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Sample records for high milk content

  1. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The content of macronutrients in milk from mothers of very preterm infants is highly variable

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Hviid, Mette Vogn

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content of macronutrients in human milk (HM) from mothers who gave birth very prematurely, and to investigate possible associations between macronutrients and certain maternal and infant characteristics.......The objective of this study was to determine the content of macronutrients in human milk (HM) from mothers who gave birth very prematurely, and to investigate possible associations between macronutrients and certain maternal and infant characteristics....

  3. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  4. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  5. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  6. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  7. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  9. Evaluation of microbial content of some soybean milk products ...

    Evaluating the microbiological content of soybean milk, highly consumed by the public is the aim of this research work. Ten samples of soybean milk, locally prepared by different manufacturers were used for the study. The microbial load and identity of the microorganisms present were determined using standard ...

  10. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  11. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  12. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  13. determination of mercury content in milk powder

    Jovchev, M.; Grigorov, T.; Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of humanized full cream cow milk powder of Bulgarian origin for new-born, sucklings, small children and soured milk powder were activated for 18-24 h in a neutron flux of 5.10 12 , resp. 2.10 13 n/cm 2 .sec in quartz ampules. The samples were activated without preliminary lyophilization, thus avoiding possible mistakes from mercury losses. Ag-110m, being eliminated in the amalgam, was not an obstacle to the mercury determination. The results obtained for the mercury content are in the same order as in other investigations and many times lower than the admissible norm for foodstuffs - 50 ppb

  14. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth.

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K; Schoemaker, Marieke H; van Tol, Eric A F; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2016-06-01

    Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by (1) H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Effect of package light transmittance on vitamin content of milk. Part 2: UHT whole milk

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2008-01-01

    This work is the second part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on UHT whole milk. The milk was stored at three different light intensities in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying light transmittance as

  16. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  17. High somatic cell counts and changes in milk fat and protein contents around insemination are negatively associated with conception in dairy cows.

    Albaaj, Ahmad; Foucras, Gilles; Raboisson, Didier

    2017-01-15

    The fertility of dairy cows has decreased dramatically worldwide over the last few decades, and several causes of this trend have been reported. Several studies have associated compromised udder health with deteriorating reproduction performance. Subclinical ketosis (SCK) has also been reported to be a risk factor for decreased conception. The objective of the present study was to describe how SCK might interact with the reported association between udder health and conception in dairy cows. Data from the French Milk Control Program and data on 8,549,667 instances of artificial insemination (AI) and their corresponding preceding and subsequent test-days from 5,979,701 Holstein cows were examined over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The effect of udder health was evaluated through a low (L) or high (H) somatic cell count (SCC) before and after AI using a threshold of 200,000 cells/mL, and transformed into four groups (LL, LH, HL, and HH). Three proxies for defining SCK were proposed based on the milk fat and protein content (or their ratio) before AI. Statistical analysis first included a generalized additive model to help define the optimal threshold values. Next, a logistic regression with a Poisson correction was performed. On average, the risk of conception at first AI was reduced by 14% for LH or HH cows (relative risk [and 95% CI] = 0.86 [0.85-0.87]) when the SCC increased or remained high within 40 days before and after AI, relative to LL group. The reduction of conception success associated with SCK (fat and protein contents changes) varied from 3% to 17% depending on the used SCK proxy. Including the interaction term SCC ∗ SCK clearly showed that the association of increased SCC around AI with conception success was modified by the presence of SCK. A cow that already has SCK and experiences an increase in SCC around or after AI exhibits up to 2 times further decrease in conception success compared with a cow with a high SCC and no SCK. In conclusion

  18. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  19. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  20. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2......) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH)D...

  1. The study of correlation between milk yields and content of progesterone and oestradiol in the milk

    Chen Haiyan; Fu Yan

    2007-01-01

    The Contents of progesterone (P) and oestradiol (E 2 ) in the milk of 50 Chinese Holstein cows were measured within 23 days after delivery and 12 days during oestrus with radioactive immunity. The results showed that the cows with output the milk ≤2000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.70 ±0.30) ng/ml and (134 ± 240) pg/ml respectively; the cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.55 ± 0.17) ng/ml and (100 ± 111) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2501 kg-3000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.45 ± 0.17) ng/ml and (44 ± 24) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.50 ± 0.19) ng/ml and (94 ± 182) pg/ml respectively in the milk. The cows with output ≤2000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (1.74 ± 1.13) ng/ml and (40 ± 15) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (1.85 ± 0.64) ng/ml and (47 ± 11) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2501-3000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (1.98 ± 1.26) ng/ml and (42 ± 12) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (2.41 ± 1.10) ng/ml and (49 ± 13) pg/ml respectively in the milk. The result indicated that the difference between the contents of P and E 2 in the milk of the cows after delivery with different output (the total output within a period of 90 days) was very significant (P 2 during oestrus in the milk of the cows with different output was insignificant (P>0.05). (authors)

  2. Human milk H2O2 content: does it benefit preterm infants?

    Cieslak, Monika; Ferreira, Cristina H F; Shifrin, Yulia; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundHuman milk has a high content of the antimicrobial compound hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). As opposed to healthy full-term infants, preterm neonates are fed previously expressed and stored maternal milk. These practices may favor H 2 O 2 decomposition, thus limiting its potential benefit to preterm infants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the factors responsible for H 2 O 2 generation and degradation in breastmilk.MethodsHuman donors' and rats' milk, along with rat mammary tissue were evaluated. The role of oxytocin and xanthine oxidase on H 2 O 2 generation, its pH-dependent stability, as well as its degradation via lactoperoxidase and catalase was measured in milk.ResultsBreast tissue xanthine oxidase is responsible for the H 2 O 2 generation and its milk content is dependent on oxytocin stimulation. Stability of the human milk H 2 O 2 content is pH-dependent and greatest in the acidic range. Complete H 2 O 2 degradation occurs when human milk is maintained, longer than 10 min, at room temperature and this process is suppressed by lactoperoxidase and catalase inhibition.ConclusionFresh breastmilk H 2 O 2 content is labile and quickly degrades at room temperature. Further investigation on breastmilk handling techniques to preserve its H 2 O 2 content, when gavage-fed to preterm infants is warranted.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk.

    Gidrewicz, Dominica A; Fenton, Tanis R

    2014-08-30

    Breast milk nutrient content varies with prematurity and postnatal age. Our aims were to conduct a meta-analysis of preterm and term breast milk nutrient content (energy, protein, lactose, oligosaccharides, fat, calcium, and phosphorus); and to assess the influence of gestational and postnatal age. Additionally we assessed for differences by laboratory methods for: energy (measured vs. calculated estimates) and protein (true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates). Systematic review results were summarized graphically to illustrate the changes in composition over time for term and preterm milk. Since breast milk fat content varies within feeds and diurnally, to obtain accurate estimates we limited the meta-analyses for fat and energy to 24-hour breast milk collections. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: 26 (843 mothers) preterm studies and 30 (2299 mothers) term studies of breast milk composition. Preterm milk was higher in true protein than term milk, with differences up to 35% (0.7 g/dL) in colostrum, however, after postnatal day 3, most of the differences in true protein between preterm and term milk were within 0.2 g/dL, and the week 10-12 estimates suggested that term milk may be the same as preterm milk by that age. Colostrum was higher than mature milk for protein, and lower than mature milk for energy, fat and lactose for both preterm and term milk. Breast milk composition was relatively stable between 2 and 12 weeks. With milk maturation, there was a narrowing of the protein variance. Energy estimates differed whether measured or calculated, from -9 to 13%; true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates differed by 1 to 37%. Although breast milk is highly variable between individuals, postnatal age and gestational stage (preterm versus term) were found to be important predictors of breast milk content. Energy content of breast milk calculated from the macronutrients provides poor estimates of measured energy, and protein

  4. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, part 3: Fortified UHT low-fat milk

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying

  5. Development for equipment of the milk macromolecules content detection

    Ding, Guochao; Li, Weimin; Shang, Tingyi; Xi, Yang; Gao, Yunli; Zhou, Zhen

    Developed an experimental device for rapid and accurate detection of milk macromolecular content. This device developed based on laser scattered through principle, the principle use of the ingredients of the scattered light and transmitted light ratio characterization of macromolecules. Peristaltic pump to achieve automatic input and output of the milk samples, designing weak signal detection amplifier circuit for detecting the ratio with ICL7650. Real-time operating system μC / OS-II is the core design of the software part of the whole system. The experimental data prove that the device can achieve a fast real-time measurement of milk macromolecules.

  6. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    ... particularly the CLA, omega-3 and omega-6 FA content of the milk fat of Jersey and Fleckvieh x Jersey (F x J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system. All cows were fed the same diet consisting of kikuyu-ryegrass pasture in a rotational grazing system supplemented with a standard commercial concentrate mixture at 7 kg ...

  7. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  8. Investigation of the mineral contents of some varieties of powder milk by pixe

    Ahmad, N.; Aejaz, S.M.H.; Naeem, A.; Shahnawaz, M; Saadat, S.

    2010-01-01

    Milk and milk products constitute an important ingredient of human nutrition all over the world. Macro mineral contents like sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and micro mineral contents like iron, copper, zinc, manganese of some varieties of powder milk available in the local market have been investigated by Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). These elements are essential for the optimal functioning of various chemical processes taking place in the human body. Any toxic element present in milk can also be detected simultaneously. PIXE is a powerful and universal elemental analysis technique with high detection sensitivity for elements with Z> 11 in the periodic table. The technique is non-destructive and may be applied to samples as small as a cell to a large painting. (author)

  9. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  10. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet. PMID:22253982

  11. Radionuclide Content of Pasteurized Milk Sold in Mafikeng, South Africa

    Olobatoke, R.; Mathuthu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many food animals which are important components of human food chain are effective collectors of radionuclides from the environment particularly contaminated forages, and therefore represent a significant pathway for the transfer of radionuclides to humans. Many important radionuclides are readily transferred to milk thus the product is considered as one of the basic food items recommended for the assessment of radionuclide exposure within a population. The current study aimed at assessing the radionuclide content of commercial milk commonly sold in South Africa in other to set a baseline data for radionuclide concentration of the products. Three popular brands of commercial milk (A, B and C) were sampled, with two samples obtained for each brand. The concentration of individual radionuclide in the milk samples, particularly "1"3"1I, "1"3"7Cs and "2"3"5U was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed that brand A had the highest concentrations of "2"3"5U and "1"3"7Cs (203 and 324 mBq/l respectively) but the lowest concentration of "1"3"1I (6.4 mBq/l). The highest concentration of "1"3"1I (148 mBq/l) was detected in brand B whereas both "2"3"5U and "1"3"1I were not detected in brand C. All the values however were well below the new standard limits for individual radionuclides in milk established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicates that the commercial milk brands assessed pose no radiation health threat to the consumers. (author)

  12. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  13. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  14. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  15. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein, casein and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most

  17. Copper and zinc content in human milk in Croatia

    Mandic, Zlatko; Mandic, Milena L.; Grgic, Jerica; Grgic, Zdravko; Klapec, Tomislav; Primorac, Ljiljana; Hasenay, Damir

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to research whether there had been any statistically significant difference in the content of Cu and Zn in human milk depending on the social status of women (refugee and non-refugee), age, number of deliveries, days after delivery, weight gained by nursing women and smoking habits, as well as whether the infants had received sufficient quantities of these elements. The elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were collected in the Clinical Hospital Osijek and Refugee Centre Nabrde, near Osijek, Eastern Croatia. The Cu in human milk ranged from 0.27 mg/l to 1.35 mg/l, and Zn from 0.62 mg/l to 15.0 mg/l. The mean levels of Cu and Zn for each group, formed according to the results of the questionnaire are presented too. Calculated daily dietary intake of these elements accords with the RDA

  18. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  19. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  20. Variation in phosphorus content of milk from dairy cattle as affected by differences in milk composition

    Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P

  1. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    Cheng Chia Meng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins, insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC, milk (MC, and white (WC chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93 between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  3. Phenolic and theobromine contents of commercial dark, milk and white chocolates on the Malaysian market.

    Meng, Cheng Chia; Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin

    2009-01-05

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  4. High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania) : targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet?

    Kuipers, RS; Fokkema, MR; Smit, EN; van der Meulen, J; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western mothers. Validity may be questioned in view of the profound dietary changes in the past 100 years, as opposed to our slowly adapting genome. Hominin evolution occurred in the

  5. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  6. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  7. Environmental and genetic factors influence the vitamin D content of cows' milk.

    Weir, R R; Strain, J J; Johnston, M; Lowis, C; Fearon, A M; Stewart, S; Pourshahidi, L K

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D is obtained by cattle from the diet and from skin production via UVB exposure from sunlight. The vitamin D status of the cow impacts the vitamin D content of the milk produced, much like human breast milk, with seasonal variation in the vitamin D content of milk well documented. Factors such as changes in husbandry practices therefore have the potential to impact the vitamin D content of milk. For example, a shift to year-round housing from traditional practices of cattle being out to graze during the summer months and housed during the winter only, minimises exposure to the sun and has been shown to negatively influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced. Other practices such as changing dietary sources of vitamin D may also influence the vitamin D content of milk, and evidence exists to suggest genetic factors such as breed can cause variation in the concentrations of vitamin D in the milk produced. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced by dairy cattle. A number of environmental and genetic factors have previously been identified as having influence on the nutritional content of the milk produced. The present review highlights a need for further research to fully elucidate how farmers could manipulate the factors identified to their advantage with respect to increasing the vitamin D content of milk and standardising it across the year.

  8. Preliminary observations on the metal content in some milk samples from an acid geoenvironment

    Alhonen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The metal content of some milk samples was analyzed from areas of acid sulphate soils along the course of the river Kyrönjoki in western Finland. Comparative analyses were made with samples from the Artjärvi-Porlammi area. The variations of analyzed metals AI, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Na, Sr and Zn are not great in both areas except that of Al, which is clearly associated with the acid environment in the Kyrönjoki valley. The portions of these elements in milk are relatively high as compared with data from literature. It is obvious that they show environmental contamination. Under acid circumstances the metals in milk may create serious geomedical problems.

  9. Stable iodine contents in human milk related to dietary algae consumption

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1983-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate iodine contents in human milk with relation to dietary algae consumption by nursing women and to estimate stable iodine intake by breast-fed babies. The iodine contents in human milk collected from the Tokai-mura area showed a fairly wide variation ranging from 80 to 7,000 μg/l, though the highest frequency was around 150 μg/l. It was observed that high contents were closely related to the intake of tangle (Konbu), Laminariaceae, specifically tangle stock and/or tangle shavings (Tororokonbu) as soup. The temporal increase was followed by the rapid decrease when the mothers stopped taking the tangle stock and/or tangle shavings soup. It was observed that water-extractability of iodine from tangle was much higher than that from the other algae, and the water-extractable iodine was absorbable to the human body. (author)

  10. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  11. A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 Content in Sheep and Goat Milk Produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013).

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM 1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM 1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM 1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM 1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM 1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM 1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM 1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM 1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM 1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  12. Assessment of phytochemical content in human milk during different stages of lactation.

    Song, Brian J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the presence of several carotenoids and flavonoids in human milk samples. Samples were collected from 17 women who delivered healthy term babies (≥ 37 wk of gestation) at 1-, 4-, and 13-wk postpartum intervals. Epicatechin (63.7-828.5 nmol/L), epicatechin gallate (55.7-645.6 nmol/L), epigallocatechin gallate (215.1-2364.7 nmol/L), naringenin (64.1-722.0 nmol/L), kaempferol (7.8-71.4 nmol/L), hesperetin (74.8-1603.1 nmol/L), and quercetin (32.5-108.6 nmol/L) were present in human milk samples with high inter-/intraindividual variability. With the exception of kaempferol, the mean flavonoid content in human milk was not statistically different among lactation stages. In contrast, carotenoids α-carotene (59.0-23.2 nmol/L), β-carotene (164.3-88.0 nmol/L), α-cryptoxanthin (30.6-13.5 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (57.4-24.8 nmol/L), zeaxanthin (46.3-21.4 nmol/L), lutein (121.2-56.4 nmol/L), and lycopene (119.9-49.5 nmol/L) significantly decreased from weeks 1 to 13 of lactation. The observed differences in the relative concentrations of the two phytochemical classes in human milk may be a result of several factors, including dietary exposure, stability in the milk matrix, efficiency of absorption/metabolism, and transfer from plasma to human milk. These data support the notion that flavonoids, as with carotenoids, are dietary phytochemicals present in human milk and potentially available to breast-fed infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smoking effects on milk's micronutrient content and infant growth

    Salazar Rodriguez, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy negatively affects birth weight and during breast-feeding alters volume and duration of lactation. As consequence of both effects, breast fed infants of smoking mothers have lower growth rates, compared to those of non-smoking mothers. In smoking mothers, at the end of pregnancy, there is an inverse association between cadmium content in maternal plasma and zinc content in fetal blood, while their newborns exhibited increased copper and diminished iron concentrations. No information exists on micronutrient content of breast milk of smoking mothers, associated to longitudinal growth. Ten smoking mothers (mean of cigarettes: 7.1) and 22 non-smoker controls and their infants, have been recruited within one month after delivery, at a Public Hospital in Santiago, Chile. Infant's weight, height, tricipital skinfold, arm and head circumferences and mother's weight were registered. Milk volume has been assessed by deuterium dilution and cotinine concentrations by radio-immuno-assay (RIA). No significant differences existed in age and nutritional status, between mothers. Cotinine levels were 50 times higher in smoking mothers (2576±2341 mU/L vs 54±25) and 12 times higher in their infants compared with those of non smokers (121±99 mU/L vs 10±5 mU/L). Birth weight was significantly different (3290±327 g vs 3558±432 g, p=0.01) but not so at 3 months of age (6026±550 g vs 6099±510 g, p=0.8). Infants' height was significantly smaller in smokers' infants at birth and 3 months of age (50±1 cm vs 51±1 cm and 59±1 cm vs 61±2 cm). The evidence so far indicates that infant's height is compromised which could be related to an altered transference of essential micronutrients, due to a lesser amount of breast-milk and micronutrient concentrations. These objectives will be proved in the second year of the Coordinated Research Project. (author)

  14. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  15. Smoking effects on milk`s micronutrient content and infant growth

    Salazar Rodriguez, G; Berlanga, R; Garcia, C [Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Universidad de Chile, Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de Alimentos (INTA), Santiago (Chile)

    1999-09-01

    Smoking during pregnancy negatively affects birth weight and during breast-feeding alters volume and duration of lactation. As consequence of both effects, breast fed infants of smoking mothers have lower growth rates, compared to those of non-smoking mothers. In smoking mothers, at the end of pregnancy, there is an inverse association between cadmium content in maternal plasma and zinc content in fetal blood, while their newborns exhibited increased copper and diminished iron concentrations. No information exists on micronutrient content of breast milk of smoking mothers, associated to longitudinal growth. Ten smoking mothers (mean of cigarettes: 7.1) and 22 non-smoker controls and their infants, have been recruited within one month after delivery, at a Public Hospital in Santiago, Chile. Infant`s weight, height, tricipital skinfold, arm and head circumferences and mother`s weight were registered. Milk volume has been assessed by deuterium dilution and cotinine concentrations by radio-immuno-assay (RIA). No significant differences existed in age and nutritional status, between mothers. Cotinine levels were 50 times higher in smoking mothers (2576{+-}2341 mU/L vs 54{+-}25) and 12 times higher in their infants compared with those of non smokers (121{+-}99 mU/L vs 10{+-}5 mU/L). Birth weight was significantly different (3290{+-}327 g vs 3558{+-}432 g, p=0.01) but not so at 3 months of age (6026{+-}550 g vs 6099{+-}510 g, p=0.8). Infants` height was significantly smaller in smokers` infants at birth and 3 months of age (50{+-}1 cm vs 51{+-}1 cm and 59{+-}1 cm vs 61{+-}2 cm). The evidence so far indicates that infant`s height is compromised which could be related to an altered transference of essential micronutrients, due to a lesser amount of breast-milk and micronutrient concentrations. These objectives will be proved in the second year of the Coordinated Research Project. (author) 13 refs, 3 tabs, 2 graphs

  16. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Diana Escuder-Vieco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min. Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L. In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in

  17. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting.

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  18. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R.; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  19. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  20. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  1. Effects of fat content, pasteurization method, homogenization pressure, and storage time on the mechanical and sensory properties of bovine milk.

    Li, Y; Joyner, H S; Carter, B G; Drake, M A

    2018-04-01

    Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2.3 s) or by HTST pasteurization (78°C, 15 s), homogenized at 20.7 MPa, and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Additionally, 2% fat milk was processed by indirect UP and homogenized at 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Sensory profiling, instrumental viscosity, and friction profiles of all milk were evaluated at 25°C after storage times of 1, 4, and 8 wk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine protein structural changes in milk at these time points. Fresh HTST milk was processed at wk 7 for wk 8 evaluations. Ultrapasteurization increased milk sensory and instrumental viscosity compared with HTST pasteurization. Increased fat content increased sensory and instrumental viscosity, and decreased astringency and friction profiles. Astringency, mixed regimen friction profiles, and sensory viscosity also increased for UP versus HTST. Increased storage time showed no effect on sensory viscosity or mechanical viscosity. However, increased storage time generally resulted in increased friction profiles and astringency. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased denatured whey protein in UP milk compared with HTST milk. The aggregates or network formed by these proteins and casein micelles likely caused the increase in viscosity and friction profiles during storage. Homogenization pressure did not significantly affect friction behaviors, mechanical viscosity, or astringency; however

  2. A study on friability, hardness and fiber content analysis of fiber enriched milk tablet

    Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Irfan, M. H.; Ibrahim, U. K.

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to analyze the friability, hardness and fiber content of fiber enriched milk tablet derived from five different local fiber sources such as carrot, spinach, dragon fruit, mango and watermelon. Cow milk was mixed to complement with the tablet as a protein source. The powder were spray dried at 100°C, 120°C and 140°C and freeze dried at -60°C. The mixture of fruits and milk were made into equal ratio with the addition of 15 maltodextrin as a carrier. Tablets formed were used for friability and hardness test while dried powder were used for fiber content analysis. Dragon fruit tablet dried at 140°C have the highest friability with 11. 42 of weight loss. The second highest friability was spinach tablet dried at 100°C and 120°C drying temp erature with 9.30 and 9.28 respectively. The lowest friability was exhibited by carrot, mango and watermelon tablet at 100°C and dragon fruit at 120°C while carrot and spinach at 140°C. In contras t, none of the freeze dried tablets showed any weight loss hence they are not friable. For hardness test, all of the freeze dried showed to have higher tensile strength than spray dried, where carrot showed to be the highest at 2.27 Newton and the lowest were spray dried mango at 0.16 Newton. In fiber content analysis, freeze dried mango have the highest fiber content followed by freeze dried carrot and 140°C s pray dried carrot. It can be concluded that the higher the spray dry temperature, the more friable is the tablet. While, high friability leads to lower hardness of tablets. In terms of fiber content, the higher the spray dry temperature, the lower the fiber content found.

  3. Maintenance of breast milk Immunoglobulin A after high-pressure processing.

    Permanyer, M; Castellote, C; Ramírez-Santana, C; Audí, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Castell, M; López-Sabater, M C; Franch, A

    2010-03-01

    Human milk is considered the optimal nutritional source for infants. Banked human milk is processed using low-temperature, long-time pasteurization, which assures microbial safety but involves heat denaturation of some desirable milk components such as IgA. High-pressure processing technology, the subject of the current research, has shown minimal destruction of food macromolecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pressure treatments on IgA content. Moreover, bacterial load was evaluated after pressure treatments. The effects of high-pressure processing on milk IgA content were compared with those of low-temperature, long-time pasteurization. Mature human milk samples were heat treated at 62.5 degrees C for 30min or pressure processed at 400, 500, or 600MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C. An indirect ELISA was used to measure IgA in human milk whey obtained after centrifugation at 800xg for 10min at 4 degrees C. All 3 high-pressure treatments were as effective as low-temperature, long-time pasteurization in reducing the bacterial population of the human milk samples studied. After human milk pressure processing at 400MPa, 100% of IgA content was preserved in milk whey, whereas only 72% was retained in pasteurized milk whey. The higher pressure conditions of 500 and 600MPa produced IgA retention of 87.9 and 69.3%, respectively. These results indicate that high-pressure processing at 400MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C maintains the immunological protective capacity associated with IgA antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that high-pressure processing may be a promising alternative to pasteurization in human milk banking.

  4. Estimation of Trace Elements (Iodine and Iron Content in Breast Milk

    N.A. Belykh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of iodine and iron content in breast milk (n = 88 has been carried out. The study shows that the concentration of iodine and iron in breast milk of the women did not correspond to the physiological needs of an infant. It has been demonstrated that the use of iron-containing vitamin-mineral supplements during lactation has no significant effect on the level of iron in breast milk. The iodine content in breast milk depends on the iodine subsidies. It is shown that the level of micronutrients in breast milk is not affected by the presence of gestational maternal anemia and goiter, due date and place of residence of the family. It is concluded that a statistically significant impact on the level of iodine in the breast milk of combined iodine prophylaxis (acceptance by the mother during lactation drugs potassium iodide (200 mg/day due to the use of iodized salt.

  5. Changes in Preterm Breast Milk Nutrient Content in the First Month

    Ya-Chi Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The longitudinal study revealed significant changes in macronutrient contents and secretory IgA concentration in preterm milk over the 4–6 week period, which is compatible with the results of previous studies. The quantification of phosphate in preterm breast milk was lower than the normal range, suggesting that close monitoring of body bone mass may be indicated. More studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of alterations of major milk components during the postnatal stage.

  6. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  7. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETICAL FACTORS ON UREA CONTENT IN HOLSTEIN BREED COWS MILK

    Draženko Budimir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to determine to which extent the environmental factors (order and stadium of lactation, age with the first calving, calving season, region and herd have the influence on the content of urea in milk, and connection of urea content in milk with other features of milk production with cows. The largest share of urea content in milk was recorded in the first lactation, in the period between 110 and 140 days, when it was around 23.6 mg/100 ml. In the end of the first lactation the average urea content in milk was around 21.6 mg/100 ml. The second lactation is chara¬cterized by somewhat bigger urea content, in the period immediately after calving when the highest values from all tracked lactations was recorded. The age of cows with their first calving also had an impact on urea con¬tent in milk. Cows that calved in the age from 24th to 26th month had the highest value of urea content, being 23.2 mg/100 ml for the stated period. The lowest value of urea content was recorded with cows that calved in the age of 18 months and it was below 20 mg/100 ml. Season of calving also influenced the urea content in milk. In winter season 2004 the lowest values of urea content in milk were recorded while in the autumn sea¬son of the same year the highest urea content in milk was measured (24 mg/100 ml. In the following calving season increase of urea content in milk followed. The differences in urea content in milk were determined between the counties. The highest value of heritabi-lity (0.08 was estimated by the model where, as a comparison group, the interaction between the herds and control day was used. In the research the share of variability was explained by the interaction herd-control day and it was 67%, while 25% of variability of urea con¬tent in milk remained unexplained. This model was used when estimating the breeding values. A model was also tested where the influence of herd was used as a comparison group, and by this

  8. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twice...... during the grazing season (May and September). The total content of PA was higher in September compared to May, but was not affected by breed (Danish Holstein or Danish Jersey). Total PA could not be directly related to intake of green feed items. The distribution between diastereomers was closely...

  9. [Study of the contents in fat, in protein and in vitamin D of powdered milk varieties sold in Dakar].

    Ndiaye, B; Fall, M; Fall, D; Sarr, S O; Faye, D; Diop, A; Diop, Y M

    2008-01-01

    The powdered milk is a much appreciated food in Senegal. However no particular control is realized by authorities on the various marks of milk imported before their marketing. In the concern to protect the health of the consumers, but especially in front of the very big variety of the sources of supply in this product we determined the contents in fat, in protein and in vitamin D main variety show of marketed powdered milk Dakar. Chemical methods were operated to determine the fat contents and in proteins. The liquid chromatography in high performance was used to identify and measure the vitamin D. The obtained results profits showed that all the studied samples of milk had contents in fat included between 25 and 31 g %, those in proteins were included between 23 and 25 g %. As regards the dosage of the vitamin D, a single sample had content weaker than that mentioned on the packaging by the manufacturer. The results of this study allowed to notice most of the variety varieties of powdered milk marketed in Dakar were in accordance with the standards established for this food and are consequently good quality.

  10. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Palm kernel expeller increases milk fat content when fed to grazing ...

    van Wyngaard, Josef

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... blocks to one of four treatment concentrates: PKE0, PKE10, PKE20, and PKE30, .... Milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content were ... added heat-stable alpha-amylase (protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1) (1 ...

  12. The content of K-40, Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk in Croatia

    Cesar, D.; Maracic, M.; Marovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foodstuffs. The children's diet is based on milk and quality of milk has always been a subject of concern and continuous control. investigation of radioactivity in milk in Croatia has been started in 1960. The samples of milk were collected daily in the towns Osijek, Zadar and Zagreb. In monthly samples specific Sr-90 activities were determined by radiochemical separation, and Cs-137 and K-40 by gammaspectrometric analysis. The values obtained are shown in Figures 1 and 2. The ratio of Sr-90, Cs-137 and K-40 specific activities was calculated as well as the ratio of their maximum prmissible levels. By the division of these two ratios the ratio of their effectiveness was calculated. On basis of the obtained data the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The level of Sr-90 in milk had been increasing by 1964. in the period that followed Sr-90 was exponentially decreasing which indicated that its content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests carried out in the period 1945 to 1962. 2. The content of Cs-137 in milk in Croatia has been exponentially decreasing since 1965 in spite of a great increase in 1986. This points to the fact that Cs-137 content in milk originated mostly from nuclear weapon tests in the period 1945 to 1962, and to a lesser degree from Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. 3. The content of K-40 in milk has not changed significantly over the investigated period, but its level was not the same at all sampling locations. 4. The ratio of the impact of investigated radionuclides on man obtained from the samples of milk in the territory of Croatia is: 90 Sr : 137 Cs : 40 K = 1 : 2 : 5. (author)

  13. Effect of oxytocin injection to milching buffaloes on its content & stability in milk

    Raghu Pullakhandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oxytocin (OT injections to milch cattle for milk letdown have become a common practice amongst dairy farmers in India. Although there is no reported evidence, it is widely presumed that long term consumption of such milk leads to adverse health consequences. However, there is no information on the effect of exogenous OT injections on milk OT content and its stability during heating and gastrointestinal digestion. This study was carried out to determine the OT content in milk samples given by buffaloes with and without OT injections and to assess the stability of OT in the milk. Methods: Milk samples from milch buffaloes (Murrah buffalo were collected from local farmers with (n=121 or without (n=120 exogenous OT injections during 3 to 5 months of lactation period. The OT content of milk samples was estimated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The thermal and digestive stability of OT was assessed by in silico and in vitro digestion methods. Results: The OT content of the milk samples was similar regardless of OT injections used. Further, OT was found to be stable to heat treatment and gastric pepsin digestion while it was rapidly digested during the simulated intestinal digestion. r0 educed OT was digested by pepsin, implying that internal disulphide bridge of OT rendered the peptide resistant to peptic digestion. On the other hand, phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF, a serine protease inhibitor, abrogated the pancreatin induced digestion of OT. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings suggest that exogenous OT injections do not influence its content in milk. Further, OT present in milk is rapidly degraded during intestinal digestion, ruling out its intestinal absorption and associated adverse health consequences, if any.

  14. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk].

    Vázquez-Román, S; Alonso-Díaz, C; García-Lara, N R; Escuder-Vieco, D; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    To determine, by the creamatocrit measurement, the effect on the fat content of raw and pasteurized donor milk of freezing during 3 months at -20 °C. The evolution of the creamatocrit measurement (following Lucas technique) on frozen (-20 °C), raw and pasteurized human milk, was analyzed during 3 months. The fat content of raw milk (n=44) was 3.19 g/dl at the beginning and 2.86 g/dl after 3 months frozen (p=0.02). In pasteurized milk (n=36) fat content at the first determination was 2.59 g/dl and 2.20 g/dl after 1 month frozen (p=0.01). Afterwards there were no significant changes up to 3 months frozen. Variability was observed in the intermediate values. A reduction on the fat content measurement of raw and pasteurized donor human milk after freezing was observed. Freezing does not inactivate the milk lipase but does destroy the fat globule. Creamatocrit measurement may not be the best method to determine the fat content of processed human milk. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  16. Longitudinal Changes in the Macronutrient Contents of Breast Milk in the Mothers with Preterm Delivery

    Farid Aleali; minoo fallahi; Mohammad Kazemian; Seyyed Hossein Fakhraee; Abolfazl Afjeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Contents of breast milk may change during the first weeks after childbirth, especially in preterm deliveries. The present study aimed to determine the macronutrient contents of breast milk in the mothers with preterm delivery. Methods: This prospective-descriptive study was conducted in Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Participants included the mothers with preterm delivery, whose infants had a gestational age of

  17. Effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage on macronutrients and energy content of breast milk.

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Vieco, Diana Escuder; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Lora-Pablos, David; Velasco, Noelia Ureta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at -20°C after pasteurization on fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content of breast milk. Both procedures are routinely practiced in human milk banks. A total of 34 samples of frozen breast milk, donated by 28 women, were collected. Once thawed, an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before pasteurization; the remaining milk was pasteurized (Holder method) and split into 8 aliquots. One aliquot was analyzed after pasteurization and the remainder frozen at -20°C and analyzed 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days later. For every aliquot, fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content were determined using the device human Milk Analyzer. We observed a significant reduction in fat (3.5%; -0.17 (-0.29; -0.04) g/dL) and energy content (2.8%; -2.03 (-3.60; -0.46) g/dL) after pasteurization. A significant decrease over time was observed for fat, lactose and energy content. No significant changes were observed for nitrogen content. Mean differences between day 0 postpasteurization and day 180 were -0.13 (-0.21; -0.06) g/dL for fat, -0.08 (-0.13; -0.03) g/dL for lactose, and -1.55 (-2.38; -0.71) kcal/dL for energy content. The relative decreases were 2.8%, 1.7%, and 2.2%, respectively. Overall (postpasteurization + frozen storage), a 6.2% and 5% decrease were observed for fat and energy, respectively. Holder pasteurization decreased fat and energy content of human milk. Frozen storage at -20°C of pasteurized milk significantly reduced fat, lactose, and energy content of human milk.

  18. Relationship between somatic cell count and lactose content in milk of various species of mammals

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC is an indicator of mammary gland health state. Lactose (L can be reduced with mastitis and SCC increase. Mammary gland health is an essential factor of milk quality. Monitoring of mammary gland health is important for prevention and treatment of milk secretion disorders. The goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between SCC and L in various biological species. 7 sets of individual and bulk milk samples (MSs were analysed (n = 479, 479, 345, 80, 90 and 102 for SCC and L content. 3 sets were with cow (C milk and 1 set with goat (G, 1 with sheep (S and 1 with human (H MSs. The relations in C milk were used as reference. SCC geometric means were markedly lower in C milk (62, 99 and 81 103 . ml−1 and H milk (103 103 . ml−1 as compared to small ruminants (G 3 509 and S 609 103 . ml−1. The mean L values were lower in small ruminants (G 4.36% and S 4.42% as compared to C milk (4.95%, 4.97% and in 1st lactation 5.10% and higher in H milk (5.77%. L contents in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein correlated negatively to SCC (log SCC in all lactations (−0.36 P < 0.001 and −0.33 P < 0.001. L content in 1st lactation correlated with SCC markedly narrower than in cows for all lactations (−0.49 P < 0.001. The SCC×L relationship in G (White short–haired milk (−0.35 P < 0.01 was in good relation to C milk and in S (Tsigai milk (−0.51 P < 0.001 was markedly narrower as in C and G milk. Lower mean SCC in H milk as compared to G and S milk and comparable to C milk did not show significant negative relationship to L which was 0.08 (P > 0.05 for original SCC values. Surprisingly there was not found the SCC×L relationship in H milk which could be comparable to other mammal species milk. It could be caused by bacteriologically negative results in MSs with higher SCC (> 300 103 . ml−1. As well as at C milk also at G and S milk and in contrast to H milk it is possible to use the SCC×L relationship

  19. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (Pmethods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day < 1.90% and inter-day < 4.39%), and high recoveries (97.41%-99.91%). In addition, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  1. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    Bernard Faye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD. Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were similar in the two species (camel: 225 ± 125 mg/100 g fat; cow: 211 ± 142 mg/100 g fat. The serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in cow (227.8 ± 60.5 mg/100 ml than in camel (106.4 ± 28.9 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between morning and evening milking in milk fat compositions and concentrations in cholesterol. Fat levels increased in cow after two-week low energy-protein diet.

  2. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E; Durio, P

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  3. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  4. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  6. Wide Variability in Caloric Density of Expressed Human Milk Can Lead to Major Underestimation or Overestimation of Nutrient Content.

    Sauer, Charles W; Boutin, Mallory A; Kim, Jae H

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat). Calorie content was calculated. A total of 64 samples from 24 participants was analyzed. Wide variability was found in calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat composition. The authors found an average of 17.9 kcal/ounce, with only 34% of samples falling within 10% of the expected caloric density. The assumption that human milk contains 20 kcal/ounce is no longer supported based on this study. This supports promoting an individualized nutrition strategy as a crucial aspect to optimal nutrition.

  7. Camel milk and milk products

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  8. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  9. The influence of bovine milk high or low in isoflavones on hepatic gene expression in mice

    Skaanild, Mette Tingleff; Nielsen, Tina Skau

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phytoestrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phytoestrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes...... in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17β-estradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array q......PCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17β-estradiol upregulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones...

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.......The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  11. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  12. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  13. Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: potential interests, strategies and physiological consequences.

    Vilotte, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and an important osmotic regulator of lactation. It is digested by intestinal lactase, an enzyme expressed in new-borns. Its activity declines following weaning. As a result, adult mammals are normally lactose-intolerant and more than 75% of the human adult population suffers from lactase deficiency. A reduction in milk lactose content could be beneficial for nutritional but also agricultural and industrial purposes (less volume to transport, better milk coagulation, less effluent production). Several attempts to create transgenic mice producing milk with modified carbohydrate compositions have recently been described. Depending on whether these modifications resulted from an alteration of lactose synthesis or from lactose hydrolysis, striking physiological differences are observed.

  14. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  15. The microbial content of raw and pasteurized cow milk as determined by molecular approaches.

    Quigley, Lisa; McCarthy, Robert; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    The microbial composition of raw and pasteurized milk is assessed on a daily basis. However, many such tests are culture-dependent, and, thus, bacteria that are present at subdominant levels, or that cannot be easily grown in the laboratory, may be overlooked. To address this potential bias, we have used several culture-independent techniques, including flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, and high-throughput DNA sequencing, to assess the microbial population of milk from a selection of commercial milk producers, pre- and postpasteurization. The combination of techniques employed reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized and diverse bacterial population in unpasteurized cow milk. Most notably, the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing resulted in several bacterial genera being identified in milk samples for the first time. These included Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Catenibacterium. Our culture-independent analyses also indicate that the bacterial population of pasteurized milk is more diverse than previously appreciated, and that nonthermoduric bacteria within these populations are likely to be in a damaged, nonculturable form. It is thus apparent that the application of state-of-the-art approaches can provide a detailed insight into the bacterial composition of milk and could potentially be employed in the future to investigate the factors that influence the composition of these populations. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of high temperatures on milk proteins

    Maćej Ognjen D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures Induce certain changes in milk constituents, but the degree of these changes depends on both the temperature and time of heat treatment. The most pronounced changes take place in milk proteins. The forewarming of milk causes an increase in acidity, the precipitation of soluble Ca-phosphate, whey protein denaturation and coagulation, as well as the interaction with casein micelles, the Maillard browning reaction, the dephosphorylation of casein, the hydrolysis of casein micelles, changes in whey proteins, an extension of the rennet coagulation time and an exchange of the rheological properties of the acid and rennet casein gels, changes in the zeta-potential and casein micelle hydration, the interaction between the milk proteins and proteins of milk fat globule membrane.

  17. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    milk fat content and tended to increase fat:protein ratio in the milk. In conclusion, results demonstrated that treatment of barley grain with LA lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis and maintained high milk fat content in late-lactating Holstein cows fed diets based on barley grain.

  18. Role of dietary supplementation in the protein content of bovine milk

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Results of protein contents of fodder (FOD) in comparison with concentrates that is,. F-COC, F-MSC .... including proteins which provide a bulk amount of raw ... degradability of dietary protein and fat on ruminal, blood, and milk.

  19. Sensory perception and lubrication properties of milk: Influence of fat content

    Chojnicka-Paszun, A.; de Jongh, H.H.J.; de Kruif, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073609609

    2012-01-01

    The sensory perception of homogenized milk with a fat content between 0.06 and 8% was correlated with its friction coefficient and viscosity. Above a threshold of 1% fat, there was a strong decrease in friction coefficient at low speeds, which is associated with shear-induced coalescence. Creamy

  20. Effect of milk fat content on the performance of ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Kim, S-S; Kang, D-H

    2015-08-01

    The effect of milk fat content on ohmic heating compared to conventional heating for inactivation of food-borne pathogens was investigated. Sterile cream was mixed with sterile buffered peptone water and adjusted to 0, 3, 7, 10% (w/v) milk fat content. These samples with varying fat content were subjected to ohmic and conventional heating. The effect of milk fat on temperature increase and electrical conductivity were investigated. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens was studied. For conventional heating, temperatures of samples increased with time and were not significantly (P > 0.05) different regardless of fat content. Although the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogens decreased in samples of 10% fat content, a protective effect was not observed for conventional heating. In contrast with conventional heating, ohmic heating was significantly affected by milk fat content. Temperature increased more rapidly with lower fat content for ohmic heating due to higher electrical conductivity. Nonuniform heat generation of nonhomogeneous fat-containing samples was verified using a thermal infrared camera. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was observed in samples subjected to ohmic heating. These results indicate that food-borne pathogens can survive in nonhomogeneous fat-containing foods subjected to ohmic heating. Therefore, more attention is needed regarding ohmic heating than conventional heating for pasteurizing fat-containing foods. The importance of adequate pasteurization for high milk fat containing foods was identified. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  2. Fluorine content in the soft tissues, blood and milk of ruminants outside and inside fluorine emission areas

    Oelschlaeger, W; Feyler, L; Schwarz, E

    1972-01-01

    Data on the fluorine content of soft tissues, blood and milk inside and outside fluorine emission areas vary widely, probably because of analytical difficulties. Possible errors and their elimination are discussed. A large number of analyses was carried out to determine the fluorine content of heart, liver, lung, kidney, adrenal, muscle, spleen, pancreas, lymph nodes, thyroid, thymus, pituitary and cerebrum and cerebellum of cows and calves, as well as 388 milk samples and 232 blood samples. In calves born from cows kept for 3 1/2 years near a factory producing hydrofluoric acid, there was a clear relationship between the fluorine content during the suckling and drinking period, and also in a still-born calf, with the fluorine uptake of the dam during the months of pregnancy. In contrast to cattle, calves showed significantly higher fluorine levels in the adrenals compared with the kidneys. The soft tissues of cattle outside the fluorine emission areas contained more fluorine than in calves within the emission areas. Fluorine accumulation in liver, lung, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum, thyroid and pituitary was markedly raised in animals with high fluorine uptake, whereas there was no significant change in the levels in the heart, musculature and spleen. So far as human health is concerned, the raised fluorine level in milk was significantly below the maximum level permitted in fluoridated drinking water.

  3. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    Ping Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

  4. Quantification of lactose content in human and cow's milk using UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Fusch, Gerhard; Choi, Arum; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    A sensitive, accurate, and specific quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for lactose measurement of cow's and human milk and validated with cow's milk samples certified by an external laboratory. The new method employs only a dilution of raw cow's and human milk for simple preparation with no need to remove protein and fat prior to analysis with UPLC-MS/MS. It was operated in negative mode to detect lactose molecules and labeled (13)C(12)-lactose with the highest sensitivity. The principle advantages of the new LC-MS/MS method were: completed lactose determination in 5 min, absolute recovery of 97-107%, lower limit of detection milk. The mean lactose concentration of 51 human milk samples was measured as 56.8 ± 5.5 g/L ranging from 43 to 65 g/L. The described method represents validated lactose analysis with high accuracy and precision for a routine lactose determination in raw human milk. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Change of lactose content after milk fermentation using various microbial cultures

    Ivana Vinko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine lactose and lactic acid content and acidity changes in typified milk prior to fermentation and in dairy products on 1st and 28th day of their storage at 8 °C in cold environment. In this study 5 different dairy products were observed: yogurt, extra lactose yogurt, bifido milk, sour cream and sour milk. The enzymatic method for determination of lactose has been used. The biggest change in lactose and lactic acid content, according to study results, has happened in the process of fermentation, as expected. About 16-20 % of lactose has been converted by mesophilus, while significantly bigger part (round 30 % of lactose to lactic acid has been converted by thermophilus. The smallest part of lactose conversion was performed by Bifidobacterium therapy culture (just 15 % after the first day and 19 % on 28th day of cold storage which is due to the greater adjustment period of Bifidobacterium in milk for lactose fermentation.

  6. Breast milk fat content of mothers to small-for-gestational-age infants.

    Domany, K Armoni; Mandel, D; Kedem, M Hausman; Lubetzky, R

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the composition of human milk (HM) expressed by mothers of asymmetrically growth-restricted infants. To test the null hypothesis that lactating mothers of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants produce milk with fat content similar to that of lactating mothers of infants whose growth is appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fifty-six lactating mothers of newborns (26 SGA and 30 AGA) were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. Creamatocrit (CMT) levels in HM were measured at 72 h, 7 days and 14 days postdelivery in capillary tubes after centrifugation at 9000 r.p.m. for 5 min. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal age, body mass index, gestational age (GA), pregnancy weight gain and parity. They differed significantly in terms of infant's birth weight by design. The mean CMT levels at the three time points were similar for the two groups. This remained true when timing of the sample (colostrum, transitional, mature milk) was introduced as a confounder in the analysis of variance (general linear model). Fat content of HM is not affected by fetal growth status. We suggest that mothers of SGA infants may be reassured that their milk contains adequate amount of fat that is appropriate for the growth of their infants.

  7. Short communication: Variations in major mineral contents of Mediterranean buffalo milk and application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for their prediction.

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bonfatti, V; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess variability in the major mineral components of buffalo milk, (2) to estimate the effect of certain environmental sources of variation on the major minerals during lactation, and (3) to investigate the possibility of using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as an indirect, noninvasive tool for routine prediction of the mineral content of buffalo milk. A total of 173 buffaloes reared in 5 herds were sampled once during the morning milking. Milk samples were analyzed for Ca, P, K, and Mg contents within 3h of sample collection using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A Milkoscan FT2 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) was used to acquire milk spectra over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber/cm. Prediction models were built using a partial least square approach, and cross-validation was used to assess the prediction accuracy of FTIR. Prediction models were validated using a 4-fold random cross-validation, thus dividing the calibration-test set in 4 folds, using one of them to check the results (prediction models) and the remaining 3 to develop the calibration models. Buffalo milk minerals averaged 162, 117, 86, and 14.4mg/dL of milk for Ca, P, K, and Mg, respectively. Herd and days in milk were the most important sources of variation in the traits investigated. Parity slightly affected only Ca content. Coefficients of determination of cross-validation between the FTIR-predicted and the measured values were 0.71, 0.70, and 0.72 for Ca, Mg, and P, respectively, whereas prediction accuracy was lower for K (0.55). Our findings reveal FTIR to be an unsuitable tool when milk mineral content needs to be predicted with high accuracy. Predictions may play a role as indicator traits in selective breeding (if the additive genetic correlation between FTIR predictions and measures of milk minerals is high enough) or in monitoring the milk of buffalo populations for dairy industry purposes. Copyright

  8. Variations in protein and fat contents and their fractions in milk from two species fed different forages.

    Kholif, S M; El-Shewy, A A; Morsy, T A; Abd El-Rahman, H H

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at determining the variations in milk constituents which could be varied by feed and animal species. To achieve this goal, two groups of homoparity Baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes (n = 20 per species) were used. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): subgroup I received legume forage (Egyptian clover) and subgroup II received grass forage (sorghum forage). All experimental animals were fed the diet consisting of concentrate, forage and rice straw as 50, 25 and 25% of dry matter intake respectively. Milk samples were taken for analysis. The trial lasted until the 3rd month of parturition. The main results indicated that lactating cattle fed legume forage significantly (p ≤ 0.01) had more content of casein nitrogen (513 mg/100 ml milk), lower content of glutamic acid (23.56 g/100 g milk protein) and more content of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (0.77 g/100 g milk fat) compared with 433, 26.67 and 0.53, respectively, for cattle fed grass forage. With regard to the species effect, results showed that buffalo milk appeared to contain significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) contents of casein nitrogen, phenylalanine, glutamic and arachidonic acid compared with cow's milk. However, the latter was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more in the cis-9, trans-11CLA (0.59 g/100 g milk fat) than that in buffalo milk (0.47 g/100 g milk fat). The results revealed that not only forage type played a critical role in determining the variations of milk nitrogen distribution, milk amino acids and fatty acids but also animal species had a significant effect on these parameters. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum].

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    potassium application [120 kg ha -1 extract, all extracts showed high and similar DPPH scavenging activity. The highest phenolic compounds were obtained with 30 kg ha -1 of K 2 SO 4 , whereas the use of 60 kg ha -1 caused the highest total flavonoid content. This plant is a good source of K + , Ca +2 , PO4 -3 , and Cl -1 . In this study, increasing doses of potassium sulfate had significant effect on element, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the milk thistle. All tested extracts were active against all tested microbial species.All extracts have shown high and similar DPPH scavenging activity.There was a gradual increase in the biological properties of the milk thistle seeds with rising levels of potassium sulfate.The milk thistle seeds are rather rich sources of K + , Ca +2 , PO4 -3 and Cl -1 potentially bioavailable for human consumption. Abbreviations used: AlCl 3 : aluminum chloride, Ca +2 : calcium, Cl - : chloride, Cr: chromium CE: catechol equivalents, DPPH: 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, DAP: diamonyum fosfat, F - : fluoride, Fe: iron, K 2 SO 4 : potassium sulfate, K+ : potassium, Li+: lithium, Mg +2 : magnesium, NH 4 + : amonyum, Na + : sodium, NO 2 - : nitrite, NO 3 - : nitrate, Ni: nickel, NaNO 2 : sodium nitrite, NaOH: sodium hidroksit. ND: Not detectable, PO4 -3 : phosphorus, Zn: zinc.

  10. Innate Immunity and Human Milk MicroRNAs Content: A New Perspective for Premature Newborns

    Erika Cione

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context The premature newborns are prone to develop both early onset and late onset neonatal sepsis. The major causes of this phenomenon rely on the immaturity of the immune system, which has reduced capability to respond adequately to pathogens. Evidence Acquisition Titles and abstracts of previous papers were scanned before reading the full-text, in order to retrieve appropriate information. The databases used for searching were PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase for articles published before 1st of July, 2016. Secondary search for articles cited in reference lists were identified by the primary search. This review focused on neonatal sepsis incidence and the associated immune response with regards to microRNAs of human milk as a new microelement that enables regulation of innate immunity functions. Results Since human milk is a valuable source of microRNAs, a better understanding of its content will open a new therapeutic avenue for the clinical management of infectious diseases affecting premature newborns. The variation in miRNAs quantity in human milk needs to be considered. Mother’s milk can have different amounts of miRNAs and the identification of a microMilk batch richer of miRNAs can be a nutrition intervention method for modulating innate immunity in clinical management of premature newborns. Conclusions Routine translation of the microMilk concept for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, in the management of premature newborns could be a way of defending premature newborns and Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants from both early and late sepsis.

  11. Role of dietary supplementation in the protein content of bovine milk

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... protein contents was 32.85 µg/ml (3.3%), which increased to 34.08 µg/ml (3.4 %), 34.03 µg/ml (3.4 %) and ... *Corresponding author: E.mail: aqib72@aup.edu.pk. Phone: .... Figure 2. SDS-PAGE analysis for the composition of milk protein ... detoxified matri flour with wheat flour on the quality of pan bread.

  12. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  13. Milk and hair progesterone contents during the oestrous cycle and gestation in goats

    Guo Dazhi; Zeng Xianyin; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua

    1991-01-01

    Milk and hair progesterone contents were determined during the oestrous cycle and gestation in Saanen, F1 crosses (Saanen x Chengdu Mah) and F2 (Saanen x (Saanen x Chengdu Mah)) goats using the radioimmunoassay kits provided by the IAEA. Hair samples were collected from the back of the goats every day from day 1 (after oestrus) to day 28 and every 5 days from day 30 to parturition. Foremilk samples were also collected daily from day 1 to day 20. The results showed that there were significant differences in milk progesterone concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant goats during days 19 to 22 after oestrus. Progesterone in goat hair could be detected using the RIA kits. Hair progesterone content was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during the first 20 days of pregnancy in non-pregnant goats; a similar correlation was observed during the oestrous cycle. When milk samples were collected on day 22 post-oestrus and 3.9 ng/mL was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 82.4% and 100% respectively. When hair samples were collected on day 22 and 3.7 ng/50 mg hair was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone contents increased gradually from day 30 to day 120 and decreased rapidly from day -8 before parturition to parturition. 6 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  15. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming

    Pavel Horký

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ecological farming is increasingly spread in the European Union. The aim of this relatively young farming method is a friendly approach to agricultural production with an emphasis to deliver healthy raw materials and food to final consumer. Selenium is included in an essential trace micronutrients which are necessary for the proper process of physiological reactions. It is a part of glutathione peroxidase, which is a powerful antioxidant. At present,  selenium-deficiency can occur in feed and food in central Europe. Selenium deficiency is one cause of the higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study whether the addition of selenium to the diet of dairy cows in ecological farming can increase its concentration in milk and affect quantitative (milk yield and quality (content of protein, fat, lactose, somatic cells and urea milk indicators. The experiment included twenty cows of Holstein breed. The first experimental group of cows (n = 10 was fed with selenium in an amount of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (as selenomethionine in the feed dose. The control group (n = 10 was not fed with the increased selenium in the feed dose. The basic feed dose contained 0.17 mg of Se/kg in the diet. For dairy cows, daily intake was of 20.5 kg of dry matter feed. The duration of the experiment was set at 45 days. The selenium concentration in milk was measured from 0.13 to 0.15 µg.mL-1 in the experimental group of cows during the evaluation. The control group of cows without the addition of selenium to the diet showed a selenium concentration below the detection limit. During the experiment, milk yield, lactose, fat and protein were not affected. A significant decrease (p <0.05 of somatic cells by 58% occurred in milk in the experimental group. The amount of urea was significantly lower in both groups in the experimental (by 52%; p <0.05 and control (50%; p <0.05. These results show that the addition of selenium may increase

  16. Effect of ShengRu mistura on the serum and milk contents of PRL in postpartum women

    Yin Yong; Tang Shanling; Yuan Chengye; Xu Zheng'an; Ni Chunmei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of ShengRu mistura on the amount of the milk secreted and serum/milk contents of prolactin (PRL) in post-partum women. Methods: ShengRu mistura, a Chinese traditional formula, was administered to 100 post-partum women at the dose of 100ml q 12h on d2 through d4 after normal delivery. Serum PRL (measured 2h after delivery and on d4) and milk PRL (measured on d2 and d4) contents were measured with RIA in these women as well as in 100 controls. The amount of milk secreted on d4 was noted. Results: The amounts of milk secreted on d4 were significantly larger in women receiving ShengRu mistura than those in controls (P<0.001). The serum and milk PRL levels were also significantly higher in women treated with ShengRu mistura than those in controls (P<0.001). Conclusion: ShengRu mistura was effective in promoting milk secretion with higher prolactin levels in serum and milk. (authors)

  17. Comparison of free fatty acid content of human milk from Taiwanese mothers and infant formula.

    Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Jim, Wai-Tim; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Wang, Tuen-Jen; Huang, Sung-Fa; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Few studies on the free fatty acid (FFA) content of milk from non-Caucasian mothers have been published. We compared the FFA concentrations in human milk (HM) from Taiwanese mothers of preterm (PTHM) and full-term infants (FTHM) and in infant formula (IF). Thirty-eight HM samples were collected from 23 healthy lactating mothers and 15 mothers who gave birth prematurely (range 29-35 weeks, mean 33 weeks). The regular formula and preterm infant formula (PTIF) for three brands of powdered IF were also evaluated. Milk samples were extracted and methylated for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Reference values for individual FFAs in breast milk from Taiwanese mothers were determined. The mean total FFAs were significantly higher in IF (21,554 μmol/L) and PTIF (19,836 μmol/L) than in FTHM (8,540 μmol/L) and PTHM (9,259 μmol/L) (p milk (43.1% for FTHM, 42.8% for PTHM, 45.5% for IF and 45.3% for PTIF). Monounsaturated FAs were significantly higher in IF and PTIF (42.6% and 43.9%) than in FTHM and PTHM (37.7% and 39.5%), and polyunsaturated FAs in FTHM and PTHM (20% and 18.2%) were higher than in IF and PTIF (11.9% and 10.9%). HM had a more desirable linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid ratio than IF. No significant differences in individual FFAs in FTHM were observed among three lactating periods. FFA levels in HM from Taiwanese mothers are in agreement with results for different geographically distinct populations. Nevertheless, the FFA content in IF did not meet well with HM, particularly, the excess additives of saturated and monounsaturated FAs, and the shortage of polyunsaturated FAs. The effect of variations in FFA content in IF on future unfavorable outcomes such as obesity, atopic syndrome, and less optimal infant neurodevelopment should be further investigated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  19. Analysis of cows' milk in the content of radioactive cs137 gamma-spectrometric method

    Zagidulin, Z.Z.; Isayev, R.Sh.; Guseynova, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The most intense pollution of the environment Cs137 (after the ban of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests), was the result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The consequence of this accident was the accumulation of large amounts of Cs-137 in the atmosphere, which was the source of the global fallout of this isotope in the Earth's surface, including the territory of Azerbaijan. When considering livestock as one of the links of contamination by radioactive substances in food chains should be recognized that the main risk associated with the accumulation of radioactive Cs137 in the soil, plants and animal products originating ultimately in the human diet. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactive Cs137 in cow's milk. Subsequent samples of milk were purchased in stores and have been measured in the native form. Pal Sud milk produced in Azerbaijan. On Health - Russia. Savushkin product - Belarus. As a radiometric measurement setup Cs137 in cow's milk was used semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer with a detection unit based on the detection of high-purity germanium (manufactured by Canberra) in the lead shielding.

  20. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  1. Electrophoretic characterization of protein interactions suggesting limited feasibility of accelerated shelf-life testing of ultra-high temperature milk.

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Chandrapala, Jayani; Donkor, Osaana; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated shelf-life testing is applied to a variety of products to estimate keeping quality over a short period of time. The industry has not been successful in applying this approach to ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk because of chemical and physical changes in the milk proteins that take place during processing and storage. We investigated these protein changes, applying accelerated shelf-life principles to UHT milk samples with different fat levels and using native- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Samples of UHT skim and whole milk were stored at 20, 30, 40, and 50°C for 28d. Irrespective of fat content, UHT treatment had a similar effect on the electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins. At the start of testing, proteins were bonded mainly through disulfide and noncovalent interactions. However, storage at and above 30°C enhanced protein aggregation via covalent interactions. The extent of aggregation appeared to be influenced by fat content; whole milk contained more fat than skim milk, implying aggregation via melted or oxidized fat, or both. Based on reduction in loss in absolute quantity of individual proteins, covalent crosslinking in whole milk was facilitated mainly by products of lipid oxidation and increased access to caseins for crosslinking reactions. Maillard and dehydroalanine products were the main contributors involved in protein changes in skim milk. Protein crosslinking appeared to follow a different pathway at higher temperatures (≥40°C) than at lower temperatures, making it very difficult to extrapolate these changes to protein interactions at lower temperatures. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  4. Potassium in milk and milk products

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  5. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  6. Influence of breed, year season and lactation stage on the buffalo milk mineral content

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the milk mineral composition of buffalo raised in Corrientes, Argentina, as well as to investigate variations attributed to breed, lactation period and time of the year. Milk samples (n = 105 were collected from 25 Murrah, Mediterranean, Jafarabadi and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes of second and fifth lactation. Animals were located in a dairy farm area with subtropical wet climate with 1.690 mm annual rains and annual mean temperature of 22°C. Mean records were: Ca (1.12 ± 0.40 g.kg-1, P (0.99 ± 0.32 g.kg-1, Mg (0.08± 0.02 g.kg-1, K (0.92 ± 0.25 g.kg-1, Na (0.35 ± 0.11 g.kg-1, Cu (0.35 ± 0.16 mg.kg-1, Mn (0.27 ± 0.10 mg.kg-1, Zn (4.10 ± 1.40 mg.kg-1 y Fe (1.61 ± 0.61 mg.kg-1. These parameters did not reveal significant differences attributable to breed, except for Mg. The time of the year affected the composition of the minerals, except for the Mg and Zn. The nursing stages affect the Ca, P, K and Cu concentrations. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mineral content in the milk of buffaloes, it is considerably influenced by regional factors.

  7. EFFECT OF SEVERITY OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS ON SOMATIC CELL COUNT AND LACTOSE CONTENTS OF BUFFALO MILK

    A. SHARIF, T. AHMAD, M. Q. BILAL1, A. YOUSAF AND G. MUHAMMAD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of severity of sub-clinical mastitis on somatic cell count (SCC and lactose contents of milk in 100 apparently healthy dairy buffaloes. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT was used to determine the severity of sub-clinical mastitis which was graded as Negative (N, Traces (T, mild clumping (P1, moderate clumping (P2 and heavy clumping (P3. Mean milk SCC (x 105 at SFMT scores N, T, P1, P2 and P3 were 2.06 + 1.09, 3.73 + 0.96, 9.69 + 4.05, 31.97 + 10.26 and 121.01 + 23.71 per ml, respectively. Using the same scoring, mean values of milk lactose were 5.10 + 0.09, 4.81 + 0.10, 4.66 + 0.08, 3.92 + 0.05 and 2.66 + 0.37 percent, respectively. Percent increases of mean SCC in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control were 81.47, 370.51, 1451.71 and 5773.41, respectively. Percent decreases of mean lactose in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control were 5.54, 8.52, 22.98 and 47.81, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated non-significant difference of mean SCC in N and T groups, while there was highly significant (P<0.01 difference in mean SCC among P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to N. Similarly, there was a significant (P<0.05 difference of mean lactose among T, P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to control/ negative group.

  8. Content of sugar, organic acids and ethanol in fermented milk beverages obtained with different types of kombucha inoculum

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different types and concentration of kombucha inoculum on content of sugar, organic acids and ethanol in the fermented beverages produced from milk of 0.9% fat content. Three different kombucha inoculums, cultivated on black tea with addition of sucrose: standard inoculum - 10% (w/w and 15% (w/w, concentrated by microfiltration- 10% (w/w and 15% (w/w, and concentrated by evaporation - 1.5% (w/w and 3.0% (w/w, were applied in the manufacture of fermented milk. Contents of lactose, galactose, glucose, fructose, organic acids, and ethanol in the kombuha fermented milk beverages were determined by the enzyme tests. It was found that the lactose content varied from 3.30 to 4.0 g/100g. All samples showed higher content glucose than fructose. The content of L-lactic acid in the samples ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 g/100g, while significantly lower level of D-lactic and acetic acid were determined in all samples of kombucha fermented milk (<0.06g/100g.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 46009

  9. The effect of between-breast differences on human milk macronutrients content.

    Pines, N; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Moran Lev, H; Mangel, L; Lubetzky, R

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of maternal handedness and preferential side of breastfeeding upon macronutrients concentration in human milk (HM). We aimed to compare macronutrients content of HM from both breasts, taking into account the self-reported preferential feeding ('dominant') breast, breast size and handedness (right versus left). We tested the null hypothesis that macronutrients content of HM is not affected by breast dominancy, breast size or maternal handedness. Fifty-seven lactating mothers were recruited. HM macronutrients were measured after mid manual expression using infrared transmission spectroscopy. Out of the 57 mothers recruited, 12 were excluded from the analyses because they brought in insufficient samples. Among the 22 who reported a size difference, 16 (73%) had a larger left breast (Pmacronutrients between the right and the left breasts. In multiple stepwise backward regression analysis, fat, carbohydrate, protein and energy contents were unaffected by maternal handedness, breast side dominance or breast size asymmetry. Macronutrients content of mid expression HM is unaffected by maternal handedness, breast size or breast side dominance.

  10. Jambolan sherbets overrun, color, and acceptance in relation to the sugar, milk, and pulp contents in formulation

    Jackeline Cintra SOARES

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate in sherbet formation the effects of sugar, milk, and jambolan pulp quantity on the overrun, color, physicochemical characteristics, microbiological characteristics, and acceptance of the experimental sherbets, in addition to evaluating the bioactive compounds of the selected product. Seven formulations were established through the Simplex method. The formulation with 20g 100g-1 sugar, 45g 100g-1 milk, and 35g 100g-1 jambolan pulp was selected (S5 because it was included among the most accepted sensorially (S4 and S5, and also presented higher overrun, chroma, SST/AT, and pH than S4, receiving the scores 8.0; 8.2, 6.4 and 7.1 and 6.1, respectively, for appearance, color, flavor, texture, and odor. The selected sherbet presented a high total phenolic compound content of 192mg gallic acid g-1, and a percentage of DPPH inhibition of 73%. It is concluded that it is possible to produce jambolan sherbet with desirable physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics, which can increase the possibilities of applying the fruit as an ingredient in the edible ice cream industry.

  11. Effects of dietary resistant starch content on metabolic status, milk composition, and microbial profiling in lactating sows and on offspring performance.

    Yan, H; Lu, H; Almeida, V V; Ward, M G; Adeola, O; Nakatsu, C H; Ajuwon, K M

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of dietary resistant starch (RS) content on serum metabolite and hormone concentrations, milk composition, and faecal microbial profiling in lactating sows, as well as on offspring performance was investigated. Sixteen sows were randomly allotted at breeding to two treatments containing low- and high-RS contents from normal and high-amylose corn varieties, respectively, and each treatment had eight replicates (sows). Individual piglet body weight (BW) and litter size were recorded at birth and weaning. Milk samples were obtained on day 10 after farrowing for composition analysis. On day 2 before weaning, blood and faecal samples were collected to determine serum metabolite and hormone concentrations and faecal microbial populations, respectively. Litter size at birth and weaning were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the sow dietary treatments. Although feeding the RS-rich diet to sows reduced (p = 0.004) offspring birth BW, there was no difference in piglet BW at weaning (p > 0.05). High-RS diet increased (p content, and tended (p = 0.09) to increase milk fat content in lactating sows. Feeding the RS-rich diet to sows increased (p bacterial population diversity. These results indicate that high-RS diets induce fatty acid mobilization and a greater intestinal bacterial richness in lactating sows, as well as a greater nutrient density in maternal milk, without affecting offspring performance at weaning. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields and heat treatments on vitamins of milk.

    Bendicho, Silvia; Espachs, Alexandre; Arántegui, Javier; Martín, Olga

    2002-02-01

    The effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments at room or moderate temperature on water-soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were evaluated and compared with conventional thermal treatments. Vitamin retention was determined in two different substrates, milk and simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF). Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 400 micros at field strengths from 18.3 to 27.1 kV/cm and to heat treatments of up to 60 min at temperatures from 50 to 90 degrees C. No changes in vitamin content were observed after HIPEF or thermal treatments except for ascorbic acid. Milk retained more ascorbic acid after a 400 microstreatment at 22.6 kV/cm (93.4%) than after low (63 degrees C-30 min; 49.7% retained) or high (75 degrees C-15s; 86.7% retained) heat pasteurisation treatments. Retention of ascorbic acid fitted a first-order kinetic model for both HIPEF and thermal processes. First-order constant values varied from 1.8 x 10.4 to 1.27 x 10(-3) micros(-1) for the HIPEF treatments (18.3-27.1 kV/cm) and, for thermal processing ranged from 5 x 10(-3) to 8 x 10(-2) min(-1) (50-90 degrees C). No significant differences were found between the results obtained after applying HIPEF treatments at room or moderate temperature. However, results depended on the treatment media. A beneficial effect of natural skim milk components, mainly proteins, was observed on the preservation of ascorbic acid, since skim milk retained more ascorbic acid than SMUF after HIPEF treatments.

  13. Effect of milking efficiency on Tc-99 content of Tc-99m derived from Tc-99m generators

    Bonnyman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tc-99m obtained by separation from its parent Mo-99 always contains Tc-99 produced by decay of Tc-99m and Mo-99. Factors effecting the Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios are discussed. An HPLC method has been developed to measure the 99 TcO 4- content of sodium pertechnetate from generators with a detection limit of 0.9 ng Tc-99 for a 500 μl/ aliquot of TcO 4- -99m. First eluates of 10 chromatograph-ic generators gave Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios ranging from 3.5-46 ng Tc/mCi Tc-99m measured at the time of milking. The measurements indicate that Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios high enough to cause adverse labelling effects could be found in 'instant pertechnetate' and in the first eluate from Tc-99m generators for the activities normally used in radiopharmaceutical production

  14. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Diana Escuder-Vieco; Irene Espinosa-Martos; Juan M. Rodríguez; Nieves Corzo; Antonia Montilla; Pablo Siegfried; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Leónides Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an...

  15. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    1981-01-01

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more 137 Cs, 131 I, or 90 Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk. Levels of 137 Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more 137 Cs and 90 Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations

  16. The rapid determination of fat and protein content in fresh raw milk using the laser light scattering technology

    Xin, Qi; Zhi Ling, Hou; Jian Long, Tian; Zhu, Yu

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to develop a simple and rapid method for determination of fat and protein content in milk. Based on the laser light scattering theory, the ratio of the scattered light (at 90±0.05° scattering angles) intensity to the transmitted light intensity, which is called scattered-transmitted-ratio method, is adopted as the optical parameter representing the milk fat content and the protein content. In this way, the influence of the fluctuation of the power of the light source is eliminated and the accuracy of determination is improved accordingly. The system we use is real-time and can satisfy the challenging requirements of dairy farming. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using this technology for fresh milk fat and protein analysis. The fat contents and protein contents of 50 milk samples determined by this method were consistent with the values obtained by the reference methods based on Rose-Gottlieb method and Kjeldahl determination of N method. In this paper, the operating principle of the instrument is introduced and the influence of the environmental conditions, such as the homogenization pressure and homogenization temperature, etc. on the result of the test is analyzed. Through data analysis, the concrete schemes for testing the fat using the curve fitting and testing the protein using the surface fitting technique are determined. Finally, the difference from the reference values of the test is discussed.

  17. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  18. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijick-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Djick-Brouwer, D.A.J.

    Introduction: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. Maternal diet influences milk DHA, whereas milk AA seems rather constant. We investigated milk AA, DHA and DHA/AA after supplementation of AA plus DHA, or DHA alone during pregnancy and lactation.

  19. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content.

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Flax, Valerie L; Jamieson, Denise J; Ellington, Sascha R; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer's contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9-4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151 μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5 μg/L (free thiamin, priboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8-19.6 μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0-7.4 μg/L (control), priboflavin relative amounts from 92-94:6-8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The continuous presence of FAD in breast milk suggests an active transport and secretion system for this vitamer or possibly formation of this co-enymatic form in the

  20. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation in cow’s feed, milk processing and storage on lutein content and sensory quality

    In this work, we studied the lutein content in milk as affected by lutein supplementation in the absence and presence of common antioxidants, vitamin E (Vit E), tea polyphenols (TP) and ethoxyquin (EQ) in cow’s feed, and by subsequent pasteurization (HTST and UHT) and storage. Results showed that l...

  1. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Sprong, R.C.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment

  2. Influence of fermentation temperature on the content of fatty acids in low energy milk-based kombucha products

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fermentation temperature on the fatty acids content in low energy milk-based products obtained by kombucha inoculums with herbal teas. In this investigation low energy milk-based kombucha products were produced from milk with 0.8% milk fat using 10% (v/v kombucha inoculums cultivated on winter savory, peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme. The process of fermentation was conducted at two temperatures: 40°C and 43°C. Fermentation was stopped after the pH value of 4.5 was reached. Duration of the fermentation process was shorter by applying higher fermentation temperature. Fatty acids content was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Predominant fatty acids in all obtained products were saturated fatty acids, first of all the monounsaturated ones. The higher temperature resulted in the formation of lower amount of saturated fatty acids in the obtained milk-based kombucha products.

  3. Comparative study on shelf life of whole milk processed by high-intensity pulsed electric field or heat treatment.

    Odriozola-Serrano, I; Bendicho-Porta, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-03-01

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HI-PEF) processing (35.5 kV/cm for 1,000 or 300 micros with bipolar 7-micros pulses at 111 Hz; the temperature outside the chamber was always milk were investigated and compared with traditional heat pasteurization (75 degrees C for 15 s), and to raw milk during storage at 4 degrees C. A HIPEF treatment of 1,000 micros ensured the microbiological stability of whole milk stored for 5 d under refrigeration. Initial acidity values, pH, and free fatty acid content were not affected by the treatments; and no proteolysis and lipolysis were observed during 1 wk of storage in milk treated by HIPEF for 1,000 micros. The whey proteins (serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-lactalbumin) in HIPEF-treated milk were retained at 75.5, 79.9, and 60%, respectively, similar to values for milk treated by traditional heat pasteurization.

  4. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  5. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  6. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk -9, -11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    T. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%, middle (0.37±0.010%, and late stages (0.44±0.020% showed significant differences (p<0.05; and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95% was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

  7. Evaluating the Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH and Pasteurization effects on the quality and shelf life of donkey milk

    Cephas Nii Akwei Addo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk has functional properties of great interest to human nutrition. The effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH at 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa in comparison with different pasteurization treatments of 70 °C for 1 min and 85 °C for 1 min on the physicochemical quality and shelf-life of treated and raw (untreated donkey milk were studied. Gross composition and pH, total mesophilic counts, lysozyme activity and physical stability were studied during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. The compositional profile showed resemblance to that of human milk characterized by high lactose, low fat and low protein content and was least affected by the treatments. UHPH treatments at 200 MPa, 300 MPa and 85 °C were able to maintain steady pH during storage whereas the low intensity treatments showed a significant decrease. The observed lysozyme activity in the samples was generally high and appeared to have been enhanced by the applied UHPH and pasteurization treatments with no significant change during storage. Although the raw milk showed good initial microbial quality, extensive growth of mesophilic microorganisms occurred after 7 days of storage, unlike the treated samples which were able to maintain significantly low counts throughout the storage period. The physical stability of milk was negatively influenced by the higher UHPH treatments of 200 MPa and 300 MPa which exhibited sedimentation phenomenon, while creaming was insignificant.

  8. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of the Addition of Polyacrylic Hydrogel on the Content of Proteins, Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk Protein Solutions

    Aleksandar Ž. Kostić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate and bovine serum albumin (BSA were treated with polyacrylic hydrogel to establish whether the hydrogel could be used for decontamination of heavy metal ions from milk protein-based products. The obtained results indicated that swelling of hydrogel in these solutions had different effects on their mineral, trace element and total protein content. Total protein and phosphorus content increased in milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate solutions after swelling of hydrogel without changes in their protein compositions. On the other hand, the protein content in BSA solution decreased after swelling. The content of Na did not change in milk protein concentrate solution, whereas it significantly increased in whey protein concentrate solution after hydrogel swelling. The content of Ca and Mg was reduced after the swelling in milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate solutions for 20.3–63.4 %, depending on the analysed sample and the mineral. The content of Zn did not change during swelling, whereas the content of Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb significantly decreased after hydrogel swelling in all analysed samples. According to the obtained results, the addition of polyacrylic hydrogel to milk and whey protein concentrate solutions can significantly decrease the content of heavy metal ions without affecting their protein composition. Therefore, this work could be useful in developing a new technological process for heavy metal purification of milk protein-based products.

  10. Effect of high-pressure-jet processing on the viscosity and foaming properties of pasteurized whole milk.

    Tran, M; Roberts, R; Felix, T L; Harte, F M

    2018-05-01

    The processing of milk using high-pressure technologies has been shown to dissociate casein micelles, denature whey proteins, and change the appearance and rheological properties of milk. A novel high-pressure processing technology called high-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing is currently being investigated for use in the food industry. Few studies have evaluated the effects of HPJ technology on dairy foods. The present study investigated the physicochemical and foaming properties of homogenized pasteurized whole milk processed at pressures from 0 to 500 MPa using HPJ processing. The apparent particle size exhibited a monomodal distribution in whole milk samples processed up to 125 MPa and a bimodal distribution for samples processed at 250, 375, and 500 MPa. The viscosity increased from approximately 2 to 5 mPa·s when whole milk was processed using HPJ at 375 MPa, and foam expansion increased from approximately 80 to 140% after processing at >125 MPa. Foam stability was limited to pressures in the 375 to 500 MPa range. We hypothesized that the increase in apparent particle size was due to the dissociation of casein micelles into surface-active casein protein monomers, and the formation of casein-casein and casein-fat particles. Ultracentrifugation of samples into 3 milk fractions (supernatant, serum, and precipitate), and subsequent fat and protein analysis on the 3 fractions, showed that a strong interaction between casein proteins and fat triglycerides occurred, evidenced by the increase in fat content associated with the precipitate fraction with increasing pressure. This suggests that stable casein-fat aggregates are formed when whole milk is processed using HPJ at pressure >125 MPa. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  12. Freezing point osmometry of milk to determine the additional water content – an issue in general quality control and German food regulation

    Holz Birger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of the osmolality of aqueous samples using a freezing point osmometer is a well-established, routine laboratory method. In addition to their use in clinical and pharmaceutical laboratories, freezing point osmometers are also employed in food testing laboratories. One application is the determination of the osmolality of milk. Although cow's milk is a natural product whose water content is approximately 87%, the osmolality of milk is a significant value when the milk is collected from a larger population of animals. This value is used in milk processing to control the water content, based on the German Food Control Regulations for Milk. Results Measurement of the freezing point and osmolality of milk samples was performed with a Knauer Semi-Micro Freezing Point Osmometer. Osmolality was measured for the untreated milk samples and following their dilution (by volume with 10% and 50% water. The measurements were made after 1, 4 and 7 days to evaluate changes over time. All measurement values for the undiluted milk were spread over a small interval with an average of 271 mOsmol/kg. After mixing the milk samples with 10% water, the average decreased to 242 mOsmol/kg, while mixing with 50% water resulted in an average osmolality of 129 mOsmol/kg. There was no significant change for the osmolality within the 7 days (measurements from days 1, 4 and 7. Conclusion The results observed demonstrate clearly that the additional water content of milk can be determined easily using a freezing point osmometer. Milk samples that contain additional water have a significantly decreased osmolality, corresponding to an increased freezing point. The effect on osmolality of ageing the milk samples could not be determined in this study's time-dependent measurements.

  13. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  14. Letters: Milk and Mortality : Study used wrong assumption about galactose content of fermented dairy products

    Hettinga, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Michaëlsson and colleagues’ proposed mechanism for the effect of milk intake on the risk of mortality and fractures is based on the assumption that fermented dairy products (which had the opposite effects to those of non-fermented milk) are free of galactose.1 For most fermented dairy products,

  15. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

    Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

    2018-07-30

    Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Bacillus cereus Enzymes on Milk Quality following Ultra High Temperature Processing

    B. Janštová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a model case of contamination of long-life semi-skimmed milk with the spores of six B. cereus strains, isolated from the farm environment and raw milk, proteolysis was monitored by measuring changes in protein content by infra-red spectroscopy; free tyrosine was measured by the Lowry method according to Juffs, and the reduction in casein fractions by SDS-PAGE. Lipolysis was monitored by the dilution extractive method. At a storage temperature of 4 °C for 4 months no enzyme processes were observed, whereas at a storage temperature of 24 °C a marked enzyme activity was found during maximum 3 weeks as well as sensory changes of UHT milk. After three weeks of storage, a reduction in protein content from 34.55 g l-1 milk to 29.46 ± 2.00 g l-1 milk, and a reduction in the free tyrosine from 0.65 to 2.13 ± 0.28 mg ml-1 was found, as well as increased molar contents of free fatty acids (FFA from 41.97 to 1617.22 ± 68.17 mmol kg-1 milk fat. After six days of storage, α-casein, β-casein and κ-casein dropped to 69 ± 10%, 56 ± 16% and 43 ± 10%, respectively. Majority of changes in UHT milk depended on the B. cereus strain used, initial microbial counts and the method of heat inactivation of spores.

  17. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  18. The trans fatty acid content in human milk and its association with maternal diet among lactating mothers in Malaysia.

    Daud, Akmar Zuraini; Mohd-Esa, Norhaizan; Azlan, Azrina; Chan, Yoke Mun

    2013-01-01

    Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desaturation of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (analyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA consumption and the TFA level in human milk.

  19. A study on lipid content and fatty acid of breast milk and its association with mother′s diet composition

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk , and its association with the mother′s diet. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. Results: The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6 and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3 made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Conclusion: Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention.

  20. Fat content affects bioaccessibility and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Addition of lutein to dairy products is an alternative that widens the range of foods which could be lutein sources. However, bioaccessibility is an essential aspect to be considered during the development of products with added bioactive substances. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt with different fat contents, and determined the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the esters during digestion. Bioaccessibility of lutei...

  1. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  2. Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the effect on phenolic content, probiotic viability and sensory acceptability.

    Dos Santos, Karina Mo; de Oliveira, Isabel C; Lopes, Marcos Ac; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Buriti, Flávia Ca; Cabral, Lourdes M

    2017-03-01

    Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL -1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  4. Donkey milk production: state of the art

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies among children under one year of age. No specific therapy exists for this allergy, and thus the only feasible response is to avoid assumption of milk and derived products. Studies conducted on the serum of children with hypersensi- tivity to milk have shown that caseins are the proteins with the greater allergenic potential. However, in some cases, children have also shown hypersensitivity to the β-lactoglobulines and to the α-lactal- bumins. When food intolerance is diagnosed in an infant, it is often necessary to impose a period of total parenteral feeding, followed by breast feeding, considered the most correct method of re-feeding. When human milk can not be given, alternative food sources must be sought. Clinical studies have demonstrated that donkey milk could substitute breast feeding in infants affected by severe Ig-E me- diated milk allergies. In these subjects, donkey milk is not only useful, but also safer than other types of milk. In fact donkey milk composition in lipids (high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid and pro- teins (low caseins content is very close to human milk. Lysozyme content in donkey milk resulted to be very high (mean value 1.0 mg/ml if compared to bovine (traces, caprine (traces and human milk. The high lysozyme content of donkey milk may be responsible of the low bacterial count reported in literature and also makes this milk suitable to prevent intestine infections to infants. Among seropro- teins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin content in donkey milk was respectively 3.75 and 1.80 mg/ml and remained substancially the same during the different stages of lactation.

  5. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  6. Milk iron content in breast-feeding mothers after administration of intravenous iron sucrose complex.

    Breymann, Christian; von Seefried, Bettina; Stahel, Michele; Geisser, Peter; Canclini, Camillo

    2007-01-01

    To study the transfer of parenteral iron sucrose into maternal milk in the postpartum period. Ten healthy lactating mothers with functional iron deficiency 2-3 days after delivery received 100 mg intravenous iron sucrose and were observed together with a control group (n=5) without iron treatment during four days. Milk samples were taken before the treatment and every day afterwards. Mean milk iron levels at baseline were 0.43 and 0.46 mg/kg in the treatment and control group and decreased until the end of observation in both groups by 0.11 mg/kg. No significant difference between the groups was found on any study day as well as in the mean change from baseline over all four days. We could not show transfer of iron-sucrose into maternal milk for the given dosage. Since parenteral iron sucrose is widely used in obstetrics, the results provide information about safety of parenteral iron sucrose in the lactation period. The findings are also in agreement with other reports on active biological mammary gland regulation of milk iron concentration.

  7. High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-01-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk – requiring further investigation. - Highlights: ► The highest ΣDDT in breast milk ever found in South Africa is reported. ► Maximum Residue Limit is exceeded, up to 99 times. ► Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake is exceeded, up to 310 times. ► High ΣDDT did not affect duration of lactation. ► Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk. - High levels of DDT in breast milk from a DDT-spayed area exceeded known limits in milk, but did not affect duration lactation. Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk.

  8. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing Pasteurized donor milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Effect of probiotic and storage time of thiamine and riboflavin content in the milk drinks fermented by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1.

    Drywień, Małgorzata; Frąckiewicz, Joanna; Górnicka, Magdalena; Gadek, Joanna; Jałosińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Fermented milk drinks are unique products due to content of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium that are recognized as probiotics. They are a natural component of the colon microbiota as well as commonly used probiotics in functional food. The effects of the storage time and prebiotic type (inuline or oligofructose) were studied in banana-milk drink after fermentation by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 on the thiamine and riboflavin concentrations. The material for the study was fermented fruit milk drinks: banana-milk prepared in laboratory conditions and fruit milk drinks purchased in a local shop, as a comparative material. The thiamine was determined by thiochrome method and the riboflavin was determined by fluorometric method. The storage time after the end of the fermentation process did not increase the content of thiamine and riboflavin in fermented banana-milk drink more than the output level. The addition of oligofructose significantly affected the synthesis of thiamine by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 irrespectively of the storage time. The storage time but not the type of prebiotic affected the riboflavin concentration. Taking into account the highest content of both vitamins, the banana-milk drink fermented by Lactobacillus casei KNE-1 should be consumed immediately or 24 days after fermentation. This information could be used by manufacturers for the planning of technological process. The content of thiamine and riboflavin in the fermented milk drinks is the result of the type of prebiotic, the individual bacterial strain properties as well as the storage time. These factors should be investigated to optimize the content of B vitamins in fermented milk drinks in the future.

  10. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields on milk composition and characteristics

    Irena Jeličić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication and pulsed eletrcic fields (PEF belong to novel food processing methods which are mostly implemented in combination with moderate temperatures and/ or in combination with each other in order to provide adequate microbiological quality with minimal losses of nutritional value. All of three mentioned methods have been intensively investigated for the purpose of inactivation and reduction of foodborne microorganisms present in milk and dairy products. However, a large number of scientific researches have been dedicated to investigation of impact of these methods on changes in constituents like milk fat, milk proteins and lactose as well as changes in mechanisms like renneting properties and coagulation of milk. The aim of this research was to give an overview of changes in milk constituents induced by high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonification and pulsed electric field treatments as well as to suggest how these changes could improve conventional processes in the dairy industry.

  11. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  12. High-protein goat's milk diet identified through newborn screening: clinical warning of a potentially dangerous dietetic practice.

    Maines, Evelina; Gugelmo, Giorgia; Tadiotto, Elisa; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Campostrini, Natascia; Pasini, Andrea; Ion-Popa, Florina; Vincenzi, Monica; Teofoli, Francesca; Camilot, Marta; Bordugo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing optimal food for infants' healthy growth and development and the WHO recommends that infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life. For mothers who are unable to breast-feed or who decide not to, infant formulas are the safest alternative. Despite recommendations, it is possible that parents make potentially harmful nutritional choices for their children because of cultural beliefs or misinformation on infant nutrition. We describe a possible health risk of not breast-feeding, highlighting a potentially dangerous dietetic practice. Design/Setting/Subjects We report the case of a newborn who was fed with undiluted goat's milk because her mother could not breast-feed and was not aware of infant formulas. The dietary mistake was detected because of a positive expanded newborn screening result, characterized by severe hypertyrosinaemia with high methionine and phenylalanine levels, a pattern suggestive of severe liver impairment. The pattern of plasma amino acids was related to a goat's milk diet, because of its very different composition compared with human milk and infant formula. Our experience demonstrates that, when breast-feeding is not possible or is not exclusive, infants may be at risk of dangerous nutritional practices, including diets with very high protein content, such as a goat's milk diet. Families of not breast-fed infants may need appropriate advice on safe alternatives for infant nutrition to avoid the risks of inappropriate diets.

  13. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Jaideep S. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  14. How UK internet websites portray breast milk expression and breast pumps: a qualitative study of content.

    McInnes, Rhona J; Arbuckle, Alix; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-04-02

    Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is recommended but few parents achieve this; particularly younger and less well-educated mothers. Many parents introduce infant formula milk to manage feeding but describe a desire to express breastmilk alongside a lack of support or information. The Internet is highlighted as a key resource. This study aimed to examine UK websites on expressing breastmilk to identify key messages and how information is provided. We used search terms in Google to identify websites with information rich content on expressing breastmilk and breast pumps. Ten sites were purposively selected at two time points in 2013 and 2014 to represent 3 categories: commercial, NHS or 3(rd) sector (voluntary or not for profit). Each site was reviewed by two researchers, data and reflective analytical notes were uploaded into NVivo and thematic data analysis undertaken. Sites varied considerably in their design, use of images, videos, audio files, product placement and marketing opportunities. Three key themes emerged: depiction of expressing; reasons to express; and recommendations about expressing. Inconsistent and conflicting information was common within and between sites. Expressing was portrayed as similar to, but easier than, breastfeeding although at the same time difficult and requiring to be learned. Expressed breastmilk is promoted by mainly commercial sites as immediately available, although pumps were also presented as needing to be concealed, not heard or seen. Health benefits were the overarching reason for expressing. Although predicated on separation from the baby, commercial sites identified this as a positive choice while other sites focused on separation due to circumstance. Commercial sites emphasised restrictions related to breastfeeding, lack of sleep and bonding with the father and wider family. Non-commercial sites emphasised hand expression, with some not mentioning breast pumps. Practical information about starting expressing in

  15. The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).

    Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazneńska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01).

  16. Production of ethanol and biomass starting to present lactose in the milk whey

    Angeles-Ramirez, K.; Arana-cuenca, A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.

    2009-01-01

    Milk whey is a by-product of the milk industry, a highly polluting waste due to the quantity of COD and BOD that it contains. The contamination caused by milk whey is mostly due to its lactose content. The fermentation of milk whey to ethanol is a possible road to reduce the polluting effect. (Author)

  17. Reduction of protease activity in milk by continuous flow high-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Bendicho, S; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martín, O

    2003-03-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a non-thermal food processing technology that is currently being investigated to inactivate microorganisms and certain enzymes, involving a limited increase of food temperature. Promising results have been obtained on the inactivation of microbial enzymes in milk when suspended in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous HIPEF equipment on inactivating a protease from Bacillus subtilis inoculated in milk. Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 866 micros of squared wave pulses at field strengths from 19.7 to 35.5 kV/cm, using a treatment chamber that consisted of eight colinear chambers connected in series. Moreover, the effects of different parameters such as pulse width (4 and 7 micros), pulse repetition rates (67, 89, and 111 Hz), and milk composition (skim and whole milk) were tested. Protease activity decreased with increased treatment time or field strength and pulse repetition rate. Regarding pulse width, no differences were observed between 4 and 7 micros pulses when total treatment time was considered. On the other hand, it was observed that milk composition affected the results since higher inactivation levels were reached in skim than in whole milk. The maximum inactivation (81%) was attained in skim milk after an 866-micros treatment at 35.5 kV/cm and 111 Hz.

  18. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  19. the utilization of milk diets with different fat content by the ...

    day bulk samples were stored for analysis and dried to constant weight before ... to dry three quantities of each urine sample in the same crucible in order to .... fect on thc digestibility of the differ€nt milk diets" Thb b in accordance with the ...

  20. Effect of forage on the content of phyto-oestrogens in bovine milk

    Andersen, Charlotte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are believed to have a range of beneficial effects on predominant Western diseases. A few studies on phyto-oestrogens in milk exist and show that the composition can be affected by feeding. Therefore, the aim was to study how feeding of lucerne and grass/clover silages (GCSs) aff...

  1. Milk fatty acid profile of Peruvian Criollo and Brown Swiss cows in response to different diet qualities fed at low and high altitude.

    Bartl, Karin; Gomez, Carlos A; García, Miriam; Aufdermauer, Tony; Kreuzer, Michael; Hess, Hans Dieter; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-12-01

    Two identical experimental protocols were followed at 200 and 3,600 m above sea level (a.s.l.) determining the changes of the milk fatty acid (FA) profile of Brown Swiss (BS) and indigenous Peruvian Criollo cows (CR) as a response to diets which were designed to cover the variation in feed quality caused by season. At each site (altitude), six BS and six CR cows, adapted to > 3,500 m a.s.l., were fed three dietary treatments (DS, dry-season forage; RS rainy-season forage; OC, diet optimised to meet the cow's requirements) in a 2 x 2 x 3-factorial arrangement. Intakes of FA and milk yield increased from diet DS (low quality diet) to RS and OC (high quality diet) for both cow types. Milk fat proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), C18:3 c9,c12,c15, total n-3 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were highest (p < 0.05) with diet OC and higher in the lowlands than in the highlands. Low intakes of diet DS obviously resulted in a ruminal energy deficiency and body lipid mobilisation. The ruminal energy deficiency with diet DS was especially pronounced in BS, apparently reducing biohydrogenation rate and leading to lower proportions of C18:0 and higher proportions of C18:3 c9,c12,c15 in milk fat (p < 0.05). Especially C18:3 c9,c12,c15 intake did not concur with its proportion in milk fat, suggesting a strong dependence on energy status. Milk yield and FA excretion with milk were higher for BS than for CR (p < 0.05) with all three diets although milk fat content was lower (p < 0.05) for BS than CR. Milk fat of BS was richer in CLA and PUFA than milk fat of CR (p < 0.05). The desaturase indices for 18 FA were also higher for BS than CR (p < 0.05), suggesting a slightly higher delta9-desaturase activity for BS, especially with diet DS. Milk fat content was generally higher at the high altitude than at the lowland site (p < 0.05), whereas the FA profile was unexpectedly similar across sites. Various interactions were found among diet type, cow type and altitude (site

  2. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The overall and fat composition of milk of various species

    Vesna Gantner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk, an essential source of offspring nourishment, varies in it’s composition and properties significantly across species. In human nutrition, fresh milk and dairy products are valuable sources of protein, fat and energy, and are an important part of daily meals. Most of the world’s milk production (85 % comes from cows followed by buffaloes, goats, ewes, mares and donkeys. However milk related food allergies in infants may be a reason for health problems and may cause a decrease in milk. The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the overall composition of milk and fat from different species in comparison to women milk. Regarding the overall milk composition remarkable differences in energy content, fat, lactose, protein and ash of the various milks were found, but also some similarities among milk from ruminants and non-ruminants were detected. The structures of fat globule membranes were similar among non-ruminants and women milk, while the milk fat globule structure in ruminants differed significantly. The size of fat globules was significantly different between species and highly correlated to the milk fat content, regardless of the specie. The amount of triacylglycerols was notably higher, while the amount of free fatty acids and phospholipids was notably lower in milk from ruminants and women compared to milk from mares and donkeys. The triacylglycerol structure in women and non-ruminantsˈ was similar. The percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower, while the unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in milk from non-ruminants, with a remarkably higher percentage of C-18:2 and C-18:3. The cholesterol content was similar in women and ruminantsˈ milk, but lower in that of non-ruminants. This review indicates that milk from non-ruminants could be more suitable for human nourishment than milk from ruminants.

  4. Milk removal

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  5. Effect of pasture and soybean supplementation on fatty acid profile and CLA content in dairy cow milk

    A. Simonetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has been related to several beneficial effects on human and animal health (anticancerogens, antiatherogenics, etc. The main dietary source of CLA for humans are foods derived from ruminants. In dairy products CLA content depends on ruminal bio-hydrogenation of the dietary unsaturated fats and it is also related to the Δ9desaturase activity in the mammary gland. The CLA level of milk is affected by various factors, including diet composition, that seems to play an important role (Jensen, 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of toasted and raw soybean addition to a mixed diet and...........

  6. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  7. High temperature, short time pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Ranieri, M L; Huck, J R; Sonnen, M; Barbano, D M; Boor, K J

    2009-10-01

    The grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance specifies minimum processing conditions of 72 degrees C for at least 15 s for high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurized milk products. Currently, many US milk-processing plants exceed these minimum requirements for fluid milk products. To test the effect of pasteurization temperatures on bacterial numbers in HTST pasteurized milk, 2% fat raw milk was heated to 60 degrees C, homogenized, and treated for 25 s at 1 of 4 different temperatures (72.9, 77.2, 79.9, or 85.2 degrees C) and then held at 6 degrees C for 21 d. Aerobic plate counts were monitored in pasteurized milk samples at d 1, 7, 14, and 21 postprocessing. Bacterial numbers in milk processed at 72.9 degrees C were lower than in milk processed at 85.2 degrees C on each sampling day, indicating that HTST fluid milk-processing temperatures significantly affected bacterial numbers in fluid milk. To assess the microbial ecology of the different milk samples during refrigerated storage, a total of 490 psychrotolerant endospore-forming bacteria were identified using DNA sequence-based subtyping methods. Regardless of processing temperature, >85% of the isolates characterized at d 0, 1, and 7 postprocessing were of the genus Bacillus, whereas more than 92% of isolates characterized at d 14 and 21 postprocessing were of the genus Paenibacillus, indicating that the predominant genera present in HTST-processed milk shifted from Bacillus spp. to Paenibacillus spp. during refrigerated storage. In summary, 1) HTST processing temperatures affected bacterial numbers in refrigerated milk, with higher bacterial numbers in milk processed at higher temperatures; 2) no significant association was observed between genus isolated and pasteurization temperature, suggesting that the genera were not differentially affected by the different processing temperatures; and 3) although typically present at low numbers in raw milk, Paenibacillus spp. are capable of growing to numbers that can

  8. Associations between high prepregnancy body mass index, breast-milk expression, and breast-milk production and feeding.

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Geraghty, Sheela R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2011-03-01

    Breast-milk expression is widely practiced by American mothers, but little is known about who expresses milk, how expression affects breastfeeding, or whether overweight or obese women, who have less breastfeeding success than do normal-weight women, express milk differently. We investigated 1) whether breast-milk expression behavior differed by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) category and 2) whether the different breastfeeding behaviors of overweight (BMI: ≥25 and obese (BMI: ≥30) women resulted in different breastfeeding outcomes. The subjects (n = 2288) provided information on BMI and breast-milk production, feeding, and expression in mail-in questionnaires as part of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed by using regression procedures adjusted for confounding. Women of different BMI categories overall did not differ in whether, when, or why they expressed breast milk. Before 2 mo postpartum, however, obese women were more likely (P = 0.04, unadjusted) to try milk expression and were less likely (P = 0.01, unadjusted) to express milk successfully. In addition, overweight or obesity was associated (P milk production only in women who never expressed milk. In overweight or obese women, those who ever expressed milk had longer durations of breastfeeding (P milk. Breast-milk expression behaviors may differ by maternal BMI category only in the early postpartum period. In addition, breast-milk expression may reduce differences between BMI categories in the duration of breastfeeding and support longer durations of breastfeeding.

  9. Microbiological examination of milk in Tarakeswar, India with special ...

    A study was carried out to assess the milk quality in Tarakeswar, India with special reference to coliforms. By standard plate count (SPC) method, out of ten raw milk samples, the microbial colonies were found to be high in six samples and the colony content was low in rest four samples. In pasteurized milk samples, the ...

  10. Assessment of radiation hazard indices arising from natural radionuclides content of powdered milk in Malaysia

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S.B.; Yasir, M.S.; Garba, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined by gamma spectrometry in twenty-six different brands of powdered milk available in Malaysia. The measured activity concentration was then used to estimate the radiation hazard indices in term of ingestion dose and cancer risk. The total ingestion dose was found to range between 35.19 and 461.72 μSv y -1 and the estimated cancer risk for adult is 1.23 x 10 -4 . These results were found to be below the internationally recommended level. This indicates that the powdered milk in Malaysia would not pose any significant radiological impact to the population. (author)

  11. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Renato Cesar Susin; Renata Mior; Vera Maria da Costa Dias

    2015-01-01

    SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in th...

  12. How UK internet websites portray breast milk expression and breast pumps: a qualitative study of content

    McInnes, Rhona J; Arbuckle, Alix; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is recommended but few parents achieve this; particularly younger and less well-educated mothers. Many parents introduce infant formula milk to manage feeding but describe a desire to express breastmilk alongside a lack of support or information. The Internet is highlighted as a key resource. This study aimed to examine UK websites on expressing breastmilk to identify key messages and how information is provided. Methods We used search terms i...

  13. Additional certification of the content (mass fraction) of iodine in two spiked samples of skim milk powder. CRM No. 150-151

    Griepink, B

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the additional certification of the iodine content in two skim milk powder reference materials, which are previously certified (Report EUR 9251) for their contents of Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg and Pb. The analyses were made using various independent methods applied by different laboratories. The results are given in detail.

  14. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  15. Zinc Absorption from Milk Is Affected by Dilution but Not by Thermal Processing, and Milk Enhances Absorption of Zinc from High-Phytate Rice in Young Dutch Women.

    Talsma, Elise F; Moretti, Diego; Ly, Sou Chheng; Dekkers, Renske; van den Heuvel, Ellen Ghm; Fitri, Aditia; Boelsma, Esther; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Zeder, Christophe; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2017-06-01

    Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1 ) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2 ) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 20-25]: 1 ) a milk study ( n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with 67 Zn, and 2 ) a rice study ( n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically 67 Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or full-fat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]. The fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured with the double-isotope tracer ratio method. In vitro, we assessed zinc extraction from rice blended into water, UM, or HTM with or without phytate. Results: FAZ from HTM was 25.5% (95% CI: 21.6%, 29.4%) and was not different from UM (27.8%; 95% CI: 24.2%, 31.4%). FAZ from water was higher (72.3%; 95% CI: 68.7%, 75.9%), whereas FAZ from MW was lower (19.7%; 95% CI: 17.5%, 21.9%) than HTM and UM (both P zinc from rice with HTM than from rice with water at various phytate concentrations. Conclusions: Milk enhanced human FAZ from high-phytate rice by 62% compared with water. Diluting milk with water decreases its absorption-enhancing proprieties, whereas UHT processing does not. This trial was registered at the Dutch trial registry as NTR4267 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4267). © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Milk and Blood Cortisol and T3 Hormones Content and Milk Composition in Buffaloes as a Function of Lactating Number and Ambient Temperature

    Habeeb Alsaied, A.M.; Ibahim, M.KH.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of lactating number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in each of milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. The experiment was carried out on 72 animals including two periods through 1994. The first was carried out on 36 animals in February where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree, while the second was conducted on another 36 animals in July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree . In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactating number into 6 equal groups from the 1st to 6 th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T 3 , either in milk or in blood and milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in July than in February. Whereas the opposite was true with cortisol level either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , milk and blood cortisol and milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly due to lactation number

  17. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.

    Awasthi, Vandana; Bahman, Sanjivan; Thakur, Lalit K; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Dua, Ajit; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  18. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk

    Robert Pastuszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50% than cow milk (about 20%, and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%, which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants. Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the ‘0’ variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  19. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  20. High Content Screening: Understanding Cellular Pathway

    Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Daryl Jesus Arapoc; Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis

    2015-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) is the convergence between cell-based assays, high-resolution fluorescence imaging, phase-contrast imaging of fixed- or live-cell assays, tissues and small organisms. It has been widely adopted in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries for target identification and validation and as secondary screens to reveal potential toxicities or to elucidate a drugs mechanism of action. By using the ImageXpress® Micro XLS System HCS, the complex network of key players controlling proliferation and apoptosis can be reduced to several sentinel markers for analysis. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are two key areas in cell biology and drug discovery research. Understanding the signaling pathways in cell proliferation and apoptosis is important for new therapeutic discovery because the imbalance between these two events is predominant in the progression of many human diseases, including cancer. The DNA binding dye DAPI is used to determine the nuclear size and nuclear morphology as well as cell cycle phases by DNA content. Images together with MetaXpress® analysis results provide a convenient and easy to use solution to high volume image management. In particular, HCS platform is beginning to have an important impact on early drug discovery, basic research in systems cell biology, and is expected to play a role in personalized medicine or revealing off-target drug effects. (author)

  1. Analysis of serotonin concentrations in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sanbe, Atsushi; Takeda, Rika; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kudo, Kenzo

    2017-03-25

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in milk volume homeostasis in the mammary gland during lactation; 5-HT in milk may also affect infant development. However, there are few reports on 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. To address this issue, we developed a simple method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) for measuring 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. Breast milk samples were provided by four healthy Japanese women. Calibration curves for 5-HT in each sample were prepared with the standard addition method between 5 and 1000 ng/ml, and all had correlation coefficients >0.999. The recovery of 5-HT was 96.1%-101.0%, with a coefficient of variation of 3.39%-8.62%. The range of 5-HT concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was 11.1-51.1 ng/ml. Thus, the HPLC-FD method described here can effectively extract 5-HT from human breast milk with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  3. Relationships between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition, acetone and urea content in milk and cervical mucus and sperm survival

    Jan Beran; Luděk Stádník; Jaromír Ducháček; Monika Okrouhlá

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition score (BCS), acetone and urea content in the milk and cervical mucus (CM) and sperm survival in CM. At insemination, samples of milk and CM were collected from 64 Holstein cows. Content of acetone and urea were determined. Sperm motility was assessed subjectively at the beginning and after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the short-term heat test in CM. Data about evaluation of cow’s BCS we...

  4. Effect of skim milk treated with high hydrostatic pressure on permeate flux and fouling during ultrafiltration.

    Leu, Mathilde; Marciniak, Alice; Chamberland, Julien; Pouliot, Yves; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is largely used in the dairy industry to generate milk and whey protein concentrate for standardization of milk or production of dairy ingredients. Recently, it was demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extended the shelf life of milk and improved rennet coagulation and cheese yield. Pressurization also modified casein micelle size distribution and promoted aggregation of whey proteins. These changes are likely to affect UF performance. Consequently, this study determined the effect of skim milk pressurization (300 and 600 MPa, 5 min) on UF performance in terms of permeate flux decline and fouling. The effect of HHP on milk proteins was first studied and UF was performed in total recycle mode at different transmembrane pressures to determine optimal UF operational parameters and to evaluate the effect of pressurization on critical and limiting fluxes. Ultrafiltration was also performed in concentration mode at a transmembrane pressure of 345 kPa for 130 or 140 min to evaluate the decline of permeate flux and to determine fouling resistances. It was observed that average casein micelle size decreased by 32 and 38%, whereas β-lactoglobulin denaturation reached 30 and 70% at 300 and 600 MPa, respectively. These results were directly related to UF performance because initial permeate fluxes in total recycle mode decreased by 25% at 300 and 600 MPa compared with nonpressurized milk, critical flux, and limiting flux, which were lower during UF of milk treated with HHP. During UF in concentration mode, initial permeate fluxes were 30% lower at 300 and 600 MPa compared with the control, but the total flux decline was higher for nonpressurized milk (62%) compared with pressure-treated milk (30%). Fouling resistances were similar, whatever the treatment, except at 600 MPa where irreversible fouling was higher. Characterization of the fouling layer showed that caseins and β-lactoglobulin were mainly involved in membrane fouling after UF of

  5. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 64.93±12.97 vs 56.63±16.82 kcal/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 1.14±0.36 vs 1.15±0.37 g/100 ml, P=0.7). The decline in carbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  6. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  7. Site-specific glycosylation of donkey milk lactoferrin investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Gallina, Serafina; Saletti, Rosaria; Cunsolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive monosaccharide composition of the N-glycans of donkey milk lactoferrin, isolated by ion exchange chromatography from an individual milk sample, was obtained by means of chymotryptic digestion, TiO2 and HILIC enrichment, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography......, electrospray mass spectrometry, and high collision dissociation fragmentation. The results obtained allowed identifying 26 different glycan structures, including high mannose, complex and hybrid N-glycans, linked to the protein backbone via an amide bond to asparagine residues located at the positions 137, 281...... and 476. Altogether, the N-glycan structures determined revealed that most of the N-glycans identified in donkey milk lactoferrin are neutral complex/hybrid. Indeed, 10 neutral non-fucosylated complex/hybrid N-glycans and 4 neutral fucosylated complex/hybrid N-glycans were found. In addition, two high...

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter aerogenes in reconstituted skim milk by high- and low-frequency ultrasound.

    Gao, Shengpu; Hemar, Yacine; Lewis, Gillian D; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-11-01

    The inactivation of Enterobacter aerogenes in skim milk using low-frequency (20kHz) and high-frequency (850kHz) ultrasonication was investigated. It was found that low-frequency acoustic cavitation resulted in lethal damage to E. aerogenes. The bacteria were more sensitive to ultrasound in water than in reconstituted skim milk having different protein concentrations. However, high-frequency ultrasound was not able to inactivate E. aerogenes in milk even when powers as high as 50W for 60min were used. This study also showed that high-frequency ultrasonication had no influence on the viscosity and particle size of skim milk, whereas low-frequency ultrasonication resulted in the decrease in viscosity and particle size of milk. The decrease in particle size is believed to be due to the breakup of the fat globules, and possibly to the cleavage of the κ-casein present at the surface of the casein micelles. Whey proteins were also found to be slightly affected by low-frequency ultrasound, with the amounts of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin slightly decreasing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  10. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and native microflora in human milk by high pressure processing

    Windyga, Bożena; Rutkowska, Małgorzata; Sokołowska, Barbara; Skąpska, Sylwia; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Wilińska, Maria; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Rzoska, Sylwester J.

    2015-04-01

    The storage of unpreserved food, including breast milk, is associated with the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria. It is therefore necessary to use suitable processes to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the total microbial count in order to ensure product safety for consumers. In the present study, samples of milk obtained from volunteers donating to the human milk bank were artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. This bacteria was the model microorganism of choice, being relatively resistant to high pressure as well as posing the most serious risk to infant health. The results obtained show that high pressure processing can reduce the count of S. aureus by about 5 log units at 4°C and about 8 log units at 50°C, and totally eliminate Enterobacteriaceae after 5 min of treatment, and result in a total microbial count reduction after 10 min treatment at 500 MPa at 20°C and 50°C. This suggests the possibility of this technology being applied to ensure the adequate safety and quality of human breast milk in human milk banks. This paper was presented at the LIIth European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG 52) Meeting in Lyon (France), 7-12 September 2014.

  11. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  12. Relationships between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition, acetone and urea content in milk and cervical mucus and sperm survival

    Jan Beran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition score (BCS, acetone and urea content in the milk and cervical mucus (CM and sperm survival in CM. At insemination, samples of milk and CM were collected from 64 Holstein cows. Content of acetone and urea were determined. Sperm motility was assessed subjectively at the beginning and after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the short-term heat test in CM. Data about evaluation of cow’s BCS were taken from farm evidence. The data set was analyzed using SAS/STAT software. Effect of change in cow’s BCS one month before insemination was significant only in relation to the acetone content in milk (P < 0.05. Higher values of acetone and urea content were found in the CM compared to milk. Higher levels of both metabolites were detected in primiparous cows and in cows on the third and subsequent lactation, resp. in cows inseminated 3 times and more. The highest values of both metabolites negatively affected sperm survival during the short-term heat test, especially after 90 minutes (P < 0.05–0.01. Significant decreases (P < 0.05–0.01 were detected in cows with the highest level of acetone and urea.

  13. Small-angle reflectometry of milk protein (β -casein) at the air/serum interface and its conformational changes due to fat content and temperature

    Heidari, R.; White, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The surface structure of dispersed emulsions play a key role in stability of the system. Proteins being one of the most important surface-active components in foods stabilise interfaces by self-interaction, resulting in a stiff visco-elastic adsorbed layer. These interactions are sensitive to disruptive effects of lipids. Previous kinetics studies by the group 1 using the X-ray reflectivity method to investigate the surface adsorption of milk proteins indicate that β -casein had a stronger affinity for the air-liquid interface compared to whey proteins. It has been shown that initially a dense protein layer, with the thickness of 20 Angstroms is formed then a second more diffuse layer with lower volume density of protein follows. Here we report the conformational changes (with particular emphasise on the β -casein tail) occurred at the air-milk serum interface due to the effects of milk fat content, temperature and the milk preparation technique (ie homogenisation vs microfluidisation). In the effect of fat content on the adsorption of protein into the interface the key conclusion is that at lower temperatures the surface composition remains unchanged. The compositional changes, however, become significant at room temperature indicating adsorption of less reflective-water-soluble components into the surface layer. Repulsive interactions between casein aggregates are also involved. Microfluidised samples having the advantage of smaller particle size prove to be more stable to fat or temperature effects compared to the corresponding homogenised milks

  14. High Levels of Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 20 in Human Milk and Its Production by Oral Keratinocytes.

    Lourenço, Alan G; Komesu, Marilena C; Duarte, Geraldo; Del Ciampo, Luiz A; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y

    2017-03-01

    Chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues. Although CCL20 is secreted by many normal human tissues, no studies have evaluated the presence of CCL20 in human milk or its production by oral keratinocytes stimulated by human milk. To evaluate the presence of CCL20 in breast milk and verify CCL20 secretion in vitro by oral keratinocytes stimulated with human and bovine milk, as well as its possible association with breast milk lactoferrin levels. The levels of CCL20 and lactoferrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human milk at three different stages of maturation from 74 healthy breastfeeding mothers. In vitro, oral keratinocytes were stimulated with human and bovine milk, and CCL20 was measured in their supernatant. High concentrations of CCL20 were detected in the human breast milk samples obtained during the first week (1,777.07 pg/mL) and second week postpartum (1,523.44 pg/mL), with a significantly low concentration in samples at 3-6 weeks postpartum (238.42 pg/mL; p stimulated higher CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes compared with bovine milk (p stimulation had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration. CCl20 is present at high levels in human milk, predominantly in the first and second week postpartum, but at significantly lower levels at 3-6 weeks postpartum. Human milk is capable of stimulating CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes, and this induction had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration.

  15. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk.

    Vimont, Allison; Fernandez, Benoît; Hammami, Riadh; Ababsa, Ahlem; Daba, Hocine; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans . An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium , Listeria , Staphylococcus , and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival). Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon), counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log 10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log 10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  16. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  17. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  18. Antioxidant mechanism of milk mineral-high-affinity iron binding.

    Allen, K; Cornforth, D

    2007-01-01

    Milk mineral (MM), a by-product of whey processing, is an effective antioxidant in meat systems, but the antioxidant mechanism has not been established. MM has been postulated to chelate iron and prevent iron-catalysis of lipid oxidation. The objective of this research was to examine this putative mechanism. MM was compared to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), calcium phosphate monobasic (CPM), and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) to determine iron-binding capacity, sample solubility, and eluate soluble phosphorus after treating samples with a ferrous chloride standard. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was used to localize minerals on iron-treated MM particle surfaces. Histochemical staining for calcium was performed on raw and cooked ground beef samples with added MM. MM bound more iron per gram (P compounds, and was much less soluble (P iron across the MM particle surface, directly demonstrating iron binding to MM particles. Unlike other common chelating agents, such as STPP and citrate, histochemical staining demonstrated that MM remained insoluble in ground beef, even after cooking. The ability of MM to bind iron and remain insoluble may enhance its antioxidant effect by removing iron ions from solution. However, MM particles must be small and well distributed in order to adequately bind iron throughout the food system.

  19. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  20. Temperature and storing time influence on selected physical properties of milk and acidophilus milk

    Monika Božiková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with thermophysical parameters as: temperature, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and rheologic parameters as: dynamic, kinematic viscosity and fluidity of milk and acidophilus milk. For thermophysical parameters measurements was used Hot Wire method and for rheologic parameters measurements was used single – spindle viscometer. In the first series of measurements we measured relations between thermophysical and rheologic parameters in temperature range (5–25 °C for milk and acidophilus milk. Relations of all physical parameters of milk to the temperature showed influence of relative fat content. Effect of storage on milk and acidophilus milk is shown in the text. All measured relations for milk and acidophilus milk during temperature stabilisation had linear increasing progress with high coefficients of determination in the range (0.991–0.998. It was shown that increasing relative fat content has decreasing influence on milk thermal conductivity. Relations of rheologic parameters as dynamic and kinematic viscosity to the temperature had decreasing exponential progress, while relation of fluidity to the temperature had increasing exponential shape with high coefficients of determination in the range (0.985–0.994.. Mathematical description of the dependencies is summarised by regression equations and all coefficients are in presented tables.

  1. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  2. Effect of high-oleic-acid soybeans on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and enteric methane emission in dairy cows.

    Lopes, J C; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Smith, L; Ortega-Perez, A M; Harper, S A; Melgar, A; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20.2% ether extract). The study involved 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The inclusion rate of the soybean sources in the diet was (dry matter basis) 17.1, 17.1, and 7.4% for ESBM, EPSBM, and WPSB, respectively, which resulted in ether extract concentration of the diets of 3.99, 3.94, and 4.18%, respectively. Compared with ESBM, the Plenish diets tended to increase dry matter intake and decreased feed efficiency (but had no effect on energy-corrected milk feed efficiency). The Plenish diets increased milk fat concentration on average by 5.6% and tended to increase milk fat yield, compared with ESBM. The WPSB diet tended to increased milk true protein compared with the extruded soybean meal diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation and enteric methane or carbon dioxide emissions, except pH was higher for WPSB versus EPSBM. The Plenish diets decreased the prevalence of Ruminococcus and increased that of Eubacterium and Treponema in whole ruminal contents. Total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were decreased by WPSB compared with ESBM and EPSBM. Compared with the other treatments, urinary N excretion was increased by EPSBM and fecal N excretion was greater for WPSB. Treatments had marked effects on milk fatty acid profile. Generally, the Plenish diets increased mono

  3. Effects of diet forage source and neutral detergent fiber content on milk production of dairy cattle and methane emissions determined using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Hammond, K J; Jones, A K; Humphries, D J; Crompton, L A; Reynolds, C K

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle are unlikely to be adopted if production or profitability is reduced. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of high maize silage (MS) versus high grass silage (GS) diets, without or with added neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on milk production and methane emission of dairy cattle, using GreenFeed (GF) or respiration chamber (RC) techniques for methane emission measurements. Experiment 1 was 12wk in duration with a randomized block continuous design and 40 Holstein cows (74d in milk) in free-stall housing, assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=10 per treatment), according to calving date, parity, and milk yield. Milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured daily, and milk composition measured weekly, with methane yield (g/kg of DMI) estimated using a GF unit (wk 10 to 12). Experiment 2 was a 4×4 Latin square design with 5-wk periods and 4 dairy cows (114d in milk) fed the same 4 dietary treatments as in experiment 1. Measurements of DMI, milk production, and milk composition occurred in wk 4, and DMI, milk production, and methane yield were measured for 2d in RC during wk 5. Dietary treatments for both experiments were fed as total mixed rations offered ad libitum and containing 500g of silage/kg of dry matter composed (DM basis) of either 75:25 MS:GS (MS) or 25:75 MS:GS (GS), without or with added NDF from chopped straw and soy hulls (+47g of NDF/kg of dry matter). In both experiments, compared with high GS, cows fed high MS had a higher DMI, greater milk production, and lower methane yield (24% lower in experiment 1 using GF and 8% lower in experiment 2 using RC). Added NDF increased (or tended to increase) methane yield for high MS, but not high GS diets. In the separate experiments, the GF and RC methods detected similar dietary treatment effects on methane emission (expressed as g/d and g/kg of DMI), although the magnitude of the differences varied between

  4. A 100-Year Review: The production of fluid (market) milk.

    Barbano, David M

    2017-12-01

    During the first 100 years of the Journal of Dairy Science, dairy foods and dairy production dairy scientists have partnered to publish new data and research results that have fostered the development of new knowledge. This knowledge has been the underpinning of both the commercial development of the fluid milk processing industry and regulations and marketing policies for the benefit of dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. During the first 50 years, most of the focus was on producing and delivering high-quality raw milk to factories and improving the shelf life of pasteurized fluid milk. During the second 50 years, raw milk quality was further improved through the use of milk quality payment incentives. Due to changing demographics and lifestyle, whole fluid milk consumption declined and processing technologies were developed to increase the range of fluid milk products (skim and low-fat milks, flavored milks, lactose-reduced milk, long-shelf-life milks, and milks with higher protein and calcium contents) offered to the consumer. In addition, technology to produce specialty high-protein sports beverages was developed, which expanded the milk-based beverage offerings to the consumer. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil

    Muktiani, A.; Kusumanti, E.; Harjanti, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different protein and energy contents and supplementation ofZinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and grapes seed oil on milk production in dairy goat.Randomized block design(RBD) was used in this study. Twelve lactating Ettawah crossbreed goats divided into three groupsbased on milk production. The treatment ration were:T1 = ration containing 16% CPand 66% TDN; T2 = ration containing 14% CP and 63% TDN supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2 ppm; and T3 = T2 + 22 ml grapes seed oil/head/day. The ration wasa dry complete feed in the form of pellet. The feed ingredients used were rice bran, cassava, wheat pollard, soybean meal, coconut meal, molasses, coffee husk and corn straw.Experiment was conducted over 30 days. Results revealed that the goat fed the ration supplemented with Zn and Cr(T2) producehigher milk yield (1012.29 g/day) and better in milk fat production (Poil in the T3 (P<0.05), but no significant in milk fat production compared with T1. In conclusion,drycomplete feed containingof CP 14%, TDN 63% supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2ppm is recommended for lactating dairy goat.

  6. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  7. Excretion of infectious hepatitis E virus into milk in cows imposes high risks of zoonosis.

    Huang, Fen; Li, Yunlong; Yu, Wenhai; Jing, Shenrong; Wang, Jue; Long, Feiyan; He, Zhanlong; Yang, Chenchen; Bi, Yanhong; Cao, Wentao; Liu, Chengbo; Hua, Xiuguo; Pan, Qiuwei

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the main cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. HEV infection in immunocompromised patients involves a high risk for the development of chronic hepatitis. Because HEV is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen, it is currently believed that swine is the primary reservoir. However, this is not sufficient to justify the strikingly high seroprevalence of HEV in both developing and Western countries. Thus, this study aimed to identify new zoonotic sources that bear a high risk of transmission to humans. We collected fecal, blood, and milk samples of cows in a typical rural region of Yunnan Province in southwest China, where mixed farming of domestic animals is a common practice. HEV RNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the whole genome was sequenced. HEV infectivity was assessed in rhesus macaques. We found a high prevalence of active HEV infection in cows as determined by viral RNA positivity in fecal samples. Surprisingly, we discovered that HEV is excreted into milk that is produced by infected cows. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from cow/milk belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h. Gavage with HEV-contaminated raw and even pasteurized milk resulted in active infection in rhesus macaques. Importantly, a short period of boiling, but not pasteurization, could completely inactivate HEV. Infectious HEV-contaminated cow milk is recognized as a new zoonotic source that bears a high risk of transmission to humans; these results call attention to understanding and establishing proper measurement and control of HEV zoonotic transmission, particularly in the setting of mixed farming of domestic animals. (Hepatology 2016;64:350-359). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  9. The composition of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) milk.

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M

    2006-01-01

    Milk was obtained from two captive bred cheetahs. The nutrient content was 99.6 g protein; 64.8 g fat; and 40.21 g lactose per kg milk. Small amounts of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. The protein fraction respectively consisted of 34.2 g caseins per kg milk and of 65.3 g whey proteins per kg milk. Very little variation in milk composition among the individual cheetahs was noted. Electrophoresis and identification of protein bands showed a similar migrating sequence of proteins as seen in lion's and cat's milk, with small differences in the beta-caseins. The lipid fraction contains 290.4 g saturated and 337.3 g mono-unsaturated fatty acids per kg milk fat respectively. The high content of 279.5 g kg(-1) milk fat of polyunsaturated fatty acids is due to a high content in alpha-linolenic acid. No short chain fatty acids, but substantial levels of uneven carbon chain fatty acids were observed.

  10. Human milk composition and infant growth

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...... studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth....... For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have...

  11. Breast milk is conditionally perfect.

    Erick, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Breast milk is the universal preferred nutrition for the newborn human infant. New mother have been encouraged to exclusively breastfeed by health care professionals and consumer-advocacy forums for years, citing "breast milk is the perfect food". The benefits are numerous and include psychological, convenience, economical, ecological and nutritionally superior. Human milk is a composite of nutritional choices of the mother, commencing in the pre-conceptual era. Events influencing the eventual nutritional profile of breast milk for the neonate start with pre-conceptual dietary habits through pregnancy and finally to postpartum. Food choices do affect the nutritional profile of human breast milk. It is not known who coined the phrase "breast milk is the perfect food" but it is widely prevalent in the literature. While breast milk is highly nutritive, containing important immunological and growth factors, scientific investigation reveals a few short-falls. Overall, human breast milk has been found to be low in certain nutrients in developed countries: vitamin D, iodine, iron, and vitamin K. Additional nutrient deficiencies have been documented in resource-poor countries: vitamin A, vitamin B 12, zinc, and vitamin B 1/thiamin. Given these findings, isn't it more accurate to describe breast milk as "conditionally perfect"? Correcting the impression that breast milk is an inherently, automatically comprehensive enriched product would encourage women who plan to breastfeed an opportunity to concentrate on dietary improvement to optimizes nutrient benefits ultimately to the neonate. The more immediate result would improve pre-conceptual nutritional status. Here, we explore the nutritional status of groups of young women; some of whom will become pregnant and eventually produce breast milk. We will review the available literature profiling vitamin, mineral, protein and caloric content of breast milk. We highlight pre-existing situations needing correction to optimize

  12. Identification and dissection of four major QTL affecting milk fat content in the German Holstein-Friesian population.

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P = 8.91×10-(198 and BTA20 (P = 7.03×10(-12 within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P = 2.00×10(-13 and BTA27 (P = 9.83×10(-5 encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P = 1.40×10(-12 and GPAT4 (P = 5.18×10(-5, respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.

  13. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  14. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of ultra high pressure homogenization treatment on the bioactive compounds of soya milk.

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fusté, J; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) is a useful novel technology to obtain safe and high-quality liquid foods. The effect of UHPH at 200 and 300 MPa in combination with different inlet temperatures (Tin) (55, 65 and 75 °C) on the bioactive compounds of soya milk was studied. Total phytosterols increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. The main phytosterol was β-sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. Total tocopherols in UHPH-treated soya milks decreased as the temperature and pressure increased. UHPH treatment also affected the different chemical forms of tocopherols. No biogenic amines were detected in any of the analyzed soya milks. Meanwhile, the polyamines SPD and SPM were found in all soya milks, being stable to the UHPH treatment. Total isoflavones increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. No differences in the isoflavone profile were found, with β-glucoside conjugates being the predominant form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Thirty mink dams nursing litters of six kits were assigned to one of three dietary treatments [high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP)], fed ad libitum for 4 week from parturition, to investigate the effects of protein supply on milk yield and milk composition in order to esti...

  18. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid and biogenic amine content of different types of ewe’s milk cheese produced in Sardinia, Italy

    Gavina Manca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and biogenic amines (BA, together with protein-free amino acids, were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in ewe’s milk cheeses produced in Sardinia with different technological traits. The study included three types of cheese: Pecorino Sardo PDO, Pecorino and Casu Marzu. Farmhouse Casu Marzu and Pecorino showed GABA content (maximum levels: 1001.3 and 378.1 mg 100 g–1 respectively that had never been found so high in cheese before, suggesting that these types of cheese present ideal conditions to produce GABA. These two types of cheese also showed high levels of BA (their total maximum levels were 1035.7 and 288.0 mg 100 g–1 respectively. Pearson correlation analysis detected significant correlation between GABA and the main BA present in the cheeses (tyramine, cadaverine and putrescine, suggesting that the factors affecting the production of GABA are the same as those influencing BA formation.

  20. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POWDER MILK WITH NUTRIENTS

    Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. This product has incomposition powder apple, powder carrots, rice flour and corn flour, vitamins, minerals.One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer self life than liquid milk and does notneed to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy oftransportation. Milk powders contain all twenty standards amino acids and are high insoluble vitamins and minerals.The typical average amounts of major nutrients in the un reconstituted in 100 g milk are (by weight 12,7g protein,68,2g carbohydrates (predominantly lactose, calcium 427g , potassium g, vitamins11g, Inappropriate storageconditions (high relative humidity and high ambient temperature can significantly degrade the nutritive value ofmilk powder.

  1. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  2. Application of high intensity ultrasound treatment on Enterobacteriae count in milk

    Anet Režek Jambrak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonication is a non-thermal method of food preservation that has the advantage of inactivating microbes in food without causing the common side-effects associated with conventional heat treatments, such as nutrient and flavour loss. In this work high intensity ultrasound was used to investigate inactivation Enterobacteriae count in raw milk. Raw milk with 4% of milk fat was treated with ultrasonic probe that was 12 mm in diameter and with 20 kHz frequency immerged in milk directly. For ultrasounds treatment, three parameters varied according to the statistical experimental design. Centre composite design was used to optimize and design experimental parameters: temperature (20, 40 and 60 °C, amplitude (120, 90 and 60 μm and time (6, 9 and 12 minutes. All analyses were performed immediately after sonication and after 3 and 5 days of storage in refrigeration at 4 °C. The facts that substantially affect the inactivation of microorganisms using ultrasound are the amplitude of the ultrasonic waves, the exposure/contact time with the microorganisms, and the temperatureof treatment. The achieved results indicate significant inactivation of microorganisms under longer period of treatments with ultrasonic probe particularly in combination with higher temperature andamplitude. Output optimal value of Enterobacteriae count has been defined by Statgraphics where lowest Enterobacteriae count (1.06151 log CFU mL-1 was as follows for specific ultrasound parameters: amplitude of 120 μm, treatment time for 12 min and temperature of 60 °C.

  3. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  4. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  5. C18-coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder.

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2012-02-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and less sample consuming method of C(18)-stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was proposed for the determination of six sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples. C(18) silica particles coated stir bar was prepared by adhesion method, and two kinds of adhesive glue, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sol and epoxy glue were tried. It was found that the C(18)-coated stir bar prepared by PDMS sol as adhesive glue is more robust than that prepared by epoxy glue when liquid desorption was employed, in terms of both lifetime and organic solvent tolerance. The preparation of C(18) stir bar was simple with good mechanic strength and the stir bar could be reused for more than 20 times. Granular coating has relatively high specific surface area and is propitious to sorptive extraction based process. Compared to conventional PDMS SBSE coating, C(18) coating shows good affinity to the target polar/weak polar sulfonamides. To achieve optimum SBSE extraction performance, several parameters including extraction and desorption time, ionic strength, sample pH and stirring speed were investigated. The detection limits of the proposed method for six sulfonamides were in the range of 0.9-10.5 μg/L for milk and 2.7-31.5 μg/kg for milk powder. Good linearities were obtained for sulfonamides with the correlation coefficients (R) above 0.9922. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  7. Interactions between milk protein ingredients and other milk components during processing

    Liu, Guanchen

    research in our group shown that, both MWP and NWP can give a higher viscosity and denser microstructure compared to WPC when used as fat replacer in low-fat yoghurt. In the thesis, we investigated how these two types of commercial whey protein particles interact with other milk components and how...... these interactions affect final acidified milk products. By detecting the properties of the whey protein aggregates, MWP and NWP showed low native whey protein content, low free thiol content and high surface hydrophobicity and were relatively stable at high temperature in the 5 % pure dispersions. When MWP and NWP...... were added to non-fat milk model systems (5% protein in total) and processed into chemically (glucono-delta-lactone) acidified milk gels, the formation of disulfide-linked structures was closely related to the increased particle size of heated milk model systems and the rheological behavior...

  8. Influence of Different Light Sources, Illumination Intensities and Storage Times on the Vitamin C Content in Pasteurized Milk

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; TURGUT, Tamer

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various light sources and illumination intensities on the destruction of vitamin C was determined during the storage of pasteurized milk. For this purpose, raw cow's milk was pasteurized at 72 oC for 15 s, and then stored in 2 different refrigerators (4 ± 1oC) illuminated by fluorescent and tungsten light (normal light) sources with intensities of 1100, 2400 and 5800 lux. As a control group, a pasteurized milk sample was stored at the same temperature under dark conditi...

  9. Structural changes induced by high-pressure processing in micellar casein and milk protein concentrates.

    Cadesky, Lee; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Kriner, Kyle T; Karwe, Mukund V; Moraru, Carmen I

    2017-09-01

    Reconstituted micellar casein concentrates and milk protein concentrates of 2.5 and 10% (wt/vol) protein concentration were subjected to high-pressure processing at pressures from 150 to 450 MPa, for 15 min, at ambient temperature. The structural changes induced in milk proteins by high-pressure processing were investigated using a range of physical, physicochemical, and chemical methods, including dynamic light scattering, rheology, mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, proteomics, and soluble mineral analyses. The experimental data clearly indicate pressure-induced changes of casein micelles, as well as denaturation of serum proteins. Calcium-binding α S1 - and α S2 -casein levels increased in the soluble phase after all pressure treatments. Pressurization up to 350 MPa also increased levels of soluble calcium and phosphorus, in all samples and concentrations, whereas treatment at 450 MPa reduced the levels of soluble Ca and P. Experimental data suggest dissociation of calcium phosphate and subsequent casein micelle destabilization as a result of pressure treatment. Treatment of 10% micellar casein concentrate and 10% milk protein concentrate samples at 450 MPa resulted in weak, physical gels, which featured aggregates of uniformly distributed, casein substructures of 15 to 20 nm in diameter. Serum proteins were significantly denatured by pressures above 250 MPa. These results provide information on pressure-induced changes in high-concentration protein systems, and may inform the development on new milk protein-based foods with novel textures and potentially high nutritional quality, of particular interest being the soft gel structures formed at high pressure levels. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  10. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  11. Selenium content in milk and diary samples; Conteudo de selenio em amostras de leite, queijos e achocolatados

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados. Div. de BQ]. E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  12. On interrelations of Sr90 contents in the soil-forage plants-milk chain under natural conditions

    Chupka, Sh.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were made on 150 soil damples, 58 plant root samples, and 98 milk samples. Four types of soil from western Slovakia (chernozem, brown, sandy, and carbonate) and two types of plant roots (alfalfa and mixed grasses) were studied. A relation was shown between the type of soil, its physico-chemical properties, the Sr 90 accumulation in the plant roots, and the degree of contamination of milk by this radionuclide. (V.A.P.)

  13. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields on milk composition and characteristics

    Irena Jeličić; Katarina Lisak; Rajka Božanić

    2012-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication and pulsed eletrcic fields (PEF) belong to novel food processing methods which are mostly implemented in combination with moderate temperatures and/ or in combination with each other in order to provide adequate microbiological quality with minimal losses of nutritional value. All of three mentioned methods have been intensively investigated for the purpose of inactivation and reduction of foodborne microorganisms present in milk and dairy products. ...

  14. Effects of maternal exposure to cow´s milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig; Warri, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis....... No differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than...... in controls (P = 0.03). Although the high isoflavone content seemed to prevent the effect on circulating estradiol and IGF-1 levels and advanced puberty onset seen in the LIM group, HIM increased DMBA-DNA adducts in the mammary gland and tended to increase mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast, offspring exposed...

  15. Milk products and intestinal health

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  16. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  17. Updating Nutritional Data and Evaluation of Technological Parameters of Italian Milk

    Pamela Manzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different technologically treated Italian milks (whole and semi-skimmed ultra-high temperature (UHT, pasteurized and microfiltered milk, collected from 2009 to 2012, were evaluated for nutritional and technological properties. No significant differences in calcium and sodium were detected (p > 0.05, while significant differences were observed concerning phosphorus content, between whole and semi-skimmed milk, and lactose content, between pasteurized and UHT milk (p 0.05 were detected for choline, a functional molecule, between whole (11.3–14.6 mg/100 g and semi-skimmed milk (11.1–14.7 mg/100 g, but there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in processing milk (UHT vs. pasteurized milk and UHT vs. microfiltered milk. Among the unsaponifiable compounds, only 13 cis retinol and trans retinol showed differences in technologically treated milk (pasteurized vs. UHT milk and microfiltered vs. UHT milk; p < 0.05. In this research, the greater was the “severity” of milk treatment, the higher was the percent ratio 13 cis/trans retinol (DRI, degree of retinol isomerization. The degree of antioxidant protection parameter (DAP, useful to estimate the potential oxidative stability of fat in foods, was significantly different between whole and semi-skimmed milk (p < 0.05. Finally, the evaluation of color measurement of whole milk showed a good correlation between beta carotene and b* (r = 0.854 and between lactulose and a* (r = 0.862.

  18. Relationship between milk production and some blood constituents in Egyptian Baladi goats.

    Hassan, G A; el-Nouty, F D; Samak, M A; Salem, M H

    1986-01-01

    Under the conditions of a high ambient temperature and the lack of green fodder goats are very important for milk production. During 16 weeks of lactation period, the milk yield of 10 Baladi goats was 55 kg. The amount of milk exhibited a positive relation to the globulin and glucose content of the blood. There was a highly negative correlation with the albumin content and the number of leucocytes.

  19. Nutritional and therapeutic properties of goat’s milk

    Zrinka Filipović Dermit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preference of goat’s milk over cow’s milk is also a higher selenium content, which is essential for the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, also significant in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Goat’s milk in comparison with cow’s, contains more fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health, especially the cardiovascular system. Goat’s milk proteins are more digestible than cow’s milk proteins, also an absorption of amino acids are more efficient. The sensitivity of people to α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk is negligible after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk. The objective of this paper is to specify benefits of goat’s milk in regard to cow’s and highlight its therapeutic and nutritional values.

  20. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F; Konstance, R P; Gregg, D; Boettcher, S; Baxt, B; Rodriguez, L L

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees C/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees C with holding times of 2 to 3 s. It was the intent of this study to determine whether HTST pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial operation would enhance FMDV inactivation in milk. Cows were inoculated in the mammary gland with the field strain of FMDV (01/UK). Infected raw whole milk and 2% milk were then pasteurized using an Arm-field pilot-scale, continuous-flow HTST pasteurizer equipped with a plate-and-frame heat exchanger and a holding tube. The milk samples, containing FMDV at levels of up to 10(4) plaque-forming units/mL, were pasteurized at temperatures ranging from 72 to 95 degrees C at holding times of either 18.6 or 36 s. Pasteurization decreased virus infectivity by 4 log10 to undetectable levels in tissue culture. However, residual infectivity was still detectable for selected pasteurized milk samples, as shown by intramuscular and intradermal inoculation of milk into naïve steers. Although HTST pasteurization did not completely inactivate viral infectivity in whole and 2% milk, possibly because a fraction of the virus was protected by the milk fat and the casein proteins, it greatly reduced the risk of natural transmission of FMDV by milk.

  2. Human norovirus surrogate reduction in milk and juice blends by high pressure homogenization.

    Horm, Katie Marie; Harte, Federico Miguel; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Novel processing technologies such as high pressure homogenization (HPH) for the inactivation of foodborne viruses in fluids that retain nutritional attributes are in high demand. The objectives of this research were (i) to determine the effects of HPH alone or with an emulsifier (lecithin) on human norovirus surrogates-murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9)-in skim milk and orange juice, and (ii) to determine HPH effects on FCV-F9 and MNV-1 in orange and pomegranate juice blends. Experiments were conducted in duplicate at 0, 100, 200, 250, and 300 MPa for PFU/ml at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively, and ≥4- and ∼1-log PFU/ml reductions were obtained in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. In orange juice or milk combined with lecithin, FCV-F9 was reduced to nondetectable levels at 300 MPa, and by 1.77 and 0.78 log PFU/ml at 250 MPa. MNV-1 in milk was reduced by ∼1.3 log PFU/ml only at 300 MPa, and by ∼0.8 and ∼0.4 log PFU/ml in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. MNV-1 in milk or orange juice containing lecithin at 300 MPa showed 1.32- and 2.5-log PFU/ml reductions, respectively. In the pomegranate-orange juice blend, FCV-F9 was completely reduced, and MNV-1 was reduced by 1.04 and 1.78 log PFU/ml at 250 and 300 MPa, respectively. These results show that HPH has potential for commercial use to inactivate foodborne virus surrogates in juices.

  3. Highly Sensitive and High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Bisphenol Analogues and Their Halogenated Derivatives in Breast Milk.

    Niu, Yumin; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2017-12-06

    The structural analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) and their halogenated derivatives (together termed BPs) have been found in the environment, food, and even the human body. Limited research showed that some of them exhibited toxicities that were similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Therefore, adverse health effects for BPs were expected for humans with low-dose exposure in early life. Breast milk is an excellent matrix and could reflect fetuses' and babies' exposure to contaminants. Some of the emerging BPs may present with trace or ultratrace levels in humans. However, existing analytical methods for breast milk cannot quantify these BPs simultaneously with high sensitivity using a small sampling weight, which is important for human biomonitoring studies. In this paper, a method based on Bond Elut Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid purification, pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride derivatization, and liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method requires only a small quantity of sample (200 μL) and allowed for the simultaneous determination of 24 BPs in breast milk with ultrahigh sensitivity. The limits of quantitation of the proposed method were 0.001-0.200 μg L -1 , which were 1-6.7 times lower than the only study for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol analogs in breast milk based on a 3 g sample weight. The mean recoveries ranged from 86.11% to 119.05% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 19.5% (n = 6). Matrix effects were within 20% with RSD bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol AF (BPAF) were detected. BPA was still the dominant BP, followed by BPF. This is the first report describing the occurrence of BPF and BPAF in breast milk.

  4. Identification of plant proteins in adulterated skimmed milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Ferranti, P.; Frankhuizen, R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hooijerink, H.; America, A.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    The EU subsidises the use of skimmed-milk powder (SMP) in compound feeding stuffs. There are indications of falsified SMP content due to the addition of plant proteins. These proteins are not allowed in SMP and cannot be identified by the official reference method. Since soy and pea proteins are

  5. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk.

    Terpstra, Fokke G; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Hoeij, Klaske Van; Berg, Hijlkeline; Van Engelenberg, Frank A C; Van't Wout, Angelica B

    2007-03-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 minutes). The authors undertook an experiment to validate the effects of a high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process (72 degrees C for 16 seconds) on the bioburden of human milk. It was concluded that HTST is effective in the elimination of bacteria as well as of certain important pathogenic viruses.

  6. Investigation of prostaglandin levels in human milk after high performance liquid chromatography purification

    Wu-Wang, C.Y.; Neu, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate five prostaglandins (PGs), i.e. PGE 2 , PGF/sub 2α/, 13-14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF/sub 2α/ (DHKF/sub 2α/), thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/), measured by (RIA) after C 18 Sep-Pak extraction and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two trials were performed. In each trial, 3-5 mature human milk samples were pooled, acidified and extracted for PGs. The separation of PGs by HPLC was achieved by using an isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile/water (pH 3.0) (32/68, V/V). The PG levels from the two trials were determined and averaged after monitoring the recoveries. The results indicate that PGE 2 and DHKF/sub 2α/ are the two major PGs found in extracted human milk. However, after HPLC purification, no predominant PG is found and the levels of all the five PGs are much lower compared to the extracted sample. Since the immunoreactive material was also detected in HPLC fractions not within the PG peak, low levels of PG found in human milk after HPLC is likely due to the purification step removing the bulk of nonspecific immunoreactive substances present in the sample

  7. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  8. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Milk Exposed to High Temperatures and High Pressure**

    Irena Usajewicz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the survival of two enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains (no. 94 and 402 and a saprophytic E. coli 1 strain at temperatures of 55 and 60 °C, and under the pressure of 300 to 600 MPa at ambient temperature (about 20 °C. The strains, in populations of 106–107 CFU/mL, were introduced into the skim milk and broth. The survival of test strains at high temperatures and high pressure depended to a high degree (p<0.05 on the type of medium in which the cells were suspended. At 55 °C the inactivation of E. coli cells was recorded after 60 to 120 min in the broth, and after 180 min in the milk. At 60 °C the time required for their thermal death was 15 to 30 min in broth. In milk only E. coli 1 cells died after 30-minute heating; the other strains survived in populations of about 40 CFU/mL. In the broth, a pressure of 550 MPa, applied for 20 min at ambient temperature, killed the entire populations of E. coli 94 and E. coli 402, and all E. coli 1 cells died at 600 MPa, also applied for 20 min at ambient temperature. In the milk live cells of all pressurized strains survived in the quantities of 102–103 CFU/mL, so their reduction by 5 log cycles was not achieved. Damaged cells were found in the majority of samples exposed to heating and high pressure. These cells did not form colonies on nutrient agar, but were able to repair damage and grow in nutrient broth at 37 °C.

  9. Development of Fourier transform mid-infrared calibrations to predict acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, and citrate contents in bovine milk through a European dairy network.

    Grelet, C; Bastin, C; Gelé, M; Davière, J-B; Johan, M; Werner, A; Reding, R; Fernandez Pierna, J A; Colinet, F G; Dardenne, P; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F

    2016-06-01

    To manage negative energy balance and ketosis in dairy farms, rapid and cost-effective detection is needed. Among the milk biomarkers that could be useful for this purpose, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) have been proved as molecules of interest regarding ketosis and citrate was recently identified as an early indicator of negative energy balance. Because Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry can provide rapid and cost-effective predictions of milk composition, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of this technology to predict these biomarkers in milk. Milk samples were collected in commercial and experimental farms in Luxembourg, France, and Germany. Acetone, BHB, and citrate contents were determined by flow injection analysis. Milk mid-infrared spectra were recorded and standardized for all samples. After edits, a total of 548 samples were used in the calibration and validation data sets for acetone, 558 for BHB, and 506 for citrate. Acetone content ranged from 0.020 to 3.355mmol/L with an average of 0.103mmol/L; BHB content ranged from 0.045 to 1.596mmol/L with an average of 0.215mmol/L; and citrate content ranged from 3.88 to 16.12mmol/L with an average of 9.04mmol/L. Acetone and BHB contents were log-transformed and a part of the samples with low values was randomly excluded to approach a normal distribution. The 3 edited data sets were then randomly divided into a calibration data set (3/4 of the samples) and a validation data set (1/4 of the samples). Prediction equations were developed using partial least square regression. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of cross-validation was 0.73 for acetone, 0.71 for BHB, and 0.90 for citrate with root mean square error of 0.248, 0.109, and 0.70mmol/L, respectively. Finally, the external validation was performed and R(2) obtained were 0.67 for acetone, 0.63 for BHB, and 0.86 for citrate, with respective root mean square error of validation of 0.196, 0.083, and 0.76mmol/L. Although

  10. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  12. Effect of high-pressure processing and milk on the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of strawberry-based beverages.

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Banaszewski, Katarzyna; Patazca, Eduardo; Edirisinghe, Indika; Cappozzo, Jack; Jackson, Lauren; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2012-06-13

    The present study investigated processing strategies and matrix effects on the antioxidant capacity (AC) and polyphenols (PP) content of fruit-based beverages: (1) strawberry powder (Str) + dairy, D-Str; (2) Str + water, ND-Str; (3) dairy + no Str, D-NStr. Beverages were subjected to high-temperature-short-time (HTST) and high-pressure processing (HPP). AC and PP were measured before and after processing and after a 5 week shelf-life study. Unprocessed D-Str had significantly lower AC compared to unprocessed ND-Str. Significant reductions in AC were apparent in HTST- compared to HPP-processed beverages (up to 600 MPa). PP content was significantly reduced in D-Str compared to ND-Str and in response to HPP and HTST in all beverages. After storage (5 weeks), AC and PP were reduced in all beverages compared to unprocessed and week 0 processed beverages. These findings indicate potentially negative effects of milk and processing on AC and PP of fruit-based beverages.

  13. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: Influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, Ester Lis; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    1990-01-01

    . There was a large variation in the concentration of energy-yielding macronutrients. The contents of P, F, C, and E in the samples with the highest values (97.5 percentile) were 2.3-, 4.8-, 1.2-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, above the contents in the samples with the lowest values (2.5 percentile). The P content...... decreased exponentially during the 1st 8 months, followed by an increase during the following months. The F content decreased during the 1st 4 months, followed by an almost linear increase. The possible influence of different maternal characteristics on the macronutrient content of the milk was examined...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content...

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  15. Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: effects on feed, water, and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger, and weight gains.

    de Passillé, A M; Borderas, T F; Rushen, J

    2011-03-01

    Dairy calves are increasingly fed large volumes of milk, which reduces feeding motivation and improves weight gain. However, calves often show signs of hunger and lose weight when weaned off milk due to low starter intake. We examined whether delaying the age at weaning would reduce responses to weaning. Calves were raised in groups of 9 and fed milk, starter, hay, and water with automated feeders. In each group, 3 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low-milk, early-weaned: fed 6 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d of age; (2) high-milk early-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d; (3) high-milk later-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 89 d of age. Milk, starter, and hay intakes were recorded daily and digestible energy (DE) intake estimated. Feeder visits were recorded. Before weaning, the high-milk calves drank more milk, ate less starter and hay, but had higher DE intakes, gained more weight, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the low-milk, early-weaned calves. During and immediately after weaning, the high-fed, early-weaned calves ate less starter and hay, had lower DE intakes, and gained less weight than the low-milk, early-weaned calves and lost their body weight advantage 7 d after weaning. During and immediately after weaning, the high-milk, later-weaned calves ate more starter and hay and had higher DE intakes, higher weight gains, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the high-milk, early-weaned calves. They were still heavier than the low-milk, early-weaned calves 18 d after weaning. Delaying the age at which calves are weaned off milk reduces the drop in energy intake and behavioral signs of hunger that result from weaning. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  17. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  18. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    Niara da Silva Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  19. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  20. Milk Allergy

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  1. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  2. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid determination of the various native forms of vitamin B6 and B2 in cow's milk using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Schmidt, A; Schreiner, M G; Mayer, H K

    2017-06-02

    As the formation of pyridoxal phosphate, the active cofactor of vitamin B 6 , is dependent on riboflavin 5-phosphate, we propose a fast and simple ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of the native B 6 vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, their mono phosphorus esters and 4-pyridoxic acid as well as vitamin B 2 as riboflavin and its phosphorus ester riboflavin 5-phosphate in milk. Separation was achieved under 6.0min by reversed-phase and pH gradient elution. Sample preparation was optimized regarding various acids and pH levels. Changes in those parameters led to significant deviations of sample matrix breakdown efficiency. The optimized method was then validated regarding specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, detection and quantification limits. As the method performed satisfactory, is was used to study commercial liquid cow's milk (n=31), regarding effects of the employed preservation technique (pasteurization, extended shelf-life, ultra-high temperature) on the composition and content of B 6 and B 2 vitamers. In cow's milk, vitamin B 6 mostly consists of pyridoxal and its phosphate ester, with pyridoxal phosphate being the bulk component. The catabolite of the vitamin B 6 metabolism, 4-pyridoxic acid was present in significant amounts in all studied samples, with up to 2.69μmolL -1 . Vitamin B 2 was present as riboflavin and its phosphate ester up to 12.86μmolL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flavor and flavor chemistry differences among milks processed by high-temperature, short-time pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization.

    Jo, Y; Benoist, D M; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2018-05-01

    Typical high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization encompasses a lower heat treatment and shorter refrigerated shelf life compared with ultra-pasteurization (UP) achieved by direct steam injection (DSI-UP) or indirect heat (IND-UP). A greater understanding of the effect of different heat treatments on flavor and flavor chemistry of milk is required to characterize, understand, and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the flavor and volatile compound profiles of milk subjected to HTST, DSI-UP, or IND-UP using sensory and instrumental techniques. Raw skim and raw standardized 2% fat milks (50 L each) were processed in triplicate and pasteurized at 78°C for 15 s (HTST) or 140°C for 2.3 s by DSI-UP or IND-UP. Milks were cooled and stored at 4°C, then analyzed at d 0, 3, 7, and 14. Sensory attributes were determined using a trained panel, and aroma active compounds were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction or stir bar sorptive extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and gas chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry. The UP milks had distinct cooked and sulfur flavors compared with HTST milks. The HTST milks had less diversity in aroma active compounds compared with UP milks. Flavor intensity of all milks decreased by d 14 of storage. Aroma active compound profiles were affected by heat treatment and storage time in both skim and 2% milk. High-impact aroma active compounds were hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional in DSI-UP and 2 and 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-heptanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-aminoacetophenone, benzaldehyde, and dimethyl sulfide in IND-UP. These results provide a foundation knowledge of the effect of heat treatments on flavor development and differences in sensory quality of UP milks. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hedonic analysis of ultra-high-temperature-treated milk prices in Italy

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Liu, Xuan; Viscecchia, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    The Italian market for UHT milk has been growing thanks to both consumers' interest in products with an extended shelf life and to the lower prices of these products compared with refrigerated, pasteurized milk. However, because the lower prices of UHT milk can hinder producers' margins,

  6. DSC of Milk Fats from Various Animals with High Levels of Medium ...

    NICO

    fatty acid on milk fat crystallization, than is possible with dietary changes, other species as well as non-ruminant species may be studied. Apart from the commercially exploited mammals, we were only able to locate work on crystallization of camel. (Camelus dromedarius) milk fat.20 It was found that the camel milk.

  7. Mare’s milk: composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the mare’s milk as functional food especial for children intolerant to cow’s milk, with neurodermitis, allergies and similar disorders desiring to improve the quality of life is fiercely debated for last decades but there were no scientific studies to suggest such use of mare’s milk based on scientific research. The objectives of this study were to determine similarities of mare’s milk in comparison with milk of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat and human milk in terms of milk composition and protein fraction as whey proteins, caseins and micelles size. All differences were discussed regarding usage of mare’s milk in human diet and compared to milk which is usually used in human nutrition. Regarding composition, the mare’s milk is similar to human milk in of crude protein, salt and lactose content, but it has significantly lower content of fat. Fractions of main proteins are similar between human and mare’s milk, except nitrogen casein (casein N which has twice lower content in human than in mare’s milk. Content of casein N from all ruminants’ milk differ much more. Just for true whey N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN similar content as human and mare’s milk has also goat milk. The casein content is the lowest in human milk; this content is three times greater in mare’s milk and six to seven times greater in goat’s and cow’s milk, while in sheep’s milk it is more than 10 times grater. In many components and fractions mare’s milk is more similar to human milk than milk of ruminants. A detail comparison of protein fraction shows quite large differences between milk of different species. More study and clinical research are needed that can recommend usage of mare’s milk in human diet as functional food on scientific bases.

  8. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

    Paige K. Berger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41 were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01. Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL, and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL (all p < 0.05. The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01. There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  9. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  10. Short communication: The effect of raw milk cooling on sensory perception and shelf life of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized skim milk.

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2016-12-01

    The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh). The batch of raw milk was split in 2 portions, and a plate heat exchanger was used to quickly cool one portion to <6°C within 1min. The second portion was stored in a jacketed bulk tank and slowly cooled over 4h to <10°C. Milk from 3 consecutive milkings was collected every 12h, with subsequent milkings added to the previous collections. The bulk milk was kept below 10°C while adding milk for the slow cool milk treatment. After 72h, each whole milk was separated; the skim milk was pasteurized at 73 or 78°C for 20 s, homogenized, and held at 4°C. Difference tests (n=75) and consumer acceptance tests (n=100) were conducted to determine if consumers could detect differences among milks. Descriptive analysis and microbial testing for aerobic, psychrotrophic, and psychrotolerant spore counts were conducted through shelf life. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Raw milks averaged 3.3 logcfu/mL by aerobic plate count, <25cfu/mL coliforms, somatic cell count of 300,000 cells/mL, and 3.15±0.07% protein. Psychrotolerant spores were not found in the raw milk. Consumers could not detect differences between cooling treatments of the same pasteurization temperature or between different temperatures of the same cooling treatment. Milks reached sensory failure 49±4d on average after processing, and aerobic counts were between 5 to 7 logcfu/mL. Cooling treatment had no effect on shelf life. These results suggest

  11. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-12-17

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait.

  13. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  14. Production, composition and properties of mare’s milk

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most countries of the world, mare’s milk has always been appreciated due to the proposed therapeutic effects. Thus, it has been increasingly used in nutrition, cosmetics and pharmacy and as a substitute for human milk in newborn diets. According to some estimation, about 30 million people worldwide consume mare’s milk. Recently, mare’s milk has become an interesting product in Croatia because of its specific composition and properties. The optimal ratio of casein to whey proteins and the high digestibility make mare’s milk acceptable for the infant diet, why numerous researchers and discussions focus on it. The aim of this study was to establish chemical composition and the most important properties of mare’s milk, as well as possibilities of its utilization. Because of the high percentage of whey proteins, mare’s milk is a rich source of essential aminoacids and is also convenient for human consumption. In comparison to cow and human milk, mare’s milk lipids contain less triacylglycerols (c. 80 % mare vs c. 98 % cow and human, but it has a higher percentage of phospholipids (c. 5 % and free fatty acids (c. 9 %. Besides, mare’s milk is characterized by a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lactose, vitamins A, B and C, and by a lower content of cholesterol.

  15. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  16. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  17. [Determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Feng; Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Li, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) method for the determination of lutein in the infant formula milk powder was developed. The sample was extracted with acetone and defatted using freezing centrifugation method. The U-HPLC separation was achieved using a YMC Carotenoid C30 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) with the mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 5 microL. It was detected on a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 445 nm. The results showed that the linear range was 20-500 microg/L (r = 0.9999), and the limit of quantification was 20 microg/L. The mean recoveries of lutein varied from 97.9% to 104.4% spiked at 50, 250 and 2,000 microg/kg. The established method is simple, accurate and sensitive for the rapid determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder.

  18. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  19. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy.

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E; Espíndola-Polis, José M; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41-90) and 276 (103-450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65-91) and 673 (454-866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group ( p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol ( Rho = -0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases ( Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37-78) vs. 70 (49-106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75-410) vs. 339 (160-500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a normal pregnancy, those with a high-risk pregnancy

  20. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    cows of high than in low group, while plasma urea was lower in the high than in the low group. No relationship between plasma GGT and milk GGT activity was observed. Our results show an important effect of lactation stage on milk GGT activity. The individual effect observed from consecutive lactations and the relationship between milk GGT activity and milk protein concentration in healthy cows could open prospects for GGT as a future tool in improving milk protein content.

  1. The effect of feed rations containing high moisture crimped corn ensiled with microbial inoculant or chemical additive on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows

    László Könyves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of crimped corn preserved either with organic acids or with a microbial inoculant on a range of metabolic and production indicators of dairy cows. Two hundred and sixty in-calf, second and third parity cows were selected into pairs on basis of age, parity, milk production in previous lactation, days in milk and body condition score with the greatest possible conformity within pairs. Cow pairs were assigned into a 2-period crossover experiment (2 × 45 days and kept in separate groups within the same shed. Dietary treatments were TMR with crimped corn preserved with either organic acids (treatment K or microbial inoculant (treatment B. Ten superbly matched cow-pairs were selected to form nucleus pairs for metabolic studies. The preservatives had no effect on the nutrient content of crimped corn. Crimped corn preserved with the microbial inoculant were found mouldy, predominantly with Mucor sp. at a number high enough to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria, and had significantly higher pH and ammonium concentration compared to the chemical treatment. The milk yield of treatment K cows was significantly higher than that of treatment B cows with identical feed intake. Blood beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration was lower and blood aspartate amino transferase activity higher with treatment K compared to treatment B. Results of this study suggest the superiority of total mixed rations containing chemically preserved crimped corn in terms of ammonia and microbiological indicators of crimped corn, significantly higher milk yield, and balanced energy metabolism.

  2. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  3. Transfer of 137 Cs to milk of cow and muscle of roe deer. Investigations of dairy farms and forest areas in Central Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    Karlen, G.

    1993-01-01

    The thesis comprises two articles, both separately indexed, which discuss the 137 Cs content of milk and roe deer meat respectively on the basis of measurements performed in 1987 and 1988. It is concluded that the Cs content of deer will remain high much longer than the Cs content of milk. 46 refs

  4. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U

    2010-01-01

    Herd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling......% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk......The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim...

  5. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount......OC was significantly affected by the treatments (P milk-derived proteins and minerals with regard to sOC (P = .01). The intake of milk drinks containing whey increased sOC at the low content of minerals, whereas it decreased sOC at the high content of minerals (P ...). In contrast, milk drinks containing casein increased sOC both at the low and at the high contents of minerals. In conclusion, whey and casein (corresponding to their content in 1.5 L of milk) differently affect sOC in 8-year-old boys depending on the content of milk minerals, but do not seem to affect other...

  6. EFFECTS OF HIGH SOYBEAN OIL FOR GOATS IN LATE LACTATION ON INTAKE, MILK COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID PROFILE

    Brou Kouakou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat and vegetable oils are generally added to livestock diets to increase energy density. Unlike other ruminants, goats can tolerate more than 6% dietary fat. Feeding a diet containing soybean oil (SO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA to goats can change the milk fat composition, thereby modifying the nutritional quality of the milk. PUFA such as linoleic acids are considered healthier fats since they have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Eighteen dairy goats (3 - 4 yr.; BW = 40 kg; 9 Saanen and 9 Alpine in late lactation were used in an experiment to determine the effect of high PUFA (12% soybean oil; 12% SO on feed intake, milk composition and fatty acid profile. Does were group fed once a day (2 pens per treatment a 16% CP and 3.5 Mcal DE/kg diets containing either 6 or 12% SO for 24 d. Feed intake was recorded daily during the trial and milk yield was recorded from d-10 to d-24. Milk samples were collected 3 times a week and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, and total solids. Milk fat was extracted and prepared for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAMEs were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC unit, fitted with a 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica SP 2380 (Sigma-Aldrich capillary column. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedures in SAS as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.05 pen feed intake, milk yield or milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solids. Diet containing 12% SO decreased (P < 0.05 the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and increased (P < 0.01 the proportions of monounsaturated fat (MUFA; C18:1n9; C18:1t, and the predominant PUFA, linoleic acid (C18:2n6. The results indicate that goats consuming diet with 12% SO (high PUFA in late lactation produced milk with higher proportions of PUFA and MUFA and lower proportions of SFA compared to 6% SO.

  7. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  8. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  9. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  10. Effect of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization on milk containing low numbers of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Grant, I R; Ball, H J; Rowe, M T

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization (72 degrees C/15 s) when low numbers (HTST pasteurization using laboratory pasteurizing units. Ten bovine strains of Myco. paratuberculosis were tested in triplicate. Culture in BACTEC Middlebrook 12B radiometric medium detected acid-fast survivors in 14.8% and 10% of HTST-pasteurized milk samples at the 10(3) and 10(2) cfu ml-1 inoculum levels, respectively, whereas conventional culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin J detected acid-fast survivors in only 3.7% and 6.7% of the same milk samples. IS900-based PCR confirmed that these acid-fast survivors were Myco. paratuberculosis. No viable Myco. paratuberculosis were isolated from HTST-pasteurized milk initially containing either 10 cfu ml-1 or 10 cfu 50 ml-1.

  11. Food safety evaluation: Detection and confirmation of chloramphenicol in milk by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Nicolich, Rebecca S.; Werneck-Barroso, Eduardo; Marques, Marlice A. Sipoli

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid procedure for extraction of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry in tandem was developed. The method consisted of one step of liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and acidified water (10 mmol L -1 formic acid) and HPLC-MS/MS detection. CAP-D5 was used as internal standard. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The calibration curves were linear, with typical r 2 values higher than 0.98. Absolute recovery of CAP from milk proved to be more than 95%, however CAP-D5 absolute recovery was 75%. The method was accurate and reproducible, being successfully applied to the monitoring of CAP in milk samples obtained from the Brazilian market. Decision limit (CCα) was 0.05 ng mL -1 and detection capability (CCβ) was 0.09 ng mL -1

  12. Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Organoleptic Characterization of a Skimmed Goat Milk Fermented with the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4.

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Sánchez-Hernández, Silvia; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel

    2018-05-17

    The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus . Ultrafiltration was chosen as the skimmed milk concentration method because it produced the best viscosity and syneresis and a high casein content. The viability rate of all bacterial strains was >10⁷ cfu/mL, even after 5 weeks of storage or after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, which is especially important for exertion of the probiotic strain functionalities. This fermented milk is also a good source of nutrients, having a low lactose and fat content, high protein proportion, and good mineral concentration. According to these data and the overall acceptability described by panelists, this fermented milk is a healthy dairy product comparable with commercially available fermented milks.

  13. Shedding Light on Filovirus Infection with High-Content Imaging

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  14. Milk Allergy

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  15. Short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency during the first 21 days of lactation on production and reproductive performance in high-lactating cows.

    Shoshani, E; Cohen, M; Doekes, J J

    2017-01-01

    We examined short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency (HMF) for the first 21 days of lactation. The study included 122 Israeli Holstein cows - 32 pregnant heifers, 40 cows in second lactation and 50 cows in >second lactation. Heifers were paired according to predicted transmitting ability and cows according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, age, days in milk and expected calving date. Thin cows (body condition score second lactation cows relative to their control counterparts (-0.37%); ECM production was also higher in 6× milking first and second lactation (7.6% and 5%, respectively) but not for >second lactation cows. Furthermore, HMF had long-lasting effects, expressed as significantly higher milk production through the succeeding lactation in the previous first lactation cows (10%); a tendency toward significance in the second lactation cows relative to the controls (4.7%), but a deleterious effect on the >second lactation cows, reflected by lower milk production (-5.25%) than in controls; similar patterns were found for the ECM. For the entire 305 days of lactation, fat and protein yields were higher for first and second lactation cows, whereas protein yield for >second lactation cows was lower in the 6× milking v. Given that HMF during the first 21 days of first or second lactation increases milk and ECM yields throughout the concurrent and successive lactation with no adverse effect on energy balance, mastitis, metabolic diseases or reproduction, it seems to be economically beneficial. However, caution should be paid for >second lactation cows due to absence of significant effect in the entire of the first HMF applied lactation and the deleterious effect in the succeeding lactation.

  16. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Infrared analyzers for breast milk analysis: fat levels can influence the accuracy of protein measurements.

    Kwan, Celia; Fusch, Gerhard; Bahonjic, Aldin; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-10-26

    Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer. Breast milk samples (n=25) were measured for fat and protein content before and after being completely defatted by centrifugation, using chemical reference methods and near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar) with two different calibration algorithms provided by the manufacturer (released 2009 and 2015). While the protein content remained unchanged, as measured by elemental analysis, measurements by infrared milk analyzer show a difference in protein measurements dependent on fat content; high fat content can lead to falsely high protein content. This difference is less pronounced when measured using the more recent calibration algorithm. Milk analyzer users must be cautious of their devices' measurements, especially if they are changing the matrix of breast milk using more advanced lacto-engineering.

  18. Selenium and vitamin E concentrations in human milk and formula milk from Hungary

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Majchrzak, D.; Elmadfa, I.; Cser, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic roles of vitamin E and selenium are closely related, and to a very great extent, each can compensate for the deficiency of the other. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the Se and vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) contents of breast milk and commercially available infant formulas in Hungary. The Se content was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while the α-, and γ-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean Se concentration was 17.4±2.8 μg/L in transitional and 13.8±2.3 μg/L in mature milk. It was found that, all of the starter (ST), the follow-on (FO) and the specialized formulas (SF) had lower Se content than breast milk. Transitional breast milk resulted in a higher Se intake (14 μg/day) than mature milk (11 μg/day). The daily Se intakes in Hungarian infants were within the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range. The natural vitamin E contents of human milk were similar during the early and late lactation. Mature breast milk had 3.30±1.13 mg/L α-TE concentration and this was significantly higher than that of in ST (1.98±1.57), and FO (1.77±0.78), or in SF ready to feed preparations (1.03±0.74). The present study suggests that the formulas for the optimal development of young infants, should contain concentrations of these antioxidants on a level which is comparable to that of the human milk. (author)

  19. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Chen Jiahe; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Que Duanlin

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 deg. C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 deg. C. Also, the DZs above 15 μm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits

  20. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Que, Duanlin

    2006-12-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 °C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 °C. Also, the DZs above 15 µm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits.

  1. Human Milk Banking.

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing.

    Li, Ling; Renye, John A; Feng, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Tang, Yan; Huang, Li; Ren, Daxi; Yang, Pan

    2016-09-01

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High-quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from 3 dairy farms in the Guangxi province in southern China. Five liters of each milk sample were pasteurized (72°C; 15 s); and both raw and pasteurized milks were stored at refrigeration temperature (1-4°C) for various times with their microbial communities characterized using the Illumina Miseq platform (Novogene, Beijing, China). Results showed that both raw and pasteurized milks contained a diverse microbial population and that the populations changed over time during storage. In raw buffalo milk, Lactococcus and Streptococcus dominated the population within the first 24h; however, when stored for up to 72h the dominant bacteria were members of the Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera, totaling more than 60% of the community. In pasteurized buffalo milk, the microbial population shifted from a Lactococcus-dominated community (7d), to one containing more than 84% Paenibacillus by 21d of storage. To increase the shelf-life of buffalo milk and its products, raw milk needs to be refrigerated immediately after milking and throughout transport, and should be monitored for the presence of Paenibacillus. Results from this study suggest pasteurization should be performed within 24h of raw milk collection, when the number of psychrotrophic bacteria are low; however, as Paenibacillus spores are resistant to pasteurization, additional antimicrobial treatments may be required to extend shelf-life. The findings from this study are expected to aid in improving the quality and safety of raw and pasteurized buffalo milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparation of instrumental and sensory methods in fermented milk beverages texture quality analysis

    Jovica Hardi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The texture of the curd of fermented dairy products is one of the primary factors of their overall quality. The flow properties of fermented dairy products have characteristic of thixotropic (pseudoplastic type of liquids. At the same time, these products are viscoelastic systems, i.e. they are capable of texture renewal after applied deformation. Complex analysis of some of the properties is essentional for the system description . The aim of the present work was to completely describe the texture of fermented milk beverages . Three basic parameters were taken into consideration: structure, hardness (consistency and stability of the curd. The description model of these three parameters was applied on the basis of the experimental results obteined. Results obtained by present model were compared with the results of sensory analysis. Influence of milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition on acidophilus milk texture quality was also examined using this model. It was shawn that, by using this model – on the basis of instrumental and sensory analyses, a complete and objective determination of texture quality of the fermented milk beverages can be obtained. High degree of correlation between instrumental and sensory results (r =0.8975 is obtained results of this work indicated that both factors (milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition had an influence on texture quality. Samples with higher milk fat content had a better texture properties in comparsion with low fat content samples. Texture of all examined samples was improved by increasing skimmed milk powder content. Optimal amounts of skimmed milk powder addition with regard to milk fat content, in milk, is determined using the proposed model.

  4. Content

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  5. Enhancing the lethal effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field in milk by antimicrobial compounds as combined hurdles.

    Sobrino-López, A; Martín-Belloso, O

    2008-05-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a nonthermal treatment studied for its wide antimicrobial spectrum on liquid food, including milk and dairy products. Moreover, the antimicrobial effect of HIPEF may be enhanced by combining HIPEF with other treatments as hurdles. Nisin and lysozyme are natural antimicrobial compounds that could be used in combination with HIPEF. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of combining HIPEF with the addition of nisin and lysozyme to milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus with regard to different process variables. The individual addition of nisin and lysozyme did not produce any reduction in cell population within the proposed range of concentrations, whereas their combination resulted in a pH-dependent microbial death of Staph. aureus. The addition of nisin and lysozyme to milk combined with HIPEF treatment resulted in a synergistic effect. Applying a 1,200-micros HIPEF treatment time to milk at pH 6.8 containing 1 IU/mL of nisin and 300 IU/mL of lysozyme resulted in a reduction of more than 6.2 log units of Staph. aureus. Final counts resulting from the addition of nisin and lysozyme and applying HIPEF strongly depended on both the sequence of application and the milk pH. Thus, more research is needed to elucidate the mode of action of synergism as well as the role of different process variables, although the use of HIPEF in combination with antimicrobial compounds such as nisin and lysozyme is shown to be potentially useful in processing milk and dairy products.

  6. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  7. The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents

    Young-Sup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP. This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and the Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher’s theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1% in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B, serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40, collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1, ephrin-A1 (EFNA1, netrin 4 (NTN4, neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, neurexin 3 (NRXN3, spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1, ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1, transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7, carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2 and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12. These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect.

  8. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  9. Yield and quality of brine-ripened cheeses, production from the milk of jersey and Simmental cows

    Zh.T. Chitchyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted in Lusadzor community of Tavoush province in Armenia to determine the processability of milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows for cheese manufacturing. The chemical composition as well as physical–chemical and technological parameters of the milk samples have been analyzed experimentally. In addition, the researchers estimated physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters as well as the yield of the cheese produced from the bulk milk collected from Jersey and Simmental cows. The results of the research proved that the milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows possess the necessary physical–chemical and technological properties and can be used as high-quality raw material for manufacturing brine-ripened (pickled cheese. The highest content of dry matter, observed in the milk collected from Jersey cows, stemmed from the high contents of fat, protein and minerals. The content of lactose (milk sugar and physical characteristics (density, freezing temperature did not vary significantly across the samples. The rennet clots formed in the milk collected from Jersey cows were characterized by higher structural–mechanical parameters and syneresis. Jersey milk possesses the qualitative characteristics that best contribute to high cheese yield, which allows for the most efficient cheese production. Cheese manufactured from Jersey milk is distinguished by less water content, higher fat and protein contents and higher organoleptic indicators, which all together improve the quality of cheese turning it into a highly competitive product.

  10. The impact of maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy.

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To test the impact of specific maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy. This study was conducted with the use of a human milk analyzer (HMA, MIRIS, Uppsala, Sweden). Six hundred and thirty samples of raw milk and 95 samples of donor pasteurized milk were delivered from a total of 305 mothers. A significant inverse correlation of fat, protein and energy content with gestational age and birth weight was established. Fat and energy were lower in colostrum, increased in transitional milk and decreased on the 30th day's mature milk compared to transitional. The rate of protein decline from colostrum to mature milk was lower in premature deliveries compared to that of full-terms, resulting in greater contents of protein in preterm mature milk. The upmost amounts of carbohydrates were found in mature milk of preterm deliveries. A positive correlation was found between maternal age and fat contents. In women with higher post-pregnancy BMI levels greater analogies of fat and energy were presented. In women suffering diet-controlled gestational diabetes (GD), lower protein and higher fat and energy levels were found. Prematurity, maternal age, diet-controlled GD and high post-pregnancy BMI levels were found to impose statistical significant effect on milk's macronutrients and energy.

  11. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  12. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  13. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  14. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square...... design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...

  15. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  16. Plasma α-tocopherol content and its relationship with milk somatic cells count in Italian commercial herds.

    Adriano Pilotto

    2015-07-01

    We did not observe a correlation between plasmatic vitamin E and somatic cell score, and this can be explained by the low level of somatic cell score (averages 1.64 and 1.26. The lowest value of vitamin E was observed at parturition (1.64 µg/ml and 1.95 µg/ml. A significant (P<0.01 negative (-20% correlation was observed between NEFA serum content and α-tocopherol plasma concentration. Serum selenium content was positively correlated (+42%, P<0.0001 to zinc concentration. Grouping cows on the basis of their plasma α-tocopherol content higher or lower than 3 μg/mL at dry off, SCS at 30 and 60 DIM tended to be higher in lactating animals with lower content of α-tocopherol (1.12 vs. 1.72, P=0.18 at 30d; 0.92 vs. 1.72, P=0.07 at 60d. However, plasma α-tocopherol content at dry off could be usefully correlated with somatic cell count in fresh cows.

  17. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sloth, Karen Helle; Højberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    of acetic acid, propionic acid, propanol, propyl acetate, 2-butanol, propylene glycol, ammonia, and free AA. The contents and ratios of dl-lactic acid, l-lactic acid relative to dl-lactic acid, free glucose, and dl-lactic acid relative to acetic acid decreased with Lalsil Fresh inoculation. Lalsil Fresh...... inoculation increased the silage counts of total lactic acid bacteria and reduced yeast counts. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were detected in all silages at all collections, but the contents were not affected by ensiling time or by inoculation treatment. The effect...

  18. High level production of β-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A β-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant β-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the β-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries.

  19. Cobalamin and haptocorrin in human milk and cobalamin-related variables in mother and child

    Greibe, Eva; Lildballe, Dorte L; við Streym, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of milk cobalamin is hampered by the high content of the cobalamin-binding protein haptocorrin, and limited data are available relating trustworthy measures of milk cobalamin to cobalamin status in healthy mothers and their children. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to expl...

  20. Developing a predictive model for the energy content of goat milk as the basis for a functional unit formulation to be used in the life cycle assessment of dairy goat production systems.

    Danieli, P P; Ronchi, B

    2018-02-01

    Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash. The DPMs were developed, selected and tested using a linear regression approach, as a meta-analysis (i.e. meta-regression) was not applicable. However, in the final stage, a control procedure for spurious findings was carried out using a Monte Carlo permutation test. Because several published predictive models (PPMs) for GE in cow milk and goat milk were found in the literature, they were tested on the same data set with which the DPMs were developed. The best-performing DPMs and PPMs were compared directly with a subset of the individual data retrieved from the literature. Overall, the paucity of direct measurements of the GE in goat milk was a limiting factor in collecting data from the literature; thus, only a small data set (n=26) was established, even though it was considered sufficiently representative of milks from different goat breeds. The three best PPMs based on F alone gave more biased estimates of the GE content of the goat milk than the three new DPMs based on F, F and SNF and F and TS, respectively. Accordingly, three different formulations of FU are proposed, depending on the availability of data including both F and TS (or F and SNF) or F alone. Even though several metrics can be used in defining the FU for milk to

  1. Blood and Milk Contents of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Cortisol in Lactating Buffaloes and Changes in Milk Yield and Composition as a Function of Lactation Number and Ambient Temperature

    Habeeb, A.M. Al-Saied.; Ibrahim, M.Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lactation number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. Two experiment were carried out on 72 animals in two periods through 1994. The first one was carried out on 36 animals during February, where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree while the second was conducted on another 36 animals during July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree. In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactation number into 6 equal groups from the 1 st to the 6 Th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T-3 either in milk or in blood besides milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in july than in february. Whereas the opposite trend was noted for cortisol levels either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , mil and blood cortisol, milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly by lactation number

  2. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  3. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  4. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  5. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  6. Contents

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  7. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  9. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on the cheese-making properties of milk

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic milking systems (RMS modify dairy herd management and therefore some aspects of production. The mainresults from scientific literature on RMS and cheese-making properties have been reported. The decrease in fat content,as a consequence of the increased milking frequency, is generally confirmed. The lack of specific studies on creamingproperties of milk from robotic milking experiences and with different milking frequencies has been highlighted.Indications on clotting features were obtained with a different milking frequency in a traditional milking parlour; theseresults showed an improvement in the casein index of milk from three daily milkings. A reduction of casein exposure tothe plasminogen-plasmin complex activity in the mammary gland between two consecutive milkings seems to explainthis result. The effect of RMS on milk quality for cheese-making purposes was first evaluated in a two-year monitoringstudy in a herd representative of Po Valley dairy farms. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on bulk milk samplesindicate that milk from RMS seems suitable for cheese-making processes.

  10. Expanding the bovine milk proteome through extensive fractionation.

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk is an agricultural product of tremendous value worldwide. It contains proteins, fat, lactose, vitamins, and minerals. It provides nutrition and immunological protection (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract) to the newborn and young calf. It also forms an important part of human nutrition. The repertoire of proteins in milk (i.e., its proteome) is vast and complex. The milk proteome can be described in detail by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, the high concentration of dominating proteins in milk reduces mass spectrometry detection sensitivity and limits detection of low abundant proteins. Further, the general health and udder health of the dairy cows delivering the milk may influence the composition of the milk proteome. To gain a more exhaustive and true picture of the milk proteome, we performed an extensive preanalysis fractionation of raw composite milk collected from documented healthy cows in early lactation. Four simple and industrially applicable techniques exploring the physical and chemical properties of milk, including acidification, filtration, and centrifugation, were used for separation of the proteins. This resulted in 5 different fractions, whose content of proteins were compared with the proteins of nonfractionated milk using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. To validate the proteome analysis, spectral counts and ELISA were performed on 7 proteins using the ELISA for estimation of the detection sensitivity limit of the 2-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Each fractionation technique resulted in identification of a unique subset of proteins. However, high-speed centrifugation of milk to whey was by far the best method to achieve high and repeatable proteome coverage. The total number of milk proteins initially detected in nonfractionated milk and the fractions were 635 in 2 replicates. Removal of dominant proteins and filtering for redundancy across the

  11. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  12. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women.

    Berger, Paige K; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fujiwara, Hideji; Goran, Michael I

    2018-05-24

    This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers ( n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. -2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  13. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A.; Jankowska, A.; Wiśniewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4°C and 20°C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20°C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4°C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  14. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  15. [Determination of penicillin intermediate and three penicillins in milk by high performance capillary electrophoresis].

    Tian, Chunqiu; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Shen, Huqin; Qi, Kezong

    2011-11-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of penicillin intermediate and penicillins in milk, including 6-amino-penicillanic acid (6-APA), penicillin G (PEN), ampicillin (AMP) and amoxicillin (AMO). The main parameters including the ion concentration and pH value of running buffer, separation voltage and column temperature were optimized systematically by orthogonal test. The four penicillins (PENs) were baseline separated within 4.5 min with the running buffer of 40 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate-20 mmol/L borax solution (pH 7.8), separation voltage of 28 kV and column temperature of 30 degrees C. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1.56 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were between 0.9979 and 0.9998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 84.91% - 96.72% with acceptable relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.11% - 9.11%. The method is simple, fast, accurate and suitable for the determination of penicillins in real samples.

  16. Antimicrobial activity and high thermostability of a novel blissecreted by enterococcus mundtiiisolated from Lebanese cow's milk

    Al Kassaa, I.; Safourim, N.; Mostafa, N.; Hamze, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in many fields such as fermentation agents, increasing nutritional value and improving organoleptic quality of food. Also they are use das probiotics and preservatives against pathogensand spoilage microbes by producing antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins. Fifty cow's milk samples were collected and 175 LAB isolates were isolated and identified by using biochemical method. Fifteen isolates showedan antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenesATCC® 19115™.One strain, BL4 which showed the strongest activity, was chosen to extract and characterize its antimicrobial substance in order to evaluate its potential use as a new food protective agent. This strain was identified as Enterococcus mundtiibypyrosequencing method.The active substance was extracted using solvent method.This Bacteriocin likeInhibitory Substances “BLIS”can support a high temperature (121 °C) for a long time and resist pH variation.The BLIS BL4 can be considered as a peptide active against many food pathogen and food-spoilage microbes, such as Listeriamonocytogenes and Penicillium spp. BLISBL4can be used in food application as bio-preservative to reduce food-spoilage and food-borne diseases in food product. (author

  17. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K

    2008-01-01

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4 0 C and 20 0 C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20 0 C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4 0 C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes

  18. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  19. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial...... component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  20. Milk: Past and Present

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  1. Research Report: Determination of Riboflavin Content in Goat and ...

    A high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed to determine riboflavin content in goat and cow whole milk. The present method involves acidification of the milk to precipitate bulk of the proteins and centrifugation affording a supernatant, which was diluted with 2% acetic acid to a constant volume.

  2. Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and milk

    Dong, Peng; Georget, Erika S.; Aganovic, Kemal; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) opens up new areas for dynamic high pressure assisted thermal sterilization of liquids. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores are resistant to high isostatic pressure and temperature and were suggested as potential surrogate for high pressure thermal sterilization validation. B. amyloliquefaciens spores suspended in PBS buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.0), low fat milk (1.5%, pH 6.7), and whole milk (3.5%, pH 6.7) at initial concentration of ~106 CFU/mL were subjected to UHPH treatments at 200, 300, and 350 MPa with an inlet temperature at ~80°C. Thermal inactivation kinetics of B. amyloliquefaciens spores in PBS and milk were assessed with thin wall glass capillaries and modeled using first-order and Weibull models. The residence time during UHPH treatments was estimated to determine the contribution of temperature to spore inactivation by UHPH. No sublethal injury was detected after UHPH treatments using sodium chloride as selective component in the nutrient agar medium. The inactivation profiles of spores in PBS buffer and milk were compared and fat provided no clear protective effect for spores against treatments. Treatment at 200 MPa with valve temperatures lower than 125°C caused no reduction of spores. A reduction of 3.5 log10CFU/mL of B. amyloliquefaciens spores was achieved by treatment at 350 MPa with a valve temperature higher than 150°C. The modeled thermal inactivation and observed inactivation during UHPH treatments suggest that temperature could be the main lethal effect driving inactivation. PMID:26236296

  3. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  4. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances.......Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of each...... elevated heart rate and significant loss of body weight and condition compared with the combination of 4X and bST. As a result, treatments were discontinued, on an individual cow basis, before completion of this 6-week phase. Time on experiment did not differ between HT and LT. The results do not support...

  5. Influence of micellar calcium and phosphorus on rennet coagulation properties of cows milk.

    Malacarne, Massimo; Franceschi, Piero; Formaggioni, Paolo; Sandri, Sandro; Mariani, Primo; Summer, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The main requirement for milk processed in most cheese typologies is its rennet coagulation ability. Despite the increasing number of studies, the causes for abnormal coagulation of milk are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain relationships between milk characteristics and its rennet coagulation ability, focusing on the influence of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Ca and P are essential constituents of the micelles. Micellar P can be present as part of colloidal calcium phosphate (inorganic-P) or covalently bound to caseins as phosphate groups (casein-P). Eighty one herd milk samples (SCCproperties. Optimal milk was characterised by the highest contents of major constituents, protein fractions and minerals, lowest content of chloride and highest values of titratable acidity. Non-coagulating milk was characterised by the highest values of pH and the lowest of titratable acidity. At micellar level, Optimal milk showed the highest values of colloidal Ca, casein-P and colloidal Mg (g/100 g casein), while Non-coagulating milk showed the lowest values. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference regarding the content of colloidal inorganic-P (g/100 g casein) between Optimal and Non-coagulating milks. Overall, high mineralisation of the micelle (expressed as g inorganic-P/100 g casein) positively affect its rennetability. However, excessive mineralisation could lead to a reduction of the phosphate groups (g casein-P/100 g casein) available for curd formation.

  6. Achieving high milk production performance at grass with minimal concentrate supplementation with spring-calving dairy cows: actual performance compared to simulated performance

    O'Donovan, M.; Ruelle, Elodie; Coughlan, F.; Delaby, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of high-profitability grazing systems is to produce milk efficiency from grazed pasture. There is very limited information available on the milk production capacity of dairy cows offered a grass-only diet for the main part of her lactation. In this study, spring-calving dairy cows were managed to achieve high milk production levels throughout the grazing season without supplementation. The calving date of the herd was 12 April; the herd had access to grass as they calved a...

  7. Breast milk macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery.

    Jans, Goele; Matthys, Christophe; Lannoo, Matthias; Van der Schueren, Bart; Devlieger, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Breast milk samples from 12 lactating women with bariatric surgery were investigated by comparing the macronutrient and energy content with samples from 36 non-surgical controls. Samples were analyzed with the Human Milk Analyzer and the maternal diet 24 h prior to sampling with a food record. A higher fat, energy, and a slightly higher carbohydrate milk content was found in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (3.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 g/100 ml, P = 0.008; 61.0 ± 7.2 versus 51.7 ± 9 kcal/100 ml, P = 0.002; and 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 6.3 ± 0.4 g/100 ml, P = 0.045, respectively). No correlations and no strong explanatory variance were found between milk macronutrient composition and corresponding maternal dietary intake. The nutritional value of breast milk after bariatric surgery appears to be at least as high as in non-surgical controls.

  8. Comparative analysis of native and permethylated human milk oligosaccharides by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Oursel, Stéphanie; Cholet, Sophie; Junot, Christophe; Fenaille, François

    2017-12-15

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) represent the third most abundant components of milk after lactose and lipids. HMOs are indigestible by the suckling infant but can act as prebiotics and have significant biological functions regarding the organism defense against pathogens (such as bacteria or viruses) by preventing interactions with their receptors. Although constituted of only five distinct monosaccharide building blocks, HMOs are highly structurally diverse compounds with many co-existing structural isomers. Here we report the development and comparison of two distinct glycomic platforms based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for analyzing HMOs. We have implemented and thoroughly compared the LC-MS of permethylated and native HMOs on reversed phase (RP) and porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns for their ability to resolve the natural heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides at the highest sensitivity. Our data essentially underlines the usefulness of analyzing HMOs as permethylated derivatives especially for getting more precise structural information at high sensitivity. For instance, permethylation annihilates gas-phase fucose migration during MS/MS experiments, thus facilitating spectra interpretation and giving access to relevant information regarding oligosaccharide branching and isomer distinction. At the opposite, LC-MS profiling of native HMOs (using PGC) in milk performed best in terms of detected species, while also being much faster in terms of sample preparation. Although less efficient than PGC chromatography, RPLC proved successful for separating pairs of permethylated isomeric HMOs. A key advantage of RP over PGC liquid chromatography is that retention times can be correlated to molecular weights, which can greatly facilitate further HMO identification using retention time prediction. Altogether these data lead us to think that LC-MS analysis of native HMOs (using PGC) can be used as first

  9. Transglutaminase inhibitor from milk

    Jong, G.A.H. de; Wijngaards, G.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-linking experiments of skimmed bovine milk with bacterial transglutaminase isolated from Streptoverticillium mobaraense showed only some degree of formation of high-molecular-weight casein polymers. Studies on the nature of this phenomenon revealed that bovine milk contains an inhibitor of

  10. Low Temperature Plasma for decontamination of E. coli in milk.

    Gurol, C; Ekinci, F Y; Aslan, N; Korachi, M

    2012-06-15

    Raw milk is a natural, highly nutritious product and a quick and easy supplement for human dietary requirements. Elimination of bacteria in milk has been a problem for decades and new methods with regards to non-thermal applications which do not harm the chemical composition of milk, are currently under investigation. The objective of the study was to determine the potential use of a novel, Low Temperature Plasma (LTP) system for its capability of killing Escherichia coli in milk with different fat contents. The time dependent effect of atmospheric corona discharge generated with 9kV of AC power supply on E. coli ATCC 25922 dispersed in whole, semi skimmed and skimmed milk was examined. Plasma was applied at time intervals of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20min. A significant 54% reduction in the population of E. coli cells after only 3min was observed regardless of the fat content of the milk. The initial pre-plasma bacterial count of 7.78 Log CFU/ml in whole milk was decreased to 3.63 Log CFU/ml after 20min of plasma application. LTP did not cause any significant change to the pH and color values of raw milk samples. No viable cells were detected after one week examination in whole milk samples and remained so over the 6week storage period. The findings of this study show that the novel LTP system tested was able to significantly reduce E. coli in milk by more than a 3 fold log reduction without significantly affecting pH or color properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A content analysis of tweets about high-potency marijuana.

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Sowles, Shaina J; Krauss, Melissa J; Agbonavbare, Vivian; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2016-09-01

    "Dabbing" involves heating extremely concentrated forms of marijuana to high temperatures and inhaling the resulting vapor. We studied themes describing the consequences of using highly concentrated marijuana by examining the dabbing-related content on Twitter. Tweets containing dabbing-related keywords were collected from 1/1-1/31/2015 (n=206,854). A random sample of 5000 tweets was coded for content according to pre-determined categories about dabbing-related behaviors and effects experienced using a crowdsourcing service. An examination of tweets from the full sample about respiratory effects and passing out was then conducted by selecting tweets with relevant keywords. Among the 5000 randomly sampled tweets, 3540 (71%) were related to dabbing marijuana concentrates. The most common themes included mentioning current use of concentrates (n=849; 24%), the intense high and/or extreme effects from dabbing (n=763; 22%) and excessive/heavy dabbing (n=517; 15%). Extreme effects included both physiological (n=124/333; 37%) and psychological effects (n=55/333; 17%). The most common physiologic effects, passing out (n=46/333; 14%) and respiratory effects (n=30/333; 9%), were then further studied in the full sample of tweets. Coughing was the most common respiratory effect mentioned (n=807/1179; 68%), and tweeters commonly expressed dabbing with intentions to pass out (416/915; 45%). This study adds to the limited understanding of marijuana concentrates and highlights self-reported physical and psychological effects from this type of marijuana use. Future research should further examine these effects and the potential severity of health consequences associated with concentrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate of milk on the texture and microstructure of yogurt.

    Ozcan, T; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) content on the physical, rheological, and microstructural properties of yogurt was investigated. The CCP content of heated (85°C for 30 min) milk was increased by increasing the pH by the addition of alkali (NaOH). Alkalized milk was dialyzed against pasteurized skim milk at approximately 4°C for 72 h to attempt to restore the original pH and soluble Ca content. By adjustment of the milk to pH values 7.45, 8.84, 10.06, and 10.73, the CCP content was increased to approximately 107, 116, 123, and 128%, respectively, relative to the concentration in heated milk. During fermentation of milk, the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent values of yogurts were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. The microstructure of yogurt was observed using fluorescence microscopy, and whey separation was determined. Acid-base titration was used to evaluate changes in the CCP content in milk. Total Ca and casein-bound Ca increased with an increase in the pH value of alkalization. During acidification, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 6.7 to 5.2 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. When acidified milk was titrated with alkali, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 5.6 to 6.4 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. The high residual pH of milk after dialysis could be responsible for the decreased contents of soluble Ca in these milks. The pH of gelation was higher in all dialyzed samples compared with the heated control milk, and the gelation pH was higher with an increase in CCP content. The sample with highest CCP content (128%) exhibited gelation at very high pH (6.3), which could be due to alkali-induced CN micellar disruption. The G' values at pH 4.6 were similar in gels with CCP levels up to 116%; at higher CCP levels, the G' values at pH 4.6 greatly decreased. Loss tangent values at pH 5.1 were similar

  13. The impact of human breast milk components on the infant metabolism.

    Christian Hellmuth

    high protein content in milk or infant formula to childhood obesity risk.

  14. High GC content causes orphan proteins to be intrinsically disordered.

    Walter Basile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available De novo creation of protein coding genes involves the formation of short ORFs from noncoding regions; some of these ORFs might then become fixed in the population. These orphan proteins need to, at the bare minimum, not cause serious harm to the organism, meaning that they should for instance not aggregate. Therefore, although the creation of short ORFs could be truly random, the fixation should be subjected to some selective pressure. The selective forces acting on orphan proteins have been elusive, and contradictory results have been reported. In Drosophila young proteins are more disordered than ancient ones, while the opposite trend is present in yeast. To the best of our knowledge no valid explanation for this difference has been proposed. To solve this riddle we studied structural properties and age of proteins in 187 eukaryotic organisms. We find that, with the exception of length, there are only small differences in the properties between proteins of different ages. However, when we take the GC content into account we noted that it could explain the opposite trends observed for orphans in yeast (low GC and Drosophila (high GC. GC content is correlated with codons coding for disorder promoting amino acids. This leads us to propose that intrinsic disorder is not a strong determining factor for fixation of orphan proteins. Instead these proteins largely resemble random proteins given a particular GC level. During evolution the properties of a protein change faster than the GC level causing the relationship between disorder and GC to gradually weaken.

  15. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  16. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cermet anode compositions with high content alloy phase

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions comprising NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 -Cu-Ni, and methods for making, are disclosed. Addition of nickel metal prior to formation and densification of a base mixture into the cermet allows for an increase in the total amount of copper and nickel that can be contained in the NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 oxide system. Nickel is present in a base mixture weight concentration of from 0.1% to 10%. Copper is present in the alloy phase in a weight concentration of from 10% to 30% of the densified composition. Such cermet electrodes can be formed to have electrical conductivities well in excess of 100 ohm.sup.-1 cm.sup.-1. Other alloy and oxide system cermets having high content metal phases are also expected to be manufacturable in accordance with the invention.

  19. Automation in high-content flow cytometry screening.

    Naumann, U; Wand, M P

    2009-09-01

    High-content flow cytometric screening (FC-HCS) is a 21st Century technology that combines robotic fluid handling, flow cytometric instrumentation, and bioinformatics software, so that relatively large numbers of flow cytometric samples can be processed and analysed in a short period of time. We revisit a recent application of FC-HCS to the problem of cellular signature definition for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Our focus is on automation of the data processing steps using recent advances in statistical methodology. We demonstrate that effective results, on par with those obtained via manual processing, can be achieved using our automatic techniques. Such automation of FC-HCS has the potential to drastically improve diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  20. Diffusion in a pure, high-vacancy-content crystal

    McKee, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that vacancies can follow a nonrandom walk in a solid has been developed and put into a quantitative form for diffusion in a pure, high-vacancy-content crystal. Intrinsic and tracer diffusion in a metal have been analyzed, and the electrical mobility in an ionic solid has been expressed in terms of the tracer diffusion coefficient and the separate correlation factors for atoms and vacancies. The description uses classical methods of diffusion theory, and generalized results that account for nonrandom vacancy walk have been shown to reduce to those obtained by Howard and Lidiard in a system where the vacancy moves randomly as an isolated point defect. Experimental data for carbon diffusion in fcc iron have been examined to illustrate an interstitial-vacancy analogy that was used in this analysis, and the general result has been applied specifically to discuss vacancy diffusion in Fe/sub 1-x/S

  1. Milk quality in high production systems during dry and rainy seasons ...

    This study aimed to evaluate the milk quality of crossbred cows from five production systems according to the quality parameters required by Normative Instruction No. 62 (NI 62). Five different production systems were used, with different environmental and sanitary conditions, and with animals from different breeds in two ...

  2. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L.; Carson, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect or as a sur...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution....

  3. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  4. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  5. Metabolic profile modifications in milk after enrofloxacin administration studied by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Junza, A; Saurina, J; Barrón, D; Minguillón, C

    2016-08-19

    High resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was used in the search and identification of metabolites in raw milk from cows medicated with enrofloxacin. Data consisting of m/z features were taken throughout the entire chromatogram of milk samples from medicated animals and were compared with blank samples. Twenty six different compounds were identified. Some of them were attributed to structures related to enrofloxacin while others were dipeptides or tripeptides. Additionally, enrofloxacin was administered in a controlled treatment for three days. Milk was collected daily from the first day of treatment and until four days after in the search for the identified compounds. The obtained data were chemometrically treated by Principal Component Analysis. Samples were classified by this method into three different groups corresponding to days 1-2, day 3 and days 4-7 considering the different concentration profile evolution of metabolites during the days studied. Tentative metabolic pathways were designed to rationalize the presence of the newly identified compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of benzimidazole residues and their metabolites in raw milk using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

    Marija Denžić Lugomer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD was developed for the analysis of 18 benzimidazoles and their metabolites in milk. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and n-hexane and purified by polymer cation exchange (PCX solid phase extraction cartridges. LC separation was performed on Xbridge C18 with gradient elution using acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The DAD detection was set at 298, 312, 254 and 290 nm. The method was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The following validation parameters were set: accuracy (expressed as recovery 31.7-137.6 %, limit of decision (CCα 6.0-120.6 μg kg-1, detection capability (CCβ 6.1-120.8 μg kg-1, limit of detection (LOD 1-4 μg kg-1, limit of quantification (LOQ 4-18 μg kg-1, precision as CV 7.0-22.5 %, withinlaboratory reproducibility expressed as CV 8.8-30.6 %. Finally, the developed method was applied to the analysis of collected milk samples. A total of 50 milk samples was analysed for benzimidazole residues. All obtained concentrations for all compounds were below the LOQ values.

  7. Gravel Mobility in a High Sand Content Riverbed

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    In sand-gravel channels, sand may modify gravel transport by changing conditions of entrainment and promoting longer displacements or gravel may inhibit sand transport if concentrated into distinct deposits, which restrict sand supply with consequences for migrating bedform size or form. This study reports on gravel mobility in the lower San Antonio River, Texas, where gravel content in the bed material ranges from about 1% to more than 20%. Sediment transport observations were collected at three U.S. Geological Survey gauging stations by deploying a Helley-Smith sampler with a 0.2 mm mesh bag from which transport rates and mobile grain sizes were determined. The flow rates sampled translate into an annual exceedance expectation from 0.2% to 98%. Gravel transport rates are generally two orders of magnitude smaller than the rates of sand transport. However, the finest gravels are transported at rates on the same order of magnitude as the coarsest sands. At all sites, the 2 and 2.8 mm fractions are transported at the lowest flow rate sampled, suggesting mobility for at least 38% to as much as 98% of the year. Fractions as large as 8 mm are mobilized at flow rates that are expected between 25% and 53% of the year. The largest fractions captured in the sampling (16 to 32 mm) require flows closer to bankfull conditions that occur no more than 0.8% of the year. Results document that some gravel sizes can be frequently transported in low gradient riverbeds with high sand content.

  8. XENOBIOTICS AND BIOGENIC ELEMENTS IN RAW COW'S MILK

    Agnieszka Greń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE This paper presents the concentration some toxic and biogenic elements in milk from Nitra region. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate 30 samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained from milk machine in the Nitra region. Samples were analyzed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. In comparison with maximum acceptable concentration for milk in the food codex of the Slovak republic, the level of contamination with cadmium was exceeded and reached the value 0.221 µg.ml-1. The copper content ranged from 1.201 µg.ml-1 to 5.810 µg.ml-1 and the average concentration reached 3.793 µg.ml-1.  Iron had an average of 1.824 µg.ml-1. Overall in all milk samples high correlations were found. Between positive correlation (0.7019 and negative correlation between of nickel and potassium concentration in raw milk (-0.72 was found. doi:10.5219/246

  9. Pastillas De Leche from Cow’s and Carabao’s Milk

    Rosita Rana-Parducho

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastillas de leche or milk candies were prepared by separately evaporating fresh cow’s and carabao's milk and adding sugar to each until the mixture formed a soft ball.Statistical analysis of the results of organoleptic tests did not reveal significant differences in sweetness, flavor, odor, and general acceptability of these finished products. However, differences in color, body, and texture were noted. Carabao's milk scored high in terms of all organoleptic parameters and was favored by the panel of testers.The candies made from carabao's milk were also shown to have a higher fat and protein content than those made from cow’s milk; thus, the higher yield obtained in the case of carabao's milk.

  10. Sources of variation and heritability estimates for milking speed in Italian Brown cows

    G. Bittante

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milking speed is defined as the time required to milk a cow (Bowman et al., 1996. Milkability can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle for udder health (Dodenhoff et al., 1999 and workability (Visscher and Goddard, 1995. Sivarajasingam et al. (1984, found milking speed to be the third most important trait on net profit for dairy farms, after milk yield and fat content, so much so that it is included in breeding programmes for dairy cattle (Schneeberger and Hagger, 1985; Boettcher et al., 1997. Different methods to measure milkability traits, subjective and instrumental, were reported in the literature. Meyer and Burnside (1987 found a high genetic correlation between a subjective evaluations of milking speed of cows by Canadian farmers (using five classes: 1 = “very slow” ... 5 = “very fast”, with total milking time by chronometer.......

  11. Fully Biodegradable Biocomposites with High Chicken Feather Content

    Ibon Aranberri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop new biodegradable polymeric materials with high loadings of chicken feather (CF. In this study, the effect of CF concentration and the type of biodegradable matrix on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites was investigated. The selected biopolymers were polylactic acid (PLA, polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT and a PLA/thermoplastic copolyester blend. The studied biocomposites were manufactured with a torque rheometer having a CF content of 50 and 60 wt %. Due to the low tensile strength of CFs, the resulting materials were penalized in terms of mechanical properties. However, high-loading CF biocomposites resulted in lightweight and thermal-insulating materials when compared with neat bioplastics. Additionally, the adhesion between CFs and the PLA matrix was also investigated and a significant improvement of the wettability of the feathers was obtained with the alkali treatment of the CFs and the addition of a plasticizer like polyethylene glycol (PEG. Considering all the properties, these 100% fully biodegradable biocomposites could be adequate for panel components, flooring or building materials as an alternative to wood–plastic composites, contributing to the valorisation of chicken feather waste as a renewable material.

  12. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  13. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  14. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  15. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  16. crobiological Property of Abyssinian Donkey's Milk

    2Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. *Corresponding author: ... milk in its protein, lactose, vitamin C, pH, density, and zinc contents whereas, ... its unique nutritional quality and its similarity to human milk. ... acid rinsed, sterile container from 24 healthy jennies. The milk ...

  17. Milk composition of captive vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with observations on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and white handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Nguyen, T P M; Seier, J

    2009-04-01

    The nutrient content and fatty acid composition of vervet monkey milk has been determined and is compared with rhesus macaque, and two hominoid apes, the white handed gibbon and gorilla. With 15.7+/-4.1 g protein, 33.1+/-9.4 g fat, and 85.1+/-7.5 g lactose per kg milk, vervet monkey milk does not differ from that of rhesus macaque, and is within the range of other primates. Small amounts (>1 g kg(-1)) of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. In comparison, gorilla milk has a low fat content of 13.8 g kg(-1), but contains high levels of oligosaccharides at 7.0 g kg(-1) milk. The hominoid partner, the white handed gibbon, contains no oligosaccharides and a milk fat content similar to other hominoid species. Differences between vervet monkey and rhesus macaque milks were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the milk proteins, mainly amongst the kappa- and gamma-caseins, which also differ from that of the hominids. The fatty acid contents of these milks differ from studies where a natural diet of leafy material was available in that a low content of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was noted. A phylogenetic effect is observed for the content of 8:0, 10:0 fatty acids between the Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea, and a further phylogenetic effect suggested between the Hylobatidae and Hominidae.

  18. Design and Implementation of High Performance Content-Addressable Memories.

    1985-12-01

    content addressability and two basic implementations of content addressing. The need and application of hardware CAM is presented to motivate the " topic...3r Pass 4th Ps4 Pass Figure 2.15 Maximum SearchUsing All-Parallel CAM - left-most position (the most significant bit) and the other IF bits are zeros

  19. Use of domestic detergents in the California mastitis test for high somatic cell counts in milk.

    Leach, K A; Green, M J; Breen, J E; Huxley, J N; Macaulay, R; Newton, H T; Bradley, A J

    2008-11-08

    The California mastitis test (CMT) is used on farms to identify subclinical mastitis by an indirect estimation of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. Four commercially available detergents were compared with a bespoke cmt fluid for their ability to detect milk samples with a scc above 200,000 cells/ml; differences between the interpretation of the results of the tests by eight operators were also investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were affected by the type of detergent, and by the operators' interpretations. When used by the most sensitive operator, suitably diluted Fairy Liquid performed almost identically to cmt fluid in identifying milk samples with more than 200,000 cells/ml. The average sensitivities achieved by the eight operators for detecting this threshold were 82 per cent for Fairy Liquid and 84 per cent for cmt fluid, and the specificities were 93 and 91 per cent respectively. The other detergents contained less anionic surfactants and were less sensitive but similarly specific.

  20. High Milk-Clotting Activity Expressed by the Newly Isolated Paenibacillus spp. Strain BD3526

    Feng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL−1 of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in κ-casein was located at the Met106–Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  1. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  2. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14.

    Lab?ta, MO; Vidal, K; Nores, JE; Arias, M; Vita, N; Morgan, BP; Guillemot, JC; Loyaux, D; Ferrara, P; Schmid, D; Affolter, M; Borysiewicz, LK; Donnet-Hughes, A; Schiffrin, EJ

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  3. Innate Recognition of Bacteria in Human Milk Is Mediated by a Milk-Derived Highly Expressed Pattern Recognition Receptor, Soluble Cd14

    Labéta, Mario O.; Vidal, Karine; Nores, Julia E. Rey; Arias, Mauricio; Vita, Natalio; Morgan, B. Paul; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Schmid, Daniel; Affolter, Michael; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; Donnet-Hughes, Anne; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  4. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  5. Mandatory trans fat labeling regulations and nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acid content in foods contributed to lowered concentrations of trans fat in Canadian women's breast milk samples collected in 2009-2011.

    Ratnayake, Wm Nimal; Swist, Eleonora; Zoka, Rana; Gagnon, Claude; Lillycrop, William; Pantazapoulos, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The dynamics of milk droplet-droplet collisions

    Finotello, Giulia; Kooiman, Roeland F.; Padding, Johan T.; Buist, Kay A.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J. A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Spray drying is an important industrial process to produce powdered milk, in which concentrated milk is atomized into small droplets and dried with hot gas. The characteristics of the produced milk powder are largely affected by agglomeration, combination of dry and partially dry particles, which in turn depends on the outcome of a collision between droplets. The high total solids (TS) content and the presence of milk proteins cause a relatively high viscosity of the fed milk concentrates, which is expected to largely influence the collision outcomes of drops inside the spray. It is therefore of paramount importance to predict and control the outcomes of binary droplet collisions. Only a few studies report on droplet collisions of high viscous liquids and no work is available on droplet collisions of milk concentrates. The current study therefore aims to obtain insight into the effect of viscosity on the outcome of binary collisions between droplets of milk concentrates. To cover a wide range of viscosity values, three milk concentrates (20, 30 and 46% TS content) are investigated. An experimental set-up is used to generate two colliding droplet streams with consistent droplet size and spacing. A high-speed camera is used to record the trajectories of the droplets. The recordings are processed by Droplet Image Analysis in MATLAB to determine the relative velocities and the impact geometries for each individual collision. The collision outcomes are presented in a regime map dependent on the dimensionless impact parameter and Weber ( We) number. The Ohnesorge ( Oh) number is introduced to describe the effect of viscosity from one liquid to another and is maintained constant for each regime map by using a constant droplet diameter ( d ˜ 700 μ m). In this work, a phenomenological model is proposed to describe the boundaries demarcating the coalescence-separation regimes. The collision dynamics and outcome of milk concentrates are compared with aqueous glycerol

  7. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  8. Evaluation of increased vitamin D fortification in high-temperature, short-time-processed 2% milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt.

    Hanson, A L; Metzger, L E

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased vitamin D fortification (250 IU/serving) of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt on the sensory characteristics and stability of vitamin D during processing and storage. Three replicates of HTST pasteurized 2% fat milk, UHT pasteurized 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt were manufactured. Each of the 3 replicates for all products contained a control (no vitamin D fortification), a treatment group with 100 IU vitamin D/serving (current level of vitamin D fortification), and a treatment group with 250 IU vitamin D/serving. A cold-water dispersible vitamin D(3) concentrate was used for all fortifications. The HTST-processed 2% fat milk was stored for 21 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 14, and 21. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 14. The UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk was stored for 60 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 40, and 60. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 40. Low-fat strawberry yogurt was stored for 42 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing, and on d 0, 28, and 42. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 28. Vitamin D levels in the fortified products were found to be similar to the target levels of fortification (100 and 250 IU vitamin D per serving) for all products, indicating no loss of vitamin D during processing. Vitamin D was also found to be stable over the shelf life of each product. Increasing the fortification of vitamin D from 100 to 250 IU/serving did not result in a change in the sensory characteristics of HTST-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, or low-fat strawberry yogurt. These results indicate that it is feasible to increase vitamin D fortification from 100 to 250 IU per serving in these products. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. [Consensus document: nutritional and metabolic importance of cow's milk].

    Fernández Fernández, Elena; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo; Martínez Suárez, Venancio; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Collado Yurrita, Luis Rodolfo; Hernández Cabria, Marta; Morán Rey, Francisco Javier

    2014-10-25

    Cow's milk is a staple food for human consumption at all stages of life. Industrial processing has allowed widespread access to its consumption by the population, which has helped to significantly improve their health. From its composition point of view, milk is a complete and balanced food that provides high nutrient content in relation to its calorie content, so its consumption should be considered necessary from childhood to elderly. The benefits of cow's milk are not limited to its nutritional value, but extend beyond and are a factor of prevention in certain non communicable pathologies as cardiovascular disease, some cancers, high blood pressure or bone or dental pathology. It can also help in the fight against childhood overweight and obesity. In recent years we have seen a worrying decline in milk consumption among the Spanish population, at least in part influenced by misconceptions about its consumption and of other dairy products. This consensus document aims to review the current state of the topic regarding the effects of milk consumption on health, while making a call to the institutions and scientific societies to develop programs and information campaigns about the benefits of milk and dairy products consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.

    Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600 MPa for 7 min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600 MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600 MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses.

  11. Investigation of possibilities for high heavy metal content sludges utilization by incorporating them in concrete products

    Simeonova A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe removal of sludge, obtained during the surface treatment of different metal products, is a serious environmental problem. These sludges are usually characterized by a high content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mn, low quality and are obtained in many small industrial units in the whole country, which makes their centralized treatment difficult. In world practice, different methods are used for component fixation of such sludge, in the aim to prevent leaching of the metals causing pollution of the soil and underground water. The aim of the recent work is to prepare the sludge in a form of light (keramzit fillers by preliminary treatment with binding substances and to introduce them in non supporting concrete products - curbs, stakes and similar products. The investigation was made with two types of sludge - from a production line for thermal treatment and hardening of different parts used in machine building and from a production line for surface decoration treatment (nickel-plating and chromium-plating of consumer products. The sludge were dried and ground and then granulated with a solution of water glass. After their solidifying the air dried granules with a size of 5 to 15 mm were treated with cement milk and air dried again. With the obtained granules, standard percolation test for leaching metals like Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr was carried out. After a preliminary calculation of concrete mixtures, these granules were mixed with Portland cement and concrete sample products were made. These molded concrete samples were characterized by their density, water absorption, and mechanical strength for defined standard periods of time. The samples were subjected to a modified percolation test for leaching metals. The metal concentration in eluates was determined by Atomic Spectral Analysis.

  12. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  13. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy

    Paolo Polidori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g, very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g. Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  14. Goat Milk Kefir Supplemented with Porang Glucomannan Improves Lipid Profile and Haematological Parameter in Rat Fed High Fat and High Fructose Diet

    Nurliyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diet with a high fat and high sugar is associated with an increased incindence of the metabolic syndrome. Kefir has been known as a natural probiotic, while glucomannan from porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus tuber was demonstrated as prebiotic in vivo. Probiotics and prebiotics can be used adjuvant nutritional therapy for metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of goat milk kefir supplemented with porang glucomannan on the lipid profile and haematological parameters in rats fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHF diet.

  15. Dwarf mutant of Papaver somniferum with high morphine content

    Chauhan, S.P.; Patra, N.K.; Srivastava, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L. is an important medicinal plant known for its morphine, codeine, and thebaine alkaloids. This Institute had earlier released two latex opium yielding poppy varieties, Shyama and Shweta, which are now cultivated by the farmers under the supervision of the Narcotic Department of the Government of India. However, both these varieties became susceptible to downy mildew (Peronospora arborescens). Lodging due to heavy capsule weight is another problem affecting latex yield. With these problems in mind, we undertook mutation breeding on the above mentioned two varieties employing gamma rays (5 kR, 15 kR, 20 kR) and EMS (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%) and combined mutagens (5 kR + 0.2% EMS, 5 kR + 0.4% EMS and 5 kR + 0.6% EMS). M 1 from the treated seeds (405 plants) was raised in winter 1984-85. M 2 generation of 13,500 plants (i.e. 270 M 1 progenies x 50 plants) was raised in winter 1985/86. A dwarf mutant with high morphine content was identified in M 2 from the variety Shweta treated with 5 kR + 0.4% EMS. The mutant differs by its dwarf stature, compact leaf arrangements, multilocular capsules, increased capsule number, and small capsule size. The mutant is under testing for its superior morphine production. It may be used as dwarf gene source in hybridization for improving lodging resistance. This mutant is a novel type, which was not available in our germplasm collection

  16. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymorphisms within the APOBR gene are highly associated with milk levels of prognostic ketosis biomarkers in dairy cows.

    Tetens, Jens; Heuer, Claas; Heyer, Iris; Klein, Matthias S; Gronwald, Wolfram; Junge, Wolfgang; Oefner, Peter J; Thaller, Georg; Krattenmacher, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Essentially all high-yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance during early lactation leading to increased lipomobilization, which is a normal physiological response. However, a severe energy deficit may lead to high levels of ketone bodies and, subsequently, to subclinical or clinical ketosis. It has previously been reported that the ratio of glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine in milk is a prognostic biomarker for the risk of ketosis in dairy cattle. It was hypothesized that this ratio reflects the ability to break down blood phosphatidylcholine as a fatty acid resource. In the current study, 248 animals from a previous study were genotyped with Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, and genome-wide association studies were carried out for the milk levels of phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and the ratio of both metabolites. It was demonstrated that the latter two traits are heritable with h2 = 0.43 and h2 = 0.34, respectively. A major quantitative trait locus was identified on cattle chromosome 25. The APOBR gene, coding for the apolipoprotein B receptor, is located within this region and was analyzed as a candidate gene. The analysis revealed highly significant associations of polymorphisms within the gene with glycerophosphocholine as well as the metabolite ratio. These findings support the hypothesis that differences in the ability to take up blood phosphatidylcholine from low-density lipoproteins play an important role in early lactation metabolic stability of dairy cows and indicate APOBR to contain a causative variant. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Fermented milk for hypertension

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  19. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  20. High-throughput metataxonomic characterization of the raw milk microbiota identifies changes reflecting lactation stage and storage conditions.

    Doyle, Conor J; Gleeson, David; O'Toole, Paul W; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-16

    Low temperature is used to control the growth of bacteria in milk, both pre- and post-pasteurization. As the duration of refrigerated storage extends, psychrotrophs dominate the milk microbiota, that can produce heat stable lipases which negatively impact the organoleptic qualities of milk. Here we examine the influence that refrigeration temperature (2°C, 4°C and 6°C) and storage duration (96h) have on the microbiota composition (16S profiling) of raw bulk tank milk (BTM). To reflect a proposed change to current farming practices, raw milk was blended after each milking (8 milkings) and stored for five consecutive days in each temperature-specific tank. Here 16S rRNA-based microbiota compositional analysis was performed after milk was collected on day 1 and again after the final addition of milk at day 5. In addition to assessing the impact of the duration and temperature of storage, the influence of lactation stage, i.e. mid- versus late-lactation, on the microbiota of the blended BTM was also examined. Overall, both temperature and length of storage had surprisingly little influence on the raw milk microbiota, other than an increase in proportions of Gammaproteobacteria in the blended milk samples collected after pooling on day 5, and in samples stored at 6°C. However, lactation stage had a considerable influence on microbiota composition, with milk from mid-lactation containing higher proportions of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Campylobacter and Rhodanobacter, and late-lactation milk containing higher proportions of Actinobacteria. Overall, the study demonstrates that current temperature and storage duration practises impact the microbiota of raw milk, but these impacts are modest relative to the more considerable differences between mid and late-lactation milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  2. Evaluation of the characteristics of high burnup and high plutonium content mixed oxide (MOX) fuel

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Two kinds of MOX fuel irradiation tests, i.e., MOX irradiation test up to high burnup and MOX having high plutonium content irradiation test, have been performed from JFY 2007 for five years in order to establish technical data concerning MOX fuel behavior during irradiation, which shall be needed in safety regulation of MOX fuel with high reliability. The high burnup MOX irradiation test consists of irradiation extension and post irradiation examination (PIE). The activities done in JFY 2011 are destructive post irradiation examination (D-PIE) such as EPMA and SIMS at CEA (Commissariat a l'Enegie Atomique) facility. Cadarache and PIE data analysis. In the frame of irradiation test of high plutonium content MOX fuel programme, MOX fuel rods with about 14wt % Pu content are being irradiated at BR-2 reactor and corresponding PIE is also being done at PIE facility (SCK/CEN: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude l'Energie Nucleaire) in Belgium. The activities done in JFY 2011 are non-destructive post irradiation examination (ND-PIE) and D-PIE and PIE data analysis. In this report the results of EPMA and SIMS with high burnup irradiation test and the result of gamma spectrometry measurement which can give FP gas release rate are reported. (author)

  3. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  4. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    Petrman, I.; Safek, V.

    1994-01-01

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  5. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  6. Human milk banks: lights and shadows

    Arianna Aceti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the most appropriate source of nutrition also for preterm infants. When mother’s own milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM, provided from a human milk bank (HMB, or formula can be used. Infants fed DHM grow at a slower rate than formula-fed infants. However, DHM has the advantage over formula to retain some of the bioactive properties of naïve human milk. Given the wide variability of DHM content and its generally low macronutrient content, individualised fortification represents a more valid option than standard fortification in order to meet the high nutritional requirements of preterm infants. Pasteurization is necessary to reduce bacterial count in DHM. Holder pasteurization, which is recommended in most HMB guidelines, has several limitations, because it impairs macronutrient and functional components of DHM. Alternative methods of pasteurization, which would be capable of retaining the bioactive properties of DHM with the highest level of microbiological safety, are currently under investigation. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou 

  7. Aspects of Chemical Composition and Somatic Cell count of Cow Milk Marketed at Dispensers

    Mircea Valentin MUNTEAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is influenced by many factors: lactation, fat, protein, lactose, number of somatic cells. In order to process raw milk and compare with criteria of quality and food safety the Regulation of European Parliament and the council no. 853/2004. Analysing the total number of somatic cells (SCC in the period July-August 2017 it is noted that in case of samples collected from first automatic milk dispenser exceed 2 times the maximum admissible values and the samples collected from second automatic milk dispenser are up to the maximum allowable values which show that milking hygiene and animal health are at the European standards required. Analysis of fat content for both cases indicates that it is within the standard values for cow's milk and fat variations for DM1 samples are very low at temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius which shows that high temperatures do not influence these parameters. The biological material study was represented analysed by 30 samples of milk from only two cow milk dispensers functional located in this period in Cluj-Napoca city. These samples were collected at the same time period during July-August months. The aim of present study is to determine whether milk marketed through dispensers under the high temperature conditions specific to this period is affected in terms of qualitative parameter analysis.

  8. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  9. CYP1A1 expression in breast milk cells of Japanese population

    Yonemoto, Junzo; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hideko; Morita, Masatosi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Uechi, Hiroto [Uechi Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Utsunomiya (Japan); Masuzaki, Yuko; Koizumi, Atsuko; Matzumura, Toru [Metocean Environment Inc., Ohigawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins are persistent, lipophilic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Concern over the reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxins has been growing since they have endocrine-disrupting properties and have adversely affected the health of offspring in experimental and epidemiological studies. Monitoring of maternal body burdens of dioxins and their biological responses to dioxin exposure is needed to estimate the potential health risk to their offspring. Breast milk has been used for monitoring dioxins in humans for decades. Breast milk has some advantages in exposure monitoring. Sampling is non-invasive, and dioxin levels are relatively high because of the high lipid content. It is assumed that mammary glands are exposed to a higher level of dioxins than other tissues since mammary glands synthesize and store milk fat. Breast milk contains leukocytes and exfoliated ductal epithelial cells. If these cells responded to dioxins and expressed CYP enzymes, a sensitive biomarker for dioxin exposure, they would be useful as biomarkers for dioxin exposure. In the present study, the expression of CYP enzymes in intact milk cells or cells cultured with TCDD was investigated. In addition, breast milk samples were collected from mothers within one week of childbearing, and the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in milk cells was determined. The relationship between CYP1A1 mRNA expression in milk cells and dioxin levels in the cream layer of breast milk was analyzed.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and high thermostability of a novel BLIS secreted by Enterococcus Mundtii isolated from Lebanese cow’s milk

    Imad AL Kassaa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AL Kassaa, I., Safourim, N., Mostafa, N. and Hamze, M. Antimicrobial activity and high thermostability of a novel BLIS secreted by Enterococcus Mundtii isolated from lebanese cow’s milk. 2016. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 166-176. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used in many fields such as fermentation agents, increasing nutritional value and improving organoleptic quality of food. Also they are used as probiotics and preservatives against pathogens and spoilage microbes by producing antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins. Fifty cow’s milk samples were collected and 175 LAB isolates were isolated and identified by using biochemical method. Fifteen isolates showed an antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC® 19115™. One strain, BL4 which showed the strongest activity, was chosen to extract and characterize its antimicrobial substance in order to evaluate its potential use as a new food protective agent. This strain was identified as Enterococcus mundtii by pyrosequencing method. The active substance was extracted using solvent method. This Bacteriocin like Inhibitory Substances “BLIS” can support a high temperature (121 ˚C for a long time and resist pH variation. The BLIS BL4 can be considered as a peptide active against many food pathogen and food-spoilage microbes, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Penicillium spp. BLIS BL4 can be used in food application as bio-preservative to reduce food-spoilage and food-borne diseases in food products.

  11. The effect of ewes relocation on milk composition and milk flow kinetics

    Lucia Jackuliaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of an influence of ewes relocation and milking in other parlour (treatment on milk flow kinetics, milkability and milk composition was the aim of this study. In total 34 ewes of two breeds and crosbreeds Tsigai (14 heads and Improved Valachian (20 heads with Lacaune were tested. Two weeks after lamb weaning the ewes were milked in parallel milking parlour (1x16 stalls under shelter. On the last evening milking (first experimental milking, EB before relocation of flock to another parlour, and during next three continuous evening milkings (E0 - second, E1 - third and E2 - fourth milking of exp. after relocation the milk flow kinetics were measured using electronic collection jar. On day E0 after morning milking the flock was moved on a pasture and milked in other parlour (1x24-stalls. During E0 we recorded a significant decrease of total milk yield in comparison with EB (0.527 ±0.04 and 0.647 ±0.04 L. Significant differences were also recorded in machine milk yield, machine stripping, milking time and in maximum milk flow rate. During E0 there was a higher number of nonbimodal and lower numbers of bimodal flow types. The response of ewe to E0 depended on its response to EB. Ewes with bimodal flow at EB responded more negatively to E0 than ewes with nonbimodal or plateau flow. During E2 there were significantly increased protein content and solids not fat in milk. Thus the treatment significantly influenced the milkability of ewes in a negative way, but more clear response was found out in ewes with bimodal flow response to machine milking before treatment. We could assume that relocation to other milking conditions caused only short-term changes in milk flow kinetic and milk yield. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  12. The Content of Literature in the High School.

    Burton, Dwight L.

    The content of a literature program defined in terms of the structure of literature is proposed. A three-layer definition of structure is suggested which considers (1) the substance of literature, including man and his gods, man and the natural world, man and other men, and man and himself; (2) mode in literature, including the romantic, comic,…

  13. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Preparation of High School Physics Teachers

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge--PCK). The program has been in place…

  14. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium with a high phycoerythrin content.

    Rodriguez, H; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Losada, M

    1989-03-01

    The elemental and molecular composition, pigment content, and productivity of a phycoerythrin-rich nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium-an Anabaena strain isolated from the coastal lagoon Albufera de Valencia, Spain-has been investigated. When compared with other heterocystous species, this strain exhibits similar chlorophyll a, carotene, and total phycobiliprotein contents but differs remarkably in the relative proportion of specific phycobiliproteins; the content of C-phycoerythrin amounts to 8.3% (versus about 1% in the other species) of cell dry weight. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of intact phycobilisomes isolated from this Anabaena sp. corroborate the marked contribution of phycoerythrin as an antenna pigment, a circumstance that is unusual for cyanobacteria capable of fixing N(2). The pigment content of cells is affected by variations in irradiance and cell density, these adaptive changes being more patent for C-phycoerythrin than for phycocyanins. The Anabaena strain is clumpy and capable of rapid flocculation. It exhibits outdoor productivities higher than 20 g (dry weight) m day during summer.

  15. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  16. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 20 in ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs ...

  17. Effect of dairy management on quality characteristics of milk

    Slots, Tina; Leifert, Carlo; Butler, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    acids and antioxidants derived from the high amount of pasture in the diet, where in contrast the conventional production sys-tems in Denmark and Sweden had significantly higher content of fatty acids derived from maize silage. The data overall indicated differences between the milk composition...

  18. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impai...... was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.......Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without...... impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d...

  20. [Body condition and metabolic stability as the basis for high milk yield and undisturbed fertility in dairy cows--a contribution for deduction of reference values].

    Staufenbiel, R; Arndt, G; Schröder, U; Gelfert, C C

    2004-05-01

    The target of this study was to describe the interactions between body condition and various descriptors of yield and fertility. It was aimed to identify an optimal conditional range to be used in herd management which combines high milk yield with acceptable fertility traits and general health. For this purpose, backfat thickness was measured by ultrasound at 46111 dairy cows on 78 different farms and was subsequently related to production variables. Negative energy balance is getting more intense and prolonged with increasing milk yield. However a conditional nadir below 10 mm leads to decreased milk production. To reach a high production level without an increasing incidence of health disorders, conditional nadir should not decline below 13 mm backfat thickness on herd average. Lower value only lead to negligibly higher milk yield but cause a distinctively higher risk of fertility problems and culling. High herd yields do not have to be at expense of reproduction performance and can be achieved without extreme body condition losses. An efficient herd management can offset depression in fertility, which commonly is combined with increasing milk yield. A standard curve for backfat thickness throughout lactation is suggested to be used in dairy herd management.

  1. Avaliação físico-química e sensorial do iogurte natural produzido com leite de búfala contendo diferentes níveis de gordura Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of plain yogurt manufactured from buffalo milk with different fat content

    Otaviano Carneiro Cunha Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A elaboração de iogurtes pode ser considerada uma excelente alternativa para a utilização industrial do leite de búfala. Entretanto, alguns problemas de aceitação por parte dos consumidores podem ocorrer devido ao elevado conteúdo de gordura do leite original. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar algumas características do iogurte natural batido elaborado com leite de búfala com os seguintes teores de gordura: integral, 3,0% (padronizado e 0,5% (desnatado. Os iogurtes foram embalados em frascos de polietileno de 1L e estocados a 5°C por 30 dias. Amostras foram colhidas nos dias 1, 15 e 30 e submetidas à análise de acidez, pH, viscosidade e avaliação sensorial. Os valores de acidez e pH não apresentaram diferenças (P > 0,05 entre os tratamentos, durante o período de estocagem. A viscosidade também não foi influenciada (P > 0,05 pelos níveis de gordura nos dias 1, 15 e 30. O iogurte produzido com leite padronizado apresentou notas maiores (P Yogurt can be considered an excellent alternative for utilization of buffalo milk. However, consumers may have some acceptance problems in relation to buffalo yogurt because of the original high fat content of the milk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some characteristics of stirred plain yogurt produced from buffalo milk with the following fat levels: whole milk, 3.0% (standardized and 0.5% (skim. Yogurts were stored in 1L polyethylene bottles at 5°C for 30 days. Samples were collected at 1, 15 and 30 days of storage and submitted to the following analysis: acidity, pH, viscosity and sensorial evaluation. Acidity and pH values showed no differences (P > 0.05 among treatments during storage. Viscosity was not influenced (P > 0.05 by fat content in yogurts on days 1, 15 and 30 after manufacture. Standardized yogurt obtained higher scores (P < 0.05 for taste in sensorial analysis at 15 and 30 days storage. It is concluded that skimming of buffalo milk does not alter the

  2. Prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation cows from herds with high milk production.

    Smilie, R H; Hoblet, K H; Weiss, W P; Eastridge, M L; Rings, D M; Schnitkey, G L

    1996-05-01

    To determine prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation Holstein cows during early lactation and pregnant Holstein heifers during late gestation in herds with high milk production. Cross-sectional study. 203 cattle in 13 herbs. Cattle were placed in lateral recumbency to allow visual examination and photography of their hooves. Claws on a forelimb and hind limb were examined on all cattle. Observable categories of lesions considered to be associated with subclinical laminitis in our study included yellow waxy discoloration of the sole, hemorrhage of the sole, separation of the white line, and erosion of the heel. Lesions in at least 1 of the categories were found in all herds. Lesions in all categories were found in 11 of 13 herds. Among claws, hemorrhage of the sole was observed most frequently in the lateral claw of the hoof of the hind limb. When days in milk was treated as a covariate, significant (P < 0.01) differences were detected in the prevalence of lesions between herds. Because the prevalence of lesions differed significantly among herds, it is logical to believe that causative factors and corrective measures also may have differed among herds.

  3. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  4. Application of osmometry in quality analysis of milk

    Musara, Colin; Pote, William

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate osmometry as a tool in quality analysis of milk. The osmolality of raw milk, sterilized milk, skimmed UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated) milk, pasteurized milk, standardized UHT milk and fermented milk (Lactococcus lactis culture) was determined by freezing point osmometry. The relationship between osmolality and pH of fermented milk was further investigated during spontaneous fermentation of UHT milk at 37 °C for 48 h. Average osmolality values (mean ±...

  5. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK). The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is t...

  6. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  7. Vitamin D3 Content of Fortified Yogurt and Milk as Determined for the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP)

    In response to recent interest in vitamin D composition of foods, USDA-NDL is updating and expanding data in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. In 2007, the USDA sampled vitamin D3 fortified yogurt and milk from 12 and 24 supermarkets, respectively, selected from a nationwide sta...

  8. Higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acids in early human milk fat of Roma breast-feeding women

    Marhol, Petr; Dlouhý, P.; Rambousková, J.; Pokorný, R.; Wiererová, O.; Hrnčířová, D.; Procházka, B.; Anděl, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2007), s. 461-467 ISSN 0250-6807 Grant - others:GA Mzd(CZ) NJ6120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : trans fatty acids * roma * human milk Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2007

  9. Greater bile acid excretion with soy bean than with cow milk in infants.

    Potter, J M; Nestel, P J

    1976-05-01

    The excretion of fecal sterols and bile acids was measured in five infants from the 1st week of life to 2 or 3 months of age as the composition of their diet was changed from cow milk to soy bean milk. Bile acid excretion, adjusted for body weight, was initially lower during the 1st than during the 3rd week, when it reached adult values. The average excretion of bile acids was 6.8 mg/kg per day with soy bean milk and 3.6 mg/kg per day with cow milk. Net sterol excretion (total sterol output minus cholesterol intake) was also twice as high with soy bean milk and probably reflected enhancement of cholesterol re-excretion as well as of synthesis since the cholesterol content of soy beans is nil. However, net sterol excretion remained higher with soy bean than with cow milk even when egg yolk cholesterol was added to the soy bean milk. It is concluded that the substitution of soy bean milk for cow milk, which lowered the plasma cholesterol in all infants (even in the presence of dietary cholesterol) leads to an increase in bile acids and probably also in cholesterol excretion in young infants.

  10. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  11. Iron concentration in breast milk normalised within one week of a single high-dose infusion of iron isomaltoside in randomised controlled trial

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Nørgaard, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We compared the iron concentration in breast milk after a single high-dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside or daily oral iron for postpartum haemorrhage. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, the women were allocated a single dose of intravenous 1,200mg iron isomaltoside or oral iron...... deviation) iron concentration in breast milk in the intravenous and oral groups were 0.72 ± 0.27 mg/L and 0.40 ± 0.18 mg/L at three days (p birth. CONCLUSION: A single high...

  12. Influence of calcium depletion on iron-binding properties of milk.

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Das, S; Singh, H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of calcium depletion on the binding of iron in milk. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to remove 3 different levels (18-22, 50-55, and 68-72%) of calcium from milk. Five levels of iron (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mM) were added to each of these calcium-depleted milks (CDM) and the resultant milks were analyzed for particle size, microstructure, and the distribution of protein and minerals between the colloidal and soluble phases. The depletion of calcium affected the distribution of protein and minerals in normal milk. Iron added to normal milk and low-CDM (~20% calcium depletion) bound mainly to the colloidal phase (material sedimented at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 20 °C), with little effect on the integrity of the casein micelles. Depletion of ~70% of the calcium from milk resulted in almost complete disintegration of the casein micelles, as indicated by all the protein remaining in the soluble phase upon ultracentrifugation. Addition of up to ~20 mM iron to high CDM resulted in the formation of small fibrous structures that remained in the soluble phase of milk. It appeared that the iron bound to soluble (nonsedimentable) caseins in high-CDM. We observed a decrease in the aqueous phosphorus content of all milks upon iron addition, irrespective of their calcium content. We considered the interaction between aqueous phosphorus and added iron to be responsible for the high iron-binding capacity of the proteins in milk. The soluble protein-iron complexes formed in high-CDM (~70% calcium depletion) could be used as an effective iron fortificant for a range of food products because of their good solubility characteristics. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  14. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  15. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Got Milk? Breastfeeding and Milk Analysis of a Mother on Chronic Hemodialysis

    Balzer, Michael S.; Gross, Mechthild M.; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Haller, Hermann; Schmitt, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women on dialysis rarely become pregnant. However, the overall rate of successful pregnancies is increasing in this patient population and breastfeeding becomes an option for mothers on dialysis. In this study we performed a systematic breast milk composition analysis of a mother on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Methods Specimens of breast milk and blood were collected in regular intervals before and after HD from a 39-year old woman starting on day 10 postpartum. Samples were analyzed for electrolytes, retention solutes, nutrients and other laboratory measurements. Breast milk samples from low-risk mothers matched for postpartum age were used as controls. Results Significantly higher levels of creatinine and urea were found in pre-HD breast milk when compared to post-HD. A similar post-dialytic decrease was only found for uric acid but not for any other investigated parameter. Conversely, sodium and chloride were significantly increased in post-HD samples. Compared to controls creatinine and urea were significantly higher in pre-HD samples while the difference remained only significant for post-HD creatinine. Phosphate was significantly lower in pre- and post-HD breast milk when compared to controls, whereas calcium showed no significant differences. In terms of nutrient components glucose levels showed a strong trend for a decrease, whereas protein, triglycerides and cholesterol did not differ. Similarly, no significant differences were found in iron, potassium and magnesium content. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on a breastfeeding mother on chronic dialysis. Although we found differences in creatinine, urea, sodium, chloride and phosphate, our general analysis showed high similarity of our patient’s breast milk to samples from low-risk control mothers. Significant variations in breast milk composition between pre- and post-HD samples suggest that breastfeeding might be preferably performed after dialysis treatment. In

  17. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  18. 90Sr and 137Cs in powdered milk

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analyzed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of strontium-90 and cesium-137 content was radiochemically carried out using the method applied for the analysis of fresh milk. (author)

  19. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  20. Characterization of casein phosphopeptides from fermented milk products.

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Aruga, Kaori; Otani, Hajime

    2005-10-01

    This study dealt with the potential of fermented milk products as a source of functional casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) using plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses. The CPPs were prepared by tryptic digestion from four commercially available plain yogurts (P1-P4), five Camembert cheeses (C1-C5), and raw milk. From portions with a 1-g protein content of the plain yogurts, the Camembert cheeses, and the raw milk, 171 mg, 139 mg, and 146 mg of CPPs were obtained, respectively. The Camembert cheeses retained high amounts of organic phosphorus (32 microg) per 1 mg CPPs compared to the raw milk (15 microg) and plain yogurts (16 microg). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed that the elution patterns and retention times of the three major peaks of CPPs from P1 and C1 were similar to those from raw milk. Moreover, CPPs from P1 and C1 showed a mitogenic effect, while CPPs from C1 showed an IgA-enhancing effect in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that fermented milk products such as plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses generate functional CPPs in the body and exert beneficial effects on the immune system.

  1. Effect of fat content and homogenization under conventional or ultra-high-pressure conditions on interactions between proteins in rennet curds.

    Zamora, A; Trujillo, A J; Armaforte, E; Waldron, D S; Kelly, A L

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultra-high-pressure homogenization on interactions between proteins within drained rennet curds. The effect of fat content of milk (0.0, 1.8, or 3.6%) and homogenization treatment on dissociation of proteins by different chemical agents was thus studied. Increasing the fat content of raw milk increased levels of unbound whey proteins and calcium-bonded caseins in curds; in contrast, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were inhibited. Both homogenization treatments triggered the incorporation of unbound whey proteins in the curd, and of caseins through ionic bonds involving calcium salts. Conventional homogenization-pasteurization enhanced interactions between caseins through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, ultra-high-pressure homogenization impaired hydrogen bonding, led to the incorporation of both whey proteins and caseins through hydrophobic interactions and increased the amount of unbound caseins. Thus, both homogenization treatments provoked changes in the protein interactions within rennet curds; however, the nature of the changes depended on the homogenization conditions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in Milk by Combined Treatment with High Hydrostatic Pressure and the Lactoperoxidase System

    García-Graells, Cristina; Valckx, Caroline; Michiels, Chris W.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied inactivation of four strains each of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in milk by the combined use of high hydrostatic pressure and the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system as a potential mild food preservation method. The lactoperoxidase system alone exerted a bacteriostatic effect on both species for at least 24 h at room temperature, but none of the strains was inactivated. Upon high-pressure treatment in the presence of the lactoperoxidase system, different results were obtained for E. coli and L. innocua. For none of the E. coli strains did the lactoperoxidase system increase the inactivation compared to a treatment with high pressure alone. However, a strong synergistic interaction of both treatments was observed for L. innocua. Inactivation exceeding 7 decades was achieved for all strains with a mild treatment (400 MPa, 15 min, 20°C), which in the absence of the lactoperoxidase system caused only 2 to 5 decades of inactivation depending on the strain. Milk as a substrate was found to have a considerable effect protecting E. coli and L. innocua against pressure inactivation and reducing the effectiveness of the lactoperoxidase system under pressure on L. innocua. Time course experiments showed that L. innocua counts continued to decrease in the first hours after pressure treatment in the presence of the lactoperoxidase system. E. coli counts remained constant for at least 24 h, except after treatment at the highest pressure level (600 MPa, 15 min, 20°C), in which case, in the presence of the lactoperoxidase system, a transient decrease was observed, indicating sublethal injury rather than true inactivation. PMID:11010856

  4. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  5. Influence of pulsed electric field treatments on the volatile compounds of milk in comparison with pasteurized processing.

    Zhang, Sha; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments on the volatile profiles of milk were studied and compared with pasteurized treatment of high temperature short time (HTST) (75 °C, 15 s). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 37 volatile compounds were determined by GC-MS, and 19 volatile compounds were considered to be major contributors to the characteristic flavor of milk samples. PEF treatment resulted in an increase in aldehydes. Milk treated with PEF at 30 kV/cm showed the highest content of pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal, while heptanal and decanal contents were lower than in pasteurized milk, but higher than in raw milk. All the methyl ketones detected in PEF milk were lower than in pasteurized milk. No significant differences in acids (acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and decanoic acid), lactones, and alcohols were observed between pasteurized and PEF-treated samples; however, 2(5H)-furanone was only detected in PEF-treated milk. Although GC-MS results showed that there were some volatile differences between pasteurized and PEF-treated milk, GC-O data showed no significant difference between the 2 samples.

  6. Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer.

    Stabel, J R; Hurd, S; Calvente, L; Rosenbusch, R F

    2004-07-01

    The 2002 NAHM's Dairy Survey indicated that 87.2% of dairy farms in the United States feed waste milk to their neonatal calves. Although cost-effective, this practice can lead to increased calf morbidity and mortality due to ingestion of pathogenic agents. In an effort to reduce the risk of infection, dairy producers are implementing on-farm pasteurization of the waste milk as a control procedure before feeding the milk to calves. In the present study, the efficacy of a commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) on-farm pasteurizer unit to destroy Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella enterica spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk was evaluated. Replicate experiments were run for 3 isolates of M. paratuberculosis, 3 serovars of Salmonella (derby, dublin, typhimurium); and 4 species of Mycoplasma (bovis, californicum, canadense, serogroup 7) at 2 different levels of experimental inoculation. In addition, HTST pasteurization experiments were performed on colostrum experimentally inoculated with M. paratuberculosis. After culture of the pasteurized milk samples, no viable M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, or Mycoplasma were recovered, regardless of species, strain, or isolate. Pasteurization of colostrum was also effective in the destruction of M. paratuberculosis but resulted in an average 25% reduction in colostral immunoglobulin. These results suggest that HTST pasteurization is effective in generating a safer product to feed to young calves.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    Tato, Liliana [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Tremolada, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tremolada@unimi.it [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Ballabio, Cristiano [Department of Environmental and Land Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, Milan, I-20126 (Italy); Guazzoni, Niccolo; Parolini, Marco; Caccianiga, Marco; Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher K{sub oa} values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: > A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. > Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. > A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. > A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. > Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  8. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm

    2006-01-01

    and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary......Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation...... products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative...

  9. Consumer preferences of student population as a determinant of successful milk quality management

    Jelena Kristić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The final result of milk quality management is a superior product with high quality levels of all intrinsic and extrinsic components. To achieve this, most activities in the management process should be directed towards the quality components that are recognized by the average consumer of milk. To determine these factors, an indicative research was carried out on a sample of 1,157 respondents among the young population. Regarding the intrinsic components, the results indicate that young consumers mostly appreciate the taste and milk fat content in the range 2.8-3.2 %, whereas regarding the extrinsic components they value price and the origin of products, that is, the origin of milk. The last component has not been fully used in promotional efforts of producers in their advertising of milk, especially in a sub segment of urban young consumers. A stronger emphasis of this would help producers to differentiate themselves, and achieve competitive advantage on domestic and international markets.

  10. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK. The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions.

  11. Automated microscopy for high-content RNAi screening

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most powerful tools to investigate complex cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, or intracellular trafficking. The availability of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and automated microscopy has opened the possibility to perform cellular imaging in functional genomics and other large-scale applications. Although imaging often dramatically increases the content of a screening assay, it poses new challenges to achieve accurate quantitative annotation and therefore needs to be carefully adjusted to the specific needs of individual screening applications. In this review, we discuss principles of assay design, large-scale RNAi, microscope automation, and computational data analysis. We highlight strategies for imaging-based RNAi screening adapted to different library and assay designs. PMID:20176920

  12. Acceptance sensory of milk Ultra High Temperature and consumer attitudes of packaging of different brands of the product

    Marlice Salete Bonacina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the sensory acceptance of different brands of whole UHT milk; identify and quantify the importance of attributes of the packaging and labeling of milk in the purchase attitude of consumers excure six different brands of whole UHT milk were collect, which were submitted to the acceptance test, using a hybrid hedonic scale of 9 cm. The data were submitted to ANOVA using the Statistical Software 6.0. The packaging and labeling of different brands of milk, were used for application of the focus group technique. From the results, we found that there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the brands of UHT milk, in relation to sensory acceptance. It was also possible to verify the influence frequency of the milk consumption of acceptance of the product, characterized by three clusters of consumers. From the focus group sessions it was found that 61.1% of participants observe the packaging and labeling milk at the time of purchase. However, 38.9% argued that they are faithful consumers excure to a determined brand. As regards the existence of quality certification seals, it was found that 72.2% of participants do not observe the existence of these certifications when buying milk. In addition, 77.8% have not changed their spending habits in relation to milk brand. It is concluded that the milk consumption frequency, influence on sensorial acceptance, and some consumers are unaware of the risk that the tamper carried out in milk can cause to their health.

  13. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS... the same nature and butterfat content. ...

  14. The relationship between freezing point of milk and milk components and its changes during lactation in Czech Pied and Holstein cows

    Gustav Chládek

    2005-01-01

    breed. Breed highly significantly (P<0.001 affected daily milk yield (+4.9 kg milk in H, milk protein content (+0.27 % in C and solids non fat (+0.37 % in C. On the contrary, breed had no significant effect on lactose content, urea concentration and somatic cells count.Variability of FPM was greater in Czech Pied cows (5.9 % than in Holstein cows (0.9 %. Number of lactation had no significant effect on FPM (maximum difference between lactations was 0.008 °C. Phase of lactation had no significant effect on FPM either. Our study revealed the fact that FPM was most of all affected by lactose content and solids non fat. However, the decrease of lactose content was compensated by a tendency of mammary glad to keep constant osmotic pressure. As the somatic sells count was low, there was no decline in lactose content during later lactations so no significant decrease of FPM occurred.

  15. Milk Allergy

    ... flavor Baked goods Caramel candies Chocolate Lactic acid starter culture and other bacterial cultures Luncheon meat, hot ... Cream of tartar Lactic acid (however, lactic acid starter culture may contain milk) Oleoresin Sodium lactate Sodium ...

  16. Alteration of Rumen Bacteria and Protozoa Through Grazing Regime as a Tool to Enhance the Bioactive Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milk.

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Saldinger, Laurel K; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are the origin of many bioactive fatty acids (FA) found in ruminant-derived food products. Differences in plant leaf anatomy and chemical composition between cool- and warm-season pastures may alter rumen microorganisms, potentially enhancing the quantity/profile of bioactive FA available for incorporation into milk. The objective of this study was to identify rumen bacteria and protozoa and their cellular FA when cows grazed a warm-season annual, pearl millet (PM), in comparison to a diverse cool-season pasture (CSP). Individual rumen digesta samples were obtained from five Holstein cows in a repeated measures design with 28-day periods. The treatment sequence was PM, CSP, then PM. Microbial DNA was extracted from rumen digesta and sequence reads were produced with Illumina MiSeq. Fatty acids (FA) were identified in rumen bacteria and protozoa using gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Microbial communities shifted in response to grazing regime. Bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes were more abundant during PM than CSP ( P rumenic acid, and α-linolenic acid in milk. In conclusion, grazing regime can potentially be used to alter microbial communities shifting the FA profile of microbial cells, and subsequently, alter the milk FA profile.

  17. (13)C enrichment of the CO2 in breast milk and in the breath is rapidly modified by changes in the (13)C content of the diet.

    Villalpando, Salvador; Del Prado, Martha; Cienfuego, Edith; Morales, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    C4 plants (e.g. corn and sugar cane) have greater (13)C enrichment than C3 plants (e.g. wheat and sugar beet). To assess whether (13)C enrichment of CO2 in the breath and breast milk of women on diets based on C3 and C4 foods changes from one diet to the other. Six breast-feeding women were studied at 5-6 months postpartum. They ate a controlled C4 diet on days 1 and 2 followed by a C3 diet on days 3 and 4. Diet duplicates, breast milk on days 2 and 4 and hourly breath samples were collected over 4 days. (13)C enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Values of δ(13)C were calculated from the international PDBV standard (δ(13)CPDBV). Differences between means were compared by paired t test or t test for repeated measurements. δ(13)CPDBV values were significantly higher in the C4 diet than in the C3 diet composites (p value was greater on days 1 and 2 (range -15.4 to -13.2, respectively) and declined on days 3 and 4 (range -20.0 to -21.8, respectively, p value in the breath and breast milk fractions, which diminish rapidly on a C3 diet. Further studies focusing on individual nutrients are warranted.

  18. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization apllied to human milk

    Terpstra, F.G.; Rechtman, D.J.; Lee, M.L.; Hoeij, K. van; Berg, H.; Engelenberg, F.A.C. van; Wout, A.B. van 't

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63°C for 30 minutes). The authors

  19. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurization applied to human milk

    Terpstra, Fokke G.; Rechtman, David J.; Lee, M. J.; van Hoeij, Klaske; Berg, H.; Engelenburg, F. A. C.; van 't Wout, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 minutes). The

  20. Air and Water Processes Do Not Produce the Same High-Quality Pasteurization of Donor Human Milk.

    Buffin, Rachel; Pradat, Pierre; Trompette, Jocelyne; Ndiaye, Isabelle; Basson, Eliane; Jordan, Isabelle; Picaud, Jean-Charles

    2017-11-01

    Holder pasteurization is the most commonly used technique in milk banks worldwide, but higher temperatures and longer pasteurization time have been associated with damage to the immune components of human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the detailed pattern of pasteurization temperature using two water pasteurizers (WP1 and WP2) and one air pasteurizer (AP). The milk temperature during each phase of the pasteurization cycle was recorded using 6 to 9 probes, depending on the number of bottles, in the pasteurizers. We used 90 to 200 ml bottles to assess the effect of volume on milk temperature. The time to heat the milk from room temperature to 58°C was 12.4, 12.9, and 64.5 min, respectively, for WP1, WP2, and the AP ( p pasteurizer in our study was exposed to higher temperatures and for longer periods of time than the water pasteurizers we employed. Regular qualification of pasteurizers is requested when evaluating the effect of pasteurization on milk components and for routine treatment of human milk in milk banks.

  1. Vitamin E concentration in human milk and associated factors: a literature review.

    Lima, Mayara S R; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla D S

    2014-01-01

    To systematize information about vitamin E concentration in human milk and the variables associated with this composition in order to find possible causes of deficiency, supporting strategies to prevent it in postpartum women and infants. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 that assayed alpha-tocopherol in human milk of healthy women by high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated. The keywords used were "vitamin E", "alpha-tocopherol", "milk, human", "lactation", and equivalents in Portuguese, in the BIREME, CAPES, PubMed, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, HighWire Press, Ingenta, and Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases. Of the 41 publications found on the subject, 25 whose full text was available and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The alpha-tocopherol concentrations found in milk were similar in most populations studied. The variable phase of lactation was shown to influence vitamin E content in milk, which is reduced until the mature milk appears. Maternal variables parity, anthropometric nutritional status, socioeconomic status, and habitual dietary intake did not appear to affect the alpha-tocopherol levels in milk. However, the influence of the variables maternal age, gestational age, biochemical nutritional status in alpha-tocopherol, and maternal supplementation with vitamin E had conflicting results in the literature. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in milk decreases during lactation, until the mature milk appears. To confirm the influence of some maternal and child variables on milk vitamin E content, further studies with adequate design are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. 2008 Chinese Milk Products Crisis

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Milk is one of the most important food products for children’s growth and overall health.  Melamine (2,4,6-triazine-1,3,5-triamino) is an organic compound used in the manufacture of pesticides, plastics, sanitizers, and disinfectants.  Melamine when added to milk increases the overall amount of nitrogen in the milk thus fooling common tests for protein content.  Melamine is also extremely harmful when ingested, especially for young children.  Sanlu, one of China's largest dairy prod...

  3. Comparative nutritional and mycochemical contents, biological activities and LC/MS screening of tuber from new recipe cultivation technique with wild type tuber of tiger's milk mushroom of species Lignosus rhinocerus.

    Jamil, Nor Azreen Mohd; Rashid, Noraswati Mohd Nor; Hamid, Mohamad Hasril Abd; Rahmad, Norasfaliza; Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2017-12-04

    Tiger's milk mushroom is known for its valuable medicinal properties, especially the tuber part. However, wild tuber is very hard to obtain as it grows underground. This study first aimed to cultivate tiger's milk mushroom tuber through a cultivation technique, and second to compare nutritional and mycochemical contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and compound screening of the cultivated tuber with the wild tuber. Results showed an increase in carbohydrate content by 45.81% and protein content by 123.68% in the cultivated tuber while fat content reduced by 13.04%. Cultivated tuber also showed an increase of up to 64.21% for total flavonoid-like compounds and 62.51% of total β-D-glucan compared to the wild tuber. The antioxidant activity of cultivated tuber and wild tuber was 760 and 840 µg mL -1 , respectively. The cytotoxic activity of boiled water extract of cultivated tuber against a human lung cancer cell line (A549) was 65.50 ± 2.12 µg mL -1 and against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7) was 19.35 ± 0.11 µg mL -1 . β-D-glucan extract from the purification of boiled water extract of cultivated tuber showed cytotoxic activity at 57.78 ± 2.29 µg mL -1 against A549 and 33.50 ± 1.41 µg mL -1 against MCF7. However, the β-glucan extract from wild tuber did not show a cytotoxic effect against either the A549 or MCF7 cell lines. Also, neither of the extracts from cultivated tuber and wild tuber showed an effect against a normal cell line (MRC5). Compound profiling through by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) showed the appearance of new compounds in the cultivated tuber. In conclusion, our cultivated tuber of tiger's milk mushroom using a new recipe cultivation technique showed improved nutrient and bioactive compound contents, and antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to the wild tuber. Further investigations are required to obtain a better quality of cultivated tuber.

  4. CLIMATE CHANGES AS THE RISK FACTOR IN MILK PRODUCTION IN WIELKOPOLSKA

    Ryszard Chaberski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pilot researches were conducted in Wielkopolska. They aimed initial identifi cation of cows reaction on changing of THI, which are likened to temperature and humidity conditions of air. The subjected cows characterize with high productivity, exceeding 40kg of milk per day, independently from lactation stages. The results display that the day s production of raw milk, as well as fat and protein content, do not only depend on lactation stage but also on the value of THI factors. Higher THI is accompanied by loss in the weight of milk and drop in its technological utility. The climate warming may escalate the risk of production loss during the heats.

  5. Study of dielectric properties of adulterated milk concentration and freshness

    Jitendra Murthy, V.; Sai Kiranmai, N.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    The knowledge of dielectric properties may hold a potential to develop a new technique for quality evaluation of milk. The dielectric properties of water diluted cow’s milk with milk concentration from 70 percent to 100 percent stored during 36hour storage at 22°C and 144 hour at 5°C were measured at room temperature for frequencies ranging from 10 to 4500 MHz and at low, high & at microwave frequencies using X band bench and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology, along with electrical conductivity. The raw milk had the lowest dielectric constant (ɛ‧) when the frequency was higher than about 20M.Hz, and had the highest loss (ɛ″) or decepation factor tan (δ) at each frequency. The penetration depth (dp) increased with decreasing frequency, water content and storage time, which was large enough to detect dielectric properties changes in milk samples and provide large scale RF pasteurization processes. The loss factor can be an indicator in predicting milk concentration and freshness.

  6. High-resolution melt analysis for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci derived from bovine milk.

    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leite humano processado em bancos de leite para o recém-nascido de baixo peso: análise nutricional e proposta de um novo complemento Milk from human milk banks for low birthweight newborns: nutritional contents and supplementation

    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo