished, showing distinctive interactions between emotional processes and moral reasoning. The precise time course of moral intuition and moral reasoning sheds new light on theoretical models of moral psychology. Specifically, the N1 component (interpreted as representing moral intuition) did not appear to be influenced by emotional arousal. However, the N2 component and late positive potential were strongly affected by emotional arousal; the slow wave was influenced by both emotional arousal and morality, suggesting distinct moral processing at different emotional arousal levels.

  14. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  15. The Profile of Adolescent’ Moral Intelligence and Practical Solution to Its Improvement Efforts

    Prasetiawan Hardi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High moral quality is needed by adolescent to be success in their personal and educational life. Those who have high morale quality can be considered as morally intelligent Individuals. This study is aimed to collect information about adolescents’ moral intelligent by using moral intelligence Instrument that consists of seven aspects, empathy, self control, conscience, respect, kindness, tolerance dan fairness, furthermore, alternative solution is given to improve their moral intelligence. Subject of this study was selected through simple random sampling. Based on the result of the survey, it was found that students in a State Junior high school in Yogyakarta have 69% moral intelligence percentage. In other words, they have medium moral Intelligence. Adolescents’ moral quality develops through continuous process in their life. One of many methods that can be done to improve moral intelligence is guidance and counseling service, in specific, group counseling with self- management technique.

  16. The Trouble with Moral Citizens: A Response to "Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education" by Daniel Lapsley and Ryan Woodbury

    Westheimer, Joel

    2016-01-01

    In "Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education," Daniel Lapsley and Ryan Woodbury argue that teacher education licensure and accreditation standards largely ignore matters of values, character, and morality. "The moral-character formation of children," they note, "is the instructional objective that dare not speak…

  17. Dilema Moral: Kepalsuan dan Keteladanan Komunikasi Politik di Indonesia

    Muhammad E. Fuady

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Political activities often generate political question toward ethics or moral issues. Political world believed as moral costly and degrading political figures into somewhat vague and  manipulative person in order to maintain his/her positions. The case of Amien Rais, who failed to be Indonesian president resulted from fair election, supported such assumptions. Porn-video-streaming involving important political members also provided a strong case that political domain is actually a dirty world. But, in every situation, democracy needs a fair and honest people to give a high standard performance in politics. A good political leader would leave good memories and excellent example for other political leaders who fill in the same positions in the future.

  18. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  19. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  20. Moral og videnproduktion

    Munch, Birgitte

    Research report concerning moral and ethical problems inherent in the consulting engineers' profession. Based upon 25 in-depth interviews in 11 firms, the report is contributing to the understanding of the concepts and meaning of moral and ethics in a world of technical rationality. The objectivity...

  1. Emotion and moral judgment

    Avramova, Y.R.; Inbar, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychology and cognitive science has consistently demonstrated the importance of emotion in a wide range of everyday judgments, including moral judgment. Most current accounts of moral judgment hold that emotion plays an important role, but the nature and extent of this role are still

  2. Moral Life and Education

    Noddings, Nel

    2016-01-01

    Nel Noddings, Lee Jacks Professor of Education, Emerita, at Stanford University, agrees with Professors Lapsley and Woodbury that moral aims are central to education. She has argued that the main aim of education is to produce better people--better in "all aspects of a complete life: moral, physical, social, vocational, aesthetic,…

  3. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  4. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Moral Education in Japan

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  6. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    Wilfried Hommers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used . Moral informers differing in value, i.e. high and low, are presented. The differences in effect of those two pieces of information should be substantial for a person at that specific moral stage, but small for a person at a different stage. Hence, these differences may diagnose the person's moral stage in the simplest possible way as the two levels of each of the thoughts were about typical content of the four Kohlbergian preconventional and conventional stages. The novel task allowed additionally to measure the influence of another moral concept which was about the non-Kohlbergian moral concept of recompense. After a training phase, pairs of those thoughts were presented to allow for the study of integration and individual differences. German and Korean children, 8, 10, and 12 years in age, judged deserved punishment. The patterns of means, correlations and factor loadings showed that elements of both theories can be unified, but produced unexpected results also. Additive integration of each of the two pairs of moral informers appeared, either with two Kohlbergian moral informers or with another Kohlbergian moral informer in combination with information about recompense. Also cultural independence as well as dependence, developmental changes between 8 and 10 years, and an outstanding moral impact of recompense in size and distinctiveness were observed.

  7. Infidelity and the Possibility of a Liberal Legal Moralism

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that according to the influential version of legal moralism presented by Moore infidelity should all-things-considered be criminalized. This is interesting because criminalizing infidelity is bound to be highly controversial and because Moore’s legal moralism is a prime example...... of a self-consciously liberal legal moralism, which aims to yield legislative implications that are quite similar to liberalism, while maintaining that morality as such should be legally enforced. Moore tries to make his theory yield such implications, first by claiming that the scope of our moral...... obligations is much more limited than legal moralists have traditionally claimed, and second by allowing for the possibility that the goodness of legally enforcing morality is often outweighed by the badness of limiting citizens’ morally valuable autonomy and spending scarce resources on enforcement. If Moore...

  8. Bracketed morality revisited: how do athletes behave in two contexts?

    Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D; Sagar, Sam S; Ring, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The concept of bracketed morality has received empirical support in several sport studies (e.g., Bredemeier & Shields, 1986a, 1986b). However, these studies have focused on moral reasoning. In this research, we examined bracketed morality with respect to moral behavior in sport and university contexts, in two studies. Male and female participants (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 372) completed questionnaires assessing prosocial and antisocial behavior toward teammates and opponents in sport and toward other students at university. Study 2 participants also completed measures of moral disengagement and goal orientation in both contexts. In most cases, behavior in sport was highly correlated with behavior at university. In addition, participants reported higher prosocial behavior toward teammates and higher antisocial behavior toward opponents in sport than toward other students at university. The effects of context on antisocial behavior were partially mediated by moral disengagement and ego orientation. Our findings extend the bracketed morality concept to prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  9. ''FASTBUS'': status of development of a standard high speed data acquisition bus for high energy physics

    Larsen, R.S.

    1977-11-01

    In late 1975 the US NIM Committee initiated a study group, known as the Advanced System Study Group, to review the future data acquisition modular interface requirements for high-energy physics. The final report of this group recommended the development of a new standard system, now known as ''FASTBUS,'' which would have as principal features improved speed by a factor of 10 over CAMAC, more generalized architecture to accommodate distributed parallel processing and fast preprocessing, special scan modes of particular use in high-energy particle detection systems, and standardized bus structures and mechanics. A brief summary of current activity is given. 7 figures, 3 tables

  10. Roman Catholic beliefs produce characteristic neural responses to moral dilemmas.

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; de Miguel, Pedro; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Munar, Enric

    2014-02-01

    This study provides exploratory evidence about how behavioral and neural responses to standard moral dilemmas are influenced by religious belief. Eleven Catholics and 13 Atheists (all female) judged 48 moral dilemmas. Differential neural activity between the two groups was found in precuneus and in prefrontal, frontal and temporal regions. Furthermore, a double dissociation showed that Catholics recruited different areas for deontological (precuneus; temporoparietal junction) and utilitarian moral judgments [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC); temporal poles], whereas Atheists did not (superior parietal gyrus for both types of judgment). Finally, we tested how both groups responded to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas: Catholics showed enhanced activity in DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex during utilitarian moral judgments to impersonal moral dilemmas and enhanced responses in anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus during deontological moral judgments to personal moral dilemmas. Our results indicate that moral judgment can be influenced by an acquired set of norms and conventions transmitted through religious indoctrination and practice. Catholic individuals may hold enhanced awareness of the incommensurability between two unequivocal doctrines of the Catholic belief set, triggered explicitly in a moral dilemma: help and care in all circumstances-but thou shalt not kill.

  11. Calibrating One's Moral Compass: How Principal Preparation Shapes School Leaders

    Larsen, Donald E.; Derrington, Mary Lynne

    2012-01-01

    No textbook that an aspiring principal encounters in preparing for the role of school leader discusses what steps to follow when a member--or members--of the school staff challenge standards of professional judgment and moral rectitude. Instead, the most reliable guide at the principal's disposal may be the "moral compass" upon which the…

  12. Moral education and values education in curriculum reform In China

    Zhu Xiaoman

    2006-01-01

    In the new curriculum reform in China,moral education and values education have been defined from the angles of the integrity and conformity of curriculum functions.Accordingly, a new education concept based on complete/integral curriculum functions is established.By discussing the essences of the curriculum,the basis of moral and values education,integrated curriculum setting in instruction structure,the presence of emotional and attitudinal goals in the subject standards,and teaching methods,this text points out that this curriculum reform looks to moral and values education in schools.The reform also emphasizes and will guarantee moral and values education in schools.Finally,the article recommends to elementary and secondary schools the studies on moral education in class conducted by the Research Institute of Moral Education of Nanjing Normal University,one of the Key Bases for Humanities and Social Sciences Research for the Ministry of Education.

  13. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  14. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  15. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  16. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  17. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Religion and morality.

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Revisiting Folk Moral Realism.

    Pölzler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.

  20. Inverting the moral economy

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  1. Inverting the moral economy

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  2. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  3. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  4. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  5. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  6. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  7. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    Kalis, A.

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  8. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  9. The role of moral utility in decision making: An interdisciplinary framework

    Tobler, P.N.; Kalis, A.; Kalenscher, T.

    2008-01-01

    What decisions should we make? Moral values, rules, and virtues provide standards for morally acceptable decisions, without prescribing how we should reach them. However, moral theories do assume that we are, at least in principle, capable of making the right decisions. Consequently, an empirical

  10. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  11. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  13. Before Ethics and Morality

    Prescott, James W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of sensory deprivation in humans is discussed as well as the need for developing a moral education curriculum designed to rear children in an affectional environment of positive reinforcements. (JB)

  14. The Impact of Ethical Ideology on Moral Behavior.

    Nye, Judith; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    To examine the impact of ethical ideology, i.e., situationism (high relativism and idealism), subjectivism (high relativism/low idealism), absolutism (low relativism/high idealism), and exceptionism (low relativism and idealism), as well as the saliency of moral norms, and the situational consequences on moral behavior, 112 male and female college…

  15. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics

    Smith, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers contemporary "moral panics" around the underachievement of boys in school examinations in the UK and America. In the UK, in particular, the underachievement of boys is central to current "crisis accounts" about falling standards and failing pupils. "Underachievement" is a familiar word to those…

  17. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Imagining Moral Bioenhancement Practices: Drawing Inspiration from Moral Education, Public Health Ethics, and Forensic Psychiatry.

    Specker, Jona; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we consider contexts or domains in which (future) moral bioenhancement interventions possibly or most likely will be implemented. By looking closely at similar or related existing practices and their relevant ethical frameworks, we hope to identify ethical considerations that are relevant for evaluating potential moral bioenhancement interventions. We examine, first, debates on the proper scope of moral education; second, proposals for identifying early risk factors for antisocial behaviour; and third, the difficult balancing of individual freedom and third party concerns in (forensic) psychiatry. In imagining moral bioenhancement in practice, we observe that unlike other forms of enhancement, moral enhancement fundamentally asks how the interests and preferences of the individual and the interests of others should be weighed (in view of public safety and managing public risk). Highly diverse domains such as education, mental health, and the judicial domain might be involved, and moral bioenhancement might challenge existing institutional settings. Given these highly varied contexts and domains, it appears unlikely that there will be a distinct set of practices that will be referred to as "moral bioenhancement."

  19. Longitudinal Relationships between Bullying and Moral Disengagement among Adolescents.

    Wang, Cixin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Swearer, Susan M; Turner, Rhonda; Goldberg, Taryn S

    2017-06-01

    Moral disengagement is a series of cognitive processes used to disengage moral standards to achieve absolved guilt and permit immoral conduct and has been found to be an important connection to bullying and aggressive behaviors among adolescents. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between moral disengagement and bullying behavior among a group of adolescents from fifth grade to ninth grade (n = 1180, mean age = 12.2, SD = 1.29, 46.5 % female, 80.2 % Caucasian/White, 7.1 % Black/African American, 5.4 % Latino/Hispanic, 2.4 % Asian American, and 1.7 % other) over three semesters. The objectives were to investigate (a) whether moral disengagement was a precursor to bullying behavior, vice versa, or whether the relationship was reciprocal and (b) whether gender and grade predicted moral disengagement and bullying behavior. The results showed that moral disengagement predicted bullying perpetration 6 months later. Also, older students and males utilized more moral disengagement than younger students and females and younger students and males engaged in greater bullying perpetration. Indirect paths linking gender and grade to bullying via moral disengagement at previous time points were identified and implications for bullying prevention are discussed. The findings underscore the importance of examining moral disengagement when studying bullying and across gender and development.

  20. Moral status, justice, and the common morality: challenges for the principlist account of moral change.

    Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2013-09-01

    The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.

  1. The Morality of Men Convicted of Domestic Violence: How It Supports the Maintenance of the Moral Self-Concept.

    Marzana, Daniela; Vecina, María L; Alfieri, Sara

    2016-12-01

    The phenomenon of abuse toward women is a prevalent social problem in most societies. In the present work, we take into consideration the abusive man's point of view with particular reference to the sphere of their morality and set as aims: (a) to show that high levels of self-deception are mediating between an extreme moral worldview, called moral absolutism, and a functional high moral self-concept, (b) to analyze the relation of the five moral foundations (Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) with this moral absolutism, and (c) to test a comprehensive model of the relationships between the individuated variables in the preceding hypotheses. Participants are 264 men convicted of domestic violence offenses, who, having begun court-mandated psychological treatment lasting 12 weeks, have filled out a self-report questionnaire during the second meeting. The results reveal that (a) self-deception is as a full mediator between moral absolutism and moral self-concept in men convicted of domestic violence and in such a way that the more they felt right about their moral beliefs, the more they deceived themselves, and the more they felt good about themselves, (b) the moral foundations could be explaining moral absolutism understood as a rigid moral vision of the world, and (c) the tested model produces satisfying fit indices. Finally, we discuss the applied implications, for example, a key role can be played by the family and the school: Moral socialization begins within the family and there finds the first push that will accompany it the rest of life.

  2. Real-Time Elicitation of Moral Emotions Using a Prejudice Paradigm

    Fourie, Melike M.; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G. F. 

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt. PMID:22888322

  3. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

    Melike Marethe Fourie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively- and positively-valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46 who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs. Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ nonprejudiced self-standards (positive condition, or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition, in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride, and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt. In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS scale, reported greater guilt.

  4. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

    Fourie, Melike M; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants' non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants' attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt.

  5. Is moral elevation an approach-oriented emotion?

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two studies were designed to test whether moral elevation should be conceptualized as an approach-oriented emotion. The studies examined the relationship between moral elevation and the behavioral activation and inhibition systems. Study 1 (N?=?80) showed that individual differences in moral elevation were associated with individual differences in behavioral activation but not inhibition. Study 2 (N?=?78) showed that an elevation-inducing video promoted equally high levels of approac...

  6. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  7. Comparing the cognitive, personality and moral characteristics of high school and graduate medical entrants to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran.

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Bore, Miles; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Munro, Don; Powis, David; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Tehran University of Medical Sciences has two streams of medical student admission: an established high school entry (HSE) route and an experimental graduate entry (GE) route. To compare the cognitive skills, personality traits and moral characteristics of HSE and GE students admitted to this university. The personal qualities assessment tool (PQA; www.pqa.net.au ) was translated from English to Persian and then back-translated. Afterwards 35 individuals from the GE and 109 individuals from the 2007 to 2008 HSE completed the test. The results were compared by t-test and Chi-square. The HSE students showed significantly higher ability in the cognitive skills tests (p libertarian (p = 0.022), but had lower ability to confront stress and unpleasant events (p < 0.001), and had lower self-awareness and self-control (p < 0.001). On the basis of their personal qualities, the GE students had more self-control and strength when coping with stress than the HSE students, but the latter had superior cognitive abilities. Hence it may be useful to include cognitive tests in GE students' entry exam and include tests of personal qualities to exclude those with unsuitable characteristics.

  8. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  9. Moral sensitivity, moral distress, and moral courage among baccalaureate Filipino nursing students.

    Escolar-Chua, Rowena L

    2018-06-01

    Moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage among healthcare professionals have been explored considerably in recent years. However, there is a paucity of studies exploring these topics among baccalaureate nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The research employed a descriptive-correlational design to explore the relationships between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate nursing students. Participants and research context: A total of 293 baccalaureate Filipino nursing students who have been exposed to various clinical areas participated in the study. Ethical considerations: Institutional review board approval was sought prior to the conduct of the study. Self-determination was assured and anonymity and confidentiality were guaranteed to all participants. Results indicate that a majority of the nursing students in the clinical areas encounter morally distressing situations that compromise quality patient care. However, despite the fact that they want to do what is in the best interest of their patients, their perception of being the inexperienced among the healthcare team drives the majority of them to ignore morally distressing situations to avoid conflict and confrontation. Another interesting finding is that 79.20% of the respondents hardly consider quitting the nursing profession even if they frequently encounter morally distressing situations. Analysis also shows associations between moral distress intensity and frequency ( r = 0.13, p < 0.05) and moral distress intensity and moral sensitivity ( r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The dimensions of moral courage are also related to both moral distress and moral sensitivity. Results of the study imply that moral distress is a reality among all healthcare professionals including nursing students and requires more

  10. Institutional Ethics Resources: Creating Moral Spaces.

    Hamric, Ann B; Wocial, Lucia D

    2016-09-01

    Since 1992, institutions accredited by The Joint Commission have been required to have a process in place that allows staff members, patients, and families to address ethical issues or issues prone to conflict. While the commission's expectations clearly have made ethics committees more common, simply having a committee in no way demonstrates its effectiveness in terms of the availability of the service to key constituents, the quality of the processes used, or the outcomes achieved. Beyond meeting baseline accreditation standards, effective ethics resources are requisite for quality care for another reason. The provision of care to the sick is a practice with profound moral dimensions. Clinicians need what Margaret Urban Walker has called "moral spaces," reflective spaces within institutions in which to explore and communicate values and ethical obligations as they undergird goals of care. Walker proposed that ethicists needed to be concerned with the design and maintenance of these moral spaces. Clearly, that concern needs to extend beyond ethicists to institutional leaders. This essay uses Walker's idea of moral space to describe individuals and groups who are actual and potential ethics resources in health care institutions. We focus on four requisite characteristics of effective resources and the challenges to achieving them, and we identify strategies to build them. In our view, such moral spaces are particularly important for nurses and their colleagues on interprofessional teams and need to be expanded and strengthened in most settings. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  11. Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Sheikh, Sana; Hepp, Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.

  12. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  13. How to boost a low-morale medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Low morale can decrease productivity and cooperation among medical practice employees, and increase work errors, absenteeism, and turnover. That is why practice managers must be mindful of their employees' morale and develop a toolkit of strategies that they can use to assess and boost waning morale. This article suggests 25 practical and affordable strategies medical practice managers can use to increase their staffs' morale. It explores the high cost of low morale, including five invisible costs that are often overlooked but that nonetheless drain practice resources. Furthermore, this article suggests 25 warning signs of low morale and suggests 10 causes of low morale in the workplace. It also provides practice managers with a quick 10-question quiz to administer to their employees to help them assess employee morale. Finally, this article describes five easy and affordable games practice managers can play with their employees to build camaraderie and teamwork and to increase staff morale.

  14. High Mass Standard Model Higgs searches at the Tevatron

    Petridis Konstantinos A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying predominantly to W+W− pairs, at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, using up to 8.2 fb−1 of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis techniques and the various channels considered are discussed. These searches result in exclusions across the Higgs mass range of 156.5< mH <173.7 GeV for CDF and 161< mH <170 GeV for D0.

  15. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017. By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world, Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and building practical views on living good life. The goal of this geographical exploration of the moral possibility space is surveying different traditions of morality and finding tractable ways of human flourishing. This article, by following the chapters of his book, explains his views on moral diversity and his interdisciplinary and naturalistic approach to ethics. It also discusses interactive and dynamic ways to expand the moral possibility space.

  16. Perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses.

    Robaee, Navideh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Baghestani, Ahmadreza; Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh

    2018-01-01

    Moral distress is prevalent in the health care environment at different levels. Nurses in all roles and positions are exposed to ethically challenging conditions. Development of supportive climates in organizations may drive nurses towards coping moral distress and other related factors. This study aimed at determining the level of perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses and investigating the relationship between the two variables. This was a correlational-descriptive study. A total of 120 nurses were selected using random quota sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, Survey of Perceived Organizational Support, and Moral Distress Scale were used to collect the data which were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests in SPSS20. The mean perceived organizational support was low (2.63 ± 0.79). The mean moral distress was 2.19 ± 0.58, which shows a high level of moral distress. Moreover, Statistical analysis showed no significant relationship between perceived organizational support and moral distress ( r  = 0.01, p  = 0.86). Given the low level of perceived organizational support and high moral distress among nurses in this study, it is necessary to provide a supportive environment in hospitals and to consider strategies for diminishing moral distress.

  17. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017). By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world), Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and build...

  18. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  19. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  20. From moral agents to moral factors: the structural ethics approach

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Kroes, P.; Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It has become a popular position in the philosophy of technology to claim that some or all technological artifacts can qualify as moral agents. This position has been developed to account for the moral role of technological artifacts in society and to help clarify the moral responsibility of

  1. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  2. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  3. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  4. Stability of High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers at High Temperatures

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ; F. M. MEGAHED

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the stability of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers HTSPRTs has been carried out for two different designs thermometers (with nominal resistance 0.25 Ω and 2.5 Ω) from two different suppliers. The thermometers were heated for more than 160 hours at temperatures above 960 0C using a vertical furnace with a ceramic block. A study was made of the influence of the heat treatment on the stability of the resistance at the triple point of water, and on the...

  5. High versus standard dose caffeine for apnoea: a systematic review

    Vliegenthart, Roos; Miedema, Martijn; Hutten, Gerard J.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Onland, Wes

    2018-01-01

    Placebo-controlled trials have shown that caffeine is highly effective in treating apnoea of prematurity and reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). To identify, appraise and summarise studies investigating the modulating effect of different

  6. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  7. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  8. Moralizing Food Technology

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  9. Models of morality

    Crockett, Molly J.

    2013-01-01

    Moral dilemmas engender conflicts between two traditions: consequentialism, which evaluates actions based on their outcomes, and deontology, which evaluates actions themselves. These strikingly resemble two distinct decision-making architectures: a model-based system that selects actions based on inferences about their consequences; and a model-free system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history. Here, I consider how these systems, along with a Pavlovian system that responds reflexively to rewards and punishments, can illuminate puzzles in moral psychology. PMID:23845564

  10. Forgiveness and moral development.

    Satne, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Forgiveness is clearly an important aspect of our moral lives, yet surprisingly Kant, one of the most important authors in the history of Western ethics, seems to have very little to say about it. Some authors explain this omission by noting that forgiveness sits uncomfortably in Kant’s moral thought: forgiveness seems to have an ineluctably ‘elective’ aspect which makes it to a certain extent arbitrary; thus it stands in tension with Kant’s claim that agents are autonomous beings, capable of...

  11. How "moral" are the principles of biomedical ethics?--a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis.

    Christen, Markus; Ineichen, Christian; Tanner, Carmen

    2014-06-17

    The principles of biomedical ethics - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice - are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. We evaluated the perceived degree of "morality" of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1 = 317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2 = 247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as "bridge values" that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal "common morality". We propose that the specific manner in which the principles

  12. Caring for tomorrow's workforce: Moral resilience and healthcare ethics education.

    Monteverde, Settimio

    2016-02-01

    Preparing tomorrow's healthcare workforce for managing the growing complexity of care places high demands on students, educators, and faculties. In the light of worrying data about study-related stress and burnout, understanding how students manage stressors and develop resilience has been identified as a priority topic of research. In addition to study-related stressors, also moral stressors are known to characterize the students' first clinical experiences. However, current debates show that it remains unclear how healthcare ethics education should address them. In order to clarify this issue, this study first develops the notion of moral resilience as a response to moral stressors involving both situations of moral complexity and moral wrongness. Second, it explores the potential of healthcare ethics education in fostering moral resilience. For this purpose, it defines moral resilience operationally as a reduction of moral distress in a given axis of time measured by a validated tool. The educational transferability was assessed within an explorative, quantitative pre-post interventional study with a purposive sample of 166 nursing students. The educational intervention comprised a lecture introducing the typology of moral stressors. Before and after the lecture, students were presented vignettes depicting morally stressful situations. The competent research ethics committee confirmed that no ethical approval was needed. Informed consent was obtained from participants. Three of four vignettes showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in measured levels of distress after the lecture (p ethics education in providing students with transformative knowledge that fosters moral resilience. In times of global scarcity of educational resources, healthcare ethics education has an important contribution to offer in the promotion of students' mental and physical health by strengthening the knowledge base of moral resilience. This legitimates its costs for

  13. Untangling Partnership and Domination Morality

    David Loye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Riane Eisler’s (1987 cultural transformation theory is an effective framework for understanding many of the constructs that shape society. This article uses Eisler’s theory to explain the formation of morality and the construction of conscience. It contrasts partnership morality and domination morality, and describes the factors that shape our tendency to embrace one or the other. The article helps us understand that we have a choice, and invites us to choose partnership morality.

  14. Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on "FGM".

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-06-01

    The spectrum of practices termed "Female Genital Mutilation" (or FGM) by the World Health Organization is sometimes held up as a counterexample to moral relativism. Those who advance this line of thought suggest the practices are so harmful in terms of their physical and emotional consequences, as well as so problematic in terms of their sexist or oppressive implications, that they provide sufficient, rational grounds for the assertion of a universal moral claim--namely, that all forms of FGM are wrong, regardless of the cultural context. However, others point to cultural bias and moral double standards on the part of those who espouse this argument, and have begun to question the received interpretation of the relevant empirical data on FGM as well. In this article I assess the merits of these competing perspectives. I argue that each of them involves valid moral concerns that should be taken seriously in order to move the discussion forward. In doing so, I draw on the biomedical "enhancement" literature in order to develop a novel ethical framework for evaluating FGM (and related interventions--such as female genital "cosmetic" surgery and nontherapeutic male circumcision) that takes into account the genuine harms that are at stake in these procedures, but which does not suffer from being based on cultural or moral double standards.

  15. Identity as a Source of Moral Motivation

    Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Theory and research regarding moral motivation has focused for decades on the roles of moral reasoning and, to some extent, moral emotion. Recently, however, several models of morality have positioned identity as an additional important source of moral motivation. An individual has a moral identity to the extent that he or she has constructed his…

  16. Shared perceptions: morality is embedded in social contexts.

    Carnes, Nate C; Lickel, Brian; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    2015-03-01

    Morality helps make social life possible, but social life is embedded in many social contexts. Research on morality has generally neglected this and instead has emphasized people's general beliefs. We therefore investigated the extent to which different moral principles are perceived as embedded in social contexts. We conducted two studies investigating how diverse social contexts influence beliefs about the operative moral principles in distinct group types. Study 1 examined these perceptions using a within-subjects design, whereas Study 2 utilized a between-subjects design. We found a high degree of consensus among raters concerning the operative moral principles in groups, and each group type was characterized by a qualitatively distinct pattern of applicable moral principles. Political orientation, a focus of past research on morality, had a small influence on beliefs about operative moral principles. The implications of these findings for our understanding of morality and its functional role in groups are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Flavor democracy in standard models at high energies

    Cvetic, G.; Kim, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is possible that the standard model (SM) is replaced around some transition energy Λ by a new, possibly Higgsless, 'flavor gauge theory' such that the Yukawa (running) parameters of SM at E∼Λ show up an (approximate) flavor democracy (FD). We investigate the latter possibility by studying the renormalization group equations for the Yukawa couplings of SM with one and two Higgs doublets, by evolving them from given physical values at low energies (E≅1 GeV) to Λ (∼Λ pole ) and comparing the resulting fermion masses and CKM matrix elements at E≅Λ for various m t phy and ratios y u /y d of vacuum expectation values. We find that the minimal SM and the closely related SM with two Higgs doublets (type I) show increasing deviation from FD when energy is increased, but that SM with two Higgs doublets (type II) clearly tends to FD with increasing energy - in both the quark and the leptonic sector (q-q and l-l FD). Furthermore, we find within the type-II model that, for Λ pole Planck , m t phy can be less than 200 GeV in most cases of chosen y u /y d . Under the assumption that also the corresponding Yukawa couplings in the quark and the leptonic sector at E≅Λ are equal (l-q FD), we derive estimates of bounds on masses of top quark and tau-neutrino, which are compatible with experimental bounds. (orig.)

  18. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.

  19. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document provides the requirements for a test simulant suitable for demonstrating the mixing requirements for the Single High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). This simulant has not been evaluated for other purposes such as gas retention and release or erosion. The objective of this work is to provide an underpinning for the simulant properties based on actual waste characterization.

  20. Parental Hostility, Adolescent High Standards, and Self-Esteem.

    Buri, John R.; Kircher, Annemarie

    Studies employing the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-based Cook and Medley (1954) Hostility (Ho) Scale have suggested that Hostility may be a robust psychological disposition with pervasive implications for interpersonal functioning. For example, when compared to individuals who scored low in Ho, high Ho individuals were more…

  1. Is There a Moral Skill?

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of skill, distinguished from habit, is sketched. Moral skill is defined as the skill, born of genetically rooted talent, which masterminds subsidiary skills into moral action (action conforming to certain moral principles). Training this skill is possible, but results will be uneven because talent varies. (IAH)

  2. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  3. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  4. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  5. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  6. Moral Leadership A Business Imperative

    Goh, Alex Shaw Peng

    2003-01-01

    The above Enron-centric quotations serve to set the stage for the spirit of this research. While care should be accorded to ensure that one does not generalize on the current leadership situation from this one high profile case of business failure, it is fair to note that the level of trust on current business leadership is being questioned and that business schools are beginning to focus on the softer aspects of the business leadership program. Moral leadership in business is about doing the...

  7. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  8. Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

  9. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium con...

  10. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  11. Discourse and tractable morality

    de Graaf, G.; Lütge, C.

    2013-01-01

    When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is

  12. Moral Teaching in Geography.

    Smith, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that geography is in a unique position to highlight and emphasize moral issues that otherwise might be neglected. Contemporary issues that naturally intersect with geographic concepts include citizenship and immigration, and the allocation of resources. Recommends examining relative concepts of justice, equality, and community. (MJP)

  13. The New Moral Darwinism

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…

  14. Recycling as moral behaviour

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  15. Moral Hazard and Stability

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  16. Rethinking Moral Responsibility

    Vedder, A.H.; Johnson, D.; Moor, J.; Tavani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Questions regarding the moral responsibility of Internet access and service providers relating to possible negative aspects of information on the Internet call for a reassessment of the ways in which we think about attributing blame, guilt, and duties of reparation and compensation. They invite us

  17. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Searching for Moral Dumbfounding: Identifying Measurable Indicators of Moral Dumbfounding

    Cillian McHugh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Moral dumbfounding is defined as maintaining a moral judgement, without supporting reasons. The most cited demonstration of dumbfounding does not identify a specific measure of dumbfounding and has not been published in peer-review form, or directly replicated. Despite limited empirical examination, dumbfounding has been widely discussed in moral psychology. The present research examines the reliability with which dumbfounding can be elicited, and aims to identify measureable indicators of dumbfounding. Study 1 aimed at establishing the effect that is reported in the literature. Participants read four scenarios and judged the actions described. An Interviewer challenged participants’ stated reasons for judgements. Dumbfounding was evoked, as measured by two indicators, admissions of not having reasons (17%, unsupported declarations (9% with differences between scenarios. Study 2 measured dumbfounding as the selecting of an unsupported declaration as part of a computerised task. We observed high rates of dumbfounding across all scenarios. Studies 3a (college sample and 3b (MTurk sample, addressing limitations in Study 2, replaced the unsupported declaration with an admission of having no reason, and included open-ended responses that were coded for unsupported declarations. As predicted, lower rates of dumbfounding were observed (3a 20%; 3b 16%; or 3a 32%; 3b 24% including unsupported declarations in open-ended responses. Two measures provided evidence for dumbfounding across three studies; rates varied with task type (interview/computer task, and with the particular measure being employed (admissions of not having reasons/unsupported declarations. Possible cognitive processes underlying dumbfounding and limitations of methodologies used are discussed as a means to account for this variability.

  19. Minding morale of institutional markets.

    Qureshi, S

    1996-01-01

    The definition of the term SOCIAL LIFE FEELING is offered to denote or connote a sentiment about the social world or an affect-state that comes from socializing in that world. A review of the literature in SOCIOLOGY indicates that there is an abundance of predilection among sociologists in measuring and assessing How People Feel About Society and Their Place in Society. The selection of TWELVE SOCIAL LIFE FEELING SCALES developed by Karl F. Schuessler is based on their established reliability, their ease of use, and their embodiment in covering concepts pertaining to both a person's outlook on society (cynical, pessimistic, fatalistic) and his or her frame of mind in society (demoralized, estranged, alienated). The present report is based on SLFS11 or FEELINGS OF DEMORALIZATION in Urban and Rural settings. This scale gives the subjects an opportunity to express whether they are marking time, finding it difficult to be optimistic, surmising the world as too complicated, viewing their physical condition to be good, or taking pleasure in their achievements, and so and so forth. A random sample of 398 students drawn from an urban and a rural campus was personally administered a questionnaire included in Appendix A. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analyses through MINITAB software. High scores present a view of self as useless, helpless, aimless; low scores on the other hand, rules out such an admission of self as useless. It appears that this scale comes closest to approximating the concept of morale and its denotation of demoralization and despair. Persons of high morale have high hopes and great expectations and intend to persevere. Persons of low morale have little hope in their efforts being counted and would presumably stop trying. It is important to note that the items in this scale have principally determined the morale of older people. In this study we have attempted to find its utility in investigating undergraduate students representing the

  20. Otonomi Moral Keagamaan Mahasiswa

    Muhammad Idrus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memahami dan menganalisis fenomena otonomi moral keagamaan mahasiswa Fakultas Tarbiyah, yang diharapkan dapat menjadi balikan bagi perumusan model ideal pendidikan moral yang sesuai dengan kaidah agama Islam. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus terpancang {embedded case study, dengan mengambil latar Fakultas Tarbiyah UII. Model ini diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran makna mendalam tentang perilaku keseharian mahasiswa-mahasiswi sesuai fokus penelitian yang diajukan. Pengamatan, wawancara, rekaman audio dan rekaman visual digunakan dalam proses pengumpulan data yang melibatkan mahasiswa dan dosen. Analisis domain, taksonomik, komponensial dan tema digunakan dalam mereduksi dan mengklasifikasi data yang diperoleh u ntuk mendeskripsikan kenyataan empiris. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku kegamaan yang ditampilkan para informan cenderung tidak memiliki otonomi moral keagamaan yang baik, atau masih dalam tahapan heteronomi. Hal tersebut ditunjukkan adanya pelbagai harapan atas pelaksanaan perintah yang dilakukan, ataupun penghindaran larangan. Kedua, dalam memeluk agama tampaknya secara umum informan masih bersifat pewarisan dari para orang tuanya. Ketiga, dalam upayanya untuk membangkitkan otonomi moral keagamaan mahasiswa, dosen melakukan dengan cara himbauan, nasehat, ataupun bimbingan yang diberikan pada waktu-waktu tertentu dan tidak terjadual dalam kegiatan tatap muka di kelas. Berdasarkan pada hasil penelitian diajukan beberapa saran, yaitu: Pertama, adanya pengakuan informan bahwa agama yang dianutnya merupakan agama warisan orang tua mereka, dapat dijadikan sebagai fokus pada penelitian berikut. Kedua, dalam penelitian ini kajian otonomi moral keagamaan dilihat dari sudut pandang agama Islam. Tentunya melihat variasi agama yang ada di Indonesia, sudut pandang penelitian lanjutan dapat dilakukan melalui "kaca mata" agama-agama yang berbeda.

  1. Defining Features of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Motivation: Pathways to Moral Reasoning in Medical Students

    Morton, Kelly R.; Worthley, Joanna S.; Testerman, John K.; Mahoney, Marita L.

    2006-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post-formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive-affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four-component model of moral…

  2. KOMPETENSI MORAL DAN INTENSI WHISTLEBLOWING

    Harti Budi yanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of age, gender and moral competence on whistleblowing intentions. Most of the respondents had a medium moral competence score. The older women group proved to be higher in moral competence scores than men of the same age. Age and gender do not affect whistle blowing intentions. However, moral competence strengthens the influence of age and gender on whistle blowing intentions. The results of this test provide support for human resource development practitioners to start paying attention to moral competence in addition to technical competence as the basis of consideration of recruitment, promotion and layoffs.

  3. Promoting Prosociality: Testing the Potential of Moral Elevation and Moral Outrage

    Van de Vyver, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects of two specific moral emotions - moral elevation (experienced when witnessing a moral virtue) and moral outrage (experienced when witnessing a moral transgression) - on prosociality. While ample research has examined emotions such as sympathy and guilt, much less is known about moral elevation and moral outrage. Yet, their separate strands of research suggest that both moral elevation and moral outrage are promising emotions for promoting prosocial responses. ...

  4. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    Koetke, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    The work done on this project was focussed mainly on LAMPF experiment E969 known as the MEGA experiment, a high sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ→eγ]/[μ→e ν μ ν e ] ∼10 -13 is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The work done on MEGA during this period was divided between that done at Valparaiso University and that done at LAMPF. In addition, some contributions were made to a proposal to the LAMPF PAC to perform a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter, described below

  5. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    1994-01-01

    The work done on this project focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment is a high-sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ → eγ]/[μ eν μ ν e ] ∼ 10 -13 , will be over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter from the positron energy spectrum of μ → eν μ ν e to test the predictions V-A theory of weak interactions. In this experiment the uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel ρ parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value. The detectors are operational, and data taking has begun

  6. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W.; Shirvel Stanislaus, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    The work done on this project was focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment, a high-sensitivity search for the lepton-family-number-violating decay μ → e γ to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = [μ → e γ]/[μ → ev μ v e ] ∼ 10 -13 , is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel ρ parameter from the positron energy spectrum of μ → ev μ v e to test the V-A theory of weak interactions. The uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel ρ parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value

  7. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  8. Moral distress in emergency nurses.

    Fernandez-Parsons, Robin; Rodriguez, Lori; Goyal, Deepika

    2013-11-01

    For nurses, moral distress leads to burnout, attrition, compassion fatigue, and patient avoidance. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design, we assessed the frequency, intensity, and type of moral distress in 51 emergency nurses in 1 community hospital using a 21-item, self-report, Likert-type questionnaire. Results showed a total mean moral distress level of 3.18, indicative of overall low moral distress. Situations with the highest levels of moral distress were related to the competency of health care providers and following family wishes to continue life support, also known as futile care. Moral distress was the reason given by 6.6% of registered nurses for leaving a previous position, 20% said that they had considered leaving a position but did not, and 13.3% stated that they are currently considering leaving their position because of moral distress. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Problem of Moral Motivation and the Happy Victimizer Phenomenon: Killing Two Birds with One Stone

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    One surprising feature of cognitive and emotional development in the moral domain is the so-called happy victimizer phenomenon, which is commonly explained by a lack of moral motivation. Concerning this general approach, there are two pieces of news in this chapter. The bad news is that moral motivation is a highly problematic concept and its…

  11. Schools as Promoters of Moral Judgment: The Essential Role of Teachers' Encouragement of Critical Thinking

    Weinstock, Michael; Assor, Avi; Broide, Galia

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that high level functioning is characterized by a great deal of autonomy is central to some major theories of moral development [Kohlberg (in T. Lickona (ed.) "Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues," 1976); Piaget ("The moral judgment of the child", 1932)] and to the self-determination theory of…

  12. ACCOUNTING BETWEEN LAW, ETHICS AND MORALITY

    Anca-Simona N. HROMEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fact that nowadays, society and business, show high expectations regarding the accounting discipline, and therefore professionals in this area should expand their horizons to meet all requirements. First of all, accounting assumed a certain responsibility to the public interest, by its fundamental purpose, namely to provide financial-accounting information, information that will form the basis of decision making. Second of all, for the successful fulfilment of the public responsibilities, accountants must rely on elements of doctrine, ethics, or ethics and morality. The study wants to show the importance of the accounting discipline, which has begun to increasingly focus on the creation of a moral or ethical basis, putting these issues on the same level with respecting the law. The boundary between what is legal but not ethical or moral is very small, and there were many business cases where unethical behaviour led to business failure.

  13. Moral Credentialing and the Rationalization of Misconduct

    Brown, Ryan P.; Tamborski, Michael; Wang, Xiaoqian; Barnes, Collin D.; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies lead to the paradoxical conclusion that the act of affirming one’s egalitarian or pro-social values and virtues might subsequently facilitate prejudiced or self-serving behavior, an effect previously referred to as “moral credentialing.” The present study extends this paradox to the domain of academic misconduct and investigates the hypothesis that such an effect might be limited by the extent to which misbehavior is rationalizable. Using a paradigm designed to investigate deliberative and rationalized forms of cheating (von Hippel, Lakin, & Shakarchi, 2005), we found that when participants had credentialed themselves (versus a non-close acquaintance) via a set of hypothetical moral dilemmas, they were more likely to cheat on a subsequent math task, but only if cheating was highly rationalizable. When cheating was difficult to rationalize, moral credentialing had almost no impact on cheating. PMID:21503267

  14. Heroism as moral dilemma in nowadays nursing

    Pukinskienė, Dalia

    2006-01-01

    Heroism is a moral concept with various dimensions. Heroes are determined according to one’s individual taste and that’s why they are very subjective. The title “hero” is the determination of the “High price” or value that is given to a person by people as an attempt to show their thankfulness and admiration for their great generosity. The thesis was designed as a two-part study. The overall aim of the thesis was to illuminate the phenomenon of heroism as moral dilemma in our-day nursing. Stu...

  15. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  16. Moral Fitness: Ethical Education for Marines

    2013-04-16

    ethics through the key virtues of honor, courage, and commitment early in a Marine’s career. This ethos is enforced during the indoctrination process...thinking about the right thing to do. A basic introduction into moral reasoning, virtue ethics and ethical standards educate new members on ethics and...one must practice the physical fitness test to be successful, ethics must be demonstrated by action and practice. Finally, Aristotle states that

  17. Expanding the moral circle: farmed fish as objects of moral concern.

    Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Röcklinsberg, Helena; Anthony, Ray; Håstein, Tore

    2007-05-04

    Until recently fish welfare attracted little attention, but international and national legislation and standards of fish welfare are now emerging and an overview of these developments is presented in this study. Whereas animal welfare legislation is based on public morality, animal ethics does not automatically accept public morality as normative and elaborates arguments regarding the way humans should treat animals (referred to as moral standards). In this study we present the most common animal ethics theories. For most of these, sentience is considered a demarcation line for moral concern: if an animal is sentient, then it should be included in the moral circle, i.e. receive moral consideration in its own right and some basic welfare should be ensured. As for fish, research has revealed that the sensory system of teleosts can detect noxious stimuli, and that some kind of phenomenal consciousness, allowing the fish to feel pain, seems to be present. This raises the ethical question as to how much evidence we need in order to act on such indications of fish sentience. A simple risk analysis shows that the probability that fishes can feel pain is not negligible and that if they do indeed experience pain the consequences in terms of the number of suffering individuals are great. We conclude that farmed fish should be given the benefit of the doubt and we should make efforts that their welfare needs are met as well as possible. Finally, the way forward is briefly discussed: efforts must be made to understand what fish welfare means in practical fish farming. This will involve the development of research and education, greater accountability and transparency, compliance with and control of policies, and quality assurance schemes.

  18. Ethics and Moral

    Antônio Macena Figueiredo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and moral are terms frequently used in our every-day life; however, defining their meanings is not an easy task. If we just ask people whether there is any distinction between these terms, we will notice that it is very difficult for them to answer. This essay has the objective to present the theoretical-philosophical principles related to the conceptual inaccuracies from the analysis of the primitive root of the terms. Thus, it begins from a brief review on the etymological origin of the terms ethos and mos. The several meanings in which these terms can be employed and the concepts used are presented. At the end, there is a reflection on the comprehension of Ethics as science or as a branch of study of philosophy. Keywords: Ethics; Moral; Virtues; Social values

  19. Modeling exogenous moral norms

    Ross A. Tippit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of a robust and general formulation of a model of choice for the representation of a variety of moral norms. It starts by reviewing several recent models of deontological (or rule-based norms that retain the basic elements of the economic model of choice. It briefly examines the achievements and drawbacks of each model, and while no model is identified as the most accurate or robust, the most appealing aspects of each model contribute to the construction of a tout-ensemble utility function proposed in the final section. This representation of preferences aims to incorporate the most common qualities of both consequentialist and deontological moral norms in order to represent decision making under their influence.

  20. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  1. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  2. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  3. Moral satisficing: rethinking moral behavior as bounded rationality.

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    What is the nature of moral behavior? According to the study of bounded rationality, it results not from character traits or rational deliberation alone, but from the interplay between mind and environment. In this view, moral behavior is based on pragmatic social heuristics rather than moral rules or maximization principles. These social heuristics are not good or bad per se, but solely in relation to the environments in which they are used. This has methodological implications for the study of morality: Behavior needs to be studied in social groups as well as in isolation, in natural environments as well as in labs. It also has implications for moral policy: Only by accepting the fact that behavior is a function of both mind and environmental structures can realistic prescriptive means of achieving moral goals be developed. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Moral Learning: Conceptual foundations and normative relevance.

    Railton, Peter

    2017-10-01

    What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior. For example, recent research indicates that spatial learning and navigation involve the formation of non-perspectival as well as ego-centric models of the physical environment, and that spatial representations are combined with learned information about risk and reward to guide choice and potentiate further learning. Research on infants provides evidence that they form non-perspectival expected-value representations of agents and actions as well, which help them to navigate the human environment. Such representations can be formed by highly-general mental processes such as causal and empathic simulation, and thus afford a foundation for spontaneous moral learning and action that requires no innate moral faculty and can exhibit substantial autonomy with respect to community norms. If moral learning is indeed integral with the acquisition and updating of casual and evaluative models, this affords a new way of understanding well-known but seemingly puzzling patterns in intuitive moral judgment-including the notorious "trolley problems." Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Counter-intuitive moral judgement following traumatic brain injury.

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-02-07

    Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e.g., do not lie), moral judgements demonstrate sensitivity to the psychological intuitiveness of the judgements, rather than their deontological or utilitarian content (Kahane et al., Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 2011, 393). We sought the moral judgements of 30 TBI participants and 30 controls on moral dilemmas where content (utilitarian/deontological) and intuition (intuitive/counter-intuitive) were measured concurrently. Overall TBI participants made utilitarian judgements in equal proportions to controls; disproportionately favouring utilitarian judgements only when they were counter-intuitive, and deontological judgements only when they were counter-intuitive. These results speak against the view that TBI causes a specific utilitarian bias, suggesting instead that moral intuition is broadly disrupted following TBI. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. In the moral eye of the beholder: The interactive effects of leader and follower moral identity on perceptions of ethical leadership and LMX quality

    Steffen Robert Giessner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that leader moral identity (i.e., leaders’ self-definition in terms of moral attributes predicts to what extent followers perceive their leader as ethical (i.e., demonstrating and promoting ethical conduct in the organization. Leadership, however, is a relational process that involves leaders and followers. Building on this understanding, we hypothesized that follower and leader moral identity (a interact in predicting whether followers will perceive their leaders as ethical and, as a result, (b influence followers’ perceptions of leader–follower relationship quality. A dyadic field study (N = 101 shows that leader moral identity is a stronger predictor of followers’ perceptions of ethical leadership for followers who are high (vs. low in moral identity. Perceptions of ethical leadership in turn predict how the quality of the relationship will be perceived. Hence, whether leader moral identity translates to perceptions of ethical leadership and of better relationship quality depends on the moral identity of followers.

  7. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  8. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  9. MacIntyre's Moral Theory and Moral Relativism

    Ali Abedi Renani

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to explain the similarity and disparity between MacIntyre’s moral theory and moral relativism. I will argue that MacIntyre’s moral theory can escape the charge of moral relativism because both his earlier social and his later metaphysical approaches appeal to some criteria, the human telos or universal human qualities respectively. The notion of telos is wider than the notion of function which is defined in social contexts. If there is a context-transcending notion of te...

  10. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  11. Natural Selection and Morality

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  12. Stability of High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers at High Temperatures

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the stability of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers HTSPRTs has been carried out for two different designs thermometers (with nominal resistance 0.25 Ω and 2.5 Ω from two different suppliers. The thermometers were heated for more than 160 hours at temperatures above 960 0C using a vertical furnace with a ceramic block. A study was made of the influence of the heat treatment on the stability of the resistance at the triple point of water, and on the relative resistance W(Ga at the melting point of gallium. The thermometers showed a correlation between the drift note and the values of W(Ga. It was found also that the HTSPRT which has a sensor with strip shaped support and low nominal resistance is more stable than the HTSPRT which has a sensor in the form of a coil wound on silica cross. The 0.25 Ω thermometer has better stability @ 7x10-6 0C (at TPW after 40 hour. Factors affecting the stability and accuracy of HTSPRT also will be discussed.

  13. An inspection standard of fuel for the high temperature engineering test reactor

    Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Sato, Sadao; Hayashi, Kimio; Fukuda, Kosaku; Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Sato, Tsutomu.

    1992-06-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) uses the fuel comprising coated fuel particles. A general inspection standard for the coated particle fuel, however, has not been established in Japan. Therefore, it has been necessary to prescribe the inspection standard of the fuel for HTTR. Under these circumstances, a fuel inspection standard of HTTR has been established under cooperation of fuel specialists both inside and outside of JAERI on referring to the inspection methods adopted in USA, Germany and Japan for HTGR fuels. Since a large number of coated fuel particle samples is needed to inspect the HTTR fuel, the sampling inspection standard has also been established considering the inspection efficiency. This report presents the inspection and the sampling standards together with an explanation of these standards. These standards will be applied to the HTTR fuel acceptance tests. (author)

  14. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  16. KANTIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM IN MORAL THEORY

    Rawls, John

    2005-01-01

    The author outlines the chief features of the constructivist moral conception in its Kantian variant and argues that such a moral conception had been unjustifiably looked over in relation to the traditional moral conceptions such as utilitariarism, intuitionism and perfectionism. The central idea of Kantian constructivism is linking certain notions of the person and principles of justice that should regulate basic social institutions by means of the constructivist procedure. The author’s star...

  17. The moral appropriateness of shame

    M. Ally

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the much neglected moral emotion of shame and consider the senses in which it may be regarded as morally appropriate. I argue that there is a connection between coming to terms with shame for those who feel ashamed, and judgments concerning its moral appropriateness. The elucidation of normative connections between shame, self-respect and autonomy implies the need to accept certain aspects of shame as regrettable yet, sometimes, as valuable.

  18. The argument from moral psychology

    Milevski, Voin

    2015-01-01

    The argument from moral psychology is one of the strongest arguments that non-cognitivists use against cognitivism-the metaethical position according to which our moral judgements express beliefs. According to this argument, once we put together the Humean theory of motivation and motivational internalism, we yield the conclusion that cognitivism cannot represent the correct view about the semantic function of moral discourse. I will first attempt to show that a neurological syndrome, called ...

  19. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  20. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study.

    Janssens, Rien M J P A; van Zadelhoff, Ezra; van Loo, Ger; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Molewijk, Bert A C

    2015-12-01

    Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. How did participants evaluate moral case deliberation? What has moral case deliberation brought to them? What has moral case deliberation contributed to care practice? Should moral case deliberation be further implemented and, if so, how? Quantitative analysis of a questionnaire study among participants of moral case deliberation, both caregivers and team leaders. Qualitative analysis of written answers to open questions, interview study and focus group meetings among caregivers and team leaders. Caregivers and team leaders in a large organization for aged care in the Netherlands. A total of 61 moral case deliberation sessions, carried out on 16 care locations belonging to the organization, were evaluated and perceived results were assessed. Participants gave informed consent and anonymity was guaranteed. In the Netherlands, the law does not prescribe independent ethical review by an Institutional Review Board for this kind of research among healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation was evaluated positively by the participants. Content and atmosphere of moral case deliberation received high scores, while organizational issues regarding the moral case deliberation sessions scored lower and merit further attention. Respondents indicated that moral case deliberation has the potential to contribute to care practice as relationships among team members improve, more openness is experienced and more understanding for different perspectives is fostered. If moral case deliberation is to be successfully implemented, top-down approaches should go hand in hand with bottom-up approaches. The relevance of moral case deliberation for care practice received wide acknowledgement from the respondents. It can contribute

  1. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  2. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Human Trafficking and National Morality

    William R. DI PIETRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that national morality is an important variable for explaining national anti-trafficking policy. It uses cross country regression analysis to see whether or not empirically national morality is a determinant of anti-trafficking policy. The findings of the paper are consistent with the notion that improved levels of national morality lead to better national anti-trafficking policy. National morality is found to be statistically relevant for national anti-trafficking policy when controlling for the extent of democracy, the share of the private sector in the economy, and the degree of globalization.

  4. Critical Thinking in Moral Argumentation Contexts: A Virtue Ethical Approach

    Michelle Ciurria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional analytic philosophy, critical thinking is defined along Cartesian lines as rational and linear reasoning preclusive of intuitions, emotions and lived experience. According to Michael Gilbert, this view – which he calls the Natural Light Theory (NLT – fails because it arbitrarily excludes standard feminist forms of argumentation and neglects the essentially social nature of argumentation. In this paper, I argue that while Gilbert’s criticism is correct for argumentation in general, NLT fails in a distinctive and particularly problematic manner in moral argumentation contexts. This is because NLT calls for disputants to adopt an impartial attitude, which overlooks the fact that moral disputants qua moral agents are necessarily partial to their own values and interests. Adopting the impartial perspective would therefore alienate them from their values and interests, causing a kind of “moral schizophrenia.” Finally, I urge a re-valuation of epistemic virtue in argumentation.

  5. The problem of moral motivation and the happy victimizer phenomenon: killing two birds with one stone.

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    One surprising feature of cognitive and emotional development in the moral domain is the so-called happy victimizer phenomenon, which is commonly explained by a lack of moral motivation. Concerning this general approach, there are two pieces of news in this chapter. The bad news is that moral motivation is a highly problematic concept and its purported theoretical role in moral functioning untenable. The good news is that the happy victimizer phenomenon can be explained without reference to something like "moral motivation." © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Executive Summary: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing.

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn

    To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward. The full report is available online at http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/Moral-Distress-Supplement.aspx.

  7. A moral profession.

    Newham, Roger; Terry, Louise; Atherley, Siobhan; Hahessy, Sinead; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Evans, Marilyn; Ferguson, Karen; Carr, Graham; Cedar, S H

    2017-01-01

    Lack of compassion is claimed to result in poor and sometimes harmful nursing care. Developing strategies to encourage compassionate caring behaviours are important because there is evidence to suggest a connection between having a moral orientation such as compassion and resulting caring behaviour in practice. This study aimed to articulate a clearer understanding of compassionate caring via nurse educators' selection and use of published texts and film. This study employed discourse analysis. Participants and research context: A total of 41 nurse educators working in universities in the United Kingdom (n = 3), Ireland (n = 1) and Canada (n = 1) completed questionnaires on the narratives that shaped their understanding of care and compassion. The desire to understand others and how to care compassionately characterised educators' choices. Most narratives were examples of kindness and compassion. A total of 17 emphasised the importance of connecting with others as a central component of compassionate caring, 10 identified the burden of caring, 24 identified themes of abandonment and of failure to see the suffering person and 15 narratives showed a discourse of only showing compassion to those 'deserving' often understood as the suffering person doing enough to help themselves. These findings are mostly consistent with work in moral philosophy emphasising the particular or context and perception or vision as well as the necessity of emotions. The narratives themselves are used by nurse educators to help explicate examples of caring and compassion (or its lack). To feel cared about people need to feel 'visible' as though they matter. Nurses need to be alert to problems that may arise if their 'moral vision' is influenced by ideas of desert and how much the patient is doing to help himself or herself.

  8. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  9. Status of standardization efforts for packaging and transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste

    Eggers, P.E.; Dawson, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides a current review of the status of efforts to develop standards and guidelines related to the packaging and transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste. An overview of each of the organizations and agencies developing standards and guidelines is discussed and includes the efforts of the N14 Division of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), NUPACK Committee of Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy. This comparative overview identifies the scope and areas of application of each standard and guideline. In addition, the current or proposed standards and guidelines are considered collectively with commentary on areas of apparent or potential complimentary fit, overlap and incompatability. Finally, the paper reviews initiatives now being taken within the N14 division of ANSI to identify where new standards development activities are required

  10. Robots and Moral Agency

    Johansson, Linda

    2011-01-01

      Machine ethics is a field of applied ethics that has grown rapidly in the last decade. Increasingly advanced autonomous robots have expanded the focus of machine ethics from issues regarding the ethical development and use of technology by humans to a focus on ethical dimensions of the machines themselves. This thesis contains two essays, both about robots in some sense, representing these different perspectives of machine ethics. The first essay, “Is it Morally Right to use UAVs in War?” c...

  11. Feeling cooperation, being moral

    Francisco Díaz, Andrés de

    2014-01-01

    Is morality a pure rational abstraction or is it rooted in human nature? In this paper I argue for the second option, and I do so in several steps. I first vindicate the cognitive role of emotions. For this, I rely on two contemporary theories of emotions, Martha Nussbaum’s and Antonio Damasio’s, without forgetting the evolutionary approach to emotions. Then I defend a complex model of human behaviour that goes beyond rational choice models and includes, following Gintis, other-regarding orie...

  12. Draft of standard for graphite core components in high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Shibata, Taiju; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Eto, Motokuni; Kunimoto, Eiji; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Oku, Tatsuo; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    For the design of the graphite components in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the graphite structural design code for the HTTR etc. were applied. However, general standard systems for the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) have not been established yet. The authors had studied on the technical issues which is necessary for the establishment of a general standard system for the graphite components in the HTGR. The results of the study were documented and discussed at a 'Special committee on research on preparation for codes for graphite components in HTGR' at Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). As a result, 'Draft of Standard for Graphite Core Components in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor.' was established. In the draft standard, the graphite components are classified three categories (A, B and C) in the standpoints of safety functions and possibility of replacement. For the components in the each class, design standard, material and product standards, and in-service inspection and maintenance standard are determined. As an appendix of the design standard, the graphical expressions of material property data of 1G-110 graphite as a function of fast neutron fluence are expressed. The graphical expressions were determined through the interpolation and extrapolation of the irradiated data. (author)

  13. 12th Rencontres du Vietnam : High Sensitivity Experiments Beyond the Standard Model

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to gather researchers, theoreticians, experimentalists and young scientists searching for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics using high sensitivity experiments. The standard model has been very successful in describing the particle physics world; the Higgs-Englert-Brout boson discovery is its last major discovery. Complementary to the high energy frontier explored at colliders, real opportunities for discovery exist at the precision frontier, testing fundamental symmetries and tracking small SM deviations.

  14. Moral foundations, worldviews, moral absolutism and belief in conspiracy theories.

    Leone, Luigi; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Lauriola, Marco

    2017-09-05

    In the present research, we examined whether individual differences in basic moral concerns might be related to a greater endorsement of conspiracy theories. Building on the notion that conspiracy theories often deal with super-individual relevant events in which a group perspective is central, we proposed that individual differences in moral concerns pertaining to group- and community-concerns (i.e., binding moral foundations) rather than to individual well-being (i.e., individualising moral foundations) would be positively associated with conspiracy beliefs. We further hypothesised that such relations would be totally mediated by beliefs in a dangerous world and by embracing moral absolutism. We found support for these predictions in two community samples (Ns: 319; 514). Theoretical implications were discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    Kappel, Klemens

    2018-01-01

    In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability, there a......In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability......, there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the article is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  16. Situational variation in moral judgment: In a stage or on a stage?

    Carpendale, J I; Krebs, D L

    1992-04-01

    Two issues were examined in this study-the consistency of moral judgment across different types of dilemma and different social contexts, and the relationship between the structure (stage) of moral judgment and the content of moral decisions. Forty subjects were given two hypothetical dilemmas about business decisions and two standard Kohlberg dilemmas. Half the subjects directed their responses to a business audience, half to a philosophical audience. Responses to the moral dilemmas were scored in accordance with the Colby and Kohlberg (1987) scoring manual. Stage of moral reasoning was found to be significantly higher on the Kohlberg dilemmas than on the business dilemmas. A significant interaction between type of dilemma and audience was attributed to the tendency of subjects directing their responses to a business audience to interpret one of the business dilemmas in terms of the moral order of business, but for subjects directing their responses to a philosophy audience to treat it as a philosophical dilemma. The other business dilemma evoked uniformly low-level moral judgments. The amount of selfishness intrinsic in subjects' moral choices on the business dilemmas was significantly negatively correlated with moral maturity on the business dilemmas, but not with their moral maturity on Kohlberg's test. These results are interpreted as more consistent with models of moral development such as those advanced by C. G. Levine ([1979] "Stage Acquisition and Stage Use: An Appraisal of Stage Displacement Explanations of Variation in Moral Reasoning, " Human Development, Vol. 22, pp. 145-164), J. Rest ([1983] "Morality," in: P. H. Mussen [ed.], J. H. Flavell and E. Markman [Vol. eds.], Handbook of Child Psychology [Vol. 3, 4th ed.], John Wiley & Sons, New York), and R. Harré ([1984]) Personal Being: A Theory for Individual Psychology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts), which posit a relatively wide range of within-person stage use and emphasize the

  17. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY

    CIPRIAN IULIAN ŞOPTICĂ

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this article concerns the what, the how and the whyof moral phenomenology. The first question we take into consideration is „What is moral phenomenology”? The second question which arises is „How to pursue moral phenomenology”? The third question is „Why pursue moral phenomenology”? We will analyze the study Moral phenomenology:foundation issues1, by which the American phenomenologist Uriah Kriegel aims three lines of research: the definition of moral phenomenology and the desc...

  18. [Surgery and the zeitgeist: what happened to ethics and moral?].

    Schneider, L; Tuffs, A; Büchler, M W

    2014-03-01

    Ethical and moral topics have always been an integral part of surgery. The rapid progress of highly advanced medicine has induced public discussions about medico-ethical problems as well as respective legislation. Interdisciplinary ethical committees, appointed by political as well as professional associations, have published guidelines concerning current ethical topics. However, what about the doctor's attitude and the influence of the ever changing "Zeitgeist"? With the surplus of unproven health information on the web, modern information technologies have changed the doctor-patient relationship. Active leadership of the doctor is still required. For the benefit of the patient the physician should confront increasing economic pressures and the requirements of higher performance levels with competence. Indications have to be based on the results of valid quality controls. Special moral standards should be applied for working within the surgical community and for the pursuit of a career in academic surgery. By strengthening mutual respect and the community spirit surgery will remain attractive for aspiring young doctors.

  19. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychopathic Traits and Moral Disengagement Interact to Predict Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Adolescents.

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits × Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative × Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.

  1. Bullying and defending behavior: The role of explicit and implicit moral cognition.

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Research on bullying has highlighted the role of morality in explaining the different behavior of students during bullying episodes. However, the research has been limited to the analysis of explicit measures of moral characteristics and moral reasoning, whereas implicit measures have yet to be fully considered. To overcome this limitation, this study investigated the association between bullying and defending, on one hand, and both explicit (moral disengagement, self-importance of moral values) and implicit (immediate affect toward moral stimuli [IAMS]) moral components, on the other hand. Young adolescents (N=279, mean age=11years, 9months, 44.4% girls) completed a series of self-report scales and individually performed a computer task investigating the IAMS. Two hierarchical regressions (bootstrapping method) were performed. Results showed that moral disengagement was associated with bullying and defending behavior at high levels of IAMS, however not when IAMS was low. In contrast, self-importance of moral values was not significantly associated to the two behaviors when IAMS was high whereas both associations were significant at low levels of IAMS. These results significantly expand previous knowledge about the role of morality in bullying and defending behavior. In particular, they highlight the role of the interaction between explicit and implicit moral dimensions in predicting bullying and defending behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moral issues in mentoring sessions

    Hunink, G.; Leeuwen, van R.; Jansen, M.; Jochemsen, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the results of research that investigated whether student nurses identified the moral aspects of everyday nursing care situations and, if so, how they dealt with them. We intended to elucidate the role of mentoring situations in moral development. Student written documents

  3. Moral Reasoning in Genetics Education

    van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…

  4. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  5. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  6. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  7. When sanctions convey moral norms

    Mulder, Laetitia B.

    2018-01-01

    Sanctions not only have the instrumental function of deterring people from undesired behavior but they also have the ability to convey moral norms. As such, they may create a moral motivation not to engage in the sanctioned behavior. This is desirable as this makes the success of a sanctioning

  8. Moral values in teacher education

    Veugelers, W.; Peterson, P.; Baker, E.; McGaw, B.

    2010-01-01

    Moral values are interwoven in all aspects of teaching: in the curriculum, in the school culture, and as moral examples in teachers' behavior. Working with values is an essential part of teaching. Educating students to become teachers requires the teachers to learn how values are embedded in

  9. Teaching Moral Reasoning through Gesture

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches…

  10. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  11. Ethical, moral and social dimensions in farm production practices: a segmentation study to assess Irish consumers’ perceptions of meat quality

    Regan Á.; Henchion M; McIntyre B

    2018-01-01

    Growing consumer concerns with modern farming and food production systems indicate a significant market opportunity for meat production practices that consider ethical, moral and social value traits. In the current study, we aimed to identify and characterise distinct segments of Irish consumers based on their perceptions of the quality of meat from different farm-level production practices (organic farming, high animal welfare standards, free range farming, and “natural”, treatment-free feed...

  12. Altered moral decision-making in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Rosen, Jan B; Rott, Elisa; Ebersbach, Georg; Kalbe, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Moral decision-making essentially contributes to social conduct. Although patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show deficits in (non-moral) decision making and related neuropsychological functions, i.e. executive functions, theory of mind (ToM), and empathy, moral decision-making has rarely been examined in PD patients. We examined possible alterations of moral decision-making and associated functions in PD. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 23 age- and education-matched healthy control participants were examined with tests that assess reasoning, executive functions (set-shifting and planning), ToM and empathy, decision-making under risk, and moral intuitions. Moral decision-making was assessed with a close-to-everyday moral dilemma paradigm that opposes socially oriented "altruistic" choices to self-beneficial "egoistic" choices in 20 moral dilemma short stories (10 high and 10 low emotional). Concurrently, electrodermal activity was recorded. PD patients made more egoistic moral decisions than healthy controls. Remarkably, while reasoning, planning and empathy correlated with moral decision-making in the control group, in the PD group neuropsychological functions and dopaminergic medication did not correlate with moral decisions. No evidence for reduced skin conductance responses in PD patients and no relationships between skin conductance responses and moral decisions were observed. This study provides evidence for moral decision-making dysfunctions in PD patients who made more egoistic moral decisions. As a possible underlying mechanism, reduced exercise of attentional control due to a dysfunctional interplay between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia is discussed. Future research will have to determine the impact of PD patients' moral decision-making dysfunctions on everyday life and further determine correlates of the deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moral fictions and medical ethics.

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-11-01

    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices is based on a series of moral fictions - motivated false beliefs that erroneously characterize withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in order to bring accepted end-of-life practices in line with the prevailing moral norm that doctors must never kill patients. When these moral fictions are exposed, it becomes apparent that conventional medical ethics relating to end-of-life decisions is radically mistaken. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  15. The moral bioenhancement of psychopaths.

    Baccarini, Elvio; Malatesti, Luca

    2017-10-01

    We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can justify to a psychopath being the recipient of mandatory moral bioenhancement because he has a reason to require the application of this prescription to other psychopaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The music of morality and logic.

    Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2015-01-01

    Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely "happy" and "sad" (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.

  17. The music of morality and logic

    Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely “happy” and “sad” (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought. PMID:26191020

  18. The music of morality and logic

    Bruno eMesz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (1. The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners from Plato to Boethius to the purveyors of the Baroque Doctrine of Affections that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely happy and sad (2. To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g. good and evil and logic concepts (true and false, analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good, principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.

  19. Morality and Ecological Moral: contributions to the teaching practice

    Ligiane Raimundo Gomes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research searched to investigate if the acquisition of the notion of respect to the environment, that we call “ecological moral”, is constructed during the childish development, solidarily to the construction of the morality, presupposing that the notion of respect on the ecological field is the same that found the conquest of the moral autonomy. For this investigation, it had been taken a sample of 15 participants, five by age group – form 6 to 8 years old, 10 to 11 years old and 13 to 15 years old. Through the piagetian clinical method, it was told to the children and adolescents two groups of stories: three stories were taken from Piaget’s studies about morality, focusing the conscience of rules and the notions of lie and justice, and four another hypothetical stories were created specifically to study the respect to the environment, focusing, respectively, the selective collection, the extinction of the birds, the pollution of a river and the cutting of tree. The statements of the participants were analysed according to the theoretical reference of Piaget concerning to the morality, also helped by some studious that have been amplifying the application field of Piaget’s theory. The data analysis allowed us to set up three levels for the development of the notion of respect to the environment, proving that the ecological moral has a psychogenetic dimension and there is a relation between the development of the morality and the acquisition of the ecological moral.

  20. Me or you? Neural correlates of moral reasoning in everyday conflict situations in adolescents and adults.

    Sommer, Monika; Meinhardt, Jörg; Rothmayr, Christoph; Döhnel, Katrin; Hajak, Göran; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sodian, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Throughout adolescence, progress in the understanding of the moral domain as well as changes in moral behavior is observable. We tested 16 adolescents (14-16 years of age) and 16 healthy adults (22-31 years of age) on the developmental changes in everyday moral decision making using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using verbal stories describing everyday moral conflict situations, subjects had to decide between a moral standard or a personal desire. In the moral conflict situations, adolescents not only chose significantly more often the hedonistic alternative than adults, but they also reported higher certainty ratings. Contrasted with everyday social conflict situations that required a decision between a social-oriented behavior and a personal need, moral conflict situations induced an activity increase in frontal areas, the middle temporal gyrus, the thalamus, and the parahippocampal gyrus in adolescents compared to adults. Moreover, a closer look at the moral conflict situations revealed that adolescents showed more activity than adults in brain areas that are also centrally involved in theory of mind (ToM) during morally oriented decisions in contrast to personal-oriented decisions. This indicated that the development of moral reasoning may be strongly correlated with the development of ToM reasoning.

  1. The role of moral utility in decision making: an interdisciplinary framework.

    Tobler, Philippe N; Kalis, Annemarie; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    What decisions should we make? Moral values, rules, and virtues provide standards for morally acceptable decisions, without prescribing how we should reach them. However, moral theories do assume that we are, at least in principle, capable of making the right decisions. Consequently, an empirical investigation of the methods and resources we use for making moral decisions becomes relevant. We consider theoretical parallels of economic decision theory and moral utilitarianism and suggest that moral decision making may tap into mechanisms and processes that have originally evolved for nonmoral decision making. For example, the computation of reward value occurs through the combination of probability and magnitude; similar computation might also be used for determining utilitarian moral value. Both nonmoral and moral decisions may resort to intuitions and heuristics. Learning mechanisms implicated in the assignment of reward value to stimuli, actions, and outcomes may also enable us to determine moral value and assign it to stimuli, actions, and outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that moral capabilities can employ and benefit from a variety of nonmoral decision-making and learning mechanisms.

  2. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.

    Brauer, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework.

  3. Bible Knowledge and Moral Judgment: Knowing Scripture and Using Ethical Reasoning

    Nelson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between moral judgment and religious knowledge was investigated, with an analysis of the impact of academic skill on both domains. Fifty-six Bible college seniors completed measures of moral judgment (Defining Issues Test), Bible knowledge (Standardized Bible Content Test), and academic skill (Academic Profile). Results indicate…

  4. Leadership Strategies in Implementation of High-School Standards-Based Grading Systems

    Pritzl, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This multi-site case study examined leadership strategies used during successful implementation of standards-based grading systems in three Wisconsin high schools. It found that leaders' reported commitment, patience, and persistence showed evidence of sustainable, high-functioning systems. It drew two main conclusions: first, school leaders need…

  5. Standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of high efficiency motors and inverters

    Kim, Kil Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Hyun, Chang Soon [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Most of the power systems energy is consumed by electrical motors. This report proposes a method for the standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of the high efficiency motors and related inverters. The results of this report can be referred to the rebate program for promoting the use of high efficiency motors and inverters (author). 26 refs., 102 figs.

  6. High School Teachers' Perspectives on the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: An Exploratory Study

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    This was an exploratory study that examined high school teachers' perspectives about their early experiences with the English language arts Common Core State Standards. The sources of data for the study included a survey and structured interviews. Twenty-three high school ELA teachers from one unified school district in Southern California…

  7. 75 FR 17529 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    2010-04-06

    ... High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... of high-voltage continuous mining machines in underground coal mines. It also revises MSHA's design...-- Underground Coal Mines III. Section-by-Section Analysis A. Part 18--Electric Motor-Driven Mine Equipment and...

  8. Raising the Bar: Standards and Tests in California's High Schools. A Town Hall Meeting.

    Arnstine, Barbara; Futernick, Ken; Hodson, Timothy A.; Ostgaard, Kolleen

    In 1999, the LegiSchool Project planned to conduct the 12th in its series of televised Town Hall Meetings to provide a forum in which California high school students, educators, and legislators can engage in face-to-face dialogue about problems of mutual interest. For 1999, the topic is standards and tests in California high schools. This guide…

  9. Filsafat Moral Ibn Hazm

    Ahmad Tajuddin Arafat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKajian ini menitikberatkan pada telaah atas pemikiran etik Ibn Hazm al-Andalusy dalam karyanya al-Akhlaq was-Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan content analysis, tujuan riset ditemukan bahwa dalam karyanya tersebut terdapat beberapa nilai-nilai filosofis yang berkaitan dengan upaya memperbaikimoralitas dan mencari cita-cita luhur manusia, yaitu kebahagiaan. Menurutnya, dalam menghadapi problematika kehidupan serta mencari kebahagiaan, manusia harus lebih menekankan pada upaya-upaya untuk menghilangkan rasa sedih dan kegalauan (thard al-hamm. Selain itu, Ibn Hazm menyatakan bahwa ada empatkebajikan utama, kebajikan lainnya sebagai dasar atas: keadilan (al-’adl, intelegensi (al-fahm, keberanian (an-najadat, dan kedermawanan (al-jud. Sebaliknya, ada empat keburukan utama, di mana seluruh keburukan lainnya didasarkan atas keempatnya, yaitu: ketidak adilan (al-ja`ur, kebodohan (al-jahl, ketakutan (aljubn,dan kekikiran (asy-syuh.Kata kunci: Filsafat Moral, Thard al-Hamm, Kebajikan Utama, Nazahat al-Nufus AbstractThis study emphasizes on Ibn Hazm Al Andalusy’s ethical thoughts in his magnum opus: al Akhlaq was Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. By using content analysis approach, it’s found that there are some philosophical points of Ibn Hazm’s ehical thoughts which looks for good morality and happiness. Ibn Hazm stated that man shall make more efforts on removing downcast, confusion, and anxiety (thard al hamm. He alsodeclared that there are four main righteousnesses (al-fadha`il: justice (al-’adl, intelligence (al-fahm, bravery (an-najadat, and generosity(al-jud.On the contrary, there are also four main adnesses; injustice (al-jaur, folly (al-jahl, fear (al-jubn, and niggardliness (asy-syuh.Keywords: Moral Philosophy, Remove Of Anxiety, Righteousness, Chastity Of Soul

  10. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering—that is, interpersonal harm—even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions. PMID:22754268

  11. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality.

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds-a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering-that is, interpersonal harm-even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions.

  12. Moral license in video games: when being right can mean doing wrong.

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Cruz, Carlos; Velez, John A; Ewoldsen, David R; Bogert, Adam K

    2015-04-01

    Research on video game violence has found largely consistent evidence that violence in video games tends to be associated with an increase in antisocial behavior. However, this body of work has mostly ignored one prominent feature of many violent games: moral decision making. It is possible that the influence of video game violence could change when moral decisions are brought into the context. One way video games change behavior is through changes in players' self-perceptions, a process called identity simulation. In addition, a perspective called moral license predicts that these effects should not necessarily be consistent across behaviors, in that people should try to balance selfishness with keeping the moral high ground across many behaviors. Therefore, moral choices (or immoral choices) in a video game may predict less moral (or more moral) behaviors right after the game. However, later behavior may revert yet again, creating a cycle of pro- and antisocial behaviors. The present experiment asks participants to make moral choices in a video game, and then measures their behavior on two subsequent tasks. Results indicate that taking what participants perceive to be the more moral mind-set in the video game predicts more antisocial behavior on the first task, but more pro-social behavior on the next task. These results support identity simulation and moral license processes in a video game and moral behavior context, and indicate that there may be greater complexity in video game violence effects than previously understood.

  13. The effects of social solidarity on moral emotions and morality

    I. A. ATUDOREI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of social solidarity on moral emotions such as embarrassment, shame and guilt at a social level. The effect of moral emotions on individual morality is presented. The paper emphasizes the fact that solidarity, which is generally perceived as having positive effects, may also produce social anomie. This situation is reached by a silent agreement concerning intellectual fraud which goes unpunished at a social level and can, thus, lead to deviant behaviour being considered tolerable as a result of rational reasoning which could shake social structure.

  14. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim.

  15. Trade, Food Standards and Poverty: The Case of High-Value Vegetable Exports from Senegal

    Maertens, Miet

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural supply chains are changing globally with pervasive food standards and increased vertical coordination. The impact of these changes for developing countries and for small farmers in those countries is not yet well understood. We analyze the developments in high-standards FFV supply chains and the effects for small farmers and rural households in Senegal. We use a unique dataset derived from company level interviews and household surveys in the main horticulture zone in Senegal. Su...

  16. Moral Personality Growth

    Jana Kalin

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning in terms of personality growth is a life-long process, just as personality growth itself is a life-long process. Kalin presents a number of psychological theories and their impact on moral development - which is an integral part of personality growth. The paper further treats the formation and changing of beliefs, and the role of education in the two processes. Great emphasis is put on cognitive theories; Kalin explains those formulated by L. Kohlberg and J. Rest. In discussing the process of shaping and changing one's views, special emphasis is put on the environment, or rather the social group an individual belongs to, and on the influence of personality traits and experience. The paper juxtaposes the influence - strengths and weaknesses - of the psychology of persuasion and education on forming and changing one's views, taken into consideration that views consist of cognitive, emotive and conative dimensions.

  17. Moral Understanding in the Psychopath*

    Malatesti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766

  18. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Evolution of Contractual Morality

    Alejandro Rosas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary explanations of altruism and human cooperation, first set forth by pioneers such as Darwin, Hamilton and Trivers, suggest that biology might be capable of offering a plausible scientific explanation of the core of human morality. According to this project, morality and human cooperation arise when resourcesare scarce; they cannot be exploited by isolated individuals; and individuals cannot maintain a long-term position of domination over others in order to advance their selfish ends. An important philosophical question that arises with respect to this project has to do with the concepts of de morality and moral motivation that itpresupposes. The evolutionary project has not been clear in this respect. The article argues in favor of two theses: 1 evolutionary explanations of cooperation suggest a contractual type of morality, but they are ambiguous regarding the motivations favored by natural selection, thus reflecting, without resolving it, a traditionaldisagreement between Hobbes’s moral contractualism (selfish motivations and that of Kant (altruistic motivations; 2 in their current form, these explanations cannot resolve that disagreement, but a reflection on the role of the capacity to interpret the motivations and character of others in the evolution of morality could provide arguments in favor of Kantian contractualism.

  20. Mirrored morality: an exploration of moral choice in video games.

    Weaver, Andrew J; Lewis, Nicky

    2012-11-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine how players make moral choices in video games and what effects these choices have on emotional responses to the games. Participants (n=75) filled out a moral foundations questionnaire (MFQ) and then played through the first full act of the video game Fallout 3. Game play was recorded and content analyzed for the moral decisions made. Players also reported their enjoyment of and emotional reactions to the game and reflected on the decisions they made. The majority of players made moral decisions and behaved toward the nonplayer game characters they encountered as if these were actual interpersonal interactions. Individual differences in decision making were predicted by the MFQ. Behaving in antisocial ways did increase guilt, but had no impact on enjoyment.

  1. Ethics as a Moral Philosophy

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2015-01-01

    We live in a time marked by "culture war". Having lost a dominant moral consensus, we are struggling in our courts, voting booths, and even in our churches to resolve the difficult moral issues that are separating us. Many have decided that the answer is tolerance, open-mindedness and mutual respect. While others are convinced that there is time "to be our brother's keeper". They are certain that we cannot afford to merely abandon the moral values of the past and act as if it doesn't matter w...

  2. A global standardization trend for high-speed client and line side transceivers

    Isono, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    Seeing the recent vast data increase in information industry, IT society will move into the new era of Zettabyte in a few years. Under these circumstances, high-speed and high-capacity optical communication systems have been deployed in the industry. Especially high speed optical transceivers are key devices to realize high-speed systems, and the practical development is accelerated. In order to develop these leading edge products timely, the global standard criteria are strongly required in the industry. Based on these backgrounds, the forum standardization bodies such as OIF PLLWG/ IEEE802.3 are energetically creating the de-fact standards. With regard to 100G/400G standardization activities, IEEE802.3 leads the client side, and OIF PLL-WG leads the line side, and both of them play important roles in the industry. In the previous Photonics West conferences, the activities of these standardization bodies till 2013 were reported. In 2014, the discussions of 400G client side transceiver projects have made some progress in IEEE802.3, whose baseline technologies are about to be fixed. Also 100G transceiver projects for metro applications in the line side, whose target profile is CFP2 form factor, have been discussed in OIF PLL-WG. In this paper, these high-end standardization topics are introduced and the future products direction is also discussed from the technical point of view. In order to realize these small form factor and cost effective transceivers, the device integration technologies, the low power device/electrical circuit technologies, and the development of high speed electrical interface such as 25G/50G are key factors.

  3. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  4. The Moral Shadows of Shame and Contempt

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    Are shame and contempt moral, immoral, or non-moral emotions? The answer, I argue in this paper, is less than straightforward.......Are shame and contempt moral, immoral, or non-moral emotions? The answer, I argue in this paper, is less than straightforward....

  5. Implicational Schemata and the Attribution of Morality.

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Spores, John M.

    Attribution of a disposition or trait to a person asserts information about the pattern of that person's behavior. Past research has suggested that a moral disposition implies only moral behavior, while an immoral disposition implies both moral and immoral behavior. The effect of these implicational schemata on attributions of morality was…

  6. "Living Drawing": Aesthetic Teaching for Moral Artists

    Kim, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    With its inherent attributes such as qualitative immediacy, imaginativeness, and embodiment, John Dewey's concept of aesthetic experience makes a difference in moral education, in the ways of empathetic moral perception, moral reasoning, and moral action. If it matters then how can we help students gain aesthetic experience? By analyzing teacher…

  7. Motivation and morality: Insights into political ideology.

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2014-06-01

    Our past work linking motivation and morality provides a basis for understanding differences in political ideology and positions across the political spectrum. Conservatism is rooted in avoidance-based proscriptive morality, whereas liberalism is rooted in approach-based prescriptive morality. Two distinct, binding, group moralities reflect these different regulatory systems and emphasize social coordination through Social Order versus social cooperation through Social Justice.

  8. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  9. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  10. Moral Law and Moral Education: Defending Kantian Autonomy

    Johnston, James Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine why Kantian ethics has had such a hard time of it. I look at readings of Kant's moral theory that have had great force in the 20th century and conclude that these have much to do with an ensuing confusion, which has led to charges of rigidity, formality and severity. Then I demonstrate that when we make moral judgements we…

  11. The Morality of Aspiration: A Neglected Dimension of Law and Morality

    W. van der Burg (Wibren)

    1999-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction In The Morality of Law, Fuller introduces the distinction between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration, and applies it to problems of jurisprudence. 1 In moral theory, both types of morality may be easily associated (though never completely

  12. A Quantitative Analysis of Moral Exemplars Presented in Moral Education Textbooks in Korea and Japan

    Han, Hyemin; Park, Sung Choon; Kim, Jongsung; Jeong, Changwoo; Kunii, Yutaka; Kim, Sora

    2018-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of moral exemplars presented in moral education textbooks in Korea and Japan. The purpose of the study is to examine and compare moral values presented through the lives and stories of moral exemplars in the two countries that have moral education as an independent and separate subject…

  13. Moral Behavior as Rule Governed Behavior: Person and System Effects on Moral Decision Making.

    Kurtines, William M.; And Others

    Recent approaches to research on moral development have considered the preeminence of situational factors in moral development and moral behavior. An open systems approach emphasizes the interactive effects of person and situation variables on moral decision-making. The interactive effects of three sets of variables on moral decision-making were…

  14. Socioscientific Argumentation: The effects of content knowledge and morality

    Sadler, Troy D.; Donnelly, Lisa A.

    2006-10-01

    Broad support exists within the science education community for the incorporation of socioscientific issues (SSI) and argumentation in the science curriculum. This study investigates how content knowledge and morality contribute to the quality of SSI argumentation among high school students. We employed a mixed-methods approach: 56 participants completed tests of content knowledge and moral reasoning as well as interviews, related to SSI topics, which were scored based on a rubric for argumentation quality. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant relationships among content knowledge, moral reasoning, and argumentation quality. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts supported the quantitative results in that participants very infrequently revealed patterns of content knowledge application. However, most of the participants did perceive the SSI as moral problems. We propose a “Threshold Model of Knowledge Transfer” to account for the relationship between content knowledge and argumentation quality. Implications for science education are discussed.

  15. Construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP).

    Söderhamn, Olle; Bjørnestad, John Olav; Skisland, Anne; Cliffordson, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP) using structural equation modeling. The instrument is a 12-item self-report instrument, developed in the Scandinavian cultural context and based on Kohlberg's theory. A hypothesized simplex structure model underlying the MDSP was tested through structural equation modeling. Validity was also tested as the proportion of respondents older than 20 years that reached the highest moral level, which according to the theory should be small. A convenience sample of 339 nursing students with a mean age of 25.3 years participated. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that MDSP reflects a moral construct empirically organized from low to high. A minority of respondents >20 years of age (13.5%) scored more than 80% on the highest moral level. The findings support the construct validity of the MDSP and the stages and levels in Kohlberg's theory.

  16. High Standards for All: The Struggle for Equality in the American High School Curriculum, 1890-1990.

    Mirel, Jeffrey; Angus, David

    1994-01-01

    Close investigation of trends in high school student course taking indicates that curriculum differentiation has had a negative effect on the education of many young people, particularly working-class and black students. It is argued that national goals and standards, wisely developed and applied, can benefit American education. (SLD)

  17. e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at very high energy: searching beyond the standard model

    Dorfan, J.

    1983-04-01

    These lectures discuss e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at very high energies with a particular emphasis on searching the standard model which we take to be SU(3)/sub color/..lambda.. SU(2) ..lambda.. U(1). The highest e/sup +/e/sup -/ collision energy exploited to date is at PETRA where data have been taken at 38 GeV. We will consider energies above this to be the very high energy frontier. The lectures will begin with a review of the collision energies which will be available in the upgraded machines of today and the machines planned for tomorrow. Without going into great detail, we will define the essential elements of the standard model. We will remind ourselves that some of these essential elements have not yet been verified and that part of the task of searching beyond the standard model will involve experiments aimed at this verification. For if we find the standard model lacking, then clearly we are forced to find an alternative. So we will investigate how the higher energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions can be used to search for the top quark, the neutral Higgs scalar, provide true verification of the non-Abelian nature of QCD, etc. Having done this we will look at tests of models involving simple extensions of the standard model. Models considered are those without a top quark, those with charged Higgs scalars, with multiple and/or composite vector bosons, with additional generations and possible alternative explanations for the PETRA three jet events which don't require gluon bremsstrahlung. From the simple extensions of the standard model we will move to more radical alternatives, alternatives which have arisen from the unhappiness with the gauge hierarchy problem of the standard model. Technicolor, Supersymmetry and composite models will be discussed. In the final section we will summarize what the future holds in terms of the search beyond the standard model.

  18. e+e- interactions at very high energy: searching beyond the standard model

    Dorfan, J.

    1983-04-01

    These lectures discuss e + e - interactions at very high energies with a particular emphasis on searching the standard model which we take to be SU(3)/sub color/Λ SU(2) Λ U(1). The highest e + e - collision energy exploited to date is at PETRA where data have been taken at 38 GeV. We will consider energies above this to be the very high energy frontier. The lectures will begin with a review of the collision energies which will be available in the upgraded machines of today and the machines planned for tomorrow. Without going into great detail, we will define the essential elements of the standard model. We will remind ourselves that some of these essential elements have not yet been verified and that part of the task of searching beyond the standard model will involve experiments aimed at this verification. For if we find the standard model lacking, then clearly we are forced to find an alternative. So we will investigate how the higher energy e + e - collisions can be used to search for the top quark, the neutral Higgs scalar, provide true verification of the non-Abelian nature of QCD, etc. Having done this we will look at tests of models involving simple extensions of the standard model. Models considered are those without a top quark, those with charged Higgs scalars, with multiple and/or composite vector bosons, with additional generations and possible alternative explanations for the PETRA three jet events which don't require gluon bremsstrahlung. From the simple extensions of the standard model we will move to more radical alternatives, alternatives which have arisen from the unhappiness with the gauge hierarchy problem of the standard model. Technicolor, Supersymmetry and composite models will be discussed. In the final section we will summarize what the future holds in terms of the search beyond the standard model

  19. The Association Between Callous-Unemotional Traits, Externalizing Problems, and Gender in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Morality Judgments in Adolescence.

    Fragkaki, Iro; Cima, Maaike; Meesters, Cor

    2016-09-01

    Morality deficits have been linked to callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems in response to moral dilemmas, but these associations are still obscure in response to antisocial acts in adolescence. Limited evidence on young boys suggested that callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems were associated with affective but not cognitive morality judgments. The present study investigated these associations in a community sample of 277 adolescents (M age  = 15.35, 64 % females). Adolescents with high callous-unemotional traits showed deficits in affective but not cognitive morality, indicating that they can identify the appropriate moral emotions in others, but experience deviant moral emotions when imagining themselves committing antisocial acts. Externalizing problems and male gender were also strongly related to deficits in affective morality, but they had smaller associations with deficits in cognitive morality too. Implications for treatment and the justice system are discussed.

  20. Quasi-realism and the moral problem

    Carlsson, Andreas Brekke

    2007-01-01

    Moral judgments have two characteristic features. On the one hand they aim at objectivity. We normally think there are correct answers to be found on moral matters, and we think that is possible for our moral judgments to be mistaken. In this respect moral judgments behave as ordinary beliefs. On the other hand moral judgements are essentially practical. They are action guiding and closely connected to motivation. In this respect they behave as desires. If we combine these two features with a...

  1. Moral Warfare in Counterinsurgency Operations

    Chiarenza, David C

    2007-01-01

    .... This monograph argues that resistance to U.S. endeavors in Iraq is due to losses in the moral realm for the compliance and support of the Iraqi people, which is critical in defeating any insurgency...

  2. Emotions and the moral order

    Brinkmann, Svend; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we follow Averill, who tells us that emotions reflect “the thought of an epoch, the secret of a civilization”. In this light, to understand the meaning of an emotion is to understand the relevant aspects of the sociocultural systems of which the emotion is a part. We argue...... that a number of the most central emotions in human lives are identified with reference to the moral order of the sociocultural system rather than with reference to physiological conditions or body states. We present a normative theory of emotions and refer to research on “emotionologies” of different cultures...... to demonstrate that specific moral orders are associated with specific forms of emotionality. If properly cultivated, moral emotions become “orientation guides” that enable persons to respond adequately to what happens in their local, moral worlds, and, as researchers, we can only grasp what such emotions...

  3. PEMBINAAN MORAL DAN KREATIVITAS REMAJA

    S. Sumihatul Ummah MS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entering teen-age, in general, either adolescent son or daugther is hard to be arranged though by its own parents. This matter is problem had by each adolescences, there are four the important matters which become fundamental study at this research, that is: (1 Condition of moral and adolescent creativity in countryside of Bancelok, (2 Effort of moral construction and adolescent creativity in countryside of Bancelok, (3 Resistances faced in moral construction and adolescent creativity in countryside of Bancelok, and also (4 Effort is done to increase the moral construction and adolescent creativity [in countryside of Bancelok. This Research uses approach qualitative. There are four elements becoming the source of informations in this research, that is; old fellow, elite figure society, government officer, and young man figure. Whereas relating to field study (data collecting using the observation method, interview, and documentation. Later, data that is gathered to be analysed using two approaches, that is: descriptive informative and descriptive analysis.

  4. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  5. Death, dignity, and moral nonsense.

    Pullman, Daryl

    2004-01-01

    Although the concept of human dignity is widely invoked in discussions regarding end-of-life decision making, the content of the notion is ambiguous. Such ambiguity has led some to conclude that human dignity is a redundant or even useless concept that we would be better off without. This paper argues, to the contrary, that the concept of human dignity is indispensable to moral discourse. Far from dispensing with human dignity, we must work to clarify the concept. The paper outlines two distinct but related conceptions of dignity that are often conflated in contemporary moral discourse. These conceptions are labelled "basic dignity" and "personal dignity", respectively. It is argued that basic dignity functions as a universal meaning constraint on moral discourse in general. Hence, to dispense with the notion could reduce us to speaking moral nonsense. Throughout the discussion, some implications for our understanding of end-of-life decision making are explored.

  6. A perspective on demonstrating compliance with standards for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A perspective which the authors have developed on the problem of demonstrating that geologic repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes will comply with system performance standards is discussed. Their viewpoint arises from a concern that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed environmental standard for high-level waste disposal appears to require demonstrations of compliance which are incompatible with scientific knowledge; i.e., the standard does not take into account the likely importance of unquantifiable and unresolvable uncertainty in repository performance-assessment models. A general approach to demonstrations of compliance is proposed which is thought to be compatible with the kinds of technical information that will be available for judging long-term repository performance. The authors' approach emphasizes the importance of investigating alternative conceptual models and lines of reasoning in evaluating repository performance and the importance of subjective scientific judgment in the decision-making process. (Auth.)

  7. Coaching individuals with perfectionistic tendencies When high standards help and hinder

    Sarah Corrie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perfectionism has been widely recognised in the clinical field but has received less attention in the coaching psychology literature. Referring to overly high and unforgiving personal standards of performance that are accompanied by harsh self-evaluation when self-imposed standards are not met, perfectionism has the potential to undermine the coachee’s ability to achieve their goals as well as the coaching process itself. In consequence, it is important for practitioners to be able to identify and work effectively with those coachees whose perfectionistic tendencies represent an obstacle to progress. This paper discusses the current literature on perfectionism and provides recommendations on how to work effectively with coachees for whom unremittingly high personal standards are an impediment to personal growth and development.

  8. High definition versus standard definition white light endoscopy for detecting dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    Sami, S S; Subramanian, V; Butt, W M; Bejkar, G; Coleman, J; Mannath, J; Ragunath, K

    2015-01-01

    High-definition endoscopy systems provide superior image resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of high definition compared with standard definition endoscopy system for detecting dysplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A retrospective cohort study of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus undergoing routine surveillance was performed. Data were retrieved from the central hospital electronic database. Procedures performed for non-surveillance indications, Barrett's esophagus Prague C0M1 classification with no specialized intestinal metaplasia on histology, patients diagnosed with any dysplasia or cancer on index endoscopy, and procedures using advanced imaging techniques were excluded. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing outcomes with standard definition and high-definition systems. The high definition was superior to standard definition system in targeted detection of all dysplastic lesions (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.27-8.40) as well as overall dysplasia detected on both random and target biopsies (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.72). More non-dysplastic lesions were detected with the high-definition system (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.33). There was no difference between high definition and standard definition endoscopy in the overall (random and target) high-grade dysplasia or cancers detected (odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.04). Trainee endoscopists, number of biopsies taken, and male sex were all significantly associated with a higher yield for dysplastic lesions. The use of the high-definition endoscopy system is associated with better targeted detection of any dysplasia during routine Barrett's esophagus surveillance. However, high-definition endoscopy cannot replace random biopsies at present time. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined, even unpredictable conduct, 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision, 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes, 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity, 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like human beings. The human moral code is irremediably imperfect: it is a morality of preference, of accountability (not of responsibility and a morality of non-liberty, which cannot be remedied by the invention of ethical systems, by the circulation of ideal values and by ethical (even computing education. But such an imperfect morality needs perfect instruments for its implementation: applications of special logic fields; efficient psychological (theoretical and technical attainments to endow the machine not just with intelligence, but with conscience and even spirit; comprehensive technical

  10. Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels

    Chun Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO2. In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.

  11. BRAIN, EMOTION, AND MORAL JUDGEMENT

    Ting, Fransisca

    2016-01-01

    The dual process theory posits that people relies on their emotion (especially negative emotions) when they are faced with personal moral dilemmas, such as pushing a person off a footbridge in order to stop a trolley that would otherwise kill five people. In an fMRI investigation, the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus are more activated in considering a personal moral dilemma, leading them to make a characteristically deontologica...

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  13. Notes on Corruption and Morality

    Hatti, Neelambar; Hoadley, Mason

    2015-01-01

    An actor perspective within a moralistic approach to corruption in india and Southeast Asia contrasts to a (Weberian) institutional one. This emphasizes local values which help explain apparent lack of social constraints to everyday corrupt practices as bribery. In Karnataka the approach indicates that status and power within one’s own community gained by amassing wealth however acquired overrides morality; overstepping moral taboos can easily be rectified through an appropriate ritual. In po...

  14. The Inefficiency of the Stock Market Equilibrium under Moral Hazard

    Calcagno, R.; Wagner, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the constrained efficiency of a stock market equilibrium under moral hazard.We extend a standard general equilbrium framework (Magill and Quinzii (1999) and (2002)) to allow for a more general initial ownership distribution.We show that the market allocation is constrained

  15. THE NATURAL LAW THEORY OF MORALITY AND THE ...

    Ike Odimegwu

    Lanre-AbassBolatito: Natural Law Theory & the Homosexuality Debate. 184 ... principle of the moral law of nature is that good is to be done and evil is to be avoided, ... then actions are considered right relative to different standards. Similarly ...

  16. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Doan, Dung Hue

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  17. Worker Morale and Effort : Is the Relationship Causal?

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a unique setting which enables us to distinguish between two theories of work performance. A standard labor supply framework implies a negative effect of the nonpecuniary cost of work on the employee’s effort. In contrast, a model of worker morale that is consistent with a widely used

  18. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Krupa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  19. Determination of air kerma standard of high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source

    Pires, E.J.; Alves, C.F.E.; Leite, S.P.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; David, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas and presently in use for determining of the air kerma standard of 192 Ir high dose rate sources to calibrate well-type chambers. Uncertainty analysis involving the measurements procedure are presented. (author)

  20. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of Tuesday, April 6, 2010, make the following correction...

  1. Standard high-reliability integrated circuit logic packaging. [for deep space tracking stations

    Slaughter, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of standard, high-reliability hardware used for packaging digital integrated circuits is described. The design transition from early prototypes to production hardware is covered and future plans are discussed. Interconnections techniques are described as well as connectors and related hardware available at both the microcircuit packaging and main-frame level. General applications information is also provided.

  2. BRAIN, EMOTION, AND MORAL JUDGEMENT

    Fransisca Ting

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dual process theory posits that people relies on their emotion (especially negative emotions when they are faced with personal moral dilemmas, such as pushing a person off a footbridge in order to stop a trolley that would otherwise kill five people. In an fMRI investigation, the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus are more activated in considering a personal moral dilemma, leading them to make a characteristically deontological judgment. On the other hand, people are less emotionally engaged in non‐personal moral dilemmas, leading them to be more consequentialist in their judgment. Empathy is argued to be a salient moral emotion that could alter one’s moral judgment in moral dilemmas. Specifically, when judging about the permissibility of a person’s proposed action, the subjects will judge those they empathize with less harshly, and when they themselves have to make the decision, they will tend to save the party they empathize with across dilemmas.

  3. Learning a commonsense moral theory.

    Kleiman-Weiner, Max; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a computational framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of moral learning, with a focus on how people learn to trade off the interests and welfare of different individuals in their social groups and the larger society. We posit a minimal set of cognitive capacities that together can solve this learning problem: (1) an abstract and recursive utility calculus to quantitatively represent welfare trade-offs; (2) hierarchical Bayesian inference to understand the actions and judgments of others; and (3) meta-values for learning by value alignment both externally to the values of others and internally to make moral theories consistent with one's own attachments and feelings. Our model explains how children can build from sparse noisy observations of how a small set of individuals make moral decisions to a broad moral competence, able to support an infinite range of judgments and decisions that generalizes even to people they have never met and situations they have not been in or observed. It also provides insight into the causes and dynamics of moral change across time, including cases when moral change can be rapidly progressive, changing values significantly in just a few generations, and cases when it is likely to move more slowly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services

    Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…

  5. Sweet old things: moral complexities in old age in Muriel Spark's Memento Mori.

    England, Suzanne E; Rust, Martha D

    2015-04-01

    Through the lens of Muriel Spark's dark comedic novel, Memento Mori, this paper explores questions of morality, mortality, and the moral choices and performances in old age and in the systems and places of care. Spark's elderly characters are complex moral actors - some virtuous and some decidedly not - who have been receiving mysterious phone calls telling them simply, "Remember you must die." We, the co-authors, are from two different disciplines, namely Renaissance and medieval literature, and social work and critical gerontology. Among the questions that interest us is the paradox of a master narrative that on the one hand exempts the old from moral criticism yet holds them to a higher moral standard - essentially positioning them as moral nonentities, and relieving the old, their caretakers, and society of moral responsibility. Another is the question of whether moral agency in old age has distinctive aspects, and whether consciousness of one's impending mortality effects moral reasoning and performance. In this paper we offer our individual readings of the ways the novel opens up conceptual space in aging theory, and conclude with our thoughts about what our collaboration suggests for continuing cross-disciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The importance of moral emotions for effective collaboration in culturally diverse healthcare teams.

    Cook, Catherine; Brunton, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Moral emotions shape the effectiveness of culturally diverse teams. However, these emotions, which are integral to determining ethically responsive patient care and team relationships, typically go unrecognised. The contribution of emotions to moral deliberation is subjugated within the technorational environment of healthcare decision-making. Contemporary healthcare organisations rely on a multicultural workforce charged with the ethical care of vulnerable people. Limited extant literature examines the role of moral emotions in ethical decision-making among culturally diverse healthcare teams. Moral emotions are evident in ethnocentric moral perspectives that construct some colleagues' practices as 'other'. This article examines how moral emotions are evoked when cultural dissonance influences nurses' moral perceptions. We use a qualitative investigation of teamwork within culturally diverse healthcare organisations. We use Haidt's () account of moral emotions to examine practice-based accounts of 36 internationally educated and 17 New Zealand educated nurses practising in New Zealand. The study provides evidence that moral emotions are frequently elicited by communication and care practices considered 'foreign'. The main implication is that although safe practice in healthcare organisations is reliant on highly functioning teams, collaboration is challenged by interprofessional power relations of contested culturally shaped values. We address practice-based strategies that enable engagement with moral emotions to enhance effective teamwork. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST botanical standard reference materials

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). NAA competes favorably with all other techniques because of it's unique capabilities for high accuracy even at very low concentrations for many elements. In this paper, instrumental and radiochemical NAA results are described for 25 elements in two new NIST SRMs, SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM 1547 (Peach Leaves), and are compared to the certified values for 19 elements in these two new botanical reference materials. (author) 7 refs.; 4 tabs

  8. Critiquing the Reasons for Making Artificial Moral Agents.

    van Wynsberghe, Aimee; Robbins, Scott

    2018-02-19

    Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents (AMA). Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than humans, and building these machines would lead to a better understanding of human morality. Although some scholars have challenged the very initiative to develop AMAs, what is currently missing from the debate is a closer examination of the reasons offered by machine ethicists to justify the development of AMAs. This closer examination is especially needed because of the amount of funding currently being allocated to the development of AMAs (from funders like Elon Musk) coupled with the amount of attention researchers and industry leaders receive in the media for their efforts in this direction. The stakes in this debate are high because moral robots would make demands on society; answers to a host of pending questions about what counts as an AMA and whether they are morally responsible for their behavior or not. This paper shifts the burden of proof back to the machine ethicists demanding that they give good reasons to build AMAs. The paper argues that until this is done, the development of commercially available AMAs should not proceed further.

  9. Moral and Aesthetic Aspect of the Professional Training of Teachers

    Olena Budnyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of diagnosis of forming moral and aesthetic component of personal and professional readiness of teachers to educational activities in school. The study of moral and aesthetic readiness of students was conveyed using the method of diagnosis empathetic abilities (V. Boyko, the author's methods of detection of readiness for activities of actional moral and aesthetic sense and personal predisposition to conflict behavior (test K. Thomas. The experiment proved that future teachers have had developed moral ideals and spiritual values; and formed aesthetic consciousness (feelings, attitudes, tastes, needs, feelings and motivation and are ready for active transformative activities in the system of interpersonal communication. The majority of future teachers who participated in the study display a lack of following formed skills and abilities: attention, perception and thinking focused on the state, problems and behavior of another person; emotional sensitivity, the abilities to observe behavior of a partner, traits that promote openness, the ability to understand another person on the mutual basis due to emotional flexibility and the ability to accept other behaviour. This may adversely affect their future professional activities, including working with neglected pupils and their parents. The author considers that a high level of moral consciousness of a teacher being a unity of rational and sensual aspects to facilitate moral and aesthetic relations in professional collaboration.

  10. Adolescent Concepts of Responsibility in Different Typesof Moral Dilemmas

    Molchanov S.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of an empirical study of adolescents' concepts of responsibility in different types of moral dilemmas characterized by violations of moral norms. The study proved that the type of moral dilemma and the context of interaction of its participants determine the adolescents' readiness to recognize the responsibility of the main character of the dilemma for violating the norm. In dilemmas of asocial type adolescents are more willing to recognize the responsibility of the offender whose behavior leads to obvious damage for one of the participants in the interaction. As for prosocial dilemmas and dilemmas of confronting norms, adolescents tend to deny the responsibility of the offender. The paper provides a comparative analysis of empirically identified types of adolescent concepts of responsibility, including the differentiated responsibility with egoistic orientation, high responsibility, low responsibility and ‘polar’ responsibility. The authors highlight the ambiguity of the relationship between adolescents’ evaluation of behavior, their readiness to recognize responsibility in moral transgression, and their judgment about the necessity of punishment. The paper concludes with the discussion concerning the relationship between the level of development of moral judgments/moral reasoning and the concepts of responsibility in adolescents.

  11. A framework for understanding moral distress among palliative care clinicians.

    Rushton, Cynda H; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Halifax, Joan S

    2013-09-01

    Palliative care clinicians confront suffering as they care for people living with life-limiting conditions. When the degree of suffering becomes unjustified, moral distress can ensue. Promising work from neuroscience and social psychology has yet to be applied to clinical practice. Our objective was to expand a social psychology model focusing on empathy and compassion in response to suffering to include an ethical dimension and to examine how the interrelationships of its proposed components can assist clinicians in understanding their responses to morally distressing situations. In the clinical context, responses to distressing events are thought to include four dimensions: empathy (emotional attunement), perspective taking (cognitive attunement), memory (personal experience), and moral sensitivity (ethical attunement). These dynamically intertwined dimensions create the preconditions for how clinicians respond to a triggering event instigated by an ethical conflict or dilemma. We postulate that if the four dimensions are highly aligned, the intensity and valence of emotional arousal will influence ethical appraisal and discernment by engaging a robust view of the ethical issues, conflicts, and possible solutions and cultivating compassionate action and resilience. In contrast, if they are not, ethical appraisal and discernment will be deficient, creating emotional disregulation and potentially leading to personal and moral distress, self-focused behaviors, unregulated moral outrage, burnout, and secondary stress. The adaptation and expansion of a conceptual framework offers a promising approach to designing interventions that help clinicians mitigate the detrimental consequences of unregulated moral distress and to build the resilience necessary to sustain themselves in clinical service.

  12. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  13. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  14. In Defense of Pharmaceutically Enhancing Human Morality.

    Protopapadakis, Evangelos D

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss the prospect of pharmaceutically enhancing human morality and decision making in such a way as to eliminate morally unjustifiable choices and promote desirable ones. Our species in the relatively short period since it has emerged has enormously advanced in knowledge, science, and technical progress. When it comes to moral development, the distance it has covered is almost negligible. What if we could medically accelerate our moral development? What if we could once and for all render our species totally immune to certain vices? I will examine whether pharmaceutically intervening in human morality would compromise the autonomy of moral agents. I will argue that the argument from the autonomy of the moral agent is neither stable nor convincing. In the light of Kantian ethics we might consider moral enhancement by pharmaceutical means to be a perfect duty for moral agents.

  15. Department of Energy perspective on high-level waste standards for Yucca Mountain

    Brocoum, S.J.; Gil, A.V.; Van Luik, A.E.; Lugo, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a regulatory perspective from the viewpoint of the potential licensee, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on Yucca Mountain standards issued in August 1995, and on how the recommendations in that report should be considered in the development of high-level radioactive waste standards applicable to Yucca Mountain. The paper first provides an overview of the DOE perspective and then discusses several of the issues that are of most importance in the development of the regulatory framework for Yucca Mountain, including both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) implementing regulation. These issues include: the regulatory time frame, the risk/dose limit, the definition of the reference biosphere, human intrusion, and natural processes and events

  16. Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach.

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Moral education: School as a just community

    Miočinović Ljiljana Đ.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Kohlberg’s view of moral education, how it was developing and changing over time. Starting from a theoretical postulate that thinking constitutes the essence of morality and from empirical findings of the stage development of moral judgment, in his early works Kohlberg defines moral education as "encouraging the natural course of moral judgment development". As a principal method of work, Kohlberg recommends the encouragement of a cognitive conflict by means of discussing hypothetic moral dilemmas. Criticisms that he is over-intellectualizing moral education, getting acquainted with a collective upbringing in kibbutz's, active participation in work in schools and prisons and finding that moral judgment and acting in everyday life is a response to the prevailing moral atmosphere of a group are leading to the changes in moral education goals and development of a new approach known as "just community". Now a group is in the focus of moral education, not an individual any longer, the major area of studies being group norms and expectations. The "just community" approach does not remain only at the classroom level discussing hypothetical moral dilemmas but directly influences the structure of school justice i.e. its rules and discipline, processes they are passed as well as the rights and duties of both teachers and students. Its goal is no longer to develop moral judgment of an individual student but to develop a group as moral community founded upon the norms of trust, participation and collective responsibility.

  18. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death. PMID:2319570

  19. Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.

    Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.

  20. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Parker, M

    1990-03-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death.

  1. Justice and Immigration: The Effect of Moral Exclusion

    Stefano Passini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous media news items suggest on a daily basis that people tend to use harsher criteria when they judge immigrants than members of their own in-group. In the present research project, we were interested in studying individual justice judgments of a violation of a law by an Italian (in-group or an immigrant (out-group member and the influence of moral exclusion processes on the assessment. In particular, we examined whether those people who tend to exclude out-groups from their scope of justice will give such biased judgments and will adopt double standards, while inclusive people will not. A total of 255 people evaluated the seriousness of a crime in two different law-breaking scenarios in which the offender’s and the victim’s nationalities were systematically changed (either Italian or Romanian. Moreover, participants completed a scale measuring the moral inclusion/exclusion of other social groups. As hypothesized, participants who tended to exclude some groups from their moral community judged the Romanian more harshly than the Italian culprit. On the contrary, those people that tended to have a more inclusive moral community did not show any difference in evaluation. In conclusion, the present research highlights the importance of considering the effect of moral inclusion/exclusion processes on the evaluation of justice events, especially in an intergroup context.

  2. Moral sensitivity relating to the application of the code of ethics.

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Kang, Se-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Ah

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the clinical application of the 2006 Third Revised Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and the moral sensitivity of nurses. A total of 303 clinical nurses in South Korea participated in the survey in May and June 2011. As instruments of this study, we used the 15 statements of the Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. The mean score for application was 3.77 ± 0.59 (out of 5), and the mean score for moral sensitivity was 5.14 ± 0.55 (out of 7). The correlation coefficient (r) of the application and moral sensitivity was 0.336 (p moral sensitivity also scored high on application (t = -5.018, p moral sensitivity of nurses are necessary for improving the application of the code of ethics.

  3. Contemporaneous and 1-year longitudinal prediction of children's prosocial behavior from sympathy and moral motivation.

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Buchmann, Marlis

    2007-09-01

    The authors investigated the contemporaneous and longitudinal relations of children's (M age = 6.4 years) prosocial behavior to sympathy and moral motivation. Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's prosocial behavior. The authors measured sympathy via self- and adult reports. Moral motivation was assessed by children's attribution of emotions to hypothetical victimizers and self-as-victimizers and by moral reasoning after rule violations. Mother-rated prosocial behavior was contemporaneously and longitudinally related to sympathy. Moral motivation moderated the relation of sympathy to mother-rated prosocial behavior. Furthermore, boys' level of mother-rated prosocial behavior increased with level of moral motivation, whereas girls were high in mother-rated prosocial behavior, regardless of their level of moral motivation. Sympathy contemporaneously predicted kindergarten teacher-rated prosocial behavior.

  4. Medicine, Morality, and Mortality: The Challenges of Moral Diversity.

    Cherry, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy assesses the deep and abiding tensions that exist among the competing epistemic perspectives that bear on medicine and morality. Concepts of health and disease, as well as the theoretical framing of medical ethics and health care policy, intersect with an overlapping set of culturally situated communities (scientific, political, moral, and religious), striving to understand and manipulate the world in ways that each finds explanatory, appropriate, or otherwise befitting. The articles explore the complexities of framing public health care policy to guide bioethical decision making in the face of the plurality of ethical viewpoints and moral rationalities--including health enhancing supplements, continuous sedation until death, medical futility, the protection of vulnerable populations, and competing professional obligations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Robots and the Limits of Morality

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I ask whether we can coherently conceive of robots as moral agents and as moral patients. I answer both questions negatively but conditionally: for as long as robots lack certain features, they can be neither moral agents nor moral patients. These answers, of course, are not new...... and biological bases of moral practices and arguing that the relevant differences in such bases are sufficient, for the time being, to exclude robots from adopting, both, an active and a passive moral role....

  6. Distributed morality in an information society.

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-09-01

    The phenomenon of distributed knowledge is well-known in epistemic logic. In this paper, a similar phenomenon in ethics, somewhat neglected so far, is investigated, namely distributed morality. The article explains the nature of distributed morality, as a feature of moral agency, and explores the implications of its occurrence in advanced information societies. In the course of the analysis, the concept of infraethics is introduced, in order to refer to the ensemble of moral enablers, which, although morally neutral per se, can significantly facilitate or hinder both positive and negative moral behaviours.

  7. Dimensi moral dalam kekuasaan politik

    Muchson AR

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest legitimation of authority is religious legitimation, a doctrine of the Middle Ages. The King is believed as the figure manifested of God authority. like the religious concept, the Javanese mystical concepts believe that the King authority comes from the supernatural power, not from people support. Although that opinion is considered as religious legitimation, but Islam is not like it. The Holy Qur'an more emphasizes for justice and morality in political system. In the Javanese mystical perception, King is looked as a microcosm who can reserves the power of a macrocosm and then emanates it. The King's character should indicate natural power, such as power of the sun, moon, star, etc. The other side of harmony with whole world, the King must be able to create a social harmony.  Political ethics in democracy political system based on Pancasila also emphasizes that the legitimation of authority comes from people mandate, as a principle of democracy. Even though, the authority's moral and moral responsibility of authority must be appreciated and respected. The opinion that authority is not a moral legitimation and the authority is not personification of moral goodness should be rejected

  8. BREEAM Excellent: Business Value Vs Employee Morale

    Turner, Nova; Arif, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    BREEAM is gaining popularity in the UK. Similar green building standards have gained popularity worldwide. However, it is important that we analyse the actual value added to a business by having a BREEAM rated facility. It is also important to analyze the impact on employee performance of such a facility. This paper presents a case study of a BREEAM excellent rated building with impact on the morale and performance of the employees. The data for the paper was collected using semi-structured interviews of a group of employees who work at this facility located in Glasgow. The results suggest that it is important to highlight the tangible benefits and value added through the implementation of the BREEAM standard.

  9. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  10. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    van de Lindt, John W.; Rechan, R. Karthik

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA). Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percen...

  11. Guidelines for preparing high school psychology teachers: course-based and standards-based approaches.

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is one of the most popular elective high school courses. The high school psychology course provides the foundation for students to benefit from psychological perspectives on personal and contemporary issues and learn the rules of evidence and theoretical frameworks of the discipline. The guidelines presented here constitute the second of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These guidelines, aligned to the standards presented in the preceding report, describe models for the preparation of preservice psychology teachers. The two reports together demonstrate the rigor and competency that should be expected in psychology instruction at the high school level.

  12. Moral Values Congruence and Miners' Policy Following Behavior: The Role of Supervisor Morality.

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Hong; Du, Wei; Long, Ruyin

    2017-06-01

    Ethical culture construction is beneficial to maximize policy following behavior (PFB) and avoid accidents of coal miners in an economic downturn. This paper examines the congruence between coal mine ethical culture values (ECVs) and miners' moral values (MVs) and the relationship with PFB. To shed light on this relationship, supervisor moral values (SMVs) act as a key moderator. We build on the initial structure of values to measure ECVs, MVs, and SMVs. At the same time, available congruence was defined to describe the relationship between the two values. Drawing upon a survey of 267 miners in Chinese large state-owned coal mining enterprises, results revealed that ECVs-MVs congruence had a linear relationship with intrinsic PFB (IPFB) and a non-linear relationship with extrinsic PFB. These findings demonstrate that SMVs had a moderating effect on the relationship between ECVs-MVs congruence and extrinsic PFB. Thus, we continued to calculate the available congruence scope in tested enterprises. Furthermore, this study gives relative management proposals and suggestions to improve miners' moral standards and to reduce coal mine accidents.

  13. Evaluation of high-standard public transport centres in the Slovak Republic

    Horňák Marcel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of increasing volumes of individual passenger transport and growing dependence of the post-socialist societies on the passenger car, public transport is still inevitable for certain communities. Its social and environmental aspects are obvious reasons why public transport remains within the scope of state and regional policies as a mixture of public and commercial services. Long-distance and international overground public transport represents a higher standard of travelling of considerably commercial nature. An important feature of this segment of the public transport is its capability to compete with individual transportation for long-distance journeys. The commercial character of the long-distance public transport should motivate operators to run territorially effective links covering adequately populated communites and regions with high demand for this segment of public-transport services. This study deals with several territorial aspects of the network of long-distance and international bus and train links of public transport in the Slovak Republic. The network of communities having direct access to the high-standard modes of public transport has been identified, revealing some of their spatial patterns and focusing on categorization of urban settlements by selected parameters of high-standard public transport services. The relationship with the population size of the urban settlements is assessed in the study, too.

  14. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Life quality and living standards in big cities under conditions of high-rise construction development

    Avdeeva, Elena; Averina, Tatiana; Kochetova, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Modern urbanization processes occurring on a global scale inevitably lead to an increase in population density in large cities. People assess the state of life quality and living standards of megalopolises under conditions of high-rise construction development ambiguously. Using SWOT analysis, the authors distinguished positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction, highlighted threats to its development and its opportunities. The article considers the model of development of the city's industry and infrastructure, which enables determining the optimal volume of production by sectors and branches of city economy in order to increase its innovative, production and economic potential and business activity.

  16. Moral distance in dictator games

    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  17. Gender Differences in Emotion Explain Women's Lower Immoral Intentions and Harsher Moral Condemnation.

    Ward, Sarah J; King, Laura A

    2018-05-01

    Why do men view morally questionable behaviors as more permissible than women do? Five studies investigated emotional factors as explanations for gender differences in moral decision-making. In Study 1 ( N = 324), gender differences in perceptions of moral wrongness were explained by guilt and shame proneness. Studies 2a and 2b (combined N = 562) demonstrated that instructions to adopt an unemotional perspective (vs. standard instructions) led women to have higher immoral intentions, no longer lower than men's, as they were in the control group. Studies 3 and 4 ( N = 834) showed that men expected immoral actions to result in higher positive and lower self-conscious moral emotions than women do. Study 4 ( N = 424) showed that these emotional expectancies account for gender differences in immoral intentions. Study 5 ( N = 450) showed that women-but not men-experience heightened self-conscious moral emotions and regret when recalling past transgressions done for personal gain.

  18. Standardization of high-dose measurement of electron and gamma ray absorbed doses and dose rates

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Intense electron beams and gamma radiation fields are used for sterilizing medical devices, treating municipal wastes, processing industrial goods, controlling parasites and pathogens, and extending the shelf-life of foods. Quality control of such radiation processes depends largely on maintaining measurement quality assurance through sound dosimetry procedures in the research leading to each process, in the commissioning of that process, and in the routine dose monitoring practices. This affords documentation as to whether satisfactory dose uniformity is maintained throughout the product and throughout the process. Therefore, dosimetry at high doses and dose rates must in many radiation processes be standardized carefully, so that 'dosimetry release' of a product is verified. This standardization is initiated through preliminary dosimetry intercomparison studies such as those sponsored recently by the IAEA. This is followed by establishing periodic exercises in traceability to national or international standards of absorbed dose and dose rate. Traceability is achieved by careful selection of dosimetry methods and proven reference dosimeters capable of giving sufficiently accurate and precise 'transfer' dose assessments: (1) they must be calibrated or have well-established radiation-yield indices; (2) their radiation response characteristics must be reproducible and cover the dose range of interest; (3) they must withstand the rigours of back-and-forth mailing between a central standardizing laboratory and radiation processing facilities, without excessive errors arising due to instabilities, dosimeter batch non-uniformities, and environmental and handling stresses. (author)

  19. Assessment of ECISS draft standard for derivation of high temperature proof strength values

    Linde, L.; Sandstroem, R.

    1996-03-01

    New European material standards are under development and modern data evaluation techniques must be able to supply these standards with accurate design values. A draft standard for the derivation of high temperature proof strength values has been proposed. This standard (EDS) has been used to calculate strength values for six steels; one unalloyed steel, one 12 % Cr steel and four austenitic stainless steels. Although large data sets were available, it was not possible to satisfy the requirement in the EDS of 80 % temperature coverage in the proof strength data for several steels. It suggests that temperature coverage specified in the EDS is unrealistically high. Due to the limited number of heats satisfying the temperature coverage requirements for each steel, the statistical error in the derived values exceeds 10-20 % which must be considered as unacceptably high. Instead it is recommended that the full data sets are used irrespective of temperature coverage. The variation of proof strength values represented by the analysed heats did not cover the corresponding variation in the larger data set available. This was the case even for the steel where 16 heats satisfied the temperature coverage requirement. Thus a limited number of heats can not be expected to be a good representation of more complete data sets. This has the consequence that absolute strength values can not be derived without access to a standardised proof strength at room temperature. Two derivation methods investigated in this report are both based on the ISO 2605/III procedure for proof strength assessments at elevated temperature. Method I and II use an essentially temperature independent and temperature dependent reduction term respectively. The methods have been assessed by the same data sets for the six steels. One or both methods gave satisfactory results for most of the investigated steels. Presented results are based on work carried out in ECISS TC22 WG1. 17 refs, 20 figs, 7 tabs.

  20. Morals matter in economic games.

    Felix C Brodbeck

    Full Text Available Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1] and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2] it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals' decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic processes. To test our propositions we developed the 'Dyadic Solidarity Game' and its solitary equivalent, the 'Self-Insurance Game'. Four experiments, in which the moral motives "Unity" and "Proportionality" were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule ("treat others how you wish to be treated" could be established. Individuals with a "Unity" motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a "Proportionality" motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making.

  1. Morals matter in economic games.

    Brodbeck, Felix C; Kugler, Katharina G; Reif, Julia A M; Maier, Markus A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1]) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2]) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals' decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the 'Dyadic Solidarity Game' and its solitary equivalent, the 'Self-Insurance Game'. Four experiments, in which the moral motives "Unity" and "Proportionality" were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule ("treat others how you wish to be treated") could be established. Individuals with a "Unity" motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a "Proportionality" motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making.

  2. Morals Matter in Economic Games

    Brodbeck, Felix C.; Kugler, Katharina G.; Reif, Julia A. M.; Maier, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1]) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2]) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals’ decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the ‘Dyadic Solidarity Game’ and its solitary equivalent, the ‘Self-Insurance Game’. Four experiments, in which the moral motives “Unity” and “Proportionality” were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule (“treat others how you wish to be treated”) could be established. Individuals with a “Unity” motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a “Proportionality” motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making. PMID:24358115

  3. Adolescents' Self-Attributed Moral Emotions Following a Moral Transgression: Relations with Delinquency, Confidence in Moral Judgment and Age

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Eichler, Dana

    2006-01-01

    The study investigates adolescents' self-attributed moral emotions following a moral transgression by expanding research with children on the happy-victimizer phenomenon. In a sample of 200 German adolescents from Grades 7, 9, 11, and 13 (M=16.18 years, SD=2.41), participants were confronted with various scenarios describing different moral rule…

  4. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  5. Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.

    Enns, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

  6. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY

    CIPRIAN IULIAN ŞOPTICĂ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article concerns the what, the how and the whyof moral phenomenology. The first question we take into consideration is „What is moral phenomenology”? The second question which arises is „How to pursue moral phenomenology”? The third question is „Why pursue moral phenomenology”? We will analyze the study Moral phenomenology:foundation issues1, by which the American phenomenologist Uriah Kriegel aims three lines of research: the definition of moral phenomenology and the description of field research within the phenomenological tradition; the establishment of a method of moral phenomenology research; the emphasis of the purpose of such research and its importance for moral philosophy in general.

  7. Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies.

    Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J

    1999-03-01

    Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).

  8. Moral Education and the Condition of Africa

    Reginald M. J. Oduor

    the theory and practice of moral education, before reflecting on moral education and virtue ethics .... influences due to modern science and technology, African cultures have suffered tremendous .... traditional apologists, and atheists. Moreover ...

  9. International political theory : varieties of moral discourse

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the value of James Gustafson's 'varieties of moral discourse' typology for international political theory (IPT), or moral reflection about international politics. Gustafson's typology is defended as entailing an adequate conception of IPT through a threefold

  10. Has Richard Rorty a moral philosophy?

    Mohammad Asghari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I try to show that Richard Rorty, although is not a moral philosopher like Kant, nerveless, has moral philosophy that must be taken seriously. Rorty was not engaged with moral philosophy in the systematic manner common among leading modern and contemporary moral philosophers. This paper has two parts: first part, in brief, is concerned with principles of his philosophy such as anti-essentialism, Darwinism, Freudism, and historicism. Second part which be long and detailed, considers many moral themes in Rorty's thought such as critique of Kantian morality, solidarity, moral progress, cruelty and concept of other, etc. Subsequently, I will try to answer the research question of the article namely, has Rorty a moral philosophy?

  11. Moral Limits of the Market

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2017-01-01

    that the current pragmatic solutions to sustainable tourism development could not resolve issues of authenticity, equity, rights and fairness. There are three in-built moral limits in the tourism market, and namely: the market assumes it can price everything including culture and nature; the market distributes......Scholars and the practice community unanimously advocate sustainable balanced and sensitive tourism development. Engaging with locals and setting up public-private partnerships are frequently championed. This working paper introduces a set of lenses in the moral philosophy tradition and argues...

  12. Why moral philosophers are not and should not be moral experts.

    Archard, David

    2011-03-01

    Professional philosophers are members of bioethical committees and regulatory bodies in areas of interest to bioethicists. This suggests they possess moral expertise even if they do not exercise it directly and without constraint. Moral expertise is defined, and four arguments given in support of scepticism about their possession of such expertise are considered and rejected: the existence of extreme disagreement between moral philosophers about moral matters; the lack of a means clearly to identify moral experts; that expertise cannot be claimed in that which lacks objectivity; and that ordinary people do not follow the advice of moral experts. I offer a better reason for scepticism grounded in the relation between moral philosophy and common-sense morality: namely that modern moral philosophy views even a developed moral theory as ultimately anchored in common-sense morality, that set of basic moral precepts which ordinary individuals have command of and use to regulate their own lives. Even if moral philosophers do nevertheless have a limited moral expertise, in that they alone can fully develop a set of moral judgments, I sketch reasons - grounded in the values of autonomy and of democracy - why moral philosophers should not wish non-philosophers to defer to their putative expertise. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Harry Potter's Provocative Moral World: Is There a Place for Good and Evil in Moral Education?

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    In a challenging critique of moral education in public schools, James Davison Hunter argues that the unspoken imperative of all moral education is to teach only those virtues, principles, and other moral teachings about which there is essentially no disagreement in American society. Hunter claims that almost every major form of moral education in…

  14. Development and psychometric testing of a new tool for detecting moral distress: the Moral Distress Thermometer.

    Wocial, Lucia D; Weaver, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    To report the development and psychometric testing of the Moral Distress Thermometer. The Moral Distress Thermometer is a new screening tool to measure moral distress in nurses who practise in the hospital setting. Moral distress occurs when one knows the ethically correct thing to do, but is prevented from acting on that perceived obligation. It is a well documented phenomenon with negative consequences that may be experienced by nurses. Creating an instrument to effectively and efficiently measure moral distress in a timely way has been identified as a priority for nursing. This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data collection for this research occurred in 2009. Participants simultaneously completed either the adult or pediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale version 2009 and the Moral Distress Thermometer. A total of 529 participants from various clinical areas completed both tools. Coefficients alpha were adequate for both Adult (0·90) and Pediatric (0·92) Moral Distress Scale 2009 scales. Statistically significant Pearson correlations were found for the Moral Distress Thermometer with Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 and higher Moral Distress Thermometer, Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 means for participants who had left or who considered leaving a position because of moral distress. These findings provide support for the validity of the Moral Distress Thermometer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Morality in Interactions: On the Display of Moral Behavior by Leaders and Employees

    S. van Gils (Suzanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecent research has tried to understand moral behavior in the workplace mainly from an intra-personal perspective, blaming ethical failures on the person’s moral character, moral development or moral identity, or on isolated aspects of the situation. In doing so, little attention has

  16. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Situations: Basic Moral Sensitivity, Moral Disengagement and Defender Self-Efficacy

    Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…

  17. The price of morality. An analysis of personality, moral behaviour, and social rules in economic terms

    Goessling, T.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the present study was the rationality of moral behaviour and moral conviction. Assumptions like "morality pays" or "good ethics is good business" are not a priori right. Whether morality as personal conviction is also economically rational or not depends in large part on the

  18. Construction of Life-Practice Moral Education Based on Traditional Chinese Morality with Life Connotation

    Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing

    2006-01-01

    The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…

  19. Moral Behavior as Rule Governed Behavior: A Psychosocial Role-Theoretical Approach to Moral Decision Making.

    Kurtines, William M.

    Research on moral development and behavior has traditionally emphasized person related variables such as level or stage of moral reasoning, individual differences in moral traits and dispositions, or past reinforcement history. The effects of context on moral action and decision, in contrast, have received relatively little attention. It is…

  20. Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence that Means Matter Morally

    J. Specker (Jona); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P.B. Reiner (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via

  1. 1 The Necessity of Moral Principles in Moral Education Emmanuel ...

    NGOZI

    their attempts at moral education of their children and wards. .... opposed to relative or related to a particular culture. ... principles is quite compatible with change and “relativity” at a ... The strength of the emotive theory of ethics derives from the ...

  2. Moral dilemmas and moral principles: when emotion and cognition unite.

    Manfrinati, Andrea; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino

    2013-01-01

    Traditional studies on moral judgement used resolutions of moral dilemmas that were framed in terms of acceptability of the consequentialist action promoting a greater good, thus overlooking the deontological implications (choices cannot be justified by their consequences). Recently, some authors have suggested a parallelism between automatic, unreflective emotional responses and deontological moral judgements. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were required to choose between two resolutions of a moral dilemma (consequentialist and deontological). To assess whether emotions are engaged in each of the two resolutions, we asked participants to evaluate their emotional experience through the ratings of valence and arousal. Results showed that emotion is involved not only in deontological but also in consequentialist resolutions. Moreover, response times pointed out a different interplay between emotion and cognition in determining a conflict in the dilemma's resolution. In particular, when people were faced with trolley-like dilemmas we found that decisions leading to deontological resolutions were slower than decisions leading to consequentialist resolutions. We propose that this finding reflects the special (but not accepted) permission provided by the doctrine of the double effect for incidentally causing death for the sake of a good end.

  3. The metaphysics of morality : a dispositionalist account

    Robinson, William Luke

    2005-01-01

    Each of the following theses is independently plausible: Principle. Morality is principled: right-making factors or moral reasons entail corresponding moral principles. Conflict. Conflicts of moral obligation are possible and metaphysically unproblematic (even if they can be quite difficult--or even impossible--to resolve). Holism. Whether a given factor contributes to the rightness or wrongness of an action may depend on factors other than itself; hence, what is a right-making factor or mora...

  4. MORAL HARASSMENT DURING WORK AND FEMININE VULNERABILITY

    Silva, Sarah Cristina Andrade; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN; Bittar, Cléria Maria; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN

    2012-01-01

    Current investigation is a bibliographical review on feminine vulnerability with regard to moral harassment. Moral harassment is defined as all vexation during work, especially when a hierarchy between people has been established. Horizontal moral harassment among people of the same occupation, although it exists, is more difficult to be proved in court. Literature shows that victims of moral harassment may be women and men but research in Brazil and in other countries reveals that most victi...

  5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  6. Emotional reactions in moral decision-making are influenced by empathy and alexithymia.

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Korb, Sebastian; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Aiello, Marilena

    2018-04-01

    The role of emotional processes in driving moral choices remains debated. In particular, diminished emotional processing and reduced empathy have been associated with unusual high rates of utilitarian responses in moral judgments while, to date, the effects of diminished emotional processing and empathy on moral decision-making have been only partially considered. In this study, we investigated the influence of empathy and alexithymia on behavior and emotional responses while participants performed a moral decision task. Self-report (valence and arousal ratings) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures were collected during the task. Results showed that empathy and alexithymia shaped emotional reactions to moral decisions but did not bias moral choices. The more empathic the participants, the more dilemmas were perceived as unpleasant and arousing, and the greater the increase in skin conductance. Conversely, alexithymia was characterized by a reduced physiological activation during moral decisions, but normal self-report ratings. Heart rate was not modulated by empathy or alexithymia. These results add new evidence to the field of moral decision showing that empathy and alexithymia modulate emotional reactions to moral decision.

  7. Influence of Age and Schooling on the Development of Moral Judgment

    Bonifacio Barba Casillas

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an evaluation of the moral development of 111 professionals, 84 of which work in basic education. J. Rest’s Defining Issues Test was applied, and mean differences were assessed with the t test (alpha = 0.05. A regression analysis was done. Using the arithmetic means of the moral stages and of the postconventional moral index (P index the moral profile of all the subjects were described in relation to four variables. The relationship of the P index with schooling, age and teaching level was analyzed, and the adults were compared with middle school and high school students. The professionals have a profile of moral development with a prominence of stage 4 of moral judgment, a feature shared with the students. The former have equilibrium in the use of Rest’s moral judgment schematics as well as a greater postconventional moral growth than do the latter. Among the professionals there are significant differences in the P index related with schooling, age and work level. The association between age and postgraduate study is the weightiest factor in postconventional moral growth.

  8. Moral distress, autonomy and nurse-physician collaboration among intensive care unit nurses in Italy.

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Albarran, John W; Drigo, Elio; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kalafati, Maria; Mpouzika, Meropi; Tsiaousis, George Z; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E

    2014-05-01

    To explore the level of moral distress and potential associations between moral distress indices and (1) nurse-physician collaboration, (2) autonomy, (3) professional satisfaction, (4) intention to resign, and (5) workload among Italian intensive care unit nurses. Poor nurse-physician collaboration and low autonomy may limit intensive care unit nurses' ability to act on their moral decisions. A cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 566 Italian intensive care unit nurses. The intensity of moral distress was 57.9 ± 15.6 (mean, standard deviation) (scale range: 0-84) and the frequency of occurrence was 28.4 ± 12.3 (scale range: 0-84). The mean score of the severity of moral distress was 88.0 ± 44 (scale range: 0-336). The severity of moral distress was associated with (1) nurse-physician collaboration and dissatisfaction on care decisions (r = -0.215, P intention to resign (r = 0.244, P intention of nurses to resign (r = -0. 209, P intention to resign, whereas poor nurse-physician collaboration appears to be a pivotal factor accounting for nurses' moral distress. Enhancement of nurse-physician collaboration and nurses' participation in end-of-life decisions seems to be a managerial task that could lead to the alleviation of nurses' moral distress and their retention in the profession. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dose intercomparison studies for standardization of high-dose dosimetry in Viet Nam

    Mai Hoang Hoa; Duong Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (IC-VAEC) is planning to establish a traceability system for high-dose dosimetry and to provide high-dose standards as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) level in Vietnam. For countries which do not have a standard dosimetry laboratory, the participation in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the most common means to verify own dosimetry performance with a certain uncertainty. This is, however, only one-direction dose intercomparison with evaluation by IAEA including unknown parameter at participant laboratories. The SSDL level laboratory should have traceability as well as compatibility, ability to evaluate uncertainties of its own dosimetry performance by itself In the present paper, we reviewed our dosimetry performance through two-way dose intercomparison studies and self-evaluation of uncertainty in our dosimetry procedure. The performance of silver dichromate dosimeter as reference transfer dosimeter in IC-VAEC was studied through two-way blind dose intercomparison experiments between the IC-VAEC and JAERI. As another channel of dose intercomparison with IAEA, alanine dosimeters issued by IDAS were simultaneously irradiated with the IC-VAEC dichromate dosimeters at IC-VAEC and analyzed by IAEA. Dose intercomparison between IC-VAEC and JAERI results into a good agreement (better than ±2.5%), and IDAS results also show similar agreement within ±3.0%. The uncertainty was self-estimated on the basis of the JAERI alanine dosimetry, and a preliminary value of about 1.86% at a 68% confidence level is established. The results from these intercomparisons and our estimation of the uncertainty are consistent. We hope that our experience is valuable to other countries which do not have dosimetry standard laboratories and/or are planning to establish them. (author)

  10. Moral Reasoning and Attitudes towards Refugees

    Kutlaca, Maja; Kuppens, T.; Blikmans, Martijn; Gootjes, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the moral underpinnings of attitudes towards refugees, by applying insights from moral reasoning theories. We created and in two pilot studies validated a short self-report measure of two moral reasoning styles. Next, we used this measure to investigate perceived threats,

  11. Normativity, moral realism, and unmasking explanations

    Josep CORBÍ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that moral projectivism cannot be coherently fix the content of our moral responses. To this purpose, I develop a number of arguments against moral dispositionalism and, in this context, I challenge both David Lewis' dispositionalist account of colour and Chistine Korsgaard's procedural realism.

  12. Individual Moral Judgment and Cultural Ideologies.

    Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…

  13. Purpose as a Moral Virtue for Flourishing

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology has significantly influenced studies in the fields of moral philosophy, psychology and education, and scholars in those fields have attempted to apply its ideas and methods to moral education. Among various theoretical frameworks, virtue ethics is most likely to connect positive psychology to moral educational studies because…

  14. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  15. Islamic Morality: Teaching to Balance the Record

    Lovat, Terence

    2016-01-01

    The article proposes that the teaching of Islamic morality presents as an important if not urgent task for moral education. It offers the opportunity to inform a student body about a vital historical development in the formation of moral thought and action; to challenge and offset a blind spot in Western thinking about Islam in general; to…

  16. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER: UPAYA MEMBENTUK GENERASI BERKESADARAN MORAL

    Much. Arif Saiful Anam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The post-reform moral crisis shows that the achievement of moral competence processed at school has not been able to result the optimal output to the moral awareness generation development of nation. This condition such that begun from verbalistic growth culture from the learning process which inclines to only teach moral education as the textual limitation. That phenomenon and fact cause many sides conclude that the importance of character education implementation intensively as the essence of moral awareness generation development. This perspective places moral as the main environment aspect which decides generation characterization. Therefore, moral awareness should be learned intently and progressed or developed by character education applicatively. When the first time of implementation of character education in the school environment, it needs to do by the moral conditioning then continue to the moral training. The Design Character education like this has a function as systemic moral ideas in progressing the generation moral awareness which is able to supply young generation with moral intelligence competence and character.

  17. Selective Activation and Disengagement of Moral Control.

    Bandura, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes psychological mechanisms by which moral control is selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct in ordinary and unusual circumstances. Explores the symptoms of moral exclusion as described in the literature. Presents categories that unify theory on moral exclusion and contribute practical classifications for use in empirical studies. (JS)

  18. Teaching of Moral Values in Geography.

    Hall, Robin

    1983-01-01

    A framework for teaching morality within subject areas (specifically, geography) at the college level is proposed. The author suggests that rationality is the basis for substantive principles of morality; one can identify good reasons as opposed to poor ones. Examples of tensions that exist between geographical and moral education are provided.…

  19. Moral regulation: historical geography and scale

    Legg, Stephen; Brown, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on the historical geography of moral regulation and scale. The paper examines the rich and varied work of geographers on moral geographies before looking at wider work on moral regulation influenced by Michel Foucault. Highlighting the significance of the\\ud neglected dimension of scale, the paper introduces the themes examined in the subsequent papers.

  20. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.