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Sample records for high metabolic capacity

  1. Comparative Genomics Highlights Symbiotic Capacities and High Metabolic Flexibility of the Marine Genus Pseudovibrio.

    Versluis, Dennis; Nijsse, Bart; Naim, Mohd Azrul; Koehorst, Jasper J; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Schaap, Peter J; van Passel, Mark W J; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2018-01-01

    Pseudovibrio is a marine bacterial genus members of which are predominantly isolated from sessile marine animals, and particularly sponges. It has been hypothesized that Pseudovibrio spp. form mutualistic relationships with their hosts. Here, we studied Pseudovibrio phylogeny and genetic adaptations that may play a role in host colonization by comparative genomics of 31 Pseudovibrio strains, including 25 sponge isolates. All genomes were highly similar in terms of encoded core metabolic pathways, albeit with substantial differences in overall gene content. Based on gene composition, Pseudovibrio spp. clustered by geographic region, indicating geographic speciation. Furthermore, the fact that isolates from the Mediterranean Sea clustered by sponge species suggested host-specific adaptation or colonization. Genome analyses suggest that Pseudovibrio hongkongensis UST20140214-015BT is only distantly related to other Pseudovibrio spp., thereby challenging its status as typical Pseudovibrio member. All Pseudovibrio genomes were found to encode numerous proteins with SEL1 and tetratricopeptide repeats, which have been suggested to play a role in host colonization. For evasion of the host immune system, Pseudovibrio spp. may depend on type III, IV, and VI secretion systems that can inject effector molecules into eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, Pseudovibrio genomes carry on average seven secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters, reinforcing the role of Pseudovibrio spp. as potential producers of novel bioactive compounds. Tropodithietic acid, bacteriocin, and terpene biosynthesis clusters were highly conserved within the genus, suggesting an essential role in survival, for example through growth inhibition of bacterial competitors. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that Pseudovibrio spp. have mutualistic relations with sponges. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. CSTI High Capacity Power

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  4. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each PHIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (PHIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphometry, ultrastructure, myosin isoforms, and metabolic capacities of the "mini muscles" favoured by selection for high activity in house mice.

    Guderley, Helga; Houle-Leroy, Philippe; Diffee, Gary M; Camp, Dana M; Garland, Theodore

    2006-07-01

    Prolonged selective breeding of mice (Mus musculus) for high levels of voluntary wheel running has favoured an unusual phenotype ("mini muscles"), apparently caused by a single Mendelian recessive allele, in which most hind-limb muscles are markedly reduced in mass, but have increased mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes. We examined whether these changes reflect changes in fibre size, number or ultrastructure in normal and "mini-muscle" mice within the two (of four) selectively bred lines (lab designations L3 and L6) that exhibit the phenotype at generations 26 and 27. In both lines, the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles are smaller in mass (by >50% and 20%, respectively) in affected individuals. The mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes in the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles were increased in the mini phenotype in both lines, with stronger effects in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the gastrocnemius, the % myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb was reduced by 50% in L3 and by 30% in L6, whereas the % MHC IIa and I were higher, particularly in L3. Fibre number in the plantaris muscle did not significantly differ between mini and normal muscles, although muscle mass was a significant positive correlate of fibre number. Small fibres were more abundant in mini than normal muscles in L3. Mitochondrial volume density was significantly higher in mini than normal muscle fibres in L3, but not in L6. Microscopy revealed a surprising attribute of the mini muscles: an abundance of small, minimally differentiated, myofibril-containing cells positioned in a disorderly fashion, particularly in the surface layer. We hypothesise that these unusual cells may be satellite cells or type IIb fibres that did not complete their differentiation. Together, these observations suggest that mice with the mini phenotype have reduced numbers of type IIb fibres in many of their hind-limb muscles, leading to a decrease in mass and an increase in mass-specific aerobic capacity

  6. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  7. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  8. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  9. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Future High Capacity Backbone Networks

    Wang, Jiayuan

    are proposed. The work focuses on energy efficient routing algorithms in a dynamic optical core network environment, with Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) as the control plane. Energy ef- ficient routing algorithms for energy savings and CO2 savings are proposed, and their performance...... aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may increase the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile. In the second half of the thesis, the conflict between energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) is addressed by introducing a novel software defined......This thesis - Future High Capacity Backbone Networks - deals with the energy efficiency problems associated with the development of future optical networks. In the first half of the thesis, novel approaches for using multiple/single alternative energy sources for improving energy efficiency...

  11. High current capacity electrical connector

    Bettis, E.S.; Watts, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a ''sandwiched'' configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with contact buttons in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors

  12. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  13. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  14. Lower aerobic capacity was associated with abnormal intramuscular energetics in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Okita, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Lower aerobic capacity is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle dysfunction could contribute to the lower aerobic capacity in MetS patients. The incremental exercise tests with cycle ergometer were performed in 12 male patients with MetS with no habitual exercise and 11 age-, sex- and activity-matched control subjects to assess the aerobic capacity. We performed 31 phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the high-energy phosphate metabolism in skeletal muscle during aerobic exercise. Proton-MRS was also performed to measure intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ; 34.1±6.2 vs. 41.4±8.4 ml kg -1 min -1 , P -1 min -1 , P 2 (r=-0.64) and AT (r=-0.60), respectively. IMCL content was threefold higher in MetS and was inversely correlated with peak VO 2 (r=-0.47) and AT (r=-0.52), respectively. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between IMCL content and PCr loss (r=0.64). These results suggested that lean-body aerobic capacity in MetS patients was lower compared with activity-matched healthy subjects, which might be due to the reduced intramuscular fatty acid oxidative metabolism. (author)

  15. High capacity photonic integrated switching circuits

    Albores Mejia, A.

    2011-01-01

    As the demand for high-capacity data transfer keeps increasing in high performance computing and in a broader range of system area networking environments; reconfiguring the strained networks at ever faster speeds with larger volumes of traffic has become a huge challenge. Formidable bottlenecks

  16. High capacity getter pump for UHV operation

    Manini, P.; Marino, M.; Belloni, F.; Porro, M.

    1993-01-01

    UHV pumps based on non-evaporable getter coated strips find widespread use in particle accelerators, synchrotron radiation machines and nuclear fusion experimental devices. Depending on the geometric constraints, pressure operation conditions and the foreseen gas loads, optimized getter structures, such as modules and cartridges, can be designed and assembled into a high-efficiency pump. In the present paper, the design and performance of a newly conceived High Capacity Getter Pump (HCGP) based on sintered getter bodies, in the shape of blades instead of strips, is illustrated. The porosity and the specific surface area of the blades and their arrangement in the cartridge have been optimized to significantly increase sorption capacity at a given speed. These pumps are well suited for those applications where a very high gas load is expected during the machine operation. The sintered getter bodies increase surface area and capacity, requiring less frequent reactivation and facilitating greater overall life of the pump. A discussion of the experimental results in terms of sorption speed and capacity for various gases is presented

  17. Arsenic methylation capacity in relation to nutrient intake and genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism.

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Gandolfi, A Jay; Cebrián, Mariano E; Burguete-García, Ana; García-Martínez, Angélica; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2018-07-01

    Nutrients and genetic polymorphisms participating in one-carbon metabolism may explain interindividual differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity, which in turn may account for variations in susceptibility to iAs-induced diseases. 1) To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in five one-carbon metabolism genes (FOLH1 c.223 T > C, MTHFD1 c.1958 G > A, MTHFR c.665 C > T, MTR c.2756 A > G, and MTRR c.66 A > G) and iAs methylation capacity; 2) To assess if previously reported associations between nutrient intake and iAs methylation capacity are modified by those polymorphisms. Women (n = 1027) exposed to iAs in Northern Mexico were interviewed. Blood and urine samples were collected. Nutrient dietary intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. iAs methylation capacity was calculated from urinary iAs species (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid [MMA] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]) measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICP-MS). One polymorphism in each of the five genes evaluated was genotyped by allelic discrimination. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate if genetic polymorphisms modified the associations between iAs methylation capacity parameters and nutrient intake. The median (min-max) concentration of total arsenic (TAs) was 20.2 (1.3-2776.0) µg/g creatinine in the study population. Significant interactions for iAs metabolism were only found with FOLH1 c.223 T > C polymorphism and vitamin B12 intake, so that CT and CC genotype carriers had significantly lower %iAs, and higher DMA/iAs with an increased vitamin B12 intake, as compared to carriers of wild-type TT. Differences in dietary nutrient intake and genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism may jointly influence iAs methylation capacity. Confirmation of these interactions in other populations is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model

    Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.

  19. Intra-Seasonal Flexibility in Avian Metabolic Performance Highlights the Uncoupling of Basal Metabolic Rate and Thermogenic Capacity

    Petit, Magali; Lewden, Agnès; Vézina, François

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic winter weather events are predicted to increase in occurrence and amplitude at northern latitudes and organisms are expected to cope through phenotypic flexibility. Small avian species wintering in these environments show acclimatization where basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximal thermogenic capacity (MSUM) are typically elevated. However, little is known on intra-seasonal variation in metabolic performance and on how population trends truly reflect individual flexibility. Here we report intra-seasonal variation in metabolic parameters measured at the population and individual levels in black-capped chickadees ( Poecile atricapillus ). Results confirmed that population patterns indeed reflect flexibility at the individual level. They showed the expected increase in BMR (6%) and MSUM (34%) in winter relative to summer but also, and most importantly, that these parameters changed differently through time. BMR began its seasonal increase in November, while MSUM had already achieved more than 20% of its inter-seasonal increase by October, and declined to its starting level by March, while MSUM remained high. Although both parameters co-vary on a yearly scale, this mismatch in the timing of variation in winter BMR and MSUM likely reflects different constraints acting on different physiological components and therefore suggests a lack of functional link between these parameters. PMID:23840843

  20. High Capacity cylinder roller bearing; High Capacity Zylinderrollenlager. Ein vollrolliges Lager mit Kaefig

    Reichert, J.; Baum, J. [SKF, Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The high capacity cylinder roller bearing is an example for continuous development of SKF products and does an effective contribution to increase operational safety and offers the possibility to reduce weight and compact design. (GL)

  1. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Dí az-Pé rez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2015-01-01

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We

  2. High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    . This achievement has satisfied the requirements on transmission robustness and high capacity of next generation hybrid optical fibre-wireless networks. One important contribution of this thesis is the novel concept of photonic downconversion with free-running pulsed laser source for phase modulated Radio-over-Fiber......This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the detection of high speed wireless signals using optics. Signal detection at speeds over 1 Gbps at carrier Radio Frequency (RF) ranging from 5 GHz to 100 GHz have been achieved by applying novel concepts on optical digital coherent receivers......-wave frequencies at carrier frequencies exceeding 60 GHz, using photonic baseband technologies. For signal generation, high spectral-efficient optical modulation technologies are used together with optical heterodyning. In the detection side, the mm-wave signal is modulated in the optical domain and received using...

  3. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  4. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  5. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  6. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  7. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the elements of NASA's CSTI High Capacity Power Project which include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timeliness recently developed

  8. Influence of radioprotectors of various chemical compounds on the dynamic performance capacity and carbohydrate metabolism

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Golubentsev, D.A.; Merkina, T.N.; Smirnova, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the most effective radiotectors (gammaphos, cystamine and mexamine) on some factors of carbohydrate metabolism and working capacity of rats. In the effect of preparations studied great differences are established. Decrease of glycogen storage in liver and museles increase of lactate and pyruate level in blood as compared to control, decrease of animal working capacity are observed at introducing cystamine into rats when in rest and while dosed muscular loadings. Mexamine causes great shifts in carbohydrate exchange (in combination with physical loadings), and decreases animal strength. Gammaphos does not influence carbohydrate metabolism and does not decrease animal working capacity

  9. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    Winter, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems: Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability, and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operations as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed

  10. Development of high-capacity antimatter storage

    Howe, Steven D.; Smith, Gerald A.

    2000-01-01

    Space is vast. Over the next few decades, humanity will strive to send probes farther and farther into space to establish long baselines for interferometry, to visit the Kuiper Belt, to identify the heliopause, or to map the Oort cloud. In order to solve many of the mysteries of the universe or to explore the solar system and beyond, one single technology must be developed--high performance propulsion. In essence, future missions to deep space will require specific impulses between 50,000 and 200,000 seconds and energy densities greater than 10 14 j/kg in order to accomplish the mission within the career lifetime of an individual, 40 years. Only two technologies available to mankind offer such performance--fusion and antimatter. Currently envisioned fusion systems are too massive. Alternatively, because of the high energy density, antimatter powered systems may be relatively compact. The single key technology that is required to enable the revolutionary concept of antimatter propulsion is safe, reliable, high-density storage. Under a grant from the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts, we have identified two potential mechanisms that may enable high capacity antimatter storage systems to be built. We will describe planned experiments to verify the concepts. Development of a system capable of storing megajoules per gram will allow highly instrumented platforms to make fast missions to great distances. Such a development will open the universe to humanity

  11. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  12. Building the UPPA high capacity tensiometer

    Mendes Joao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High capacity tensiometers (HCTs are sensors capable of directly measuring tensile pore water pressure (suction in soils. HCTs are typically composed of a casing that encapsulates a high air entry value ceramic filter, a water reservoir and a pressure sensing element. Since the creation of the first HCT by Ridley and Burland in 1993 at Imperial College London, HCTs have been almost exclusively built and used in academic research. The limited use in industrial applications can be explained by a lack of unsaturated soil mechanics knowledge among engineering practitioners but also by the technical difficulties associated to the direct measurement of tensile water pressures beyond the cavitation limit of -100kPa. In this paper, we present the recent design and manufacture of a new HCT at the Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour (UPPA in France. Different prototypes were tried by changing the main components of the device including the type of ceramic filter, pressure transducer and geometry of the external casing. In particular, two ceramic filters of distinct porosity, three pressure transducers with distinct materials/geometries and four casing designs were tested.

  13. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status.

  14. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2011-09-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  15. The development and application of high-capacity thickening techniques

    Ji Zhenwan; Song Yuejie

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of sedimentation theory and comparison between the high-capacity and conventional thickening techniques, the authors analyse the ways to increase capacity and to improve technological parameters of thickeners, describes the construction features, development, application, automatic control and test installations of high-capacity thickeners at home and abroad

  16. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  17. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Sandhu, Navdeep; McGeer, James C.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  18. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  19. Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Couture, Patrice; Rajender Kumar, Puja

    2003-01-01

    This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) contamination. Liver Cu and Cd concentrations largely reflected environmental contamination and were positively correlated with liver protein concentrations and NDPK activities. Our results suggest that metal contamination leads to an upregulation of liver protein metabolism, presumably at least in part for the purpose of metal detoxification. In contrast, muscle NDPK activities decreased with increasing liver Cd concentrations and NDPK activities. There was a 25% decrease in ROCR for a doubling of liver Cu concentrations and a 42% decrease in RSA for a doubling of liver Cd concentrations in the range studied. Cu contamination was also associated with lower muscle CS activities. Our results support previous findings of impaired aerobic capacities in the muscle of metal-contaminated fish, and demonstrate that this impairment is also reflected in aerobic capacities of whole fish. The evidence presented suggests that mitochondria may be primary targets for inhibition by Cu, and that Cd may reduce gill respiratory capacity. Muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities were inversely related. This work indicates that metal exposure of wild yellow perch leads to a wide range of disturbances in metabolic capacities

  20. Metabolic capacity and interindividual variation in toxicokinetics of styrene in volunteers

    Wenker, M. A.; Kezić, S.; Monster, A. C.; de Wolff, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the interindividual variation in styrene toxicokinetics and to correlate this variation with the individual metabolic capacity for cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. Twenty male volunteers were exposed on separate occasions to 104+/-3 and

  1. Battery designs with high capacity anode materials and cathode materials

    Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Han, Yongbong; Deng, Haixia; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2017-10-03

    Improved high energy capacity designs for lithium ion batteries are described that take advantage of the properties of high specific capacity anode active compositions and high specific capacity cathode active compositions. In particular, specific electrode designs provide for achieving very high energy densities. Furthermore, the complex behavior of the active materials is used advantageously in a radical electrode balancing design that significantly reduced wasted electrode capacity in either electrode when cycling under realistic conditions of moderate to high discharge rates and/or over a reduced depth of discharge.

  2. A high capacity FASTBUS multiple event buffer

    Appel, J.A.; Farr, W.D.; Kaplan, D.M.; Levit, L.B.; Napier, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a front-end data acquisition and event buffering memory. This single-width FASTBUS module has a capacity of 256K X 32 bits plus parity. The module is dual ported, and its front panel ECLport accepts data at up to 20 MB/sec. It may also be written to and read from as a standard FASTBUS Slave. The module records events as variable length records. Each record is accepted or rejected via front panel control signal. Circuitry to automate FASTBUS record readout and record skip is provided. In its ''linear'' mode, the module may be used as a single pass list. Alternatively, in the ''circular'' mode, the module's internal read pointer can follow its write pointer continuously around the memory. Circular mode is well suited to handling of a continuous data stream. Modules may be linked for larger memory capacity

  3. Developing Leadership Capacity in Others: An Examination of High School Principals' Personal Capacities for Fostering Leadership

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Klar, Hans W.; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2017-01-01

    In this multisite case study, we examine the personal capacities of six high school principals who have developed the leadership capacities of other leaders in their respective schools. Participants were purposefully selected by two teams of researchers in two states of the United States, one on the east coast and one on the west coast, who…

  4. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  6. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (Ppineapple was significantly (Ppineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  8. Capacity Bounds and High-SNR Capacity of MIMO Intensity-Modulation Optical Channels

    Chaaban, Anas

    2018-02-19

    The capacity of the intensity modulation direct detection multiple-input multiple-output channel is studied. Therein, the nonnegativity constraint of the transmit signal limits the applicability of classical schemes, including precoding. Thus, new ways are required for deriving capacity bounds for this channel. To this end, capacity lower bounds are developed in this paper by deriving the achievable rates of two precodingfree schemes: Channel inversion and QR decomposition. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD-based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, capacity upper bounds are derived and compared against the lower bounds. As a result, the capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized for the case where the number of transmit apertures is not larger than the number of receive apertures, and is shown to be achievable by the QR decomposition scheme. This is shown for a channel with average intensity or peak intensity constraints. Under both constraints, the high-SNR capacity is approximated within a small gap. Extensions to a channel with more transmit apertures than receive apertures are discussed, and capacity bounds for this case are derived.

  9. Capacity Bounds and High-SNR Capacity of MIMO Intensity-Modulation Optical Channels

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    The capacity of the intensity modulation direct detection multiple-input multiple-output channel is studied. Therein, the nonnegativity constraint of the transmit signal limits the applicability of classical schemes, including precoding. Thus, new ways are required for deriving capacity bounds for this channel. To this end, capacity lower bounds are developed in this paper by deriving the achievable rates of two precodingfree schemes: Channel inversion and QR decomposition. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD-based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, capacity upper bounds are derived and compared against the lower bounds. As a result, the capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is characterized for the case where the number of transmit apertures is not larger than the number of receive apertures, and is shown to be achievable by the QR decomposition scheme. This is shown for a channel with average intensity or peak intensity constraints. Under both constraints, the high-SNR capacity is approximated within a small gap. Extensions to a channel with more transmit apertures than receive apertures are discussed, and capacity bounds for this case are derived.

  10. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  11. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  12. Plasticity in mitochondrial cristae density allows metabolic capacity modulation in human skeletal muscle

    Nielsen, Joachim; Gejl, Kasper D; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    experimental studies have shown that respiration per mitochondria varies.Modelling studies have hypothesised that this variation in respiration per mitochondria depends on plasticity in cristae density, but currently evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Here, we confirm this hypothesis by showing that...... that this mechanism allows evasion of the trade-off between cell occupancy by mitochondria and other cellular constituents and improved metabolic capacity and fuel catabolism during prolonged elevated energy requirements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Effects of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. Leaf Extract on Glycolipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Capacity in Diabetic Model Mice

    Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and antioxidant capacity of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. leaf extract (COE in combination of high-glucose-fat diet-fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic model mice. Various physiological indexes in diabetic model mice were well improved especially by oral administration of high dose of COE; the results were listed as follows. Fast blood glucose (FBG level and serum triglyceride (TC, total cholesterol (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as MDA in liver were significantly reduced; fasting serum insulin (FINS and insulin sensitivity index (ISI were both increased; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC in serum was significantly increased; total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and catalase (CAT in serum and liver were apparently enhanced; liver coefficient (LC, liver transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were decreased. Furthermore, pancreas islets and liver in diabetic model mice showed some extend of improvement in morphology and function after 4 weeks of COE treatment. In consequence, COE was advantageous to regulate glycolipid metabolism and elevate antioxidant capacity in diabetic model mice. Thus, the present study will provide a scientific evidence for the use of COE in the management of diabetes and its related complications.

  14. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g −1 . • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g −1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  15. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  16. Effects of erythropoietin administration on cerebral metabolism and exercise capacity in men

    Rasmussen, Peter; Foged, Eva M; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    administration of EPO. We recorded exercise capacity, transcranial ultrasonography-derived middle cerebral artery blood velocity, and arterial-internal jugular venous concentration differences of glucose and lactate. In addition, cognitive function, ratings of perceived exertion, ventilation and voluntary......Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) increases exercise capacity by stimulating erythropoiesis and subsequently enhancing oxygen delivery to the working muscles. In a large dose, EPO cross the blood brain barrier and may reduce central fatigue and improve cognition. In turn, this would augment...... exercise capacity independent of erythropoiesis. To test this hypothesis, 15 healthy young males (18-34 yo., 74 +/- 7 kg) received either 3 days of high dose (30,000 IU day(-1), N=7) double-blinded placebo controlled or 3 months of low dose (5,000 IU week(-1), N=8) counter-balanced open but controlled...

  17. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E; Liknes, Eric T; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2012-01-01

    The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic

  18. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  19. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  20. High temperature heat capacities and electrical conductivities of boron carbides

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Arita, Yuri; Naito, Keiji; Imai, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacities and the electrical conductivities of B x C(x=3, 4, 5) were measured by means of direct heating pulse calorimetry in the temperature range from 300 to 1500 K. The heat capacities of B x C increased with increasing x value. This increase in the heat capacity is probably related to the change of the lattice vibration mode originated from the reduction of the stiffness of the intericosahedral chain accompanied with a change from C-B-C to C-B-B chains. A linear relationship between the logarithm of σT (σ is the electrical conductivity and T is the absolute temperature) of B x C and the reciprocal temperature was observed, indicating the presence of small polaron hopping as the predominant conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of B x C also increased with increasing x value (from 4 to 5) due to an increase of the polaron hopping of holes between carbon atoms at geometrically nonequivalent sites, since these nonequivalent sites of carbon atoms were considered to increase in either B 11 C icosahedra or in icosahedral chains with increasing x. The electrical conductivity of B 3 C was higher than that of B 4 C, which is probably due to the precipitation of high-conducting carbon. The thermal conductivity and the thermodynamic quantities of B 4 C were also determined precisely from the heat capacity value. (orig.)

  1. Metabolic syndrome in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury: associations with physical activity and capacity.

    de Groot, Sonja; Adriaansen, Jacinthe J; Tepper, Marga; Snoek, Govert J; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Post, Marcel W M

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) whether personal or lesion characteristics are determinants of the MetS; and (iii) the association with physical activity or peak aerobic capacity on the MetS. In a cross-sectional study, persons with SCI (N = 223; time since injury of ≥10 years) were tested. The individual components of the MetS were assessed together with the physical activity measured by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD), while peak aerobic capacity was tested during a graded wheelchair exercise test on a treadmill. Thirty-nine percent of the participants had MetS. In a multivariate logistic regression analyses and after performing a backward regression analysis, only age and education were significant determinants of the MetS. A 10-year increase in age leads to a 1.5 times more chance to have the MetS. Furthermore, people with a low education will multiply the relative risk of MetS compared with people with high education by almost 2. With and without correcting for confounders, no significant relationship was found between PASIPD or peak aerobic capacity and the MetS. It can be concluded that the prevalence of the MetS is high (39%) in people with a long-standing SCI but is comparable to the general Dutch population. Older people and those with a lower education level are most at risk for the MetS. Physical activity and peak aerobic fitness were not related to the MetS in this group with a long-standing SCI.

  2. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity: a cross-sectional study.

    Maria Pedersen

    Full Text Available AIMS: Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 to 65 year-old patients with type 2 diabetes and limited co morbidity (N = 56, age-matched individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (N = 56 as well as age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (N = 72. Specific cognitive functions were assessed with focus on verbal memory, processing speed, executive functions, and a composite overall mean score. Oral glucose tolerance test, VO(2max test, systemic inflammation, DXA scanning and abdominal MRI were measured. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender and verbal intelligence demonstrated that a low score in processing speed, executive functions and overall cognitive function were related to high fasting C-peptide, as well as low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and VO(2max. Measurements of blood glucose, obesity and inflammation were not associated with cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Low cognitive scores are seen in middle aged individuals with hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and low aerobic capacity. These findings emphasize the importance of appropriate lifestyle and not only blood glucose control in prevention of cognitive disability.

  3. Isolation of a diphenylamine-degrading bacterium and characterization of its metabolic capacities, bioremediation and bioaugmentation potential.

    Perruchon, Chiara; Batianis, Christos; Zouborlis, Stelios; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Ntougias, Spyridon; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) is used in fruit-packaging plants for the control of the physiological disorder apple scald. Its use results in the production of DPA-contaminated wastewater which should be treated before finally discharged. Biological treatment systems using tailored-made microbial inocula with specific catabolic activities comprise an appealing and sustainable solution. This study aimed to isolate DPA-degrading bacteria, identify the metabolic pathway of DPA and evaluate their potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications. A Pseudomonas putida strain named DPA1 able to rapidly degrade and utilize DPA as the sole C and N source was enriched from a DPA-contaminated soil. The isolated strain degraded spillage-level concentrations of DPA in liquid culture (2000 mg L(-1)) and in contaminated soil (1000 mg kg(-1)) and metabolized DPA via the transient formation of aniline and catechol. Further evidence for the bioremediation and biodepuration potential of the P. putida strain DPA1 was provided by its capacity to degrade the post-harvest fungicide ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), concurrently used by the fruit-packaging plants, although at slower rates and DPA in a wide range of pH (4.5-9) and temperatures (15-37 °C). These findings revealed the high potential of the P. putida strain DPA1 for use in future soil bioremediation strategies and/or as start-up inocula in wastewater biodepuration systems.

  4. High capacity, high speed histogramming data acquisition memory

    Epstein, A.; Boulin, C.

    1996-01-01

    A double width CAMAC DRAM store module was developed for use as a histogramming memory in fast time-resolved synchrotron radiation applications to molecular biology. High speed direct memory modify (3 MHz) is accomplished by using a discrete DRAM controller and fast page mode access. The module can be configured using standard SIMMs to sizes of up to 64M-words. The word width is 16 bit and the module can handle overflows by storing the overflow addresses in a dedicated FIFO. Simultaneous front panel DMM/DMI access and CAMAC readout of the overflow addresses is supported

  5. Measurement of the carrying capacity of benthic habitats using a metabolic-rate based index.

    Edgar, G J

    1993-03-01

    Carrying capacities of grazed habitats are typically expressed as numbers or biomass of animals per unit area; however, such parameters are appropriate only when the body size of animals is constant because consumption and other metabolic-rate based parameters such as respiration and production are proportional to body mass raised by a power of ≈0.75 rather than 0 or 1. Habitat carrying levels are therefore better expressed in the form of an index of total community consumption by summing the body masses of individual animals after they have been scaled using a biomass exponent of ≈0.75. A parameter scaled in this way,P 20 , varied in a predictable manner when calculated for the mobile epifaunal assemblages associated with rope fibre habitats placed at marine and estuarine sites;P 20 showed no significant difference between 17 shallow, clear-water sites worldwide, but declined consistently when photosynthesis was reduced.P 20 also did not vary significantly when calculated for the mobile epifaunal communities associated with fourAmphibolis antarctica seagrass habitats in Australia ([Formula: see text] = 100 µg ·g -1 · day -1 ), and reached but did not significantly exceed a ceiling of ≈280 μg · g -1 · day -1 forSargassum plants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the production of shallow-water epifaunal communities of grazers is constrained by resource ceilings which can be quantified using metabolic-rate based indices. If this "production ceiling" hypothesis is correct then diffuse competition is generally more important than predation or environmental disturbance in restricting the growth of mobile epifaunal populations.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury : associations with physical activity and capacity

    de Groot, Sonja; Adriaansen, Jacinthe J.; Tepper, Marga; Snoek, Govert J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) whether personal or lesion characteristics are determinants of the MetS; and (iii) the association with physical activity or peak aerobic capacity on the MetS. In

  7. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  8. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan

    2015-09-11

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We used experimental incubations spanning 6oC with bacterial physiological groups identified by flow cytometry according to membrane integrity (live), nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) and respiratory activity (CTC+). The temperature dependence of μat the exponential phase of growth was summarized by the activation energy (E), which was variable (-0.52 to 0.72 eV) but followed a seasonal pattern, only reaching the hypothesized value for aerobic heterotrophs of 0.65 eV during the spring bloom for the most active bacterial groups (live, HNA, CTC+). K (i.e. maximum experimental abundance) peaked at 4 × 106 cells mL-1 and generally covaried with μbut, contrary to MTE predictions, it did not decrease consistently with temperature. In the case of live cells, the responses of μand K to temperature were positively correlated and related to seasonal changes in substrate availability, indicating that the responses of bacteria to warming are far from homogeneous and poorly explained by MTE at our site. © FEMS 2015.

  9. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  10. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  11. Colloidal silica films for high-capacity DNA arrays

    Glazer, Marc Irving

    The human genome project has greatly expanded the amount of genetic information available to researchers, but before this vast new source of data can be fully utilized, techniques for rapid, large-scale analysis of DNA and RNA must continue to develop. DNA arrays have emerged as a powerful new technology for analyzing genomic samples in a highly parallel format. The detection sensitivity of these arrays is dependent on the quantity and density of immobilized probe molecules. We have investigated substrates with a porous, "three-dimensional" surface layer as a means of increasing the surface area available for the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes, thereby increasing the number of available probes and the amount of detectable bound target. Porous colloidal silica films were created by two techniques. In the first approach, films were deposited by spin-coating silica colloid suspensions onto flat glass substrates, with the pores being formed by the natural voids between the solid particles (typically 23nm pores, 35% porosity). In the second approach, latex particles were co-deposited with the silica and then pyrolyzed, creating films with larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area. For 0.3 mum films, enhancements of eight to ten-fold and 12- to 14-fold were achieved with the pure silica films and the films "templated" with polymer latex, respectively. In gene expression assays for up to 7,000 genes using complex biological samples, the high-capacity films provided enhanced signals and performed equivalently or better than planar glass on all other functional measures, confirming that colloidal silica films are a promising platform for high-capacity DNA arrays. We have also investigated the kinetics of hybridization on planar glass and high-capacity substrates. Adsorption on planar arrays is similar to ideal Langmuir-type adsorption, although with an "overshoot" at high solution concentration. Hybridization on high-capacity films is

  12. High-capacity aqueous zinc batteries using sustainable quinone electrodes

    Zhao, Qing; Huang, Weiwei; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Li, Lin; Hu, Jinyan; Ma, Hua; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Quinones, which are ubiquitous in nature, can act as sustainable and green electrode materials but face dissolution in organic electrolytes, resulting in fast fading of capacity and short cycle life. We report that quinone electrodes, especially calix[4]quinone (C4Q) in rechargeable metal zinc batteries coupled with a cation-selective membrane using an aqueous electrolyte, exhibit a high capacity of 335 mA h g−1 with an energy efficiency of 93% at 20 mA g−1 and a long life of 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 87% at 500 mA g−1. The pouch zinc batteries with a respective depth of discharge of 89% (C4Q) and 49% (zinc anode) can deliver an energy density of 220 Wh kg−1 by mass of both a C4Q cathode and a theoretical Zn anode. We also develop an electrostatic potential computing method to demonstrate that carbonyl groups are active centers of electrochemistry. Moreover, the structural evolution and dissolution behavior of active materials during discharge and charge processes are investigated by operando spectral techniques such as IR, Raman, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Our results show that batteries using quinone cathodes and metal anodes in aqueous electrolyte are reliable approaches for mass energy storage. PMID:29511734

  13. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  15. Comparative genomics of metabolic capacities of regulons controlled by cis-regulatory RNA motifs in bacteria.

    Sun, Eric I; Leyn, Semen A; Kazanov, Marat D; Saier, Milton H; Novichkov, Pavel S; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2013-09-02

    In silico comparative genomics approaches have been efficiently used for functional prediction and reconstruction of metabolic and regulatory networks. Riboswitches are metabolite-sensing structures often found in bacterial mRNA leaders controlling gene expression on transcriptional or translational levels.An increasing number of riboswitches and other cis-regulatory RNAs have been recently classified into numerous RNA families in the Rfam database. High conservation of these RNA motifs provides a unique advantage for their genomic identification and comparative analysis. A comparative genomics approach implemented in the RegPredict tool was used for reconstruction and functional annotation of regulons controlled by RNAs from 43 Rfam families in diverse taxonomic groups of Bacteria. The inferred regulons include ~5200 cis-regulatory RNAs and more than 12000 target genes in 255 microbial genomes. All predicted RNA-regulated genes were classified into specific and overall functional categories. Analysis of taxonomic distribution of these categories allowed us to establish major functional preferences for each analyzed cis-regulatory RNA motif family. Overall, most RNA motif regulons showed predictable functional content in accordance with their experimentally established effector ligands. Our results suggest that some RNA motifs (including thiamin pyrophosphate and cobalamin riboswitches that control the cofactor metabolism) are widespread and likely originated from the last common ancestor of all bacteria. However, many more analyzed RNA motifs are restricted to a narrow taxonomic group of bacteria and likely represent more recent evolutionary innovations. The reconstructed regulatory networks for major known RNA motifs substantially expand the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in bacteria. The inferred regulons can be used for genetic experiments, functional annotations of genes, metabolic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis. The obtained genome

  16. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity

    Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals.......Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals....

  17. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  18. Genome-based exploration of the specialized metabolic capacities of the genus Rhodococcus.

    Ceniceros, Ana; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Petrusma, Mirjan; Medema, Marnix H

    2017-08-09

    Bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus are well known for their ability to degrade a large range of organic compounds. Some rhodococci are free-living, saprophytic bacteria; others are animal and plant pathogens. Recently, several studies have shown that their genomes encode putative pathways for the synthesis of a large number of specialized metabolites that are likely to be involved in microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions. To systematically explore the specialized metabolic potential of this genus, we here performed a comprehensive analysis of the biosynthetic coding capacity across publicly available rhododoccal genomes, and compared these with those of several Mycobacterium strains as well as that of their mutual close relative Amycolicicoccus subflavus. Comparative genomic analysis shows that most predicted biosynthetic gene cluster families in these strains are clade-specific and lack any homology with gene clusters encoding the production of known natural products. Interestingly, many of these clusters appear to encode the biosynthesis of lipopeptides, which may play key roles in the diverse environments were rhodococci thrive, by acting as biosurfactants, pathogenicity factors or antimicrobials. We also identified several gene cluster families that are universally shared among all three genera, which therefore may have a more 'primary' role in their physiology. Inactivation of these clusters by mutagenesis might help to generate weaker strains that can be used as live vaccines. The genus Rhodococcus thus provides an interesting target for natural product discovery, in view of its large and mostly uncharacterized biosynthetic repertoire, its relatively fast growth and the availability of effective genetic tools for its genomic modification.

  19. Expression of the human isoform of glutamate dehydrogenase, hGDH2, augments TCA cycle capacity and oxidative metabolism of glutamate during glucose deprivation in astrocytes.

    Nissen, Jakob D; Lykke, Kasper; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Stridh, Malin H; Zaganas, Ioannis; Skytt, Dorte M; Schousboe, Arne; Bak, Lasse K; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-03-01

    A key enzyme in brain glutamate homeostasis is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) which links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism mediating glutamate degradation to CO 2 and expanding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle capacity with intermediates, i.e. anaplerosis. Humans express two GDH isoforms, GDH1 and 2, whereas most other mammals express only GDH1. hGDH1 is widely expressed in human brain while hGDH2 is confined to astrocytes. The two isoforms display different enzymatic properties and the nature of these supports that hGDH2 expression in astrocytes potentially increases glutamate oxidation and supports the TCA cycle during energy-demanding processes such as high intensity glutamatergic signaling. However, little is known about how expression of hGDH2 affects the handling of glutamate and TCA cycle metabolism in astrocytes. Therefore, we cultured astrocytes from cerebral cortical tissue of hGDH2-expressing transgenic mice. We measured glutamate uptake and metabolism using [ 3 H]glutamate, while the effect on metabolic pathways of glutamate and glucose was evaluated by use of 13 C and 14 C substrates and analysis by mass spectrometry and determination of radioactively labeled metabolites including CO 2 , respectively. We conclude that hGDH2 expression increases capacity for uptake and oxidative metabolism of glutamate, particularly during increased workload and aglycemia. Additionally, hGDH2 expression increased utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) during aglycemia and caused a general decrease in oxidative glucose metabolism. We speculate, that expression of hGDH2 allows astrocytes to spare glucose and utilize BCAAs during substrate shortages. These findings support the proposed role of hGDH2 in astrocytes as an important fail-safe during situations of intense glutamatergic activity. GLIA 2017;65:474-488. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction

  1. How a high working memory capacity can increase proactive interference.

    Steinwascher, Merle A; Meiser, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Previous findings suggested that a high working memory capacity (WMC) is potentially associated with a higher susceptibility to proactive interference (PI) if the latter is measured under high cognitive load. To explain such a finding, we propose to consider susceptibility to PI as a net effect of individual executive processes and the intrinsic potential for PI. With the latter, we refer to the amount of information that is activated at a given time and that has the potential to exert PI subsequently. In two studies deploying generalized linear mixed models, susceptibility to PI was modeled as the decline of performance over trials of a complex span task. The results revealed that a higher WMC was associated with a higher susceptibility to PI. Moreover, the number of stimuli recalled in one trial as a proxy variable for the intrinsic potential for PI negatively affected memory performance in the subsequent trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Capacity Decline and Characteristics Changes of Lithium-ion Cells with Large Capacity during Trickle Charge at High Temperature

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Large-scale 40-Ah Li-ion cells have been developed for use in industrial applications. To contribute to techniques for ascertaining the state of these cells and detecting deterioration during actual use, we produce a cell whose capacity is reduced by trickle charging at high temperature, and we determine the relationship between the cell's properties such as its capacity and charging/discharging characteristics when the capacity is reduced. When the capacity of a Li-ion cell is reduced, the discharge voltage also decreases. We show that the residual capacity is well correlated to the discharge voltage and to the duration of continuous discharge before reaching a fixed end-voltage. We also show that the constant-current constant-voltage charging characteristics are maintained even when the capacity is degraded, and that the constant-current charging time and discharge voltage are closely related to the residual capacity. We confirm that the reaction coefficient of the capacity degradation formula can be calculated from the capacity change characteristics at multiple temperatures, and that an 8°C change in temperature causes the lifetime to decrease by half.

  3. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode...

  4. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  5. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice.

    Ma, Sihui; Huang, Qingyi; Yada, Koichi; Liu, Chunhong; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-25

    Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  6. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice

    Sihui Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  7. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  8. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Bruno eNicenboim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  9. Region-specific differences in bioenergetic proteins and protein response to acute high fat diet in brains of low and high capacity runner rats.

    Gan, Li; Ma, Delin; Li, Min; Yang, Fu-Chen; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Thyfault, John P; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2018-05-01

    Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of mortality. Low capacity runner (LCR) rats exhibit reduced mitochondrial function in peripheral organs. A high fat diet (HFD) can worsen metabolic phenotype in LCR rats. Little is known about metabolic changes in the brains of these rats, however. This study examined protein markers of mitochondrial function and metabolism as a function of aerobic running capacity and an acute HFD in four brain regions: the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and substantia nigra. After 3 days HFD or chow diets, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (Nrf-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and phosphorylated (activated) AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) protein levels in the four brain regions. LCR rats exhibited lower levels of mitochondrial proteins (PGC1-α, Nrf-1, TFAM), and greater p-AMPK, in striatum, but not in the other brain regions. Mitochondrial protein levels were greater in HFD LCR striatum, while p-AMPK was lower in this group. Markers of lower mitochondrial biogenesis and increased metabolic demand were limited to the LCR striatum, which nevertheless maintained the capacity to respond to an acute HFD challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High oil prices: A non-OPEC capacity game

    Osmundsen, Petter; Asche, Frank; Misund, Baard; Mohn, Klaus

    2005-08-01

    The current high oil price is partly due to low investments in the oil industry the last decade. According to economic theory, exploration and development of new oil and gas fields should respond positively to increasing petroleum prices. But since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term accounting return measures, like RoACE, for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. Consequently, the demand for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. Thus, we have experienced an unusual combination of high oil prices and low investment levels in exploration and development. In many ways, the oil companies' focus on RoACE, at the expense of reserve replacement, resembles an implicit co-ordination on low capacity among non-OPEC petroleum producers. This is a partial explanation of the current high oil prices. By examining actual parameters used by the financial markets in pricing of oil companies, we address the issue of whether the low investment outcome could represent a long-term equilibrium. This is hardly likely, as oil companies are made aware that stronger emphasis is put on reserve replacement. (Author)

  11. Microalgal Metabolic Network Model Refinement through High-Throughput Functional Metabolic Profiling

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Dohai, Bushra Saeed; Cai, Hong; Nelson, David R.; Jijakli, Kenan; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling provides the means to define metabolic processes at a systems level; however, genome-scale metabolic models often remain incomplete in their description of metabolic networks and may include reactions that are experimentally unverified. This shortcoming is exacerbated in reconstructed models of newly isolated algal species, as there may be little to no biochemical evidence available for the metabolism of such isolates. The phenotype microarray (PM) technology (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) provides an efficient, high-throughput method to functionally define cellular metabolic activities in response to a large array of entry metabolites. The platform can experimentally verify many of the unverified reactions in a network model as well as identify missing or new reactions in the reconstructed metabolic model. The PM technology has been used for metabolic phenotyping of non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, but it has not been reported for the phenotyping of microalgae. Here, we introduce the use of PM assays in a systematic way to the study of microalgae, applying it specifically to the green microalgal model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results obtained in this study validate a number of existing annotated metabolic reactions and identify a number of novel and unexpected metabolites. The obtained information was used to expand and refine the existing COBRA-based C. reinhardtii metabolic network model iRC1080. Over 254 reactions were added to the network, and the effects of these additions on flux distribution within the network are described. The novel reactions include the support of metabolism by a number of d-amino acids, l-dipeptides, and l-tripeptides as nitrogen sources, as well as support of cellular respiration by cysteamine-S-phosphate as a phosphorus source. The protocol developed here can be used as a foundation to functionally profile other microalgae such as known microalgae mutants and novel isolates.

  12. Microalgal Metabolic Network Model Refinement through High-Throughput Functional Metabolic Profiling

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Dohai, Bushra Saeed; Cai, Hong; Nelson, David R. [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Jijakli, Kenan [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Engineering Division, Biofinery, Manhattan, KS (United States); Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh, E-mail: ksa3@nyu.edu [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-12-10

    Metabolic modeling provides the means to define metabolic processes at a systems level; however, genome-scale metabolic models often remain incomplete in their description of metabolic networks and may include reactions that are experimentally unverified. This shortcoming is exacerbated in reconstructed models of newly isolated algal species, as there may be little to no biochemical evidence available for the metabolism of such isolates. The phenotype microarray (PM) technology (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) provides an efficient, high-throughput method to functionally define cellular metabolic activities in response to a large array of entry metabolites. The platform can experimentally verify many of the unverified reactions in a network model as well as identify missing or new reactions in the reconstructed metabolic model. The PM technology has been used for metabolic phenotyping of non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, but it has not been reported for the phenotyping of microalgae. Here, we introduce the use of PM assays in a systematic way to the study of microalgae, applying it specifically to the green microalgal model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results obtained in this study validate a number of existing annotated metabolic reactions and identify a number of novel and unexpected metabolites. The obtained information was used to expand and refine the existing COBRA-based C. reinhardtii metabolic network model iRC1080. Over 254 reactions were added to the network, and the effects of these additions on flux distribution within the network are described. The novel reactions include the support of metabolism by a number of d-amino acids, l-dipeptides, and l-tripeptides as nitrogen sources, as well as support of cellular respiration by cysteamine-S-phosphate as a phosphorus source. The protocol developed here can be used as a foundation to functionally profile other microalgae such as known microalgae mutants and novel isolates.

  13. ERRs and cancers: effects on metabolism and on proliferation and migration capacities.

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Sailland, Juliette; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2012-07-01

    ERRs are orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily which, at least for ERRα and ERRγ display important roles in the control of various metabolic processes. On other hand, correlations have been found between the expression of ERRα and γ and diverse parameters of tumor progression in human cancers. Whereas it is tempting to speculate that ERR receptors act in tumors through the regulation of metabolism, recent data have suggested that they also may directly regulate tumor proliferation and progression independently of their effects on metabolism. The two aspects of tumoral functions of ERR receptors are the purpose of the present review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain energy metabolism spurns fatty acids as fuel due to their inherent mitotoxicity and potential capacity to unleash neurodegeneration.

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2017-10-01

    The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is long-known. Furthermore, new insights indicate the use of odd-numbered medium-chain fatty acids as valuable source for maintaining the level of intermediates of the citric acid cycle in brain mitochondria. Non-esterified LCFAs or their activated forms exert a large variety of harmful side-effects on mitochondria, such as enhancing the mitochondrial ROS generation in distinct steps of the β-oxidation and therefore potentially increasing oxidative stress. Hence, the question arises: Why do in brain energy metabolism mitochondria selectively spurn LCFAs as energy source? The most likely answer are the relatively higher content of peroxidation-sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acids and the low antioxidative defense in brain tissue. There are two remarkable peroxisomal defects, one relating to α-oxidation of phytanic acid and the other to uptake of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) which lead to pathologically high tissue levels of such fatty acids. Both, the accumulation of phytanic acid and that of VLCFAs give an enlightening insight into harmful activities of fatty acids on neural cells, which possibly explain why evolution has prevented brain mitochondria from the equipment with significant β-oxidation enzymatic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  16. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Dubois, M; Mullender, B; Druart, J [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W; Beddows, A [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  17. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Dubois, M.; Mullender, B.; Druart, J. [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W.; Beddows, A. [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  18. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  19. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Taylor, Alexandra S.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.\\ud Purpose\\ud To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk ...

  1. The effects of running exercise on oxidative capacity and PGC-1α mRNA levels in the soleus muscle of rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Kouzaki, Motoki; Gu, Ning; Takeda, Isao; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in animals with metabolic syndrome exhibit reduced oxidative capacity. We investigated the effects of running exercise on fiber characteristics, oxidative capacity, and mRNA levels in the soleus muscles of rats with metabolic syndrome [SHR/NDmcr-cp (cp/cp); CP]. We divided 5-week-old CP rats into non-exercise (CP) and exercise (CP-Ex) groups. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the control group. CP-Ex rats were permitted voluntary exercise on running wheels for 10 weeks. Triglyceride levels were higher and adiponectin levels lower in the CP and CP-Ex groups than in the WKY group. However, triglyceride levels were lower and adiponectin levels higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group. The soleus muscles in CP-Ex rats contained only high-oxidative type I fibers, whereas those in WKY and CP rats contained type I, IIA, and IIC fibers. Muscle succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group; there was no difference in SDH activity between the WKY and CP-Ex groups. Muscle proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA levels were higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group; there was no difference in PGC-1α mRNA levels between the WKY and CP-Ex groups. In CP-Ex rats, longer running distance was associated with increased muscle SDH activity and PGC-1α mRNA levels. We concluded that running exercise restored decreased muscle oxidative capacity and PGC-1α mRNA levels and improved hypertriglyceridemia in rats with metabolic syndrome.

  2. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  3. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber

  4. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Free-space optical communications with peak and average constraints: High SNR capacity approximation

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-09-07

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel with both average and peak intensity constraints is studied. A new capacity lower bound is derived by using a truncated-Gaussian input distribution. Numerical evaluation shows that this capacity lower bound is nearly tight at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while it is shown analytically that the gap to capacity upper bounds is a small constant at high SNR. In particular, the gap to the high-SNR asymptotic capacity of the channel under either a peak or an average constraint is small. This leads to a simple approximation of the high SNR capacity. Additionally, a new capacity upper bound is derived using sphere-packing arguments. This bound is tight at high SNR for a channel with a dominant peak constraint.

  6. High-Capacity Cathode Material with High Voltage for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Xiao, Dong-Dong; Ge, Mingyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Chu, Yong; Huang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemical energy storage devices with a high energy density are an important technology in modern society, especially for electric vehicles. The most effective approach to improve the energy density of batteries is to search for high-capacity electrode materials. According to the concept of energy quality, a high-voltage battery delivers a highly useful energy, thus providing a new insight to improve energy density. Based on this concept, a novel and successful strategy to increase the energy density and energy quality by increasing the discharge voltage of cathode materials and preserving high capacity is proposed. The proposal is realized in high-capacity Li-rich cathode materials. The average discharge voltage is increased from 3.5 to 3.8 V by increasing the nickel content and applying a simple after-treatment, and the specific energy is improved from 912 to 1033 Wh kg -1 . The current work provides an insightful universal principle for developing, designing, and screening electrode materials for high energy density and energy quality. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High Working Memory Capacity Predicts Less Retrieval Induced Forgetting

    Mall, Jonathan T.; Morey, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Working Memory Capacity (WMC) is thought to be related to executive control and focused memory search abilities. These two hypotheses make contrasting predictions regarding the effects of retrieval on forgetting. Executive control during memory retrieval is believed to lead to retrieval

  8. Palaeohistological Evidence for Ancestral High Metabolic Rate in Archosaurs.

    Legendre, Lucas J; Guénard, Guillaume; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Cubo, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic heat production in archosaurs has played an important role in their evolutionary radiation during the Mesozoic, and their ancestral metabolic condition has long been a matter of debate in systematics and palaeontology. The study of fossil bone histology provides crucial information on bone growth rate, which has been used to indirectly investigate the evolution of thermometabolism in archosaurs. However, no quantitative estimation of metabolic rate has ever been performed on fossils using bone histological features. Moreover, to date, no inference model has included phylogenetic information in the form of predictive variables. Here we performed statistical predictive modeling using the new method of phylogenetic eigenvector maps on a set of bone histological features for a sample of extant and extinct vertebrates, to estimate metabolic rates of fossil archosauromorphs. This modeling procedure serves as a case study for eigenvector-based predictive modeling in a phylogenetic context, as well as an investigation of the poorly known evolutionary patterns of metabolic rate in archosaurs. Our results show that Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs exhibit metabolic rates very close to those found in modern birds, that archosaurs share a higher ancestral metabolic rate than that of extant ectotherms, and that this derived high metabolic rate was acquired at a much more inclusive level of the phylogenetic tree, among non-archosaurian archosauromorphs. These results also highlight the difficulties of assigning a given heat production strategy (i.e., endothermy, ectothermy) to an estimated metabolic rate value, and confirm findings of previous studies that the definition of the endotherm/ectotherm dichotomy may be ambiguous. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sodium bicarbonate and high-intensity-cycling capacity: variability in responses.

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalemia or other metabolic responses is different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not. Twenty-one men completed 2 cycling-capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output. Participants were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg body mass of either placebo (maltodextrin) or sodium bicarbonate (SB). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were determined at baseline, preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. SB supplementation did not significantly increase total work done (TWD; P = .16, 46.8 ± 9.1 vs 45.6 ± 8.4 kJ, d = 0.14), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 63% likelihood of a positive effect. When data were analyzed without 4 participants who experienced GI discomfort, TWD (P = .01) was significantly improved with SB. Immediately postexercise blood lactate was higher in SB for the individuals who improved but not for those who did not. There were also differences in the preexercise-to-postexercise change in blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess between individuals who improved and those who did not. SB improved high-intensity-cycling capacity but only with the exclusion of participants experiencing GI discomfort. Differences in blood responses suggest that SB may not be beneficial to all individuals. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that the exercise effects are unlikely to be negative; therefore, individuals should determine whether they respond well to SB supplementation before competition.

  10. On the High Altitude Platform (HAP W-CDMA System Capacity

    L. de Haro-Ariet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a downlink power control model, based on a n-thpower distance law, is evaluated for high altitude platform station(HAPS W-CDMA systems. The downlink capacity using this model iscompared with the uplink capacity. It is shown that the uplink capacityis higher than the downlink capacity.

  11. Time Course of Metabolic Capacities in Paralarvae of the Common Octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in the First Stages of Life. Searching Biomarkers of Nutritional Imbalance

    Amalia E. Morales

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris is promising since the species has a relatively short lifecycle, rapid growth, and high food conversion ratios. However, recent attempts at successful paralarvae culture have failed due to slow growth and high mortality rates. Establishing an optimal nutritional regime for the paralarvae seems to be the impeding step in successful culture methods. Gaining a thorough knowledge of food regulation and assimilation is essential for paralarvae survival and longevity under culture conditions. The aim of this study, then, was to elucidate the characteristic metabolic organization of octopus paralarvae throughout an ontogenic period of 12 days post-hatching, as well as assess the effect of diet enrichment with live prey containing abundant marine phospholipids. Our results showed that throughout the ontogenic period studied, an increase in anaerobic metabolism took place largely due to an increased dependence of paralarvae on exogenous food. Our studies showed that this activity was supported by octopine dehydrogenase activity, with a less significant contribution of lactate dehydrogenase activity. Regarding aerobic metabolism, the use of amino acids was maintained for the duration of the experiment. Our studies also showed a significant increase in the rate of oxidation of fatty acids from 6 days after-hatching. A low, although sustained, capacity for de novo synthesis of glucose from amino acids and glycerol was also observed. Regardless of the composition of the food, glycerol kinase activity significantly increased a few days prior to a massive mortality event. This could be related to a metabolic imbalance in the redox state responsible for the high mortality. Thus, glycerol kinase might be used as an effective nutritional and welfare biomarker. The studies in this report also revealed the important finding that feeding larvae with phospholipid-enriched Artemia improved animal viability and

  12. Crystalline-Amorphous Core−Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-01-14

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon\\'s large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. OTDM Networking for Short Range High-Capacity Highly Dynamic Networks

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros

    This PhD thesis aims at investigating the possibility of designing energy-efficient high-capacity (up to Tbit/s) optical network scenarios, leveraging on the effect of collective switching of many bits simultaneously, as is inherent in high bit rate serial optical data signals. The focus...... is on short range highly dynamic networks, catering to data center needs. The investigation concerns optical network scenarios, and experimental implementations of high bit rate serial data packet generation and reception, scalable optical packet labeling, simple optical label extraction and stable ultra...

  14. Remapping high-capacity, pre-attentive, fragile sensory memory.

    Zerr, Paul; Gayet, Surya; Mulder, Kees; Pinto, Yaïr; Sligte, Ilja; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-11-21

    Humans typically make several saccades per second. This provides a challenge for the visual system as locations are largely coded in retinotopic (eye-centered) coordinates. Spatial remapping, the updating of retinotopic location coordinates of items in visuospatial memory, is typically assumed to be limited to robust, capacity-limited and attention-demanding working memory (WM). Are pre-attentive, maskable, sensory memory representations (e.g. fragile memory, FM) also remapped? We directly compared trans-saccadic WM (tWM) and trans-saccadic FM (tFM) in a retro-cue change-detection paradigm. Participants memorized oriented rectangles, made a saccade and reported whether they saw a change in a subsequent display. On some trials a retro-cue indicated the to-be-tested item prior to probe onset. This allowed sensory memory items to be included in the memory capacity estimate. The observed retro-cue benefit demonstrates a tFM capacity considerably above tWM. This provides evidence that some, if not all sensory memory was remapped to spatiotopic (world-centered, task-relevant) coordinates. In a second experiment, we show backward masks to be effective in retinotopic as well as spatiotopic coordinates, demonstrating that FM was indeed remapped to world-centered coordinates. Together this provides conclusive evidence that trans-saccadic spatial remapping is not limited to higher-level WM processes but also occurs for sensory memory representations.

  15. Construction and Capacity Analysis of High-Rank LoS MIMO Channels in High Speed Railway Scenarios

    Jingya Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The validity of the maximum capacity criterion applied to realize high-rank line-of-sight (LoS multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels is investigated for high speed railway scenarios. Performance is evaluated by ergodic capacity. Numerical results demonstrate that by simply adjusting antenna spacing according to the maximum capacity criterion, significant capacity gains are achievable. We find relatively low sensitivity of the system to displacements from the optimal point and angle in relatively short range. Thus, we present two proposals to reconfigure antenna arrays so as to maximize LoS MIMO capacity in the high speed railway scenarios

  16. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  17. Enhanced photosynthetic capacity increases nitrogen metabolism through the coordinated regulation of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruyama, Toshiki; Sato, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    Plant growth and productivity depend on interactions between the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen. The sensing ability of internal carbon and nitrogen metabolites (the C/N balance) enables plants to regulate metabolism and development. In order to investigate the effects of an enhanced photosynthetic capacity on the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in photosynthetically active tissus (source leaves), we herein generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (ApFS) that expressed cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in their chloroplasts. The phenotype of ApFS plants was indistinguishable from that of wild-type plants at the immature stage. However, as plants matured, the growth of ApFS plants was superior to that of wild-type plants. Starch levels were higher in ApFS plants than in wild-type plants at 2 and 5 weeks. Sucrose levels were also higher in ApFS plants than in wild-type plants, but only at 5 weeks. On the other hand, the contents of various free amino acids were lower in ApFS plants than in wild-type plants at 2 weeks, but were similar at 5 weeks. The total C/N ratio was the same in ApFS plants and wild-type plants, whereas nitrite levels increased in parallel with elevations in nitrate reductase activity at 5 weeks in ApFS plants. These results suggest that increases in the contents of photosynthetic intermediates at the early growth stage caused a temporary imbalance in the free-C/free-N ratio and, thus, the feedback inhibition of the expression of genes involved in the Calvin cycle and induction of the expression of those involved in nitrogen metabolism due to supply deficient free amino acids for maintenance of the C/N balance in source leaves of ApFS plants.

  18. Risk-stratifying capacity of PET/CT metabolic tumor volume in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer

    Finkle, Joshua H.; Jo, Stephanie Y.; Yuan, Cindy; Pu, Yonglin [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ferguson, Mark K. [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Hai-Yan [First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Chenpeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, RenJi Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Xuee [Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-08-15

    Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub WB}) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTV{sub WB} to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTV{sub WB}, MTV{sub WB} may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment. We estimated the risk-stratifying capacity of MTV{sub WB} in stage IIIA by comparing OS of stratified stage IIIA with stage IIB and IIIB NSCLC. We performed a retrospective review of 330 patients with clinical stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. The patients' clinical TNM stage, initial MTV{sub WB}, and long-term survival data were collected. Patients with TNM stage IIIA disease were stratified by MTV{sub WB}. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cutoff value for stage IIIA patients was calculated using sequential log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier OS analysis with log-rank tests were performed. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cut-point was 29.2 mL for the risk-stratification of stage IIIA. We identified statistically significant differences in OS between stage IIB and IIIA patients (p < 0.01), between IIIA and IIIB patients (p < 0.01), and between the stage IIIA patients with low MTV{sub WB} (below 29.2 mL) and the stage IIIA patients with high MTV{sub WB} (above 29.2 mL) (p < 0.01). There was no OS difference between the low MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA and the cohort of stage IIB patients (p = 0.485), or between the high MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA patients and the cohort of stage IIIB patients (p = 0.459). Similar risk-stratification capacity of MTV{sub WB} was observed in a large range of cutoff values from 15 to 55 mL in

  19. Free-space optical communications with peak and average constraints: High SNR capacity approximation

    Chaaban, Anas; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    . Numerical evaluation shows that this capacity lower bound is nearly tight at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while it is shown analytically that the gap to capacity upper bounds is a small constant at high SNR. In particular, the gap to the high

  20. Porous graphene for high capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    Wang, Yusheng, E-mail: xxwysheng@163.com [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Qiaoli; Jia, Min; Yang, Dapeng [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Wang, Jianjun; Li, Meng [College of Science, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Sun, Qiang [School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Jia, Yu, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous graphene sheet as Li storage media. • Excellent mobility both along in-plane and out-plane directions. • The interactions can be easily tuned by an applied strain. - Abstract: Based on density functional theory calculations, we studied the Li dispersed on porous graphene (PG) for its application as Li ion battery anode material. The hybridization of Li atoms and the carbon atoms enhanced the interaction between Li atoms and the PG. With holes of specific size, the PG can provide excellent mobility with moderate barriers of 0.37–0.39 eV. The highest Li storage composite can be LiC{sub 0.75}H{sub 0.38} which corresponds to a specific capacity of 2857.7 mA h/g. Both specific capacity and binding energy are significantly larger than the corresponding value of graphite, this makes PG a promising candidate for the anode material in battery applications. The interactions between the Li atoms and PG can be easily tuned by an applied strain. Under biaxial strain of 16%, the binding energy of Li to PG is increased by 17% compared to its unstrained state.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells from different murine tissues have differential capacity to metabolize extracellular nucleotides.

    Iser, Isabele C; Bracco, Paula A; Gonçalves, Carlos E I; Zanin, Rafael F; Nardi, Nance B; Lenz, Guido; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Wink, Márcia R

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown a great potential for cell-based therapy and many different therapeutic purposes. Despite the recent advances in the knowledge of MSCs biology, their biochemical and molecular properties are still poorly defined. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eNT/CD73) are widely expressed enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides, generating an important cellular signaling cascade. Currently, studies have evidenced the relationship between the purinergic system and the development, maintenance, and differentiation of stem cells. The objective of this study is to identify the NTPDases and eNT/CD73 and compare the levels of nucleotide hydrolysis on MSCs isolated from different murine tissues (bone marrow, lung, vena cava, kidney, pancreas, spleen, skin, and adipose tissue). MSCs from all tissues investigated expressed the ectoenzymes at different levels. In MSCs from pancreas and adipose tissue, the hydrolysis of triphosphonucleosides was significantly higher when compared to the other cells. The diphosphonucleosides were hydrolyzed at a higher rate by MSC from pancreas when compared to MSC from other tissues. The differential nucleotide hydrolysis activity and enzyme expression in these cells suggests that MSCs play different roles in regulating the purinergic system in these tissues. Overall MSCs are an attractive adult-derived cell population for therapies, however, the fact that ecto-nucleotide metabolism can affect the microenvironment, modulating important events, such as immune response, makes the assessment of this metabolism an important part of the characterization of MSCs to be applied therapeutically. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  3. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years......With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...

  4. Burnup credit applications in a high-capacity truck cask

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The use of burnup credit in the criticality safety analysis of the GA-4 Cask increases the cask's capacity from three spent fuel assemblies to four, resulting in reduced public and occupational risk and reduced life cycle costs. GA's criticality calculations for burnup credit, including the associated uncertainties and analytical bias, establish the minimum burnup required as a function of initial enrichment to maintain K eff ≤ 0.95 under any conceivable condition. The minimum burnup requirement as a function of initial enrichment has been determined to be 15,000 MWd/MTU for 3.5 wt% U-235 fuel, 20,000 MWd/MTU for 4.0 wt% U-235 fuel and 25,000 MWd/MTU for 4.5 wt% U-235 fuel. The minimum burnup requirement as a function of enrichment is well below the typical burnup levels seen in the current and projected spent fuel inventory. (J.P.N.)

  5. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  6. MIMO Intensity-Modulation Channels: Capacity Bounds and High SNR Characterization

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-10-01

    The capacity of MIMO intensity modulation channels is studied. The nonnegativity of the transmit signal (intensity) poses a challenge on the precoding of the transmit signal, which limits the applicability of classical schemes in this type of channels. To resolve this issue, capacity lower bounds are developed by using precoding-free schemes. This is achieved by channel inversion or QR decomposition to convert the MIMO channel to a set of parallel channels. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, a capacity upper bound is derived and is shown to coincide with the achievable rate of the QR decomposition based scheme at high SNR, consequently characterizing the high-SNR capacity of the channel. The high-SNR gap between capacity and the achievable rates of the channel inversion and the DC-offset SVD based schemes is also characterized. Finally, the ergodic capacity of the channel is also briefly discussed.

  7. Metagenomic insights into metabolic capacities of the gut microbiota in a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis.

    Ning Liu

    Full Text Available Macrotermitinae (fungus-cultivating termites are major decomposers in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. They have specifically evolved mutualistic associations with both a Termitomyces fungi on the nest and a gut microbiota, providing a model system for probing host-microbe interactions. Yet the symbiotic roles of gut microbes residing in its major feeding caste remain largely undefined. Here, by pyrosequencing the whole gut metagenome of adult workers of a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis, we showed that it did harbor a broad set of genes or gene modules encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes relevant to plant fiber degradation, particularly debranching enzymes and oligosaccharide-processing enzymes. Besides, it also contained a considerable number of genes encoding chitinases and glycoprotein oligosaccharide-processing enzymes for fungal cell wall degradation. To investigate the metabolic divergence of higher termites of different feeding guilds, a SEED subsystem-based gene-centric comparative analysis of the data with that of a previously sequenced wood-feeding Nasutitermes hindgut microbiome was also attempted, revealing that SEED classifications of nitrogen metabolism, and motility and chemotaxis were significantly overrepresented in the wood-feeder hindgut metagenome, while Bacteroidales conjugative transposons and subsystems related to central aromatic compounds metabolism were apparently overrepresented here. This work fills up our gaps in understanding the functional capacities of fungus-cultivating termite gut microbiota, especially their roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocelluloses and utilization of fungal biomass, both of which greatly add to existing understandings of this peculiar symbiosis.

  8. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  9. Why high-capacity manipulators and lead glass windows

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Monitor remote-handling system was developed to maintain the main experimental beam line at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The technology and operating experience developed at LAMPF can be applied to other areas where handling of radioactive, hazardous, or toxic materials is required. These could include radiological incidents similar to Three Mile Island and toxic material spills, such as chlorine tank car derailments, where no provision for remote-handling exists. The technology can also be applied to routine radioactive remote-handling operations now conducted in conventional hot cells. These operations are normally done using mechanical master-slave manipulators with viewing through lead glass windows. The conventional facility can be replaced by a plain shielded box with an equivalent of the front end of Monitor inside. Master-slave manipulators of the future should be of 10-kg capacity with a force-reflection threshold of 0.2, minimum size, and provision for total sealing

  10. High energy reactions in normal metabolism and ageing of animals

    Avdonina, E.N.; Nesmeyanov, N.

    1983-01-01

    Processes involving reactions on highly excited states are thought to be of great importance for normal metabolism and aging. Excess energy of the organism is transferred to result in the formation of highly excited states of macromolecules. UV, visible light or ionizing radiation created partially by the organism itself can change metabolic process rates. According to the authors, aging is associated with the defects of macromolecules owing to high energy processes. Gerontological changes in biological materials result from the elimination of low molecular weight molecules and from the formation of unsaturated compounds. Crosslinking of the compounds, accumulation of collagen and connective tissues, the energetic overload of the organism are listed as important features of aging. (V.N.)

  11. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  12. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity.

    Vidal, N; Cavaille, J P; Graziani, F; Robin, M; Ouari, O; Pietri, S; Stocker, P

    2014-01-01

    Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  13. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity

    N. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  14. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  15. The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype on aerobic capacity following high intensity interval training

    Goddard, N; Baker, M.D; Higgins, T; Cobbold, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity can reduce T2DM and CVD risk, and increase aerobic capacity, a significant predictor of all-cause mortality and morbidity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces similar improvements in aerobic capacity to continuous moderate exercise (CME). Different genotypes of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been implicated in improving aerobic capacity and theref...

  16. High-Capacity Short-Range Optical Communication Links

    Tatarczak, Anna

    Over the last decade, we have observed a tremendous spread of end-user mobile devices. The user base of a mobile application can grow or shrink by millions per day. This situation creates a pressing need for highly scalable server infrastructure; a need nowadays satisfied through cloud computing...... offered by data centers. As the popularity of cloud computing soars, the demand for high-speed, short-range data center links grows. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multimode fibers (MMF) prove especially well-suited for such scenarios. VCSELs have high modulation bandwidths......, we achieve 10 Gbps over 400 m and then conrm the approach in an optimized system at 25 Gbps over 300 m. The techniques described in this thesis leverage additional degrees of freedom to better utilize the available resources of short-range links. The proposed schemes enable higher speeds and longer...

  17. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical ..... tems and BASF for developing high energy density lithium ion cells for plug-in electric ..... SEM and STEM images showing typical shapes and sizes of FeF2 ...

  18. Beyond the magic number four: Remapping high-capacity, pre-attentive, fragile working memory

    Zerr, P.; Gayet, S.; Mulder, K.T.; Sligte, I.G.; Stigchel, S. van der

    2017-01-01

    Visual short term memory allows us to access visual information after termination of its retinal input. Generally, a distinction is made between a robust, capacity-limited form (working memory, WM) and high-capacity, pre-attentive, maskable forms (sensory memory, e.g. fragile memory, FM). Eye

  19. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    remain in implementing capacity markets that provide both adequate operational and investment incentives, particularly under high-VRE scenarios with greater need for flexible capacity.

  20. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chlorid...

  1. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  2. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  3. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Zhu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. (topical review)

  4. Metabolism

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  5. A large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    Hendricks, R.W.; Suehiro, S.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK 8600 2048 K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources. Modules which have been developed to date include a buffer for two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, a mapper for high-speed coordinate transformations, a buffered time-of-flight clock, a time-correlator for synchronized diffraction experiments, and a display unit for data bus diagnostics. (orig.)

  6. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Kim, Hyerang; Lee, Saningun; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collec...

  7. Edge-riched graphene nanoribbon for high capacity electrode materials

    Ping, Yunjie; Zhang, Yupeng; Gong, Youning; Cao, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The graphene nanoribbon has been successfully synthesized by longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes with oxidants KMnO 4 . •Compared with graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbon shows the largest capacitance up to ∼202F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. •The importance of the location of functional groups and the importance of the edge structure. •The pseudo-capacitance material should have high electron transfer and rapid ion diffusion. -- Abstract: Carbon materials have attracted great attention for their diversified applications in supercapacitors, and different structures of carbon have been reported to exhibit dissimilar electrochemical properties. In the past, activated carbons, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers and graphene have been shown to have excellent electrochemical performances, but it still remains a problem on how to improve the capacitance of carbon-based materials effectively from the viewpoint of their giant commercial potential. Noticing that connecting chemical groups to carbon can provide large pseudo-capacitance, we hereby demonstrated that the position of the chemical groups also plays an important role in the pseudo-capacitance. In our work, we synthesized graphene nanoribbon (GNR), graphene oxide (GO) and functional MWCNTs and showed that GNR has larger capacitance (calculated to be 202 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s) and energy density compared to CNTs and GO when using as electrode materials. Furthermore, the supercapacitor device based on as-synthesized GNR exhibits excellent cycle stability and rate capability which evident is potential in high performance supercapacitor. Revealing the source of the capacitance, we found that though GNR has less oxygen-containing groups, it has larger pseudo-capacitance than GO and CNTs due to the remarkable edge-riched structure with high activity in electrochemical reactions. This finding highlights the importance of edge structure in carbon-based pseudo

  8. A gas trapping method for high-throughput metabolic experiments.

    Krycer, James R; Diskin, Ciana; Nelson, Marin E; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Fazakerley, Daniel J; James, David E

    2018-01-01

    Research into cellular metabolism has become more high-throughput, with typical cell-culture experiments being performed in multiwell plates (microplates). This format presents a challenge when trying to collect gaseous products, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), which requires a sealed environment and a vessel separate from the biological sample. To address this limitation, we developed a gas trapping protocol using perforated plastic lids in sealed cell-culture multiwell plates. We used this trap design to measure CO2 production from glucose and fatty acid metabolism, as well as hydrogen sulfide production from cysteine-treated cells. Our data clearly show that this gas trap can be applied to liquid and solid gas-collection media and can be used to study gaseous product generation by both adherent cells and cells in suspension. Since our gas traps can be adapted to multiwell plates of various sizes, they present a convenient, cost-effective solution that can accommodate the trend toward high-throughput measurements in metabolic research.

  9. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  10. Novel peptide ligand with high binding capacity for antibody purification

    Lund, L. N.; Gustavsson, P. E.; Michael, R.

    2012-01-01

    Small synthetic ligands for protein purification have become increasingly interesting with the growing need for cheap chromatographic materials for protein purification and especially for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Today, Protein A-based chromatographic resins are the most...... commonly used capture step in mAb down stream processing; however, the use of Protein A chromatography is less attractive due to toxic ligand leakage as well as high cost. Whether used as an alternative to the Protein A chromatographic media or as a subsequent polishing step, small synthetic peptide...... ligands have an advantage over biological ligands; they are cheaper to produce, ligand leakage by enzymatic degradation is either eliminated or significantly reduced, and they can in general better withstand cleaning in place (CIP) conditions such as 0.1 M NaOH. Here, we present a novel synthetic peptide...

  11. Large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    Hendricks, R.W.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.; Suehiro, S.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK8600 2048K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron x-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources

  12. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    With the goal of developing a deterministic understanding of the microbiological and geochemical processes controlling subsurface environments, groundwater bacterial communities were collected from the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Biomass from three temporal acetate-stimulated groundwater samples were collected during a period of dominant Fe(III)-reduction, in a region of the aquifer that had previously received acetate amendment the year prior. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a diverse Bacterial community, notably devoid of Archaea with 249 taxa from 9 Bacterial phyla including the dominance of uncultured candidate divisions, BD1-5, OD1, and OP11. We have reconstructed 86 partial to near-complete genomes and have performed a detailed characterization of the underlying metabolic potential of the ecosystem. We assessed the natural variation and redundancy in multi-heme c-type cytochromes, sulfite reductases, and central carbon metabolic pathways. Deep genomic sampling indicated the community contained various metabolic pathways: sulfur oxidation coupled to microaerophilic conditions, nitrate reduction with both acetate and inorganic compounds as donors, carbon and nitrogen fixation, antibiotic warfare, and heavy-metal detoxification. Proteomic investigations using predicted proteins from metagenomics corroborated that acetate oxidation is coupled to reduction of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and iron across the samples. Of particular interest was the detection of acetate oxidizing and sulfate reducing proteins from a Desulfotalea-like bacterium in all three time points, suggesting that aqueous sulfide produced by active sulfate-reducing bacteria could contribute to abiotic iron reduction during the dominant iron reduction phase. Additionally, proteogenomic analysis verified that a large portion of the community, including members of the uncultivated BD1-5, are obligate fermenters, characterized by the presence of hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases

  13. A high mitochondrial transport rate characterizes CNS neurons with high axonal regeneration capacity.

    Romain Cartoni

    Full Text Available Improving axonal transport in the injured and diseased central nervous system has been proposed as a promising strategy to improve neuronal repair. However, the contribution of each cargo to the repair mechanism is unknown. DRG neurons globally increase axonal transport during regeneration. Because the transport of specific cargos after axonal insult has not been examined systematically in a model of enhanced regenerative capacity, it is unknown whether the transport of all cargos would be modulated equally in injured central nervous system neurons. Here, using a microfluidic culture system we compared neurons co-deleted for PTEN and SOCS3, an established model of high axonal regeneration capacity, to control neurons. We measured the axonal transport of three cargos (mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and late endosomes in regenerating axons and found that the transport of mitochondria, but not the other cargos, was increased in PTEN/SOCS3 co-deleted axons relative to controls. The results reported here suggest a pivotal role for this organelle during axonal regeneration.

  14. Photonics applications in high-capacity data link terminals

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-12-01

    Radio systems and, in particular, RF data link systems are evolving toward progressively more bandwidth and higher data rates. For many military RF data link applications the data transfer requirements exceed one Gigabit per second. Airborne collectors need to transfer sensor information and other large data files to ground locations and other airborne terminals, including the rel time transfer of files. It is a challenge to the system designer to provide a system design, which meets the RF link budget requirements for a one Gigabit per second data link; and there is a corresponding challenge in the development of the terminal architecture and hardware. The utilization of photonic circuitry and devices as a part of the terminal design offers the designer some alternatives to the conventional RF hardware design within the radio. Areas of consideration for the implementation of photonic technology include Gigabit per second baseband data interfaces with fiber along with the associated clocking rates and extending these Gigabit data rates into the radio for optical processing technology; optical interconnections within the individual circuit boards in the radio; and optical backplanes to allow the transfer of not only the Gigabit per second data rates and high speed clocks but other RF signals within the radio. True time delay using photonics in phased array antennas has been demonstrated and is an alternative to the conventional phase shifter designs used in phased array antennas, and remoting of phased array antennas from the terminal electronics in the Ku and Ka frequency bands using fiber optics as the carrier to minimize the RF losses, negate the use of the conventional waveguides, and allow the terminal equipment to be located with other electronic equipment in the aircraft suitable for controlled environment, ready access, and maintenance. The various photonics design alternatives will be discussed including specific photonic design approaches. Packaging

  15. Final report: High current capacity high temperature superconducting film based tape for high field magnets

    Ying Xin

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the program was to establish the process parameters for the continuous deposition of high quality, superconducting YBCO films on one meter lengths of buffered RABiTS tape using MOCVD and to characterize the potential utility of the resulting tapes in high field magnet applications

  16. Ultra-High Capacity Silicon Photonic Interconnects through Spatial Multiplexing

    Chen, Christine P.

    -fabrication. Through ModePROP simulations, optimizing device performance dynamically post-fabrication is analyzed, through either electro-optical or thermo-optical means. By biasing the arm introducing the slight spectral offset, we can quantifiably improve device performance. Scaling bandwidth is experimentally demonstrated through the device at 3 modes, 2 wavelengths, and 40 Gb/s data rate for 240 Gb/s aggregate bandwidth, with the potential to reduce power penalty per the device optimization process we described. A main motivation for this on-chip spatial multiplexing is the need to reduce costs. As the laser source serves as the greatest power consumer in an optical system, mode-division multiplexing and other forms of spatial multiplexing can be implemented to push its potentially prohibitive cost metrics down. In order to demonstrate an intelligent platform capable of dynamically multicasting data and reallocating power as needed by the system, we must first initialize the switch fabric to control with an electronic interface. A dithering mechanism, whereby exact cross, bar, and sub-percentage states are enforced through the device, is described here. Such a method could be employed for actuating the device table of bias values to states automatically. We then employ a dynamic power reallocation algorithm through a data acquisition unit, showing real-time channel recovery for channels experiencing power loss by diverting power from paths that could tolerate it. The data that is being multicast through the system is experimentally shown to be error-free at 40 Gb/s data rate, when transmitting from one to three clients and going from automatic bar/cross states to equalized power distribution. For the last portion of this topic, the switch fabric was inserted into a high-performance computing system. In order to run benchmarks at 10 Gb/s data ontop of the switch fabric, a newer model of the control plane was implemented to toggle states according to the command issued by the server

  17. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-12-25

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed.

  18. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed

  19. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models.

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  20. Relation of polymorphism of arsenic metabolism genes to arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Shiau-Rung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi [Department of Pediatrics, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ray-Jade [Department of Digestive Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-15

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with developmental delay in children. The present study was designed to explore whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-S-transferase omegas (GSTOs), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) affect arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay. A case-control study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2014. All participants were recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In total, 179 children with developmental delay and 88 children without delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As{sup III}), arsenate (As{sup V}), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphisms of AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP were performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform with iPLEX Gold chemistry. Polymorphisms of AS3MT genes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay in children, but GSTO and PNP polymorphisms were not. Participants with AS3MT rs3740392 A/G + G/G genotype, compared with AS3MT rs3740392 A/A genotype, had a significantly lower secondary methylation index. This may result in an increased OR for developmental delay. Participants with the AS3MT high-risk haplotype had a significantly higher OR than those with AS3MT low-risk haplotypes [OR and 95% CI, 1.59 (1.08–2.34)]. This is the first study to show a joint dose-response effect of this AS3MT high-risk haplotype and inefficient arsenic methylation capacity on developmental delay. Our data provide evidence that AS3MT genes are related to developmental delay and may partially influence arsenic methylation capacity. - Highlights: • AS3MT genotypes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay. • AS3MT rs3740392 A/G and G/G genotype had a significantly low SMI (DMA

  1. Relation of polymorphism of arsenic metabolism genes to arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ying-Chin; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chen, Ray-Jade; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with developmental delay in children. The present study was designed to explore whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-S-transferase omegas (GSTOs), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) affect arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay. A case-control study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2014. All participants were recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In total, 179 children with developmental delay and 88 children without delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As III ), arsenate (As V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphisms of AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP were performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform with iPLEX Gold chemistry. Polymorphisms of AS3MT genes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay in children, but GSTO and PNP polymorphisms were not. Participants with AS3MT rs3740392 A/G + G/G genotype, compared with AS3MT rs3740392 A/A genotype, had a significantly lower secondary methylation index. This may result in an increased OR for developmental delay. Participants with the AS3MT high-risk haplotype had a significantly higher OR than those with AS3MT low-risk haplotypes [OR and 95% CI, 1.59 (1.08–2.34)]. This is the first study to show a joint dose-response effect of this AS3MT high-risk haplotype and inefficient arsenic methylation capacity on developmental delay. Our data provide evidence that AS3MT genes are related to developmental delay and may partially influence arsenic methylation capacity. - Highlights: • AS3MT genotypes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay. • AS3MT rs3740392 A/G and G/G genotype had a significantly low SMI (DMA/MMA) index. • AS3MT

  2. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  3. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  4. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 casks

    Rickard, N.D.; Kissinger, J.A.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. The authors are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight will to be very close to this target weight

  5. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 Casks

    Kissinger, J.A.; Rickard, N.D.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. We are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight is expected to be very close to this target weight. 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. Recycling potential for low voltage and high voltage high rupturing capacity fuse links.

    Psomopoulos, Constantinos S; Barkas, Dimitrios A; Kaminaris, Stavros D; Ioannidis, George C; Karagiannopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-12-01

    Low voltage and high voltage high-rupturing-capacity fuse links are used in LV and HV installations respectively, protecting mainly the LV and HV electricity distribution and transportation networks. The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (2002/96/EC) for "Waste of electrical and electronic equipment" is the main related legislation and as it concerns electrical and electronic equipment, it includes electric fuses. Although, the fuse links consist of recyclable materials, only small scale actions have been implemented for their recycling around Europe. This work presents the possibilities for material recovery from this specialized industrial waste for which there are only limited volume data. Furthermore, in order to present the huge possibilities and environmental benefits, it presents the potential for recycling of HRC fuses used by the Public Power Corporation of Greece, which is the major consumer for the country, but one of the smallest ones in Europe and globally, emphasizing in this way in the issue. According to the obtained results, fuse recycling could contribute to the effort for minimize the impacts on the environment through materials recovery and reduction of the wastes' volume disposed of in landfills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  8. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  9. The Decline of Soil Infiltration Capacity Due To High Elevation Groundwater

    Isri Ronald Mangangka

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration capacity of soil mainly depends on two factors; the particle size and the moisture content of the soil. Groundwater increases the soil moisture, not only below the water table but also within the capillary zone, above the water table. Field experiment in a high groundwater area was conducted to understand the relationship among the groundwater, soil moisture and infiltration capacity. Using a single ring infiltrometer, the effect of groundwater in the infiltration rate was observ...

  10. Preparation and characterization of magnetic polymer nanospheres with high protein binding capacity

    Liu Xianqiao; Guan Yueping; Liu Huizhou; Ma Zhiya; Yang Yu; Wu Xiaobing

    2005-01-01

    A novel magnetic support with high protein binding capacity was prepared by mini-emulsion polymerization. The magnetic poly(methacrylate-divinylbenzene) nanospheres prepared are 390 nm in diameter with narrow size distribution and star-like external morphology which leads to a large increase in specific surface area. Experimental results indicate that the maximum protein binding capacity is 316 mg bovine hemoglobin (BHb)/g support

  11. Metabolism

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  12. PGC-1α mRNA Level and Oxidative Capacity of the Plantaris Muscle in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome, Hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Gu, Ning; Takeda, Isao; Ishioka, Noriaki; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    We examined the fiber profiles and the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα and PPARδ/β) and of the PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the plantaris muscles of 15-week-old control (WR), metabolic syndrome (CP), hypertensive (SHR), and type 2 diabetic (GK) rats. The deep regions in the muscles of SHR and GK rats exhibited lower percentages of high-oxidative type I and IIA fibers and higher percentages of low-oxidative type IIB fibers compared with WR and CP rats. The surface regions in the muscles of CP, SHR, and GK rats exhibited lower percentages of high-oxidative type IIA fibers and higher percentages of low-oxidative type IIB fibers compared with WR rats. The muscles of SHR and GK rats had lower oxidative enzyme activity compared with WR rats. The muscles of SHR rats had the lowest PPARδ/β mRNA level. In addition, the muscles of SHR and GK rats had lower PGC-1α mRNA level compared with WR and CP rats. We concluded that the plantaris muscles of rats with hypertension and type 2 diabetes have lower oxidative capacity, which is associated with the decreased level of PGC-1α mRNA

  13. High-Affinity Low-Capacity and Low-Affinity High-Capacity N-Acetyl-2-Aminofluorene (AAF) Macromolecular Binding Sites Are Revealed During the Growth Cycle of Adult Rat Hepatocytes in Primary Culture.

    Koch, Katherine S; Moran, Tom; Shier, W Thomas; Leffert, Hyam L

    2018-05-01

    Long-term cultures of primary adult rat hepatocytes were used to study the effects of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF) on hepatocyte proliferation during the growth cycle; on the initiation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures; and, on hepatocyte DNA replication following the initiation of DNA synthesis. Scatchard analyses were used to identify the pharmacologic properties of radiolabeled AAF metabolite binding to hepatocyte macromolecules. Two classes of growth cycle-dependent AAF metabolite binding sites-a high-affinity low-capacity site (designated Site I) and a low-affinity high-capacity site (designated Site II)-associated with two spatially distinct classes of macromolecular targets, were revealed. Based upon radiolabeled AAF metabolite binding to purified hepatocyte genomic DNA or to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids from isolated nuclei, Site IDAY 4 targets (KD[APPARENT] ≈ 2-4×10-6 M and BMAX[APPARENT] ≈ 6 pmol/106 cells/24 h) were consistent with genomic DNA; and with AAF metabolized by a nuclear cytochrome P450. Based upon radiolabeled AAF binding to total cellular lysates, Site IIDAY 4 targets (KD[APPARENT] ≈ 1.5×10-3 M and BMAX[APPARENT] ≈ 350 pmol/106 cells/24 h) were consistent with cytoplasmic proteins; and with AAF metabolized by cytoplasmic cytochrome P450s. DNA synthesis was not inhibited by concentrations of AAF that saturated DNA binding in the neighborhood of the Site I KD. Instead, hepatocyte DNA synthesis inhibition required higher concentrations of AAF approaching the Site II KD. These observations raise the possibility that carcinogenic DNA adducts derived from AAF metabolites form below concentrations of AAF that inhibit replicative and repair DNA synthesis.

  14. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  15. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  16. Heat capacity of iron, aluminum, and chromium vanadates at high temperatures

    Cheshnitskii, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Ignashin, V.P.; Kesler, Y.A.

    1985-09-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of compounds participating in the processing of vanadium-containing raw materials have not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper the authors report on measurements of the heat capacities of the compounds FeVO/sub 4/, CrVO/sub 4/, AIVO/sub 4/, Fe/sub 2/V/sub 4/O/sub 13/ and FeCr(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ at high temperatures. The obtained experimental data on the high-temperature heat capacity of iron, aluminum, and chromium vanadates makes it possible to calculate the thermodynamic functions of these compounds at high temperatures.

  17. The metabolic costs of improving ethanol yield by reducing glycerol formation capacity under anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Pagliardini, Julien; Hubmann, Georg; Alfenore, Sandrine; Nevoigt, Elke; Bideaux, Carine; Guillouet, Stephane E

    2013-03-28

    Finely regulating the carbon flux through the glycerol pathway by regulating the expression of the rate controlling enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), has been a promising approach to redirect carbon from glycerol to ethanol and thereby increasing the ethanol yield in ethanol production. Here, strains engineered in the promoter of GPD1 and deleted in GPD2 were used to investigate the possibility of reducing glycerol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae without jeopardising its ability to cope with process stress during ethanol production. For this purpose, the mutant strains TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 with different GPD1 residual expression were studied in Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP) fed-batch process under anaerobic conditions. Both strains showed a drastic reduction of the glycerol yield by 44 and 61% while the ethanol yield improved by 2 and 7% respectively. TEFmut2 strain showing the highest ethanol yield was accompanied by a 28% reduction of the biomass yield. The modulation of the glycerol formation led to profound redox and energetic changes resulting in a reduction of the ATP yield (YATP) and a modulation of the production of organic acids (acetate, pyruvate and succinate). Those metabolic rearrangements resulted in a loss of ethanol and stress tolerance of the mutants, contrarily to what was previously observed under aerobiosis. This work demonstrates the potential of fine-tuned pathway engineering, particularly when a compromise has to be found between high product yield on one hand and acceptable growth, productivity and stress resistance on the other hand. Previous study showed that, contrarily to anaerobiosis, the resulting gain in ethanol yield was accompanied with no loss of ethanol tolerance under aerobiosis. Moreover those mutants were still able to produce up to 90 gl-1 ethanol in an anaerobic SSF process. Fine tuning metabolic strategy may then open encouraging possibilities for further developing robust strains with improved

  18. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    It has not been established which physiological processes contribute to endurance training-related changes (Delta) in aerobic performance. For example, the relationship between intramuscular metabolic responses at the intensity used during training and improved human functional capacity has...... not been examined in a longitudinal study. In the present study we hypothesized that improvements in aerobic capacity (Vo(2max)) and metabolic control would combine equally to explain enhanced aerobic performance. Twenty-four sedentary males (24 +/- 2 yr; 1.81 +/- 0.08 m; 76.6 +/- 11.3 kg) undertook...... unrelated to the change in aerobic performance. The maximal parameters DeltaVe(max) and DeltaVeq(max) (DeltaVe/Vo(2max)) accounted for 64% of the variance in DeltaVo(2max) (P

  19. Completion of a high efficiency ultralarge capacity three-phase transformer

    Maejima, Masaaki; Maruyama, Katsuya; Fukuda, Teruo.

    1986-01-01

    As for the boosting transformers for thermal and nuclear power stations, at present the ultralarge capacity transformers of 1000 - 1200 MVA class are the main, and particularly in nuclear power, accompanying the development of improved type BWRs and the rise of system stability, there is the tendency toward further large capacity and large size. Consequently, reflecting the recent rise of energy cost, the demand of energy conservation and the reduction of required sites heightened largely as well as the high reliability. In order to meet these demands, Hitachi Ltd. has established the technology of changing to iron machines such as ultralarge iron cores and ultralarge capacity undivided disk windings using the latest design and manufacture techniques were applied to the 525 kV, 1200 MVA transformer for No.4 plant in Fukushima No.2 Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., thus a three-phase transformer of the highest level, high efficiency and ultralarge capacity was completed. In this paper, the outline of this transformer and the test for verifying its reliability are described. The technical change of large capacity three-phase transformers, the specifications, construction, manufacture, reliability test and the effect of modification of this transformer, and the expansion of application to the next generation ultralarge capacity transformers are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. A biomimetic high-capacity phenazine-based anolyte for aqueous organic redox flow batteries

    Hollas, Aaron; Wei, Xiaoliang; Murugesan, Vijayakumar; Nie, Zimin; Li, Bin; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Aqueous soluble organic (ASO) redox-active materials have recently attracted significant attention as alternatives to traditional transition metal ions in redox flow batteries (RFB). However, reported reversible capacities of ASO are often substantially lower than their theoretical values based on the reported maximum solubilities. Here, we describe a phenazine-based ASO compound with an exceptionally high reversible capacity that exceeds 90% of its theoretical value. By strategically modifying the phenazine molecular structure, we demonstrate an increased solubility from near-zero with pristine phenazine to as much as 1.8 M while also shifting its redox potential by more than 400 mV. An RFB based on a phenazine derivative (7,8-dihydroxyphenazine-2-sulfonic acid) at its near-saturation concentration exhibits an operating voltage of 1.4 V with a reversible anolyte capacity of 67 Ah l-1 and a capacity retention of 99.98% per cycle over 500 cycles.

  1. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  2. Neurodegeneration Alters Metabolic Profile and Sirt 1 Signaling in High-Fat-Induced Obese Mice.

    Lima, Leandro Ceotto Freitas; Saliba, Soraya Wilke; Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Cunha, Maria Luisa; Cassini-Vieira, Puebla; Feltenberger, John David; Barcelos, Lucíola Silva; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; de-Paula, Alfredo Mauricio Batista; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Different factors may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Among them, metabolic syndrome (MS), which has reached epidemic proportions, has emerged as a potential element that may be involved in neurodegeneration. Furthermore, studies have shown the importance of the sirtuin family in neuronal survival and MS, which opens the possibility of new pharmacological targets. This study investigates the influence of sirtuin metabolic pathways by examining the functional capacities of glucose-induced obesity in an excitotoxic state induced by a quinolinic acid (QA) animal model. Mice were divided into two groups that received different diets for 8 weeks: one group received a regular diet, and the other group received a high-fat diet (HF) to induce MS. The animals were submitted to a stereotaxic surgery and subdivided into four groups: Standard (ST), Standard-QA (ST-QA), HF and HF-QA. The QA groups were given a 250 nL quinolinic acid injection in the right striatum and PBS was injected in the other groups. Obese mice presented with a weight gain of 40 % more than the ST group beyond acquiring an insulin resistance. QA induced motor impairment and neurodegeneration in both ST-QA and HF-QA, although no difference was observed between these groups. The HF-QA group showed a reduction in adiposity when compared with the groups that received PBS. Therefore, the HF-QA group demonstrated a commitment-dependent metabolic pathway. The results suggest that an obesogenic diet does not aggravate the neurodegeneration induced by QA. However, the excitotoxicity induced by QA promotes a sirtuin pathway impairment that contributes to metabolic changes.

  3. Reversible anionic redox chemistry in high-capacity layered-oxide electrodes

    Sathiya, M.; Rousse, G.; Ramesha, K.; Laisa, C. P.; Vezin, H.; Sougrati, M. T.; Doublet, M.-L.; Foix, D.; Gonbeau, D.; Walker, W.; Prakash, A. S.; Ben Hassine, M.; Dupont, L.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2013-09-01

    Li-ion batteries have contributed to the commercial success of portable electronics and may soon dominate the electric transportation market provided that major scientific advances including new materials and concepts are developed. Classical positive electrodes for Li-ion technology operate mainly through an insertion-deinsertion redox process involving cationic species. However, this mechanism is insufficient to account for the high capacities exhibited by the new generation of Li-rich (Li1+xNiyCozMn(1-x-y-z)O2) layered oxides that present unusual Li reactivity. In an attempt to overcome both the inherent composition and the structural complexity of this class of oxides, we have designed structurally related Li2Ru1-ySnyO3 materials that have a single redox cation and exhibit sustainable reversible capacities as high as 230 mA h g-1. Moreover, they present good cycling behaviour with no signs of voltage decay and a small irreversible capacity. We also unambiguously show, on the basis of an arsenal of characterization techniques, that the reactivity of these high-capacity materials towards Li entails cumulative cationic (Mn+→M(n+1)+) and anionic (O2-→O22-) reversible redox processes, owing to the d-sp hybridization associated with a reductive coupling mechanism. Because Li2MO3 is a large family of compounds, this study opens the door to the exploration of a vast number of high-capacity materials.

  4. Crack-resistant polyimide coating for high-capacity battery anodes

    Li, Yingshun; Wang, Shuo; Lee, Pui-Kit; He, Jieqing; Yu, Denis Y. W.

    2017-10-01

    Electrode cracking is a serious problem that hinders the application of many next-generation high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Even though nano-sizing the material can reduce fracturing of individual particles, capacity fading is still observed due to large volume change and loss of contact in the electrode during lithium insertion and extraction. In this study, we design a crack-resistant high-modulus polyimide coating with high compressive strength which can hold multiple particles together during charge and discharge to maintain contact. The effectiveness of the coating is demonstrated on tin dioxide, a high-capacity large-volume-change material that undergoes both alloy and conversion reactions. The polyimide coating improves capacity retention of SnO2 from 80% to 100% after 80 cycles at 250 mA g-1. Stable capacity of 585 mAh g-1 can be obtained even at 500 mA g-1 after 300 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy and in-situ dilatometry confirm that electrode cracking is suppressed and thickness change is reduced with the coating. In addition, the chemically-stable polyimide film can separate the surface from direct contact with electrolyte, improving coulombic efficiency to ∼100%. We expect the novel strategy of suppressing electrode degradation with a crack-resistant coating can also be used for other alloy and conversion-based anodes.

  5. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, B.

    2016-01-01

    . aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average...... 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic...

  6. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    Fruits and nuts may prevent or reverse common human health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension; together, these conditions are referred to as metabolic syndrome, an increasing problem. This study has investigated the responses to ellagic acid, present in many fruits and nuts, in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. Eight- to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups for 16-week feeding with cornstarch diet (C), cornstarch diet supplemented with ellagic acid (CE), high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet supplemented with ellagic acid (HE). CE and HE rats were given 0.8 g/kg ellagic acid in food from week 8 to 16 only. At the end of 16 weeks, cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic parameters along with protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1 in the heart and the liver were characterised. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed cardiovascular remodelling, impaired ventricular function, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with increased protein levels of NF-κB and decreased protein levels of Nrf2 and CPT1 in the heart and the liver. Ellagic acid attenuated these diet-induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome with normalisation of protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1. Ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  7. The Sensory Components of High-Capacity Iconic Memory and Visual Working Memory

    Bradley, Claire; Pearson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Early visual memory can be split into two primary components: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more “high-level” alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their...

  8. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory

    Claire eBradley; Claire eBradley; Joel ePearson

    2012-01-01

    Early visual memory can be split into two primary components: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more high-level alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their c...

  9. Reassembling and testing of a high-precision heat capacity drop calorimeter. Heat capacity of some polyphenyls at T = 298.15 K

    Santos, Luis M.N.B.F., E-mail: lbsantos@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Marisa A.A.; Rodrigues, Ana S.M.C. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Stejfa, Vojtech; Fulem, Michal [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Bastos, Margarida [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We present the reassembling, improvement and testing of a high-precision C{sub p} drop calorimeter. > The apparatus was tested, using benzoic acid and hexafluorobenzene. > The high sensitivity of the apparatus is comparable to the one obtained in adiabatic calorimetry. > Heat capacities at T = 298.15 K of some polyphenyls were measured. > Subtle heat capacity differences among position isomers (ortho, meta, para) were detected. - Abstract: The description of the reassembling and testing of a twin heat conduction, high-precision, drop microcalorimeter for the measurement of heat capacities of small samples are presented. The apparatus, originally developed and used at the Thermochemistry Laboratory, Lund, Sweden, has now been reassembled and modernized, with changes being made as regarding temperature sensors, electronics and data acquisition system. The apparatus was thereafter thoroughly tested, using benzoic acid and hexafluorobenzene as test substances. The accuracy of the C{sub p,m}{sup 0} (298.15 K) data obtained with this apparatus is comparable to that achieved by high-precision adiabatic calorimetry. Here we also present the results of heat capacity measurements on of some polyphenyls (1,2,3-triphenylbenzene, 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, p-terphenyl, m-terphenyl, o-terphenyl, p-quaterphenyl) at T = 298.15 K, measured with the renewed high precision heat capacity drop calorimeter system. The high resolution and accuracy of the obtained heat capacity data enabled differentiation among the ortho-, meta-, and para-phenyl isomers.

  10. The relative contribution of insulin secretory capacity, insulin action, and incretins to metabolic control after islet transplantation in dogs

    van der Burg, MPM; van Suylichem, PTR; Guicherit, OR; Frolich, M; Lemkes, HHPJ; Gooszen, HG

    Adequate metabolic control is central to the concept of islet transplantation, but has received limited attention. We studied metabolic control in 8 dogs at 6-9 months after intrasplenic autografting of similar to 25% of the normal mass islets - as compared to 30 controls. A similar posttransplant

  11. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  12. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. High-density lipoprotein modulates glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Drew, Brian G; Duffy, Stephen J; Formosa, Melissa F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and aspects of the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP...

  14. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances.......Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of each...... elevated heart rate and significant loss of body weight and condition compared with the combination of 4X and bST. As a result, treatments were discontinued, on an individual cow basis, before completion of this 6-week phase. Time on experiment did not differ between HT and LT. The results do not support...

  15. Does visual short-term memory have a high-capacity stage?

    Matsukura, Michi; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has long been considered a durable, limited-capacity system for the brief retention of visual information. However, a recent work by Sligte et al. (Plos One 3:e1699, 2008) reported that, relatively early after the removal of a memory array, a cue allowed participants to access a fragile, high-capacity stage of VSTM that is distinct from iconic memory. In the present study, we examined whether this stage division is warranted by attempting to corroborate the existence of an early, high-capacity form of VSTM. The results of four experiments did not support Sligte et al.'s claim, since we did not obtain evidence for VSTM retention that exceeded traditional estimates of capacity. However, performance approaching that observed in Sligte et al. can be achieved through extensive practice, providing a clear explanation for their findings. Our evidence favors the standard view of VSTM as a limited-capacity system that maintains a few object representations in a relatively durable form.

  16. High-capacity NO2 denuder systems operated at various temperatures (298-473 K).

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Niessner, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated several coatings for high-temperature, high-capacity, and high-efficiency denuder-based NO(2) removal, with the scope to face the harsh conditions and requirements of automotive exhaust gas sampling. As first coating, we propose a potassium iodide (KI)/polyethylene glycol coating with a high removal efficiency (ε > 98%) for about 2 h and 50 ppm NO(2) at room temperature (298 K). At elevated temperatures (423 K), the initial capacity (100 ppmh) is decreased to 15 ppmh. Furthermore, this is the first proposal of the ionic liquid methyl-butyl-imidazolium iodide ([BMIm(+)][I(-)]) as denuder coating material. At room temperature, this ionic liquid exhibits far greater capacity (300 ppmh) and NO(2) removal efficiency (ε > 99.9%) than KI. Nevertheless, KI exhibits a slightly (~10%) higher capacity at elevated temperatures than [BMIm(+)][I(-)]. Both coatings presented are suitable for applications requiring selective denuding of NO(2) at temperatures up to 423 K.

  17. Harnessing the respiration machinery for high-yield production of chemicals in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis

    Liu, Jianming; Wang, Zhihao; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-01-01

    on metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis strains to optimize the production of acetoin and (R,R)−2,3-butanediol (R-BDO). In the absence of an external electron acceptor, a surplus of two NADH per acetoin molecule is produced. We found that a fully activated respiration was able to efficiently regenerate NAD......+, and a high titer of 371 mM (32 g/L) of acetoin was obtained with a yield of 82% of the theoretical maximum. Subsequently, we extended the metabolic pathway from acetoin to R-BDO by introducing the butanediol dehydrogenase gene from Bacillus subtilis. Since one mole of NADH is consumed when acetoin...... is converted into R-BDO per mole, only the excess of NADH needs to be oxidized via respiration. Either by fine-tuning the respiration capacity or by using a dual-phase fermentation approach involving a switch from fully respiratory to non-respiratory conditions, we obtained 361 mM (32 g/L) R-BDO with a yield...

  18. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, B.

    2016-01-01

    , the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components...... of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S...

  19. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  20. Developing a Personnel Capacity Indicator for a high turnover Cartographic Production Sector

    Mandarino, Flávia; Pessôa, Leonardo A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a framework for development of an indicator for human re-sources capacity management in a military organization responsible for nautical chart production. Graphic chart for the results of the model COPPE-COSENZA (Cosenza et al. 2015) is used to properly present the personnel capacity within a high people turnover environment. The specific skills for the nautical charts production allied to the turnover rate require continuous and adequate personnel in-corporation and a capacity building through education and on-the-job training. The adopted approach for the study establishes quantitative values to fulfill quality requirements, and also presents graphically a profile for the human resources on a specific job to facilitate diagnosis and corrective actions.

  1. Key technology studies of GY-20 and GY-40 High-capacity cobalt-60 transport casks

    Liu Huifang; Zhang Xin

    2012-01-01

    GY-20 and GY-40 high-capacity cobalt-60 transport casks are used to transport cobalt-60 industrial irradiators and cobalt-60 bundles. The radioactive contents have special features of high-activity and high residual heat, so only a few countries such as Canada, England and Russia have design capacity. The key technologies and corresponding solutions were studied for the design and manufacture of the cask taking into account the structural, thermal, mechanics and shield requests. A series of tests prove that the cask structure design, design criteria for lead coating structure and quality control measurements are reasonable and effective, and the cask shield integrity can be ensured for all conditions. The casks have ability to transport high-activity sealed sources safely, and the design of cask satisfies the requirement of design code and standard. It can provide reference for other B type package. (authors)

  2. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    Schwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.; Frasca, A.J.; Wieserman, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets

  3. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    Shwarze, G.E.; Wieserman, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets

  4. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride: A novel anode material for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    Shao, Lianyi; Shu, Jie; Lao, Mengmeng; Lin, Xiaoting; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Li, Peng; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong

    2014-12-01

    H3NOHCl is used for the first time as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical results show that H3NOHCl with particle size of 4-12 μm can deliver an initial charge capacity of 1018.6 mAh g-1, which is much higher than commercial graphite. After 30 cycles, the reversible capacity can be kept at 676.1 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1. Up to 50 cycles, H3NOHCl still maintains a lithium storage capacity of 368.9 mAh g-1. Even cycled at 200 mA g-1, H3NOHCl can deliver a charge capacity of 715.7 mAh g-1. It suggests that H3NOHCl has high lithium storage capacity, excellent cycling stability and outstanding rate performance. Besides, the electrochemical reaction between H3NOHCl and Li is also investigated by various ex-situ techniques. It can be found that H3NOHCl irreversibly decomposes into Li3N and LiCl during the initial discharge process and LiNO2 can be formed after a reverse charge process.

  5. Curtailment in a Highly Renewable Power System and Its Effect on Capacity Factors

    Alexander Kies

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of generation over its potential generation. It is an important measure to describe wind and solar resources. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable power generation makes it difficult to integrate all generation at times. Whenever generation exceeds the load, curtailment or storage of energy is required. With increasing renewable shares in the power system, the level of curtailment will further increase. In this work, the influence of the curtailment on the capacity factors for a highly renewable German power system is studied. An effective capacity factor is introduced, and the implications for the distribution of renewable power plants are discussed. Three years of highly-resolved weather data were used to model wind and solar power generation. Together with historical load data and a transmission model, a possible future German power system was simulated. It is shown that effective capacity factors for unlimited transmission are strongly reduced by up to 60% (wind and 70% (photovoltaics and therefore of limited value in a highly renewable power system. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that wind power benefits more strongly from a reinforced transmission grid than photovoltaics (PV does.

  6. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory.

    Bradley, Claire; Pearson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    EARLY VISUAL MEMORY CAN BE SPLIT INTO TWO PRIMARY COMPONENTS: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more "high-level" alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their characteristics. Here, we used a purely sensory paradigm to examine visual short-term memory for 10 homogeneous items of three different visual features (color, orientation and motion) across a range of durations from 0 to 6 s. We found that the amount of information stored in iconic memory is smaller for motion than for color or orientation. Performance declined exponentially with longer storage durations and reached chance levels after ∼2 s. Further experiments showed that performance for the 10 items at 1 s was contingent on unperturbed attentional resources. In addition, for orientation stimuli, performance was contingent on the location of stimuli in the visual field, especially for short cue delays. Overall, our results suggest a smooth transition between an automatic, high-capacity, feature-specific sensory-iconic memory, and an effortful "lower-capacity" visual working memory.

  7. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes Syndrome.

    Lance H Rodan

    Full Text Available To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31P-MRS in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome.We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR in MTTL1 gene with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine.At baseline (no L-Arg, MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001. On 3(1P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr (p = 0.05, decreased ATP (p = 0.018, and decreased intracellular Mg(2+ (p = 0.0002 when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1 increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT (2 increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3 small increase in VO(2peak. On (31P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1 A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis (2 increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP suggesting increased work capacity (3 a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4 increase in torque.These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study.Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  8. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes) Syndrome.

    Rodan, Lance H; Wells, Greg D; Banks, Laura; Thompson, Sara; Schneiderman, Jane E; Tein, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31)Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome. We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR)) in MTTL1 gene) with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine. At baseline (no L-Arg), MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001). On 3(1)P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr) (p = 0.05), decreased ATP (p = 0.018), and decreased intracellular Mg(2+) (p = 0.0002) when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1) increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT) (2) increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3) small increase in VO(2peak). On (31)P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1) A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis) (2) increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP) suggesting increased work capacity (3) a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity) following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4) increase in torque. These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study. Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  9. Emergent biosynthetic capacity in simple microbial communities.

    Hsuan-Chao Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity--instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a "Goldilocks" principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together

  10. High-capacity method for hiding data in the discrete cosine transform domain

    Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Steganography is the art and science of hiding data in different media such as texts, audios, images, and videos. Data hiding techniques are generally divided into two groups: spatial and frequency domain techniques. Spatial domain methods generally have low security and, as a result, are less attractive to researchers. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the most common transform domain used in steganography and JPEG compression. Since a large number of the DCT coefficients of JPEG images are zero, the capacity of DCT domain-based steganography methods is not very high. We present a high-capacity method for hiding messages in the DCT domain. We describe the method in two classes where the receiver has and where the receiver does not have the cover image. In each class, we consider three cases for each coefficient. By considering n coefficients, there are 3n different situations. The method embeds ⌊log2 3n⌋ bits in these n coefficients. We show that the maximum reachable capacity by our method is 58% higher than the other general steganography methods. Experimental results show that the histogram-based steganalysis methods cannot detect the stego images produced by the proposed method while the capacity is increased significantly.

  11. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment.

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-17

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems.

  12. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in antisynthetase syndrome.

    Araujo, Paula A O; Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; Shinjo, Samuel K

    2018-01-01

    A high frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recently described in different idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but not in antisynthetase syndrome (ASS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of MetS in ASS and also its possible association with cardiovascular the risk factors and ASS-related disease characteristics. A cross-sectional single centre study of 42 consecutive ASS patients was conducted from 2012 to 2015 and compared to 84 healthy individuals matched for gender, age, ethnicity and body mass index-matched (control group). MetS was defined according to the 2009 Join Interim Statement. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed according to a standardised protocol. ASS patients had a median age of 41.1 years with a predominance of female gender and white race. ASS patients had a higher frequency of MetS (42.9% vs. 13.1%; pASS patients had higher resistin, lower leptin and similar adiponectin levels in serum than controls. Further analysis of ASS patients with (n=18) and without (n=24) MetS revealed that older age at disease onset (48.7 vs. 35.4 years; pASS patients that also had serum resistin and low leptin levels. As also identified in other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, MetS in ASS is more prevalent in older patients.

  13. Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity.

    Morinha, Francisco; Dávila, José A; Bastos, Estela; Cabral, João A; Frías, Óscar; González, José L; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Milá, Borja; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units. Monitoring of marked individuals over 30 years revealed that long-distance movements over hundreds of kilometres are common, yet recruitment into breeding populations is infrequent and highly philopatric. Genetic differentiation is weakly related to geographical distance, and habitat types used are overall qualitatively similar among regions and regularly shared by individuals of different populations, so that genetic structure is unlikely to be due solely to isolation by distance or isolation by adaptation. Moreover, most population nuclei showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a limited role for genetic drift in significantly differentiating populations. We propose that social mechanisms may underlie this unprecedented level of genetic structure in birds through a pattern of isolation by social barriers not yet described, which may have driven this remarkable population divergence in the absence of geographical and environmental barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Densities, viscosities, and isobaric heat capacities of the system (1-butanol + cyclohexane) at high pressures

    Torín-Ollarves, Geraldine A.; Martín, M. Carmen; Chamorro, César R.; Segovia, José J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The densities of cyclohexane and its mixtures with 1-butanol were measured. • The excess molar volumes were calculated and correlated. • The viscosities were measured at atmospheric pressure. • The isobaric heat capacities were measured at p = (0.1 to 25) MPa at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K. • A positive deviation from the ideal behavior is observed. - Abstract: The cyclohexane and the system of 1-butanol + cyclohexane have been characterized using densities, viscosities and isobaric heat capacities measurements. For that, the densities were measured in a high-pressure vibrating tube densimeter at five temperatures from (293.15 to 333.15) K and pressures up to 100 MPa. The measurements were correlated with the empirical Tamman–Tait equation. Moreover, the isobaric heat capacities of the binary system were measured in a high-pressure automated flow calorimeter at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K and pressures up to 25 MPa for pure cyclohexane and in admixture with 1-butanol. The excess molar heat capacities were assessed for the mixture and a positive deviation from the ideality was obtained, except for a small part in the region rich in alkanol. The viscosity measurements were carried out, at the calorimeter conditions, for correcting the experimental values of isobaric heat capacities due to friction along the tube. The viscosity was measured at atmospheric pressure in a Stabinger Anton Paar SVM 3000 viscometer in the temperature range of (293.15 to 333.15) K for cyclohexane and the mixtures. At high pressure, the viscosities were estimated using Lucas method

  15. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  16. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  17. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid levels in humans are influenced by diet, cellular breakdown, and renal elimination, and correlate with blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, gout, and cardiovascular disease. Recent genome-wide association scans have found common genetic variants of SLC2A9 to be associated with increased serum urate level and gout. The SLC2A9 gene encodes a facilitative glucose transporter, and it has two splice variants that are highly expressed in the proximal nephron, a key site for urate handling in the kidney. We investigated whether SLC2A9 is a functional urate transporter that contributes to the longstanding association between urate and blood pressure in man.We expressed both SLC2A9 splice variants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found both isoforms mediate rapid urate fluxes at concentration ranges similar to physiological serum levels (200-500 microM. Because SLC2A9 is a known facilitative glucose transporter, we also tested whether glucose or fructose influenced urate transport. We found that urate is transported by SLC2A9 at rates 45- to 60-fold faster than glucose, and demonstrated that SLC2A9-mediated urate transport is facilitated by glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose. In addition, transport is inhibited by the uricosuric benzbromarone in a dose-dependent manner (Ki = 27 microM. Furthermore, we found urate uptake was at least 2-fold greater in human embryonic kidney (HEK cells overexpressing SLC2A9 splice variants than nontransfected kidney cells. To confirm that our findings were due to SLC2A9, and not another urate transporter, we showed that urate transport was diminished by SLC2A9-targeted siRNA in a second mammalian cell line. In a cohort of men we showed that genetic variants of SLC2A9 are associated with reduced urinary urate clearance, which fits with common variation at SLC2A9 leading to increased serum urate. We found no evidence of association with hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI

  18. Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.

    Moens, F; De Vuyst, L

    2017-05-30

    Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953 T ) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production. Cultivation of these strains was performed in bottles and fermentors containing a modified medium for colon bacteria, including acetate, supplemented with either fructose, oligofructose, or inulin as the sole energy source. Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 could only ferment fructose and did not degrade oligofructose or inulin. E. rectale CIP 105953 T and F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T fermented fructose and could degrade both oligofructose and inulin. All chain length fractions of oligofructose were degraded simultaneously (both strains) and both long and short chain length fractions of inulin were degraded either simultaneously (E. rectale CIP 105953 T ) or consecutively (F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ), indicating an extracellular polymer degradation mechanism. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 produced high concentrations of butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 from fructose. E. rectale CIP 105953 T produced lactate, butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 , from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin, whereas F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T produced butyrate, formate, CO 2 , and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin. Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO 2 , and H 2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.

  19. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable.

  20. Evaluation of high frequency ground motion effects on the seismic capacity of NPP equipments

    Choi, In Kil; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the uniform hazard spectrum for the example Korean nuclear power plants sites were developed and compared with various response spectra used in past seismic PRA and SMA. It shows that the high frequency ground motion effects should be considered in seismic safety evaluations. The floor response spectra were developed using the direct generation method that can develop the floor response spectra from the input response spectrum directly with only the dynamic properties of structures obtained from the design calculation. Most attachment of the equipments to the structure has a minimum distortion capacity. This makes it possible to drop the effective frequency of equipment to low frequency before it is severely damaged. The results of this study show that the high frequency ground motion effects on the floor response spectra were significant, and the effects should be considered in the SPRA and SMA for the equipments installed in a building. The high frequency ground motion effects are more important for the seismic capacity evaluation of functional failure modes. The high frequency ground motion effects on the structural failure of equipments that attached to the floor by welding can be reduced by the distortion capacity of welded anchorage

  1. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Expression of the human isoform of glutamate dehydrogenase, hGDH2, augments TCA cycle capacity and oxidative metabolism of glutamate during glucose deprivation in astrocytes

    Nissen, Jakob D; Lykke, Kasper; Bryk, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    A key enzyme in brain glutamate homeostasis is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) which links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism mediating glutamate degradation to CO2 and expanding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle capacity with intermediates, i.e. anaplerosis. Humans express two GDH isoforms, GDH1...... and 2, whereas most other mammals express only GDH1. hGDH1 is widely expressed in human brain while hGDH2 is confined to astrocytes. The two isoforms display different enzymatic properties and the nature of these supports that hGDH2 expression in astrocytes potentially increases glutamate oxidation...

  3. Mechanisms of tolerance and high degradation capacity of the herbicide mesotrione by Escherichia coli strain DH5-α.

    Luiz R Olchanheski

    Full Text Available The intensive use of agrochemicals has played an important role in increasing agricultural production. One of the impacts of agrochemical use has been changes in population structure of soil microbiota. The aim of this work was to analyze the adaptive strategies that bacteria use to overcome oxidative stress caused by mesotrione, which inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. We also examined antioxidative stress systems, saturation changes of lipid membranes, and the capacity of bacteria to degrade mesotrione. Escherichia coli DH5-á was chosen as a non-environmental strain, which is already a model bacterium for studying metabolism and adaptation. The results showed that this bacterium was able to tolerate high doses of the herbicide (10× field rate, and completely degraded mesotrione after 3 h of exposure, as determined by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Growth rates in the presence of mesotrione were lower than in the control, prior to the period of degradation, showing toxic effects of this herbicide on bacterial cells. Changes in the saturation of the membrane lipids reduced the damage caused by reactive oxygen species and possibly hindered the entry of xenobiotics in the cell, while activating glutathione-S-transferase enzyme in the antioxidant system and in the metabolizing process of the herbicide. Considering that E. coli DH5-α is a non-environmental strain and it had no previous contact with mesotrione, the defense system found in this strain could be considered non-specific. This bacterium system response may be a general adaptation mechanism by which bacterial strains resist to damage from the presence of herbicides in agricultural soils.

  4. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    Mirjana Rajčić Vujasinović

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz, that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method.

  5. High-Capacity Hybrid Optical Fiber-Wireless Communications Links in Access Networks

    Pang, Xiaodan

    of broadband services access. To realize the seamless convergence between the two network segments, the lower capacity of wireless systems need to be increased to match the continuously increasing bandwidth of fiber-optic systems. The research works included in this thesis are devoted to experimental...... investigations of photonic-wireless links with record high capacities to fulfill the requirements of next generation hybrid optical fiber-wireless access networks. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high speed millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communication links......Integration between fiber-optic and wireless communications systems in the "last mile" access networks is currently considered as a promising solution for both service providers and users, in terms of minimizing deployment cost, shortening upgrading period and increasing mobility and flexibility...

  6. A micro-structured Si-based electrodes for high capacity electrical double layer capacitors

    Krikscikas, Valdas; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Hara, Motoaki; Kuwano, Hiroki; Yanazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We challenged to make basis for Si electrodes of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) used as a power source of micro-sensor nodes. Mcroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes were successfully introduced to fabricate micro-structured Si-based electrodes to obtain high surface area which leads to high capacity of EDLCs. Study of fundamental properties revealed that the microstructured electrodes benefit from good wettability to electrolytes, but suffer from electric resistance. We found that this problem can be solved by metal-coating of the electrode surface. Finally we build an EDLC consisting of Au-coated micro-structured Si electrodes. This EDLC showed capacity of 14.3 mF/cm 2 , which is about 530 times larger than that of an EDLC consisting of flat Au electrodes

  7. Optical intensity modulation direct detection versus heterodyne detection: A high-SNR capacity comparison

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-09-15

    An optical wireless communications system which employs either intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM-DD) or heterodyne detection (HD) is considered. IM-DD has lower complexity and cost than HD, but on the other hand, has lower capacity. It is therefore interesting to investigate the capacity gap between the two systems. The main focus of this paper is to investigate this gap at high SNR. Bounds on this gap are established for two cases: between IM-DD and HD, and between IM-DD and an HD-PAM which is an HD system employing pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). While the gap between IM-DD and HD increases as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases, the gap between IM-DD and an HD-PAM is upper bounded by a constant at high SNR. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  9. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  10. Optical intensity modulation direct detection versus heterodyne detection: A high-SNR capacity comparison

    Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    An optical wireless communications system which employs either intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM-DD) or heterodyne detection (HD) is considered. IM-DD has lower complexity and cost than HD, but on the other hand, has lower capacity. It is therefore interesting to investigate the capacity gap between the two systems. The main focus of this paper is to investigate this gap at high SNR. Bounds on this gap are established for two cases: between IM-DD and HD, and between IM-DD and an HD-PAM which is an HD system employing pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). While the gap between IM-DD and HD increases as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases, the gap between IM-DD and an HD-PAM is upper bounded by a constant at high SNR. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  12. Water deficit affects primary metabolism differently in two Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms with a distinct capacity for photosynthesis and membrane regeneration.

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to drought at different levels of cell metabolism is an important aspect of research on the mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Furthermore, a dissection of drought tolerance into its crucial components by the use of plant introgression forms facilitates to analyze this trait more deeply. The important components of plant drought tolerance are the capacity for photosynthesis under drought conditions, and the ability of cellular membrane regeneration after stress cessation. Two closely related introgression forms of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea, differing in the level of photosynthetic capacity during stress, and in the ability to regenerate their cellular membranes after stress cessation, were used as forage grass models in a primary metabolome profiling and in an evaluation of chloroplast 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase accumulation level and activity, during 11 days of water deficit, followed by 10 days of rehydration. It was revealed here that the introgression form, characterized by the ability to regenerate membranes after rehydration, contained higher amounts of proline, melibiose, galactaric acid, myo-inositol and myo-inositol-1-phosphate involved in osmoprotection and stress signaling under drought. Moreover, during the rehydration period, this form also maintained elevated accumulation levels of most the primary metabolites, analyzed here. The other introgression form, characterized by the higher capacity for photosynthesis, revealed a higher accumulation level and activity of chloroplast aldolase under drought conditions, and higher accumulation levels of most photosynthetic products during control and drought periods. The potential impact of the observed metabolic alterations on cellular membrane recovery after stress cessation, and on a photosynthetic capacity under drought conditions in grasses, are discussed.

  13. Abiotic and biotic determinants of leaf carbon exchange capacity from tropical to high boreal biomes

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land represent the two largest fluxes of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. As such, the Earth System Models that are used to project climate change are high sensitive to these processes. Studies have found that much of this uncertainty is due to the formulation and parameterization of plant photosynthetic and respiratory capacity. Here, we quantified the abiotic and biotic factors that determine photosynthetic and respiratory capacity at large spatial scales. Specifically, we measured the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and leaf dark respiration (Rd) in >600 individuals of 98 plant species from the tropical to high boreal biomes of Northern and Central America. We also measured a bevy of covariates including plant functional type, leaf nitrogen content, short- and long-term climate, leaf water potential, plant size, and leaf mass per area. We found that plant functional type and leaf nitrogen content were the primary determinants of Vcmax, Jmax, and Rd. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were not significant predictors of these rates. However, short-term climatic variables, specifically soil moisture and air temperature over the previous 25 days, were significant predictors and indicated that heat and soil moisture deficits combine to reduce photosynthetic capacity and increase respiratory capacity. Finally, these data were used as a model benchmarking tool for the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). The benchmarking analyses determined errors in the leaf nitrogen allocation scheme of CLM 4.5. Under high leaf nitrogen levels within a plant type the model overestimated Vcmax and Jmax. This result suggested that plants were altering their nitrogen allocation patterns when leaf nitrogen levels were high, an effect that was not being captured by the model. These data, taken with models in mind

  14. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  15. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Study on the flow nonuniformity in a high capacity Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    You, X.; Zhi, X.; Duan, C.; Jiang, X.; Qiu, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    High capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) have promising applications in high temperature superconductive motor and gas liquefaction. However, with the increase of cooling capacity, its performance deviates from well-accepted one-dimensional model simulation, such as Sage and Regen, mainly due to the strong field nonuniformity. In this study, several flow straighteners placed at both ends of the pulse tube are investigated to improve the flow distribution. A two-dimensional model of the pulse tube based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been built to study the flow distribution of the pulse tube with different flow straighteners including copper screens, copper slots, taper transition and taper stainless slot. A SPTC set-up which has more than one hundred Watts cooling power at 80 K has been built and tested. The flow straighteners mentioned above have been applied and tested. The results show that with the best flow straightener the cooling performance of the SPTC can be significantly improved. Both CFD simulation and experiment show that the straighteners have impacts on the flow distribution and the performance of the high capacity SPTC.

  17. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory

    Claire eBradley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Early visual memory can be split into two primary components: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more high-level alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their characteristics. Here, we used a purely sensory paradigm to examine visual short-term memory for 10 homogeneous items of 3 different visual features (colour, orientation and motion across a range of durations from 0 to 6 seconds. We found that the amount of information stored in iconic memory is smaller for motion than for colour or orientation. Performance declined exponentially with longer storage durations and reached chance levels after ~2 seconds. Further experiments showed that performance for the 10 items at 1 second was contingent on unperturbed attentional resources. In addition, for orientation stimuli, performance was contingent on the location of stimuli in the visual field, especially for short cue delays. Overall, our results suggest a smooth transition between an automatic, high-capacity, feature-specific sensory-iconic memory and an effortful ‘lower-capacity’ visual working memory.

  18. High-Density Near-Field Readout over 50 GB Capacity Using Solid Immersion Lens with High Refractive Index

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Kondo, Takao; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi

    2003-02-01

    We have investigated high-density near-field readout using a solid immersion lens with a high refractive index. By using a glass material with a high refractive index of 2.08, we developed an optical pick-up with the effective numerical aperture of 1.8. We could observe a clear eye pattern for a 50 GB capacity disc in 120 mm diameter. We confirmed that the near-field readout system is promising method of realizing a high-density optical disc system.

  19. Binders and Hosts for High-Capacity Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Dufficy, Martin Kyle

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are universal electrochemical energy storage devices that have revolutionized our mobile society. Nonetheless, societal and technological advances drive consumer demand for LIBs with enhanced electrochemical performance, such as higher charge capacity and longer life, compared to conventional LIBs. One method to enhance LIB performance is to replace graphite, the industry standard anode since commercialization of LIBs in 1991, with high-charge capacity materials. Implementing high-capacity anode materials such as tin, silicon, and manganese vanadates, to LIBs presents challenges; Li-insertion is destructive to anode framework, and increasing capacity increases structural strains that pulverize anode materials and results in a short-cycle life. This thesis reports on various methods to extended the cycle life of high-capacity materials. Most of the work is conducted on nano-sized anode materials to reduce Li and electron transport pathway length (facilitating charge-transfer) and reduce strains from volume expansions (preserving anode structure). The first method involves encapsulating tin particles into a graphene-containing carbon nanofiber (CNF) matrix. The composite-CNF matrix houses tin particles to assume strains from tin-volume expansions and produces favorable surface-electrolyte chemistries for stable charge-discharge cycling. Before tin addition, graphene-containing CNFs are produced and assessed as anode materials for LIBs. Graphene addition to CNFs improves electronic and mechanical properties of CNFs. Furthermore, the 2-D nature of graphene provides Li-binding sites to enhance composite-CNF both first-cycle and high-rate capacities > 150% when compared to CNFs in the absence of graphene. With addition of Sn, we vary loadings and thermal production temperature to elucidate structure-composition relationships of tin and graphene-containing CNF electrodes that lead to increased capacity retention. Of note, electrodes containing

  20. Energy Efficiency and Capacity Tradeoff in Cloud Radio Access Network of High-Speed Railways

    Shichao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing demand of high-data-rate services of high-speed railway (HSR passengers, cloud radio access network (C-RAN is proposed. This paper investigates the tradeoff between energy efficiency (EE performance and capacity in C-RAN of HSR. Considering that the train location can be predicted, we propose a predictable path loss based time domain power allocation method (PPTPA to improve EE performance of HSR communication system. First, we consider that the communication system of HSR only bears the passenger information services (PISs. The energy-efficient power allocation problem with delay constraint is studied. The formulated problem is nonconvex. To deal with it, an equivalent convex problem is reformulated. Based on PPTPA, we propose an iterative algorithm to improve the EE performance. Second, we consider that the PISs and the train control services (TCSs are all bore. A capacity optimization problem with joint EE and services transmission delay constraints is formulated. Based on PPTPA, we propose a hybrid power allocation scheme to improve the capacity of the system. Finally, we analyze the effect of small-scale fading on EE performance. The effectiveness of the proposed power allocation algorithm is validated by HSR channel measurement trace based emulation results and extensive simulation results.

  1. Optimising molecular diagnostic capacity for effective control of tuberculosis in high-burden settings.

    Sabiiti, W; Mtafya, B; Kuchaka, D; Azam, K; Viegas, S; Mdolo, A; Farmer, E C W; Khonga, M; Evangelopoulos, D; Honeyborne, I; Rachow, A; Heinrich, N; Ntinginya, N E; Bhatt, N; Davies, G R; Jani, I V; McHugh, T D; Kibiki, G; Hoelscher, M; Gillespie, S H

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's 2035 vision is to reduce tuberculosis (TB) associated mortality by 95%. While low-burden, well-equipped industrialised economies can expect to see this goal achieved, it is challenging in the low- and middle-income countries that bear the highest burden of TB. Inadequate diagnosis leads to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. The roll-out of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay has demonstrated that molecular diagnostics can produce rapid diagnosis and treatment initiation. Strong molecular services are still limited to regional or national centres. The delay in implementation is due partly to resources, and partly to the suggestion that such techniques are too challenging for widespread implementation. We have successfully implemented a molecular tool for rapid monitoring of patient treatment response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in three high TB burden countries in Africa. We discuss here the challenges facing TB diagnosis and treatment monitoring, and draw from our experience in establishing molecular treatment monitoring platforms to provide practical insights into successful optimisation of molecular diagnostic capacity in resource-constrained, high TB burden settings. We recommend a holistic health system-wide approach for molecular diagnostic capacity development, addressing human resource training, institutional capacity development, streamlined procurement systems, and engagement with the public, policy makers and implementers of TB control programmes.

  2. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  3. Towards high-reliability organising in healthcare: a strategy for building organisational capacity.

    Aboumatar, Hanan J; Weaver, Sallie J; Rees, Dianne; Rosen, Michael A; Sawyer, Melinda D; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    In a high-reliability organisation (HRO), safety and quality (SQ) is an organisational priority, and all workforce members are engaged, continuously learning and improving their work. To build organisational capacity for SQ work, we have developed a role-tailored capacity-building framework that we are currently employing at the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality as part of an organisational strategy towards HRO. This framework considers organisation-wide competencies for SQ that includes all staff and faculty and is integrated into a broader organisation-wide operating management system for improving quality. In this framework, achieving safe, high-quality care is connected to healthcare workforce preparedness. Capacity-building efforts are tailored to the needs of distinct groups within the workforce that fall within three categories: (1) front-line providers and staff, (2) managers and local improvement personnel and (3) SQ leaders and experts. In this paper we describe this framework, our implementation efforts to date, challenges met and lessons learnt. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Review on anionic redox for high-capacity lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

    Zhao, Chenglong; Lu, Yaxiang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Qidi; Li, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries, are now widely used as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles, but material innovations are still needed to satisfy the increasing demand for larger energy density. Recently, lithium- and sodium-rich electrode materials, including the A 2 MO 3 -family layered compounds (A  =  Li, Na; M  =  Mn 4+ , Ru 4+ , etc), have been extensively studied as potential high-capacity electrode materials for a cumulative cationic and anionic redox activity. Negatively charged oxide ions can potentially donate electrons to compensate for the absence of oxidable transition metals as a redox center to further increase the reversible capacity. Understanding and controlling the state-of-the-art anionic redox processes is pivotal for the design of advanced energy materials, highlighted in rechargeable batteries. Hence, experimental and theoretical approaches have been developed to consecutively study the diverting processes, states, and structures involved. In this review, we attempt to present a literature overview and provide insight into the reaction mechanism with respect to the anionic redox processes, proposing some opinions as target oriented. It is hoped that, through this discussion, the search for anionic redox electrode materials with high-capacity rechargeable batteries can be advanced, and practical applications realized as soon as possible. (topical review)

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Low Cost, High Capacity Non- Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Berdichevsky, Gene [Sila Nanotechnologies, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Commercial Li-ion batteries typically use Ni- and Co-based intercalation cathodes. As the demand for improved performance from batteries increases, these cathode materials will no longer be able to provide the desired energy storage characteristics since they are currently approaching their theoretical limits. Conversion cathode materials are prime candidates for improvement of Li-ion batteries. On both a volumetric and gravimetric basis they have higher theoretical capacity than intercalation cathode materials. Metal fluoride (MFx) cathodes offer higher specific energy density and dramatically higher volumetric energy density. Challenges associated with metal fluoride cathodes were addressed through nanostructured material design and synthesis. A major goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate Li-ion cells based on Si-comprising anodes and metal fluoride (MFx) comprising cathodes. Pairing the high-capacity MFx cathode with a high-capacity anode, such as an alloying Si anode, allows for the highest possible energy density on a cell level. After facing and overcoming multiple material synthesis and electrochemical instability challenges, we succeeded in fabrication of MFx half cells with cycle stability in excess of 500 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation) and full cells with MFx-based cathodes and Si-based anodes with cycle stability in excess of 200 cycles (to 20% or smaller degradation).

  6. Effects of the Dietary Probiotic Clostridium butyricum on Intestine Digestive and Metabolic Capacities, SCFA Content and Body Composition in Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jiasong

    2018-06-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotic Clostridium butyricum (CB) on intestine digestive and metabolic capacities, intestine short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content and body composition of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Shrimps were randomly allocated into 9 tanks, 30 each, and fed with diets containing different levels of C. butyricum (1 × 109 cfu g-1): 0 mg g-1 feed (Control), 100 mg g-1 feed (CB-100), 200 mg g-1 feed (CB-200), while each level was triplicated. The results indicated that compared with the control group, the intestine pepsin (Pep) activity and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration of two C. butyricum groups were both increased. Amylase (AMY) and lipase (LPS) activities were only induced in CB-200 group. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities of two C. butyricum groups showed no significant change. The α-amylase (AMY) gene expression was induced in CB-200 group, and trypsin gene expression of two C. butyricum treated groups were both induced. Intestine SCFA content and body composition analysis showed that the contents of propionic acid, butyric acid and the crude protein of two C. butyricum groups were all higher than those of control. These results revealed that C. butyricum can modulate intestine digestive and metabolic capacities, improve intestine SCFA content and body crude protein content in M. japonicus.

  7. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500 mAh, AAA size type 900 mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material.

  8. Flower-like SnO2/graphene composite for high-capacity lithium storage

    Liu Hongdong; Huang Jiamu; Li Xinlu; Liu Jia; Zhang Yuxin; Du Kun

    2012-01-01

    Flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method for high-capacity lithium storage. The as-prepared products are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM, TGA and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. The electrochemical performance of the flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite is measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. The results show that the flower-like SnO 2 nanorod clusters are 800 nm in size and homogeneously adhere on graphene sheets. The flower-like SnO 2 /graphene composite displays superior Li-battery performance with large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability.

  9. A high capacity text steganography scheme based on LZW compression and color coding

    Aruna Malik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, capacity and security issues of text steganography have been considered by employing LZW compression technique and color coding based approach. The proposed technique uses the forward mail platform to hide the secret data. This algorithm first compresses secret data and then hides the compressed secret data into the email addresses and also in the cover message of the email. The secret data bits are embedded in the message (or cover text by making it colored using a color coding table. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only produces a high embedding capacity but also reduces computational complexity. Moreover, the security of the proposed method is significantly improved by employing stego keys. The superiority of the proposed method has been experimentally verified by comparing with recently developed existing techniques.

  10. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  11. Non-invasive assessment of phosphate metabolism and oxidative capacity in working skeletal muscle in healthy young Chinese volunteers using 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Ming Li

    2016-07-01

    higher energy transfer efficiency than females. At the post-exercise status, the recovery of PCr did not show sex difference. Conclusions. Our in-house force control and gauge system quantitatively applied force during the exercise for 31P-MRS experiments, and a sex difference of higher energy transfer efficiency and WE was detected in males with mild loaded exercising quadriceps. This noninvasive technology allows us to further study and understand the sex difference of high energy phosphate metabolism in the future.

  12. Composition and Predicted Metabolic Capacity of Upper and Lower Airway Microbiota of Healthy Dogs in Relation to the Fecal Microbiota

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Personett, Alexa R.; Grobman, Megan E.; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    The upper and lower airways of healthy humans are reported to harbor stable and consistent bacterial populations, and the composition of these communities is altered in individuals affected with several respiratory diseases. Data regarding the presence of airway microbiota in other animals are scant and a better understanding of the composition and metabolic function of such bacterial populations is essential for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for use in both v...

  13. Atomistic Origins of High Capacity and High Structural Stability of Polymer-Derived SiOC Anode Materials.

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Kejie

    2017-10-11

    Capacity and structural stability are often mutually exclusive properties of electrodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs): a gain in capacity is usually accompanied by the undesired large volumetric change of the host material upon lithiation. Polymer-derived ceramics, such as silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) of hybrid Si-O-C bonds, show an exceptional combination of high capacity and superior structural stability. We investigate the atomistic origins of the unique chemomechanical performance of carbon-rich SiOC using the first-principles theoretical approach. The atomic model of SiOC is composed of continuous Si-O-C units caged by a graphene-like cellular network and percolated nanovoids. The segregated sp 2 carbon network serves as the backbone to maintain the structural stability of the lattice. Li insertion is first absorbed at the nanovoid sites, and then it is accommodated by the SiOC tetrahedral units, excess C atoms, and topological defects at the edge of or within the segregated carbon network. SiOC expands up to 22% in volumetric strain at the fully lithiated capacity of 1230 mA h/g. We examine in great detail the evolution of the microscopic features of the SiOC molecule in the course of Li reactions. The first-principles modeling provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical properties of Si-based glass ceramics for their application in LIBs.

  14. Adaptive remodeling of skeletal muscle energy metabolism in high-altitude hypoxia: Lessons from AltitudeOmics.

    Chicco, Adam J; Le, Catherine H; Gnaiger, Erich; Dreyer, Hans C; Muyskens, Jonathan B; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Hocker, Austin D; Prenni, Jessica E; Wolfe, Lisa M; Sindt, Nathan M; Lovering, Andrew T; Subudhi, Andrew W; Roach, Robert C

    2018-05-04

    Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans. However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies. We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project. In contrast to the view that hypoxia down-regulates aerobic metabolism, results show that mitochondria play a central role in muscle hypoxia adaptation by supporting higher resting phosphorylation potential and enhancing the efficiency of long-chain acylcarnitine oxidation. This directs increases in muscle glucose toward pentose phosphate and one-carbon metabolism pathways that support cytosolic redox balance and help mitigate the effects of increased protein and purine nucleotide catabolism in hypoxia. Muscle accumulation of free amino acids favor these adjustments by coordinating cytosolic and mitochondrial pathways to rid the cell of excess nitrogen, but might ultimately limit muscle oxidative capacity in vivo Collectively, these studies illustrate how an integration of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for physiological hypoxia adaptation in skeletal muscle, and highlight protein catabolism and allosteric regulation as unexpected orchestrators of metabolic remodeling in this context. These findings have important implications for the management of hypoxia-related diseases and other conditions associated with chronic catabolic stress. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Aerobic glycolysis and high level of lactate in cancer metabolism and microenvironment

    Bo Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic abnormalities is a hallmark of cancer. About 100 years ago, Nobel laureate Otto Heinrich Warburg first described high rate of glycolysis in cancer cells. Recently more and more novel opinions about cancer metabolism supplement to this hypothesis, consist of glucose uptake, lactic acid generation and secretion, acidification of the microenvironment and cancer immune evasion. Here we briefly review metabolic pathways generating lactate, and discuss the function of higher lactic acid in cancer microenvironments.

  16. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  17. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  18. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  19. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis of alumina nano-sheets via supercritical fluid technology with high uranyl adsorptive capacity

    Jing Yu; Jun Wang; Zhanshuang Li; Qi Liu; Milin Zhang; Hongbin Bai; Caishan Jiao; Jun Wang; Lianhe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is beneficial to the synthesis of superior ultrafine and uniform materials due to its high chemical stability, low viscosity, high diffusivity, and 'zero' surface tension. γ-Alumina nano-sheets were obtained by a simple hydrothermal route in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and nitrogen sorption isotherm were employed to characterize the samples. Alumina as-prepared has a high specific surface area of up to 200 ± 6 m 2 g -1 , which presents a high adsorption capacity (4.66 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) for uranyl ions from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. (authors)

  1. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes.

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Ruwiedel, Karsten; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Abel, Josef; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, although skin is the first-pass organ for accidentally or purposely (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) applied chemicals. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic-metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities to models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase in ex vivo human skin, the 3D epidermal model EpiDerm 200 (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We show that all three phase II enzymes are present and highly active in skin as compared to phase I. Human skin, therefore, represents a more detoxifying than activating organ. This work systematically compares the activities of three important phase II enzymes in four different in vitro models directly to human skin. We conclude from our studies that 3D epidermal models, like the EPI-200 employed here, are superior over monolayer cultures in mimicking human skin xenobiotic metabolism and thus better suited for dermatotoxicity testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  3. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  4. Metabolism: The Physiological Power-Generating Process: A History of Methods to Test Human Beings' \\"Vital Capacity\\" [Retrospectroscope].

    Johnston, Richard; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2016-01-01

    A previous "Retrospectroscope" note, published early in 2014, dealt with spirometry: it described many apparatuses used to measure the volume of inhaled and exhaled air that results from breathing [1]. Such machines, when adequately modified, are also able to measure the rate at which work is produced (specifically by an animal or a human being). Metabolism in that sense is the term used by physiologists and physicians, a word that in Greek, metabolismos, means "change" or "overthrow," in the sense of breaking down material, as in burning some stuff.

  5. Peak capacity, peak-capacity production rate, and boiling point resolution for temperature-programmed GC with very high programming rates

    Grall; Leonard; Sacks

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in column heating technology have made possible very fast linear temperature programming for high-speed gas chromatography. A fused-silica capillary column is contained in a tubular metal jacket, which is resistively heated by a precision power supply. With very rapid column heating, the rate of peak-capacity production is significantly enhanced, but the total peak capacity and the boiling-point resolution (minimum boiling-point difference required for the separation of two nonpolar compounds on a nonpolar column) are reduced relative to more conventional heating rates used with convection-oven instruments. As temperature-programming rates increase, elution temperatures also increase with the result that retention may become insignificant prior to elution. This results in inefficient utilization of the down-stream end of the column and causes a loss in the rate of peak-capacity production. The rate of peak-capacity production is increased by the use of shorter columns and higher carrier gas velocities. With high programming rates (100-600 degrees C/min), column lengths of 6-12 m and average linear carrier gas velocities in the 100-150 cm/s range are satisfactory. In this study, the rate of peak-capacity production, the total peak capacity, and the boiling point resolution are determined for C10-C28 n-alkanes using 6-18 m long columns, 50-200 cm/s average carrier gas velocities, and 60-600 degrees C/min programming rates. It was found that with a 6-meter-long, 0.25-mm i.d. column programmed at a rate of 600 degrees C/min, a maximum peak-capacity production rate of 6.1 peaks/s was obtained. A total peak capacity of about 75 peaks was produced in a 37-s long separation spanning a boiling-point range from n-C10 (174 degrees C) to n-C28 (432 degrees C).

  6. Improvements on high voltage capacity and high temperature performances of Si-based Schottky potential barrier diode

    Wang Yongshun; Rui Li; Adnan Ghaffar; Wang Zaixing; Liu Chunjuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the reverse voltage capacity and low junction temperature characteristics of the traditional silicon-based Schottky diode, a Schottky diode with high reverse voltage capacity and high junction temperature was fabricated using ion implantation, NiPt60 sputtering, silicide-forming and other major technologies on an N-type silicon epitaxial layer of 10.6–11.4 μm and (2.2–2.4) × 10 15 cm −3 doping concentration. The measurement results show that the junction temperature of the Schottky diode fabricated can reach 175 °C, that is 50 °C higher than that of the traditional one; the reverse voltage capacity V R can reach 112 V, that is 80 V higher than that of the traditional one; the leakage current is only 2 μA and the forward conduction voltage drop is V F = 0.71 V at forward current I F = 3 A. (semiconductor devices)

  7. Metabolic rate and thermal conductance of lemmings from high-arctic Canada and Siberia

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Agrell, J.; Lindström, A.

    2002-01-01

    The arctic climate places high demands on the energy metabolism of its inhabitants. We measured resting (RMR) and basal metabolic rates (BMR), body temperatures, and dry and wet thermal conductances in summer morphs of the lemmings Dicrostonyx groenlandicus and Lemmus trimucronatus in arctic Canada,

  8. The impact of metabolic syndrome on metabolic, pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic markers according to the presence of high blood pressure criterion.

    Gil, Juliana S; Drager, Luciano F; Guerra-Riccio, Grazia M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria C; Costa-Hong, Valeria; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Egan, Brent M; Lopes, Heno F

    2013-12-01

    We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria. The patients were divided into metabolic syndrome with and without high blood pressure criteria (≥130/≥85 mmHg). Compared to the 45 metabolic syndrome patients without high blood pressure, the 30 patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had significantly higher glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and creatinine values; in contrast, these patients had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. Metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure also had significantly higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lower levels of adiponectin. Moreover, patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had increased surrogate markers of sympathetic activity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein, retinol-binding protein 4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure. There is a strong trend for an independent association between metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure and glucose levels. High blood pressure, which may be related to the autonomic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. The impact of metabolic syndrome on metabolic, pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic markers according to the presence of high blood pressure criterion

    Juliana S. Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria. The patients were divided into metabolic syndrome with and without high blood pressure criteria (≥130/≥85 mmHg. RESULTS: Compared to the 45 metabolic syndrome patients without high blood pressure, the 30 patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had significantly higher glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and creatinine values; in contrast, these patients had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. Metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure also had significantly higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lower levels of adiponectin. Moreover, patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had increased surrogate markers of sympathetic activity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein, retinol-binding protein 4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure. There is a strong trend for an independent association between metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS: High blood pressure, which may be related to the autonomic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with

  10. Durability testing of the high-capacity GA-4/GA-9 trailer

    Zimmer, A.

    1993-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Field Office, to develop two legal-weight truck from-reactor spent-fuel shipping casks with trailers. GA is developing these high capacity transport systems to support the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) mission to transport spent fuel from reactors to a permanent disposal site. GA's goal is to maximize the number of fuel assemblies that the transport system can safely carry. The GA-4 Cask is being designed to transport four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent-fuel assemblies, and the GA-9 Cask is being designed to transport nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies. The use of these high-capacity transport systems will have a large benefit to-public safety since the number of legal-weight truck shipments will be reduced by at least a factor of four over existing spent-fuel shipping cask systems. Achieving these capacities requires that the weight of each component of the transport system. i.e., cask, trailer and tractor, be minimized. The weight of the trailer is of particular importance. With a high load-to-weight ratio, the durability and reliability of the trailer become significant factors in the success of the transport system. In order to verify that the trailer design will meet the durability and performance requirements to safely transport spent-fuel, GA has planned an extensive testing program. The testing program includes non-destructive examination (NDE) of the trailer welds, operational testing, a static load test, an over-the-road performance test, and a test to verify the durability of the trailer up to its 1,000,000-mile design life. Since a prototype cask will not be available for the testing, GA designed and built a dummy payload that simulates the correct weight distribution and approximates the dynamic response of the prototype cask

  11. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  12. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    Liu Yali; Ren Ling; He Yao; Cheng Haiping

    2010-01-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H 2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H 2 . It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  13. High-Capacity Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Quantum Hyperdense Coding with Hyperentanglement

    Wang Tie-Jun; Li Tao; Du Fang-Fang; Deng Fu-Guo

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum hyperdense coding protocol with hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photons first and then give the details for a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol based on this quantum hyperdense coding protocol. This QSDC protocol has the advantage of having a higher capacity than the quantum communication protocols with a qubit system. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on superdense coding with d-dimensional systems, this QSDC protocol is more feasible as the preparation of a high-dimension quantum system is more difficult than that of a two-level quantum system at present. (general)

  14. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  15. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  16. Loading capacities and failure modes of various reinforced concrete slabs subjected to high-speed loading

    Saito, H.; Imamura, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Okamoto, S.; Kasai, Y.; Tsubota, H.; Yoshimura, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify experimentally and analytically the loading capacities, deformations and failure modes of various types of reinforced concrete structures subjected to loads applied at various loading rates. Flat slabs, slabs with beams and cylindrical walls were tested under static, low-speed and high-speed loading. Analysis was applied to estimate the test results by the finite element method using a layered shell element. The analysis closely simulated the experimental results until punching shear failure occurred. (author)

  17. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  18. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    Xue, Dezhen; Zhou, Yumei; Ding, Xiangdong; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun; Ren, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti 50 (Pd 50−x D x ) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q −1 ~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q −1 ~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges

  19. Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Meek, Thomas H; Lonquich, Brian P; Hannon, Robert M; Garland, Theodore

    2009-09-15

    Mice from four lines bred for high voluntary wheel activity run approximately 3-fold more revolutions per day and have elevated maximal oxygen consumption during forced treadmill exercise, as compared with four unselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that these high runner (HR) lines would have greater treadmill endurance-running capacity. Ninety-six mice from generation 49 were familiarized with running on a motorized treadmill for 3 days. On days 4 and 5, mice were given an incremental speed test (starting at 20 m min(-1), increased 1.5 m min(-1) every 2 min) and endurance was measured as the total time or distance run to exhaustion. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and lactate concentrations at rest during the photophase, during peak nightly wheel running, and immediately following the second endurance test. Individual differences in endurance time were highly repeatable between days (r=0.79), and mice tended to run longer on the second day (paired t-test, Pwheel running and treadmill endurance differed between the sexes, reinforcing previous studies that indicate sex-specific responses to selective breeding. HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance.

  20. Enrichments of methanotrophic-heterotrophic cultures with high poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacities.

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities were selectively enriched from sewage sludge to obtain a mixed culture with high levels of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacity from methane. Methane was used as the carbon source, N 2 as sole nitrogen source, and oxygen and Cu content were varied. Copper proved essential for PHB synthesis. All cultures enriched with Cu could accumulate high content of PHB (43.2%-45.9%), while only small amounts of PHB were accumulated by cultures enriched without Cu (11.9%-17.5%). Batch assays revealed that communities grown with Cu and a higher O 2 content synthesized more PHB, which had a wider optimal CH 4 :O 2 range and produced a high PHB content (48.7%) even though in the presence of N 2 . In all methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities, both methanotrophic and heterotrophic populations showed the ability to accumulate PHB. Although methane was added as the sole carbon source, heterotrophs dominated with abundances between 77.2% and 85.6%. All methanotrophs detected belonged to type II genera, which formed stable communities with heterotrophs of different PHB production capacities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-18

    This poster is based on the paper of the same name, presented at the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July18, 2016. Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions - native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level - and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  2. An Aqueous Redox-Flow Battery with High Capacity and Power: The TEMPTMA/MV System.

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-11-07

    Redox-flow batteries (RFB) can easily store large amounts of electric energy and thereby mitigate the fluctuating output of renewable power plants. They are widely discussed as energy-storage solutions for wind and solar farms to improve the stability of the electrical grid. Most common RFB concepts are based on strongly acidic metal-salt solutions or poorly performing organics. Herein we present a battery which employs the highly soluble N,N,N-2,2,6,6-heptamethylpiperidinyl oxy-4-ammonium chloride (TEMPTMA) and the viologen derivative N,N'-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride (MV) in a simple and safe aqueous solution as redox-active materials. The resulting battery using these electrolyte solutions has capacities of 54 Ah L -1 , giving a total energy density of 38 Wh L -1 at a cell voltage of 1.4 V. With peak current densities of up to 200 mA cm -2 the TEMPTMA/MV system is a suitable candidate for compact high-capacity and high-power applications. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids.

    You, Qingping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Guo, Junfang; Huang, Weihua; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2014-08-08

    Thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) for selective recognition of curcuminoids with high capacity and selectivity have firstly been developed. The resulting TMMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, VSM and UV, which indicated that TMMIPs showed thermo-responsiveness [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 33.71°C] and rapid magnetic separation (5s). The polymerization, adsorption and release conditions were optimized in detail to obtain the highest binding capacity, selectivity and release ratio. We found that the adopted thermo-responsive monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)] could be considered not only as inert polymer backbone for thermo-responsiveness but also as functional co-monomers combination with basic monomer (4-VP) for more specific binding sites when ethanol was added in binding solution. The maximum adsorption capacity with highest selectivity of curcumin was 440.3μg/g (1.93 times that on MMIPs with no thermosensitivity) at 45°C (above LCST) in 20% (v/v) ethanol solution on shrunk TMMIPs, and the maximum release proportion was about 98% at 20°C (below LCST) in methanol-acetic acid (9/1, v/v) solution on swelled TMMIPs. The adsorption process between curcumin and TMMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The prepared TMMIPs also showed high reproducibility (RSD<6% for batch-to-batch evaluation) and stability (only 7% decrease after five cycles). Subsequently, the TMMIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of curcuminoids from complex natural product, Curcuma longa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  5. High basal metabolic rate does not elevate oxidative stress during reproduction in laboratory mice.

    Brzęk, Paweł; Książek, Aneta; Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested as a physiological cost of reproduction. However, previous studies reported ambiguous results, with some even showing a reduction of oxidative damage during reproduction. We tested whether the link between reproduction and OS is mediated by basal metabolic rate (BMR), which has been hypothesized to affect both the rate of radical oxygen species production and antioxidative capacity. We studied the effect of reproduction on OS in females of laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) BMR, previously shown to differ with respect to parental investment. Non-reproducing L-BMR females showed higher oxidative damage to lipids (quantified as the level of malondialdehyde in internal organ tissues) and DNA (quantified as the level of 8-oxodG in blood serum) than H-BMR females. Reproduction did not affect oxidative damage to lipids in either line; however, it reduced damage to DNA in L-BMR females. Reproduction increased catalase activity in liver (significantly stronger in L-BMR females) and decreased it in kidneys. We conclude that the effect of reproduction on OS depends on the initial variation in BMR and varies between studied internal organs and markers of OS.

  6. High Phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Cheng, Diana M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D.; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Scope The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Methods and results Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (p<0.05). Comparison of VHFD, RSL-VHFD, and GL-VHFD groups revealed no significant differences with respect to insulin tolerance, hepatic lipids, body weight gain, fat mass, plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and lipopolysaccharide levels, as well as relative abundances of major bacterial phyla from 16S rDNA amplicon data sequences (from fecal and cecal samples). However, RSL and GL-supplementation increased abundance of several taxa involved in plant polysaccharide degradation/fermentation. RSL phenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. Conclusions RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. PMID:27529448

  7. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks.

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauß, Markus; Littwitz, Henning; Garg, Pankaj; Dworrak, Birgit; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group. We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age. The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min) of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553). The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs). The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week) of the FFs was 3953±2688, whereas those of the POs was 2838±2872 (vs. FFs: -985, CI: -1941-30, p = 0.043) and of the SCs 2212±2293 (vs. FFs: -1598.8, CI: -2477-721, p = 0.000; vs. POs: -613.6, CI: -1617.4–390.3, p = 0.229), respectively [corrected]. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004) and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523). The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002) for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747) for the SCs. The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs had

  8. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks.

    Roman Leischik

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group.We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]. For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age.The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553. The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs. The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week of the FFs was 3953±2688, whereas those of the POs was 2838±2872 (vs. FFs: -985, CI: -1941-30, p = 0.043 and of the SCs 2212±2293 (vs. FFs: -1598.8, CI: -2477-721, p = 0.000; vs. POs: -613.6, CI: -1617.4–390.3, p = 0.229, respectively [corrected]. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004 and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523. The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002 for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747 for the SCs.The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs

  9. Interactive effects of high stocking density and food deprivation on carbohydrate metabolism in several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus.

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Guzmán, José M; Láiz-Carrión, Raúl; Míguez, Jesús M; Martín Del Río, María P; Mancera, Juan M; Soengas, José L

    2005-09-01

    The influence of high stocking density (HSD) and food deprivation was assessed on carbohydrate metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus for 14 days. Fish were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) fed fish under normal stocking density (NSD) (4 kg m(-3)); (2) fed fish under HSD (70 kg m(-3)); (3) food-deprived fish under NSD; and (4) food-deprived fish under HSD. After 14 days, samples were taken from the plasma, liver, gills, kidney and brain for the assessment of plasma cortisol, levels of metabolites and the activity of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. HSD conditions alone elicited important changes in energy metabolism of several tissues that in some cases were confirmatory (5-fold increase in plama cortisol, 20% increase in plasma glucose, 60% decrease in liver glycogen and 20% increase in gluconeogenic potential in the liver) whereas in others provided new information regarding metabolic adjustments to cope with HSD in the liver (100% increase in glucose phosphorylating capacity), gills (30% decrease in capacity for phosphorylating glucose), kidney (80% increase in the capacity of phosphorylating glucose) and brain (2.5-fold increase in ATP levels). On the other hand, food deprivation alone resulted in increased plasma cortisol, and metabolic changes in the liver (enhanced gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic potential of 13% and 18%, respectively) and brain (10% increase in glycolytic capacity), confirmatory of previous studies, whereas new information regarding metabolic adjustments during food deprivation was obtained in the gills and kidney (decreased lactate levels in both tissues of 45% and 55%, respectively). Furthermore, the results obtained provided, for the first time in fish, information indicating that food deprivation increased the sensitivity of gilthead sea bream to the stress induced by HSD compared with the fed controls, as demonstrated by increased plasma cortisol levels (50% increase vs

  10. Composition and Predicted Metabolic Capacity of Upper and Lower Airway Microbiota of Healthy Dogs in Relation to the Fecal Microbiota.

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available The upper and lower airways of healthy humans are reported to harbor stable and consistent bacterial populations, and the composition of these communities is altered in individuals affected with several respiratory diseases. Data regarding the presence of airway microbiota in other animals are scant and a better understanding of the composition and metabolic function of such bacterial populations is essential for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for use in both veterinary and human medicine. Based on targeted next-generation sequencing of feces and samples collected at multiple levels of the airways from 16 healthy female dogs, we demonstrate that canine airways harbor a topographically continuous microbiota with increasing relative abundance of proteobacterial species from the upper to lower airways. The lung-associated microbiota, as assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, was the most consistent between dogs and was dominated by three distinct taxa, two of which were resolved to the species level and one to the level of family. The gene content of the nasal, oropharyngeal, and lung-associated microbiota, predicted using the Phylogenetic Investigations into Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt software, provided information regarding the glyoxylate and citrate cycle metabolic pathways utilized by these bacterial populations to colonize such nutrient-poor, low-throughput environments. These data generated in healthy subjects provide context for future analysis of diseased canine airways. Moreover, as dogs have similar respiratory anatomy, physiology, and immune systems as humans, are exposed to many of the same environmental stimuli, and spontaneously develop similar respiratory diseases, these data support the use of dogs as a model species for prospective studies of the airway microbiota, with findings translatable to the human condition.

  11. Composition and Predicted Metabolic Capacity of Upper and Lower Airway Microbiota of Healthy Dogs in Relation to the Fecal Microbiota.

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Personett, Alexa R; Grobman, Megan E; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R

    2016-01-01

    The upper and lower airways of healthy humans are reported to harbor stable and consistent bacterial populations, and the composition of these communities is altered in individuals affected with several respiratory diseases. Data regarding the presence of airway microbiota in other animals are scant and a better understanding of the composition and metabolic function of such bacterial populations is essential for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for use in both veterinary and human medicine. Based on targeted next-generation sequencing of feces and samples collected at multiple levels of the airways from 16 healthy female dogs, we demonstrate that canine airways harbor a topographically continuous microbiota with increasing relative abundance of proteobacterial species from the upper to lower airways. The lung-associated microbiota, as assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), was the most consistent between dogs and was dominated by three distinct taxa, two of which were resolved to the species level and one to the level of family. The gene content of the nasal, oropharyngeal, and lung-associated microbiota, predicted using the Phylogenetic Investigations into Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) software, provided information regarding the glyoxylate and citrate cycle metabolic pathways utilized by these bacterial populations to colonize such nutrient-poor, low-throughput environments. These data generated in healthy subjects provide context for future analysis of diseased canine airways. Moreover, as dogs have similar respiratory anatomy, physiology, and immune systems as humans, are exposed to many of the same environmental stimuli, and spontaneously develop similar respiratory diseases, these data support the use of dogs as a model species for prospective studies of the airway microbiota, with findings translatable to the human condition.

  12. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  13. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  14. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  15. E- and W-band high-capacity hybrid fiber-wireless link

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the work conducted in our group in the area of E- and W-band optical high-capacity fiber-wireless links. We present performance evaluations of E- and W-band mm-wave signal generation using photonic frequency upconversion employing both VCSELs and ECLs, along with transm...... in mobile backhaul/fronthaul applications, dense distributed antenna systems and fiber-over-radio scenarios.......In this paper we summarize the work conducted in our group in the area of E- and W-band optical high-capacity fiber-wireless links. We present performance evaluations of E- and W-band mm-wave signal generation using photonic frequency upconversion employing both VCSELs and ECLs, along...... with transmission over different type of optical fibers and for a number of values for the wireless link distance. Hybrid wireless-optical links can be composed of mature and resilient technology available off-the-shelf, and provide functionalities that can add value to optical access networks, specifically...

  16. PV Hosting Capacity Analysis and Enhancement Using High Resolution Stochastic Modeling

    Emilio J. Palacios-Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of CO2 emissions is a main target in the future smart grid. This goal is boosting the installation of renewable energy resources (RES, as well as a major consumer engagement that seeks for a more efficient utilization of these resources toward the figure of ‘prosumers’. Nevertheless, these resources present an intermittent nature, which requires the presence of an energy storage system and an energy management system (EMS to ensure an uninterrupted power supply. Moreover, network-related issues might arise due to the increasing power of renewable resources installed in the grid, the storage systems also being capable of contributing to the network stability. However, to assess these future scenarios and test the control strategies, a simulation system is needed. The aim of this paper is to analyze the interaction between residential consumers with high penetration of PV generation and distributed storage and the grid by means of a high temporal resolution simulation scenario based on a stochastic residential load model and PV production records. Results of the model are presented for different PV power rates and storage capacities, as well as a two-level charging strategy as a mechanism for increasing the hosting capacity (HC of the network.

  17. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  18. High-capacity conductive nanocellulose paper sheets for electrochemically controlled extraction of DNA oligomers.

    Aamir Razaq

    Full Text Available Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg(-1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30-50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m(2 g(-1 of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT(6, (dT(20, and (dT(40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules.

  19. Pectins from the albedo of immature lemon fruitlets have high water binding capacity.

    Schröder, Roswitha; Clark, Christopher J; Sharrock, Keith; Hallett, Ian C; MacRae, Elspeth A

    2004-04-01

    The white part of citrus peel, the albedo, has a special role in water relations of both fruit and leaves from early on in fruit development. In times of drought, this tissue acts as a water reservoir for juice sacs, seeds and leaves. When water was injected into the albedo, free water was undetectable using magnetic resonance imaging. Microscopy showed tightly packed cells with little intercellular space, and thick cell walls. Cell wall material comprised 21% of the fresh albedo weight, and contained 26.1% galacturonic acid, the main constituent of pectin. From this, we postulated that pectin of the cell wall was responsible for the high water-binding capacity of the immature lemon albedo. Cell wall material was extracted using mild procedures that keep polymers intact, and four pectic fractions were recovered. Of these fractions, the SDS and chelator-soluble fractions showed viscosities ten and twenty times higher than laboratory-grade citrus pectin or the other albedo-derived pectins. The yield of these two pectins represented 28% of the cell walls and 62% of the galacturonic acid content of immature lemon albedo. We concluded that, from viscosity and abundance, these types of pectin account for the high water-binding capacity of this tissue. Compositional analyses showed that the two highly viscous pectic fractions differ in galacturonic acid content, degree of branching and length of side chains from the less viscous albedo-derived pectins. The most striking feature of these highly viscous pectins, however, was their high molecular weight distribution compared to the other pectic fractions.

  20. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  1. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Taylor, Alexandra S; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment. To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT. Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax) interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1). MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1). VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention. Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT) and 128±44 min (MICT) (pHIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; pHIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (pHIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (pHIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables. HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  2. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants.

  3. High capacity argon extraction and purification system. [Suitable for age estimation of rocks

    Balogh, K; Morik, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Atommag Kutato Intezete, Debrecen

    1979-01-01

    A high capacity metal-glass argon extraction and purification system has been developed for K/Ar dating of geologic materials. A set of samples can be loaded simultaneously and degassed in turn in the system by high frequency induction heating in a molybdenum crucible. The argon purification is carried out by titanium sponge, molecular sieve, copper oxide and glass and charcoal filled traps cooled by liquid nitrogen. The /sup 38/Ar spike and the atmospheric argon used for calibrating the mass spectrometer are dispensed by a gas-pipette system. 80-120 minutes after starting the degassing of the sample, the purified argon can be introduced into the mass spectrometer; the gettering materials regenerate in 1-5 hours, thus 1-3 samples may be analysed a day. The atmospheric argon inflow during an experimental process is less than 5x10/sup -8/ cc STP.

  4. An FDMA system concept for 30/20 GHz high capacity domestic satellite service

    Berk, G.; Jean, P. N.; Rotholz, E.; White, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    The paper summarizes a feasibility study of a multibeam FDMA satellite system operating in the 30/20 GHz band. The system must accommodate a very high volume of traffic within the restrictions of a 5 kW solar cell array and a 2.5 GHz bandwidth. Multibeam satellite operation reduces the DC power demand and allows reuse of the available bandwidth. Interferences among the beams are brought to acceptable levels by appropriate frequency assignments. A transponder design is presented; it is greatly simplified by the application of a regional concept. System analysis shows that MSK modulation is appropriate for a high-capacity system because it conserves the frequency spectrum. Rain attenuation, a serious problem in this frequency band, is combatted with sufficient power margins and with coding. Link budgets, cost analysis, and weight and power calculations are also discussed. A satellite-routed FDMA system compares favorably in performance and cost with a satellite-switched TDMA system.

  5. Porous carbon with small mesoporesas an ultra-high capacity adsorption medium

    Gao, Biaofeng; Zhou, Haitao; Chen, De; Yang, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Resins (732-type), abundant and inexpensive resources were used to prepare porous carbon with small mesopores (CSM) by carbonization and post-chemical-activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). The N2 adsorption measurements revealed that CSM had high surface areas (1776.5 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (1.10 cm3 g-1), and nearly optimal narrow small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 7 nm. CSM was used as adsorbent to investigate the adsorption behavior for Rhodamine B (RhB). Due to the optimal pore size distributions (PSD), intensive-stacking interaction, S-doped, and electrostatic attraction, the CSM exhibited an ultra-high-capacity of 1590 mg g-1 for RhB in aqueous solutions.

  6. Titanium oxynitride thin films as high-capacity and high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Su, Shih-Hsuan; Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Hsia, Chen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiO_xN_y) was synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed N_2/O_2/Ar gas at ambient temperature. TiO_xN_y thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were deposited by varying the N_2/O_2 ratios in the background gas. The synthesized TiO_xN_y films with different compositions (TiO_1_._8_3_7N_0_._0_6_0_, TiO_1_._8_9_0N_0_._0_6_8_, TiO_1_._8_6_5N_0_._0_7_3, and TiO_1_._8_8_2N_0_._1_6_3) all displayed anatase phase, except TiO_1_._8_8_2N_0_._1_6_3. The impedances and grain sizes showed obvious variations with the nitrogen contents. A wide potential window from 3.0 V to 0.05 V, high-rate charge–discharge testing, and long cycle testing were applied to investigate the performances of synthesized TiO_xN_y and pure TiO_2 as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These TiO_xN_y anodes can be cycled under high rates of 125 μA/cm"2 (10 °C) because of the lower charge–transfer resistance compared with the TiO_2 anode. At 10 °C the discharge capacity of the optimal TiO_xN_y composition is 1.5 times higher than that of pure TiO_2. An unexpectedly large reversible capacity of ~ 300 μAh/cm"2 μm (~ 800 mAh/g) between 1.0 V and 0.05 V was recorded for the TiO_xN_y anodes. The TiO_xN_y anode was cycled (3.0 V to 0.05 V) at 10 °C over 300 times without capacity fading while delivering a capacity of ~ 150 μAh/cm"2 μm (~ 400 mAh/g). - Highlights: • Titanium oxynitride (TiO_xN_y) thin films as anode materials were studied. • TiO_xN_y thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were studied_. • High rate capability of TiO_xN_y was studied.

  7. High-capacity quantum secure direct communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states

    Wu, FangZhou; Yang, GuoJian; Wang, HaiBo; Xiong, Jun; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes the first high-capacity quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with two-photon six-qubit hyper-entangled Bell states in two longitudinal momentum and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs) of photon pairs, which can be generated using two 0.5 mm-thick type-I β barium borate crystal slabs aligned one behind the other and an eight-hole screen. The secret message can be independently encoded on the photon pairs with 64 unitary operations in all three DOFs. This protocol has a higher capacity than previous QSDC protocols because each photon pair can carry 6 bits of information, not just 2 or 4 bits. Our QSDC protocol decreases the influence of decoherence from environment noise by exploiting the decoy photons to check the security of the transmission of the first photon sequence. Compared with two-way QSDC protocols, our QSDC protocol is immune to an attack by an eavesdropper using Trojan horse attack strategies because it is a one-way quantum communication. The QSDC protocol has good applications in the future quantum communication because of all these features.

  8. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography with error detection

    Lai, Hong; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pieprzyk, Josef; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Lei; Li, Shudong; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2017-04-01

    Quantum cryptography is commonly used to generate fresh secure keys with quantum signal transmission for instant use between two parties. However, research shows that the relatively low key generation rate hinders its practical use where a symmetric cryptography component consumes the shared key. That is, the security of the symmetric cryptography demands frequent rate of key updates, which leads to a higher consumption of the internal one-time-pad communication bandwidth, since it requires the length of the key to be as long as that of the secret. In order to alleviate these issues, we develop a matrix algorithm for fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography. Our scheme can achieve secure private communication with fresh keys generated from Fibonacci- and Lucas- valued orbital angular momentum (OAM) states for the seed to construct recursive Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. Moreover, the proposed matrix algorithm for quantum cryptography can ultimately be simplified to matrix multiplication, which is implemented and optimized in modern computers. Most importantly, considerably information capacity can be improved effectively and efficiently by the recursive property of Fibonacci and Lucas matrices, thereby avoiding the restriction of physical conditions, such as the communication bandwidth.

  10. Fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography with error detection.

    Lai, Hong; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pieprzyk, Josef; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Lei; Li, Shudong; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2017-04-13

    Quantum cryptography is commonly used to generate fresh secure keys with quantum signal transmission for instant use between two parties. However, research shows that the relatively low key generation rate hinders its practical use where a symmetric cryptography component consumes the shared key. That is, the security of the symmetric cryptography demands frequent rate of key updates, which leads to a higher consumption of the internal one-time-pad communication bandwidth, since it requires the length of the key to be as long as that of the secret. In order to alleviate these issues, we develop a matrix algorithm for fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography. Our scheme can achieve secure private communication with fresh keys generated from Fibonacci- and Lucas- valued orbital angular momentum (OAM) states for the seed to construct recursive Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. Moreover, the proposed matrix algorithm for quantum cryptography can ultimately be simplified to matrix multiplication, which is implemented and optimized in modern computers. Most importantly, considerably information capacity can be improved effectively and efficiently by the recursive property of Fibonacci and Lucas matrices, thereby avoiding the restriction of physical conditions, such as the communication bandwidth.

  11. When high working memory capacity is and is not beneficial for predicting nonlinear processes.

    Fischer, Helen; Holt, Daniel V

    2017-04-01

    Predicting the development of dynamic processes is vital in many areas of life. Previous findings are inconclusive as to whether higher working memory capacity (WMC) is always associated with using more accurate prediction strategies, or whether higher WMC can also be associated with using overly complex strategies that do not improve accuracy. In this study, participants predicted a range of systematically varied nonlinear processes based on exponential functions where prediction accuracy could or could not be enhanced using well-calibrated rules. Results indicate that higher WMC participants seem to rely more on well-calibrated strategies, leading to more accurate predictions for processes with highly nonlinear trajectories in the prediction region. Predictions of lower WMC participants, in contrast, point toward an increased use of simple exemplar-based prediction strategies, which perform just as well as more complex strategies when the prediction region is approximately linear. These results imply that with respect to predicting dynamic processes, working memory capacity limits are not generally a strength or a weakness, but that this depends on the process to be predicted.

  12. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  13. Hierarchically structured lithium titanate for ultrafast charging in long-life high capacity batteries

    Odziomek, Mateusz; Chaput, Frédéric; Rutkowska, Anna; Świerczek, Konrad; Olszewska, Danuta; Sitarz, Maciej; Lerouge, Frédéric; Parola, Stephane

    2017-05-01

    High-performance Li-ion batteries require materials with well-designed and controlled structures on nanometre and micrometre scales. Electrochemical properties can be enhanced by reducing crystallite size and by manipulating structure and morphology. Here we show a method for preparing hierarchically structured Li4Ti5O12 yielding nano- and microstructure well-suited for use in lithium-ion batteries. Scalable glycothermal synthesis yields well-crystallized primary 4-8 nm nanoparticles, assembled into porous secondary particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals presence of Ti+4 only; combined with chemical analysis showing lithium deficiency, this suggests oxygen non-stoichiometry. Electron microscopy confirms hierarchical morphology of the obtained material. Extended cycling tests in half cells demonstrates capacity of 170 mAh g-1 and no sign of capacity fading after 1,000 cycles at 50C rate (charging completed in 72 s). The particular combination of nanostructure, microstructure and non-stoichiometry for the prepared lithium titanate is believed to underlie the observed electrochemical performance of material.

  14. SDN control of optical nodes in metro networks for high capacity inter-datacentre links

    Magalhães, Eduardo; Perry, Philip; Barry, Liam

    2017-11-01

    Worldwide demand for bandwidth has been growing fast for some years and continues to do so. To cover this, mega datacentres need scalable connectivity to provide rich connectivity to handle the heavy traffic across them. Therefore, hardware infrastructures must be able to play different roles according to service and traffic requirements. In this context, software defined networking (SDN) decouples the network control and forwarding functions enabling the network control to become directly programmable and the underlying infrastructure to be abstracted for applications and network services. In addition, elastic optical networking (EON) technologies enable efficient spectrum utilization by allocating variable bandwidth to each user according to their actual needs. In particular, flexible transponders and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) are key elements since they can offer degrees of freedom to self adapt accordingly. Thus, it is crucial to design control methods in order to optimize the hardware utilization and offer high reconfigurability, flexibility and adaptability. In this paper, we propose and analyze, using a simulation framework, a method of capacity maximization through optical power profile manipulation for inter datacentre links that use existing metropolitan optical networks by exploiting the global network view afforded by SDN. Results show that manipulating the loss profiles of the ROADMs in the metro-network can yield optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) improvements up to 10 dB leading to an increase in 112% in total capacity.

  15. Feasible metabolisms in high pH springs of the Philippines.

    Cardace, Dawn; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Woycheese, Kristin M; Arcilla, Carlo A

    2015-01-01

    A field campaign targeting high pH, H2-, and CH4-emitting serpentinite-associated springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to rank feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs between sampling years, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms. In all, this geochemistry-based assessment of feasible metabolisms indicates methane cycling, hydrogen oxidation, some iron and sulfur metabolisms, and ammonia oxidation are feasible reactions in this continental site of serpentinization.

  16. Colonic fermentation of polyphenols from Chilean currants (Ribes spp.) and its effect on antioxidant capacity and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

    Burgos-Edwards, Alberto; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2018-08-30

    The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 h incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others. The content of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was most affected by simulated colonic conditions, with a loss of 71-92% and 90-100% after 24 h incubation, respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity values (ORAC) were reached after 8 h incubation. The inhibitory activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase was maintained after the fermentation process. Our results show that simulated colonic fermentation exerts significant changes on the polyphenolic composition of these berries, modifying their health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic and oxidative stress markers in Wistar rats after 2?months on a high-fat diet

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, St?phanie; Bietiger, William; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard-Pedracini, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Val?rie; Sigrist, S?verine

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and hepatic complications. Oxidative stress in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of metabolic syndrome and its co-morbidities. We aimed to develop a rapidly and easily induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats to evaluate its impact on plasma and tissue oxidative stress. Materials and methods Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats using a high-fat diet (HFD), and these rats were compared ...

  18. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    Xue, Dezhen [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhou, Yumei, E-mail: zhouyumei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ding, Xiangdong [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Otsuka, Kazuhiro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Lookman, Turab [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sun, Jun [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaobing [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti{sub 50}(Pd{sub 50−x}D{sub x}) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q{sup −1}~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q{sup −1}~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges.

  19. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  20. Highly Porous Silicon Embedded in a Ceramic Matrix: A Stable High-Capacity Electrode for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Vrankovic, Dragoljub; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Kalcher, Constanze; Rohrer, Jochen; Becker, Malin; Stabler, Christina; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Albe, Karsten; Riedel, Ralf

    2017-11-28

    We demonstrate a cost-effective synthesis route that provides Si-based anode materials with capacities between 2000 and 3000 mAh·g Si -1 (400 and 600 mAh·g composite -1 ), Coulombic efficiencies above 99.5%, and almost 100% capacity retention over more than 100 cycles. The Si-based composite is prepared from highly porous silicon (obtained by reduction of silica) by encapsulation in an organic carbon and polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (C/SiOC) matrix. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the highly porous silicon morphology delivers free volume for the accommodation of strain leading to no macroscopic changes during initial Li-Si alloying. In addition, a carbon layer provides an electrical contact, whereas the SiOC matrix significantly diminishes the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode material and thus suppresses the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase on Si. Electrochemical tests of the micrometer-sized, glass-fiber-derived silicon demonstrate the up-scaling potential of the presented approach.

  1. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  2. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Longbin Huang

    Full Text Available Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu-lead (Pb-zinc (Zn mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7, the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5, EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content and local soil (weathered shale and schist, respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed, oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2, ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg(CO32 and siderite (FeCO3, as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,FeS, ZnS, (Zn,CdS may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  3. Assessment of metabolic capacity of Trichoderma inhamatum Bol12 QD biocontrol on native strains of Phytophthora infestans in vitro

    Puño Ramon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a cause of decreased crop yield of tomato, to control these losses, farmers use chemicals. This has consequences for the environment, human health and beneficial organisms in the ecosystem. The objective was to obtain and identify native isolates of Trichoderma spp. In soil planted with tomato Tlayacapan, Morelos (Mexico, Alternaria solani problems and Phytophthora infestans, also determine their antagonistic capacity in vitro. Trichoderma was isolated directly from soil by dilution in culture medium plate with potato dextrose agar (PDA. On the other side plate dilutions of yeast T. QD Bol12 inhamatum crops produced in batch for 30 days to compare the effectiveness of biocontrol. The filtered yeast inhibited mycelial growth kinetic of the agent in laboratory with the 1:2 dilution growth was 32.5% for the 1:4 dilution mycelial growth was 69.1% and finally to the dilution of 1:8 of the yeast biocontrol mycelium grew to 95.2%. To demonstrate the inhibitory activity on the pathogen in field crops, there were 3 L batch for four months. The application of three doses (undiluted, diluted 1:2 and 1:4 plus a control dilution water only was performed in a complete block design with four replications randomly with the tomato crop, belonging to the variety Santa Cruz Kada Gigante in the plots of the Academic Rural United Campesina Carmen Pampa. Statistical analysis by Duncan's test showed that the pure leaven reduce infection by Phytophthora infestans significantly in tomato. Appeared another tomato plant pathogen, Septoria lycopersici, in the course of fieldwork. We also evaluated the effect of the dose of yeast to this disease, and also noticed a significant reduction with all doses of yeast. These experiments demonstrated that the seeds of T. QD Bol12 inhamatum have biocontrol effect on the tomato crop. The antagonistic capacity was assessed using the cellophane and the kind of antagonism with the dual culture

  4. Design of a Two-stage High-capacity Stirling Cryocooler Operating below 30K

    Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    The high capacity cryocooler working below 30K can find many applications such as superconducting motors, superconducting cables and cryopump. Compared to the GM cryocooler, the Stirling cryocooler can achieve higher efficiency and more compact structure. Because of these obvious advantages, we have designed a two stage free piston Stirling cryocooler system, which is driven by a moving magnet linear compressor with an operating frequency of 40 Hz and a maximum 5 kW input electric power. The first stage of the cryocooler is designed to operate in the liquid nitrogen temperature and output a cooling power of 100 W. And the second stage is expected to simultaneously provide a cooling power of 50 W below the temperature of 30 K. In order to achieve the best system efficiency, a numerical model based on the thermoacoustic model was developed to optimize the system operating and structure parameters.

  5. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng; Rao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars

  6. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a supervised high- and low-intensity structured training program in cancer patients concurrently undergoing chemotherapy. Seventy patients, in different stages of the disease and with different diagnoses (48 females, 22 males), between 18...... and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were......-term study support the theory that exercise is a beneficial intervention strategy for increasing muscle strength and aerobic fitness during antineoplastic chemotherapy. This type of exercise program can be an important component of complementary treatment for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  7. Operating experience with a high capacity helium pump under supercritical conditions

    Lehmann, W.; Minges, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the development and testing of a high-capacity piston pump to provide forced cooling for large superconducting magnets. The pump is a three cylinder, vertically arranged single-acting piston pump equipped with a frequency controlled three-phase geared motor operating at room temperature. The pump is capable of delivering up to 150 g/s at a maximum speed of 310 rpm and under the inlet conditions of 4 bar/4.5 K. No decline was noticed in delivery head and efficiencies during more than 560 hours of operation. It is concluded that the pump satisfies all requirements for circulating large mass flows across great pressure differences as needed (e.g. in fusion magnet design)

  8. Controlled synthesis of porous anhydrous cobalt oxalate nanorods with high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability

    Xu, Junmin; He, Lei; Liu, Hui; Han, Tao; Wang, Yongjian; Zhang, Changjin; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: One-dimensional porous anhydrous cobalt oxalate nanorods are prepared via a facile water-controlled coprecipitate method followed by thermal annealing treatment under N 2 at 300 °C. The nanorods are characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the nanorods exhibit high reversible specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (924 mA h g −1 at 50 mA g −1 after 100 cycles and 709 mA h g −1 at 200 mA g −1 after 220 cycles). This remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the one-dimensional porous nanostructure that can provide large electrode/electrolyte contact area and short lithium-ion diffusion pathway, meanwhile reduce the volume expansion during the repeated discharge/charge process

  9. The anchorage capacity of reinforcing bars at normal and high temperatures

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1982-01-01

    of the cross-section. A simple method for calculating the resistance to splitting is proposed, and a test method for determining the bond strength is presented. Test results are shown from a series of 280 specimens exposed to various maximum temperatures, and a relation between the bond strength......The anchorage failure of reinforcing bars is analysed, and it is shown that two modes of failures are possible: splitting or bond failure. It is concluded that the anchorage capacity cannot be estimated by means of a standard specimen, since splitting failure is dependent upon the geometry...... and the ultimate limit stress of concrete under plane strain conditions is indicated. The influence of high temperatures upon the anchorage resistance is explained, and the theory is illustrated by examples....

  10. Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Sale, Craig; Saunders, Bryan; Hudson, Sean; Wise, John A; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline D

    2011-10-01

    We examined the effect of β-alanine supplementation plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Twenty males (age = 25 ± 5 yr, height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass = 80.0 ± 10.3 kg) were assigned to either a placebo (P) or a β-alanine (BA; 6.4 g·d(-1) for 4 wk) group based on power max, completing four cycling capacity tests at 110% of power max (CCT110%) to determine time to exhaustion (TTE) and total work done. A CCT(110%) was performed twice (habituation and baseline) before supplementation (with maltodextrin [MD]) and twice after supplementation (with MD and with sodium bicarbonate [SB]), using a crossover design with 2 d of rest between trials, creating four study conditions (PMD, PSB, BAMD, and BASB). Blood pH, Lactate, bicarbonate and base excess were determined at baseline, before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 5 min after exercise. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. TTE was increased in all conditions after supplementation (+1.6% PMD, +6.5% PSB, +12.1% BAMD, and +16.2% BASB). Both BAMD and BASB resulted in significantly improved TTE compared with that before supplementation (P ≤ 0.01). Although further increases in TTE (4.1%) were shown in BASB compared with BAMD, these differences were not significant (P = 0.74). Differences in total work done were similar to those of TTE. Blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly (P ≤ 0.001) elevated before exercise in PSB and BASB but not in PMD or BAMD. Blood lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after exercise, remaining elevated after 5 min of recovery (P ≤ 0.001) and were highest in PSB and BASB. Results show that BA improved high-intensity cycling capacity. However, despite a 6-s (∼4%) increase in TTE with the addition of SB, this did not reach statistical significance, but magnitude-based inferences suggested a ∼70% probability of a meaningful positive difference.

  11. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q 0 of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q 0 of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  12. Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  13. Laboratory Development of A High Capacity Gas-Fired paper Dryer

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kozlov, Aleksandr [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Sherrow, Lester [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laparrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300ºF range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400ºF were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  14. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions.

    Swanson, David L; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summit metabolic rate (M(sum), maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M(sum) is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M(sum) than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M(sum) as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M(sum) should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M(sum) data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M(sum) variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M(sum), and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M(sum). These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M(sum) in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

  16. High salt diet induces metabolic alterations in multiple biological processes of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    Clare Stawski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C than in control lines (−20.2°C. Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under

  18. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism.

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T

    2017-01-01

    According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (T a ) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (T b ) during exposure to high T a . To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and T b of selected and control voles at T a from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the T b of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the T b of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured T a of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (-28.6°C) than in control lines (-20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally

  19. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein to detect metabolic syndrome in a centrally obese population: a cross-sectional analysis

    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with central obesity have an increased risk for developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, a substantial part of obese individuals have no other cardiovascular risk factors, besides their obesity. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation and a predictor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is associated with the metabolic syndrome and its separate components. We evaluated the use of hs-CRP to discriminate between centrally obese people with and without the metabolic syndrome. Methods 1165 people with central obesity but without any previous diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes or cardiovascular disease, aged 20-70 years, underwent a physical examination and laboratory assays to determine the presence of the metabolic syndrome (NCEP ATP III criteria. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess which metabolic syndrome components were independently associated with hs-CRP. A ROC curve was drawn and the area under the curve was calculated to evaluate whether hs-CRP was capable to predict the presence of the metabolic syndrome. Results Median hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in individuals with central obesity with the metabolic syndrome (n = 417; 35.8% compared to individuals with central obesity without the metabolic syndrome (2.2 mg/L (IQR 1.2-4.0 versus 1.7 mg/L (IQR 1.0-3.4; p Conclusions Hs-CRP has limited capacity to predict the presence of the metabolic syndrome in a population with central obesity.

  20. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity

    Meyers, Allison M.; Mourra, Devry; Beeler, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study ...

  1. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  2. Structural originations of irreversible capacity loss from highly lithiated copper oxides

    Love, Corey T.; Dmowski, Wojtek; Johannes, Michelle D.; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    We use electrochemistry, high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) with pair-distribution function analysis (PDF), and density functional theory (DFT) to study the instabilities of Li 2 CuO 2 at varying state of charge. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns revealed phase evolution from pure Li 2 CuO 2 body-centered orthorhombic (Immm) space group to multiphase compositions after cycling. The PDF showed CuO 4 square chains with varying packing during electrochemical cycling. Peaks in the G(r) at the Cu-O distance for delithiated, LiCuO 2 , showed CuO 4 square chains with reduced ionic radius for Cu in the 3+ state. At full depth of discharge to 1.5 V, CuO was observed in fractions greater than the initial impurity level which strongly affects the reversibility of the lithiation reactions contributing to capacity loss. DFT calculations showed electron removal from Cu and O during delithiation of Li 2 CuO 2 . - Graphical abstract: Structural transformation from Li 2 CuO 2 to delithiated LiCuO 2 . Highlights: → We use experimental techniques and theoretical calculation to study the instabilities of Li 2 CuO 2 . → After initial charge multiphase material persists through charge-discharge cycle. → Precipitation of CuO strongly affects electrode reversibility contributing to capacity loss. → Structural disorganization in Li 2 CuO 2 after cycling is the result of CuO 4 square chain packing. → DFT calculations show electron removal from both Cu and O during delithiation of Li 2 CuO 2 .

  3. Synthesis, characterization and dye removal ability of high capacity polymeric adsorbent: Polyaminoimide homopolymer

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorramfar, Shooka [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Farrokhlegha [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arami, Mokhtar [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyaminoimide homopolymer (PAIHP) was synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetics data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotherm data followed Langmuir isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Q{sub 0} for DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25 was 6667, 5555, 9090 and 5882 mg/g, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAIHP was regenerated at pH 12. - Abstract: In this paper, polyaminoimide homopolymer (PAIHP) was synthesized and its dye removal ability was investigated. Physical characteristics of PAIHP were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Direct Red 31 (DR31), Direct Red 23 (DR23), Direct Black 22 (DB22) and Acid Blue 25 (AB25) were used as model compounds. The kinetic and isotherm of dye adsorption were studied. The effect of operational parameter such as adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. Adsorption kinetic of dyes followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) of PAIHP was 6667 mg/g, 5555 mg/g, 9090 mg/g and 5882 mg/g for DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25, respectively. It was found that adsorption of DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25 onto PAIHP followed with Langmuir isotherm. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% for DR31, 86% for DR23, 87% for DB22 and 90% for AB25 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. The results showed that the PAIHP as a polymeric adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored wastewater.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and dye removal ability of high capacity polymeric adsorbent: Polyaminoimide homopolymer

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood; Khorramfar, Shooka; Amini, Farrokhlegha; Arami, Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polyaminoimide homopolymer (PAIHP) was synthesized and characterized. ► Kinetics data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. ► Isotherm data followed Langmuir isotherm. ► Q 0 for DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25 was 6667, 5555, 9090 and 5882 mg/g, respectively. ► PAIHP was regenerated at pH 12. - Abstract: In this paper, polyaminoimide homopolymer (PAIHP) was synthesized and its dye removal ability was investigated. Physical characteristics of PAIHP were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Direct Red 31 (DR31), Direct Red 23 (DR23), Direct Black 22 (DB22) and Acid Blue 25 (AB25) were used as model compounds. The kinetic and isotherm of dye adsorption were studied. The effect of operational parameter such as adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. Adsorption kinetic of dyes followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) of PAIHP was 6667 mg/g, 5555 mg/g, 9090 mg/g and 5882 mg/g for DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25, respectively. It was found that adsorption of DR31, DR23, DB22 and AB25 onto PAIHP followed with Langmuir isotherm. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% for DR31, 86% for DR23, 87% for DB22 and 90% for AB25 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. The results showed that the PAIHP as a polymeric adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored wastewater.

  5. Saharan dust inputs and high UVR levels jointly alter the metabolic balance of marine oligotrophic ecosystems

    Cabrerizo, Marco J.; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; González-Olalla, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentación

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. We performed an observational study across the south-western (SW) Mediterranean Sea to assess the planktonic metabolic balance and a microcosm experiment in two contrasting areas, heterotrophic nearshore and autotrophic open sea, to test whether a combined UVR × dust impact could alter their metabolic balance at mid-term scales. We show that the metabolic state of oligotrophic areas geographically varies and that the joint impact of UVR and dust inputs prompted a strong change towards autotrophic metabolism. We propose that this metabolic response could be accentuated with the global change as remote-sensing evidence shows increasing intensities, frequencies and number of dust events together with variations in the surface UVR fluxes on SW Mediterranean Sea. Overall, these findings suggest that the enhancement of the net carbon budget under a combined UVR and dust inputs impact could contribute to boost the biological pump, reinforcing the role of the oligotrophic marine ecosystems as CO2 sinks.

  6. Antepartal insulin-like growth factor concentrations indicating differences in the metabolic adaptive capacity of dairy cows.

    Piechotta, Marion; Holzhausen, Lars; Araujo, Marcelo Gil; Heppelmann, Maike; Sipka, Anja; Pfarrer, Chistiane; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Cows with different Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations showed comparable expression levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR). Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), could be responsible for additional inhibition of the GHR signal cascade. The aims were to monitor cows with high or low antepartal IGF-I concentrations (IGF-I(high) or IGF-I(low)), evaluate the interrelationships of endocrine endpoints, and measure hepatic SOCS2 expression. Dairy cows (n = 20) were selected (240 to 254 days after artificial insemination (AI)). Blood samples were drawn daily (day -17 until calving) and IGF-I, GH, insulin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were measured. Liver biopsies were taken (day 264 ± 1 after AI and postpartum) to measure mRNA expression (IGF-I, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, acid labile subunit (ALS), SOCS2, deiodinase1, GHR1A). IGF-I concentrations in the two groups were different (p 0.05). Thyroxine levels and ALS expression were higher in the IGF-I(high) cows compared to IGF-I(low) cows. Estradiol concentration tended to be greater in the IGF-I(low) group (p = 0.06). It was hypothesized that low IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced SOCS2 expression although this could not be decisively confirmed by the present study.

  7. Random oriented hexagonal nickel hydroxide nanoplates grown on graphene as binder free anode for lithium ion battery with high capacity

    Du, Yingjie; Ma, Hu; Guo, Mingxuan; Gao, Tie; Li, Haibo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, two-step method has been employed to prepare random oriented hexagonal hydroxide nanoplates on graphene (Ni(OH)2@G) as binder free anode for lithium ion battery (LIB) with high capacity. The morphology, microstructure, crystal phase and elemental bonding have been characterized. When evaluated as anode for LIB, the Ni(OH)2@G exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 1318 mAh/g at the current density of 50 mA/g. After 80 cycles, the capacity was maintained at 834 mAh/g, implying 63.3% remaining. Even the charge rate was increased to 2000 mA/g, an impressive capacity of 141 mAh/g can be obtained, indicating good rate capability. The superior LIB behavior of Ni(OH)2@G is ascribed to the excellent combination between Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and graphene via both covalent chemical bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  8. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (ptraining in normoxia caused an increase (ptraining protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  9. Polyethylenimine-modified fungal biomass as a high-capacity biosorbent for Cr(VI) anions: sorption capacity and uptake mechanisms.

    Deng, Shubo; Ting, Yen Peng

    2005-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the aqueous environment is a problem of global concern. Biosorption has been considered as a promising technology for the removal of low levels of toxic metals from industrial effluents and natural waters. A modified fungal biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum with positive surface charges was prepared by grafting polyethylenimine (PEI) onto the biomass surface in a two-step reaction. The presence of PEI on the biomass surface was verified by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Due to the high density of amine groups in the long chains of PEI molecules on the surface, the modified biomass was found to possess positive zeta potential at pH below 10.4 as well as high sorption capacity for anionic Cr(VI). Using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the maximum sorption capacity for Cr(VI) at a pH range of 4.3-5.5 was 5.37 mmol/g of biomass dry weight, the highest sorption capacity for Cr(VI) compared to other sorbents reported in the literature. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) provided evidence of chromium aggregates formed on the biomass surface. XPS results verified the presence of Cr(III) on the biomass surface in the pH range 2.5-10.5, suggesting that some Cr(VI) anions were reduced to Cr(III) during the sorption. The sorption kinetics indicated that redox reaction occurred on the biomass surface, and whether the converted Cr(III) ions were released to solution or adsorbed on the biomass depended on the solution pH. Sorption mechanisms including electrostatic interaction, chelation, and precipitation were found to be involved in the complex sorption of chromium on the PEI-modified biomass.

  10. High efficiency-large capacity circulating water pump for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station unit No.3

    Ito, Akihiko; Sasamuro, Takemi; Takeda, Hirohisa.

    1988-01-01

    No.3 plant in the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chube Electric Power Co., Inc. is the latest plant of 1100 MW class BWR type, which began the commercial operation in August, 1987. The seawater intake and discharge system of this plant is composed of the channel exceeding 2 km in the total length from the intake tower to the discharge port. The circulating water pump installed in this system has the capacity of 1620 m 3 /min and the total head of 16.5 m, which are the largest in the world. It attained the efficiency as high as more than 90%. Three pumps supply seawater to three-body condensers. The design of the impeller and the casing for obtaining high efficiency, the structural design for facilitating maintenance, the manufacture of a model pump and the performance test using it and so on are reported. The most important item in the manufacture was the form of the onebody impeller weighing 4.5t. The confirmation of the performance of the actual machines was carried out as a part of the synthetic function confirmation test at the power station, and the flow rate was measured with Pitot tubes and ultrasonic flowmeters. (Kako, I.)

  11. Nanostructured Block Polymer Membranes as High Capacity Adsorbers for the Capture of Metal Ions from Water

    Boudouris, Bryan; Weidman, Jacob; Mulvenna, Ryan; Phillip, William

    The efficient removal of metal ions from aqueous streams is of significant import in applications ranging from industrial waste treatment to the purification of drinking water. An emerging paradigm associated with this separation is one that utilizes membrane adsorbers as a means by which to bind metal salt contaminants. Here, we demonstrate that the casting of an A-B-C triblock polymer using the self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS) methodology results in a nanoporous membrane geometry. The nature of the triblock polymer affords an extremely high density of binding sites within the membrane. As such, we demonstrate that the membranes with binding capacities equal to that of state-of-the-art packed bed columns. Moreover, because the affinity of the C moiety can be tuned, highly selective binding events can occur based solely on the chemistry of the block polymer and the metal ions in solution (i.e., in a manner that is independent of the size of the metal ions). Due to these combined facts, these membranes efficiently remove heavy metal (e.g., lead- and cadmium-based) salts from contaminated water streams with greater than 95% efficiency. Finally, we show that the membranes can be regenerated through a simple treatment in order to provide long-lasting adsorber systems as well. Thus, it is anticipated that these nanostructured triblock polymer membranes are a platform by which to obtain next-generation water purification processes.

  12. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  13. Study on a high capacity two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler working around 30 K

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Dai, Wei; Li, Ke; Pang, Xiaomin; Yu, Guoyao; Luo, Ercang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a two-stage high-capacity free-piston Stirling cryocooler driven by a linear compressor to meet the requirement of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor applications. The cryocooler system comprises a single piston linear compressor, a two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler and a passive oscillator. A single stepped displacer configuration was adopted. A numerical model based on the thermoacoustic theory was used to optimize the system operating and structure parameters. Distributions of pressure wave, phase differences between the pressure wave and the volume flow rate and different energy flows are presented for a better understanding of the system. Some characterizing experimental results are presented. Thus far, the cryocooler has reached a lowest cold-head temperature of 27.6 K and achieved a cooling power of 78 W at 40 K with an input electric power of 3.2 kW, which indicates a relative Carnot efficiency of 14.8%. When the cold-head temperature increased to 77 K, the cooling power reached 284 W with a relative Carnot efficiency of 25.9%. The influences of different parameters such as mean pressure, input electric power and cold-head temperature are also investigated.

  14. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de

    2016-07-01

    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of burnup credit for accommodating PWR spent nuclear fuel in high-capacity cask designs

    Wagner, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the amount of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current U.S. inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies. A prototypic 32-assembly cask and the current regulatory guidance were used as bases for this evaluation. By comparing actual pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) discharge data (i.e., fuel burnup and initial enrichment specifications for fuel assemblies discharged from U.S. PWRs) with actinide-only-based loading curves, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of SNF assemblies in high-capacity storage and transportation casks. The impact of varying selected calculational assumptions is also investigated, and considerable improvement in effectiveness is shown with the inclusion of the principal fission products (FPs) and minor actinides and the use of a bounding best-estimate approach for isotopic validation. Given sufficient data for validation, the most significant component that would improve accuracy, and subsequently enhance the utilization of burnup credit, is the inclusion of FPs. (author)

  16. MIPHENO: Data normalization for high throughput metabolic analysis.

    High throughput methodologies such as microarrays, mass spectrometry and plate-based small molecule screens are increasingly used to facilitate discoveries from gene function to drug candidate identification. These large-scale experiments are typically carried out over the course...

  17. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  18. Titanium oxynitride thin films as high-capacity and high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Su, Shih-Hsuan, E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Leu, Hoang-Jyh [Master' s Program of Green Energy Science and Technology, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Hsia, Chen-Hsien [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) was synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas at ambient temperature. TiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were deposited by varying the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios in the background gas. The synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films with different compositions (TiO{sub 1.837}N{sub 0.060,} TiO{sub 1.890}N{sub 0.068,} TiO{sub 1.865}N{sub 0.073}, and TiO{sub 1.882}N{sub 0.163}) all displayed anatase phase, except TiO{sub 1.882}N{sub 0.163}. The impedances and grain sizes showed obvious variations with the nitrogen contents. A wide potential window from 3.0 V to 0.05 V, high-rate charge–discharge testing, and long cycle testing were applied to investigate the performances of synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} and pure TiO{sub 2} as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anodes can be cycled under high rates of 125 μA/cm{sup 2} (10 °C) because of the lower charge–transfer resistance compared with the TiO{sub 2} anode. At 10 °C the discharge capacity of the optimal TiO{sub x}N{sub y} composition is 1.5 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2}. An unexpectedly large reversible capacity of ~ 300 μAh/cm{sup 2} μm (~ 800 mAh/g) between 1.0 V and 0.05 V was recorded for the TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anodes. The TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anode was cycled (3.0 V to 0.05 V) at 10 °C over 300 times without capacity fading while delivering a capacity of ~ 150 μAh/cm{sup 2} μm (~ 400 mAh/g). - Highlights: • Titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films as anode materials were studied. • TiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were studied{sub .} • High rate capability of TiO{sub x}N{sub y} was studied.

  19. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    Background The mother?s consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Methods Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in a...

  20. A protocol for generating a high-quality genome-scale metabolic reconstruction.

    Thiele, Ines; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-01-01

    Network reconstructions are a common denominator in systems biology. Bottom-up metabolic network reconstructions have been developed over the last 10 years. These reconstructions represent structured knowledge bases that abstract pertinent information on the biochemical transformations taking place within specific target organisms. The conversion of a reconstruction into a mathematical format facilitates a myriad of computational biological studies, including evaluation of network content, hypothesis testing and generation, analysis of phenotypic characteristics and metabolic engineering. To date, genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for more than 30 organisms have been published and this number is expected to increase rapidly. However, these reconstructions differ in quality and coverage that may minimize their predictive potential and use as knowledge bases. Here we present a comprehensive protocol describing each step necessary to build a high-quality genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, as well as the common trials and tribulations. Therefore, this protocol provides a helpful manual for all stages of the reconstruction process.

  1. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids: from metabolism to physiology

    Vion-Dury, J.; Nicoli, F.; Torri, G.; Torri, J.; Kriat, M.; Sciaky, M.; Davin, A.; Viout, P.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids provides quantitative, qualitative and dynamic information on the metabolic status of the interstitial and plasma compartments under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. The simultaneous detection and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy of numerous compounds of the intermediary metabolism offers a new insight in the understanding of the 'milieu interieur'.NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids offers a unique way to define and monitor the global metabolic homeostasis in humans. The development of this analytical approach is still limited by the scarcity of pluridisciplinary teams able to fully exploit the wealth of information present on the NMR spectrum of a fluid. While application in pharmacology and toxicology is already established, the main areas of current development are cancer, hereditary metabolic disorders, organ transplantation and neurological diseases

  2. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  3. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Francois, Monique E; Gillen, Jenna B; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  4. High-fat diet induces significant metabolic disorders in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Lai, Hao; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Qiuxiao; Zhang, Chenglu; Qiao, Jie; Guan, Youfei; Kang, Jihong

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy associated with both reproductive and metabolic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently used to induce a PCOS mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause obesity and infertility in female mice. The possible effect of an HFD on the phenotype of DHEA-induced PCOS mice is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate both reproductive and metabolic features of DHEA-induced PCOS mice fed a normal chow or a 60% HFD. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (age 25 days) on the normal chow or an HFD were injected (s.c.) daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA for 20 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, both reproductive and metabolic characteristics were assessed. Our data show that an HFD did not affect the reproductive phenotype of DHEA-treated mice. The treatment of HFD, however, caused significant metabolic alterations in DHEA-treated mice, including obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and pronounced liver steatosis. These findings suggest that HFD induces distinct metabolic features in DHEA-induced PCOS mice. The combined DHEA and HFD treatment may thus serve as a means of studying the mechanisms involved in metabolic derangements of this syndrome, particularly in the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Thomas Jenkin, Philipp Beiter, and Robert Margolis

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  6. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m 2 /g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  7. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong, E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m{sup 2}/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  8. Antepartal insulin-like growth factor concentrations indicating differences in the metabolic adaptive capacity of dairy cows

    Holzhausen, Lars; Araujo, Marcelo Gil; Heppelmann, Maike; Sipka, Anja; Pfarrer, Chistiane; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Cows with different Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations showed comparable expression levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR). Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), could be responsible for additional inhibition of the GHR signal cascade. The aims were to monitor cows with high or low antepartal IGF-I concentrations (IGF-Ihigh or IGF-Ilow), evaluate the interrelationships of endocrine endpoints, and measure hepatic SOCS2 expression. Dairy cows (n = 20) were selected (240 to 254 days after artificial insemination (AI)). Blood samples were drawn daily (day -17 until calving) and IGF-I, GH, insulin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were measured. Liver biopsies were taken (day 264 ± 1 after AI and postpartum) to measure mRNA expression (IGF-I, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, acid labile subunit (ALS), SOCS2, deiodinase1, GHR1A). IGF-I concentrations in the two groups were different (p 0.05). Thyroxine levels and ALS expression were higher in the IGF-Ihigh cows compared to IGF-Ilow cows. Estradiol concentration tended to be greater in the IGF-Ilow group (p = 0.06). It was hypothesized that low IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced SOCS2 expression although this could not be decisively confirmed by the present study. PMID:24962413

  9. Awareness and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-risk ...

    MetS) in high-risk individuals attending 30 internal medicine clinics in Amman, Jordan, and also to evaluate the various factors associated with increased risk of MetS among them. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out ...

  10. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays (SOT)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput s...

  11. Genes associated to lactose metabolism illustrate the high diversity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum

    Iskandar, Christelle F.; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Rahman, Abdur

    2016-01-01

    The dairy population of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is characterized by a high diversity suggesting a high diversity of the genetic traits linked to the dairy process. As lactose is the main carbon source in milk, the genetics of lactose metabolism was investigated in this LAB. Comparative...

  12. Preventive role of exercise training in autonomic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters in rats under high risk of metabolic syndrome development.

    Moraes-Silva, Ivana Cinthya; Mostarda, Cristiano; Moreira, Edson Dias; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; dos Santos, Fernando; de Angelis, Kátia; Farah, Vera de Moura Azevedo; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia

    2013-03-15

    High fructose consumption contributes to metabolic syndrome incidence, whereas exercise training promotes several beneficial adaptations. In this study, we demonstrated the preventive role of exercise training in the metabolic syndrome derangements in a rat model. Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/l) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT) or kept sedentary (F) for 10 wk. Control rats treated with normal water were also submitted to exercise training (CT) or sedentarism (C). Metabolic evaluations consisted of the Lee index and glycemia and insulin tolerance test (kITT). Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured, whereas heart rate (HR) and BP variabilities were evaluated in time and frequency domains. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was also recorded. F rats presented significant alterations compared with all the other groups in insulin resistance (in mg · dl(-1) · min(-1): F: 3.4 ± 0.2; C: 4.7 ± 0.2; CT: 5.0 ± 0.5 FT: 4.6 ± 0.4), mean BP (in mmHG: F: 117 ± 2; C: 100 ± 2; CT: 98 ± 2; FT: 105 ± 2), and Lee index (in g/mm: F = 0.31 ± 0.001; C = 0.29 ± 0.001; CT = 0.27 ± 0.002; FT = 0.28 ± 0.002), confirming the metabolic syndrome diagnosis. Exercise training blunted all these derangements. Additionally, FS group presented autonomic dysfunction in relation to the others, as seen by an ≈ 50% decrease in baroreflex sensitivity and 24% in HR variability, and increases in sympathovagal balance (140%) and in renal sympathetic nerve activity (45%). These impairments were not observed in FT group, as well as in C and CT. Correlation analysis showed that both Lee index and kITT were associated with vagal impairment caused by fructose. Therefore, exercise training plays a preventive role in both autonomic and hemodynamic alterations related to the excessive fructose consumption.

  13. High Dose Ascorbate Causes Both Genotoxic and Metabolic Stress in Glioma Cells

    Castro, Maria Leticia; Carson, Georgia M.; McConnell, Melanie J.; Herst, Patries M.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that exposure to high dose ascorbate causes double stranded breaks (DSBs) and a build-up in S-phase in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines. Here we investigated whether or not this was due to genotoxic stress as well as metabolic stress generated by exposure to high dose ascorbate, radiation, ascorbate plus radiation and H2O2 in established and primary GBM cell lines. Genotoxic stress was measured as phosphorylation of the variant histone protein, H2AX, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8OH-dG) positive cells and cells with comet tails. Metabolic stress was measured as a decrease in NADH flux, mitochondrial membrane potential (by CMXRos), ATP levels (by ATP luminescence) and mitochondrial superoxide production (by mitoSOX). High dose ascorbate, ascorbate plus radiation, and H2O2 treatments induced both genotoxic and metabolic stress. Exposure to high dose ascorbate blocked DNA synthesis in both DNA damaged and undamaged cell of ascorbate sensitive GBM cell lines. H2O2 treatment blocked DNA synthesis in all cell lines with and without DNA damage. DNA synthesis arrest in cells with damaged DNA is likely due to both genotoxic and metabolic stress. However, arrest in DNA synthesis in cells with undamaged DNA is likely due to oxidative damage to components of the mitochondrial energy metabolism pathway. PMID:28737676

  14. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

    A. Stanula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity ( ·VO2max and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO2max. The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001. An analysis of the fatigue index (FI calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%. The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between ·VO2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584 was significant (p=0.003. The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in ·VO2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78. Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players.

  15. Synthesis of high capacity cation exchangers from a low-grade Chinese natural zeolite

    Wang Yifei; Lin Feng

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese natural zeolite, in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz was treated hydrothermally with NaOH solutions, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder as pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, Na-Y and analcime were identified as the reacted products, depending on the reaction conditions such as NaOH concentration, reaction time and hydrothermal temperature. The products were identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by Fourier transform IR and ICP. With hydrothermal treatment after fusion of natural zeolite with NaOH, high purity of zeolite Na-Y and Na-P can be selectively formed, their cation exchange capacity (CEC) are 275 and 355 meq/100 g respectively, which are greatly higher than that of the natural zeolite (97 meq/100 g). Furthermore, the ammonium removal by the synthetic zeolite Na-P in aqueous solution was also studied. The equilibrium isotherms have been got and the influence of other cations present in water upon the ammonia uptake suggested an order of preference Ca 2+ > K + > Mg 2+ .

  16. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    H. Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  17. Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites with high adsorption capacity

    Song Haojie, E-mail: shj6922@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Liu Lei [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University (China); Jia Xiaohua; Min Chunying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China)

    2012-12-15

    A hybrid nanostructure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and {beta}-ferric oxyhydroxide ({beta}-FeOOH) nanoparticles is synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted in situ hydrolysis of the precursor ferric chloride and CNTs. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy , and transmission electron microscopy establishes the nanohybrid structure of the synthesized sample. The results revealed that the surface of CNTs was uniformly assembled by numerous {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles and had an average diameter of 3 nm. The formation route of anchoring {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles onto CNTs was proposed as the intercalation and adsorption of iron ions onto the wall of CNTs, followed by the nucleation and growth of {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles. The values of remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of the as-synthesized CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites were 0.1131 emu g, and 490.824 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites showed a very high adsorption capacity of Congo red and thus these nanocomposites can be used as good adsorbents and can be used for the removal of the dye of Congo red from the waste water system.

  18. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  19. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  20. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial

    Lopez-Legarrea Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results Both diets equally (p > 0.05 improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034, body mass index (p = 0.026, waist circumference (p = 0.083 and fat mass (p = 0.015 reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086

  1. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  2. The Relationship between the Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.

  3. Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products

    Weihua Guo

    Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing. Keywords: Cell-free, Biosynthesis, Metabolic pathways, Design-build-test cycle

  4. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  5. Aluminum and silicon based phase change materials for high capacity thermal energy storage

    Wang, Zhengyun; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Dezhi; Zhang, Qinyong; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Six compositions of aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) based materials: 87.8Al-12.2Si, 80Al–20Si, 70Al–30Si, 60Al–40Si, 45Al–40Si–15Fe, and 17Al–53Si–30Ni (atomic ratio), were investigated for potentially high thermal energy storage (TES) application from medium to high temperatures (550–1200 °C) through solid–liquid phase change. Thermal properties such as melting point, latent heat, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and laser flash apparatus. The results reveal that the thermal storage capacity of the Al–Si materials increases with increasing Si concentration. The melting point and latent heat of 45Al–40Si–15Fe and 17Al–53Si–30Ni are ∼869 °C and ∼562 J g −1 , and ∼1079 °C and ∼960 J g −1 , respectively. The measured thermal conductivity of Al–Si binary materials depend on Si concentration and is higher than 80 W m −1  K −1 from room temperature to 500 °C, which is almost two orders of magnitude higher than those of salts that are commonly used phase change material for thermal energy storage. - Highlights: • Six kinds of materials were investigated for thermal energy storage (550–1200 °C). • Partial melting of Al–Si materials show progressively changing temperatures. • Studied materials can be used in three different working temperature ranges. • Materials are potentially good candidates for thermal energy storage applications.

  6. Copper sulfide microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion storage

    Zhang, Yiyong; Li, Kun; Wang, Yunhui; Zeng, Jing; Ji, Panying; Zhao, Jinbao, E-mail: jbzhao@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepare the nanocomposites of Cu{sub x}S microspheres wrapped with rGO. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO can effectively accommodate large volume changes. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO supply a 2D conductive network. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO trap the polysulfides generated during the discharge–charge. • The Cu{sub x}S/rGO has high capacity, cycle stability and excellent rate capability. - Abstract: In this study, a facile two-step approach was developed to prepare the nanocomposites (Cu{sub x}S/rGO) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The morphology and structure of Cu{sub x}S/rGO materials were researched by using SEM, XRD and laser Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites, as an active anode material in LIBs, showed distinctly improved electrochemical characteristics, superior cycling stability and high rate capability. Due to the synergistic effect between the Cu{sub x}S microspheres and the rGO nanosheets, as-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites could effectively alleviate large volume changes, provide a 2D conductive network and trap the diffusion of polysulfides during the discharge–charge processes, therefore, the Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites showed excellent electrochemical characteristics.

  7. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  8. Stress distribution and pressure-bearing capacity of a high-pressure split-cylinder die with prism cavity

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Liyan; Qu, Erhu; Yi, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    A novel high-pressure belt-type die with a split-type cylinder is investigated with respect to extending its lifetime and improving its pressure bearing capacity. Specifically, a tungsten carbide cylinder is split into several parts along the radial direction with a prism-type cavity. In this paper, the cylinders with different split numbers are chosen to study the stress distribution and compare them with the traditional belt-type die. The simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has much smaller stress than those in the belt-type cylinder, and the statistical analysis reveals that the split-pressure cylinder is able to bear higher pressure. Experimental tests also show that the high-pressure die with a split cylinder and prism cavity has a stronger pressure-bearing capacity than a belt-type die. The split cylinder has advantages of easy manufacturing, high pressure bearing capacity, and replaceable performance.

  9. Morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbons for high capacity lithium sulfur batteries

    Schuster, Joerg David

    2011-06-07

    The focus of this thesis concerns the morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials. Ordered mesoporous carbons with diverse morphologies, that are thin films, fibers - embedded in anodic alumina membranes and free-standing - or spherical nanoparticles, have been successfully prepared by soft-templating procedures. The mechanisms of structure formation and processing were investigated with in-situ SAXS measurements and their application in high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries was successfully tested in cooperation with Guang He and Linda Nazar from the University of Waterloo in Canada. The Li-S batteries receive increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density which is 3 to 5 times higher than from lithium-ion batteries. For this type of battery the specific pore volume is crucial for the content of the active component (sulfur) in the cathode and therefore correlates with the capacity and gravimetric energy density of the battery. At first, mesoporous thin films with 2D-hexagonal structure were obtained through organic-organic self-assembly of a preformed oligomeric resol precursor and the triblock copolymer template Pluronic P123. The formation of a condensed-wall material through thermopolymerization of the precursor oligomers resulted in mesostructured phenolic resin films. Subsequent decomposition of the surfactant and partial carbonization were achieved through thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. The films were crack-free with tunable homogenous thicknesses, and showed either 2D-hexagonal or lamellar mesostructure. An additional, yet unknown 3D-mesostructure was also found. In the second part, cubic and circular hexagonal mesoporous carbon phases in the confined environment of tubular anodic alumina membrane (AAM) pores were obtained by self-assembly of the mentioned resol precursor and the triblock copolymer templates Pluronic F127 or P123, respectively. Casting and solvent-evaporation were also followed by

  10. Microwave photonics technologies supporting high capacity and flexible wireless communications systems

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Tatarczak, Anna; Rommel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques....

  11. High-Capacity Multi-Core Fibers for Space-Division Multiplexing

    Ye, Feihong

    The transmission capacity of the present optical fiber communication systems based on time division multiplexing (TDM) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) using single-mode fibers (SMFs) is reaching its limit of around 100 Tbit/s per fiber due to the fiber nonlinearities, fiber fuse...... phenomenon and the optical amplifier bandwidth. To meet the ever increasing global data traffic growth and to overcome the looming capacity crunch, a new multiplexing technology using new optical fibers is urgently needed. Space-division multiplexing (SDM) is a promising scheme to overcome the capacity limit...... of the present SMF-based systems. Among the proposed SDM schemes, the one based on uncoupled multi-core fibers (MCFs) having multiple cores in a mutual cladding has proven effective in substantially increasing the transmission capacity per fiber with least system complexity as demonstrated in several state...

  12. MIMO Intensity-Modulation Channels: Capacity Bounds and High SNR Characterization

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of MIMO intensity modulation channels is studied. The nonnegativity of the transmit signal (intensity) poses a challenge on the precoding of the transmit signal, which limits the applicability of classical schemes in this type

  13. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume

  14. Metabolic syndrome in family practice in Jordan: a study of high-risk groups.

    Yasein, N; Masa'd, D

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and its components, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Jordanian patients attending a family practice clinic for management of cardiovascular risk factors. The sample was 730 randomly selected patients aged > or = 25 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.4% (31.7% in men; 41.0% in women). The prevalence increased with age in the total sample and in both sexes. High waist circumference showed the highest prevalence in the total sample (61.6%). Among females it ranked as the first criterion (73.5%). High serum triglyceride level showed the highest prevalence in males (50.2%). Differences between the sexes were significant. Family practitioners should be alerted to the importance of multiple risk factors in the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    Narges Pishva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases.Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for investigation of the patients.Lethargy, poor feeding ,persistent vomiting, cholestasis, intractable seizure ,decreased level of consciousness ,persistent hypoglycemia, unexplained acid base disturbance and unexplained neonatal death.Result: Organic acidemia with 40 cases (42% was the most frequent disorder diagnosed in our high risk populations, followed by disorder of galactose metabolism(30%, 15 patient had classic galactosemia(GALT

  16. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    Narges Pishva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases. Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for investigation of the patients. Lethargy, poor feeding ,persistent vomiting, cholestasis, intractable seizure ,decreased level of consciousness ,persistent hypoglycemia, unexplained acid base disturbance and unexplained neonatal death. Result: Organic acidemia with 40 cases (42% was the most frequent disorder diagnosed in our high risk populations, followed by disorder of galactose metabolism(30%, 15 patient had classic galactosemia(GALT

  17. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice12345

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas DE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Design: Folic acid–supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Results: Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr+/− mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr+/− livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr+/− mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. Conclusions: We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2

  18. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice.

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas D E; Rozen, Rima

    2015-03-01

    Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr(+/-) livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr(+/-) mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2-hit mechanism whereby mutant hepatocytes cannot

  19. Factors affecting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients

    Hitsumoto T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Hitsumoto,1 Kohji Shirai2 1Hitsumoto Medical Clinic, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Vascular Function (donated, Sakura Hospital, Toho University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The blood concentration of cardiac troponin T (ie, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T [hs-cTnT], measured using a highly sensitive assay, represents a useful biomarker for evaluating the pathogenesis of heart failure or predicting cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the clinical significance of hs-cTnT in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting hs-cTnT elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Patients and methods: We enrolled 258 metabolic syndrome patients who were middle-aged males without a history of cardiovascular events. We examined relationships between hs-cTnT and various clinical parameters, including diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. Results: There were no significant correlations between hs-cTnT and diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. However, hs-cTnT was significantly correlated with age (P<0.01, blood concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.01, reactive oxygen metabolites (markers of oxidative stress, P<0.001, and the cardio–ankle vascular index (marker of arterial function, P<0.01. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that these factors were independent variables for hs-cTnT as a subordinate factor. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that in vivo oxidative stress and abnormality of arterial function are closely associated with an increase in hs-cTnT concentrations in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Keywords: troponin, metabolic syndrome, risk factor, oxidative stress, cardio–ankle vascular index

  20. Damping Capacity of High Manganese Austenitic Stainless Steel with a Two Phase Mixed Structure of Martensite and Austenite

    Hwang, Tae Hyun; Kang, Chang-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The damping capacity of high manganese austenitic stainless steel with a two phase mixed structure of deformation-induced martensite and reversed austenite was studied. Reversed austenite with an ultra-fine grain size of less than 0.2 μm was obtained by reversion treatment. The two phase structure of deformation-induced martensite and reversed austenite was obtained by annealing treatment at a range of 500-700 °C and various times in cold rolled high manganese austenitic stainless steel. The damping capacity increased with an increasing annealing temperature and time. In high manganese stainless steel with the two phase mixed structure of martensite and austenite, the damping capacity decreased with an increasing volume fraction of deformation-induced martensite. Thus, the damping capacity was strongly affected by deformation-induced martensite. The results confirmed that austenitic stainless steel with a good combination of strength and damping capacity was obtained from the two phase mixed structure of austenite and martensite.

  1. Improving Reversible Capacities of High-Surface Lithium Insertion Materials – The Case of Amorphous TiO{sub 2}

    Ganapathy, Swapna [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionucleides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Basak, Shibabrata [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Lefering, Anton; Rogers, Edith [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionucleides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Zandbergen, Henny W. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Wagemaker, Marnix, E-mail: m.wagemaker@tudelft.nl [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionucleides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-11-28

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we report a marked improvement in the capacity retention of amorphous TiO{sub 2} by the choice of preparation solvent, control of annealing temperature, and the presence of surface functional groups. Careful heating of the amorphous TiO{sub 2} sample prepared in acetone under vacuum lead to complete removal of all molecular solvent and an improved capacity retention of 220 mAh/g over 50 cycles at a C/10 rate. Amorphous TiO{sub 2} when prepared in ethanol and heated under vacuum showed an even better capacity retention of 240 mAh/g. From Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, the improved capacity is attributed to the complete removal of ethanol and the presence of very small fractions of residual functional groups coordinated to oxygen-deficient surface titanium sites. These displace the more reactive chemisorbed hydroxyl groups, limiting reaction with components from the electrolyte and possibly enhancing the integrity of the solid electrolyte interface. The present research provides a facile strategy to improve the capacity retention of nano-structured electrode materials.

  2. Improving Reversible Capacities of High-Surface Lithium Insertion Materials – The Case of Amorphous TiO2

    Ganapathy, Swapna; Basak, Shibabrata; Lefering, Anton; Rogers, Edith; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we report a marked improvement in the capacity retention of amorphous TiO 2 by the choice of preparation solvent, control of annealing temperature, and the presence of surface functional groups. Careful heating of the amorphous TiO 2 sample prepared in acetone under vacuum lead to complete removal of all molecular solvent and an improved capacity retention of 220 mAh/g over 50 cycles at a C/10 rate. Amorphous TiO 2 when prepared in ethanol and heated under vacuum showed an even better capacity retention of 240 mAh/g. From Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, the improved capacity is attributed to the complete removal of ethanol and the presence of very small fractions of residual functional groups coordinated to oxygen-deficient surface titanium sites. These displace the more reactive chemisorbed hydroxyl groups, limiting reaction with components from the electrolyte and possibly enhancing the integrity of the solid electrolyte interface. The present research provides a facile strategy to improve the capacity retention of nano-structured electrode materials.

  3. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that survive sublethal doses of nucleopolyhedrovirus exhibit high metabolic rates.

    Bouwer, Gustav; Nardini, Luisa; Duncan, Frances D

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of sublethal doses of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV) on the metabolic rate of H. armigera, the respiration rates of third instar H. armigera larvae inoculated with sublethal doses of HearSNPV were evaluated. Respiration rates, measured as the rate of CO(2) production (VCO(2)), were recorded daily using closed-system respirometry. By 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), the metabolic rates of LD(25) or LD(75) survivors were significantly higher than that of uninoculated controls. When dose data were pooled, the VCO(2) values of larvae that survived inoculation (0.0288mlh(-1)), the uninoculated controls (0.0250mlh(-1)), and the larvae that did not survive inoculation (0.0199mlh(-1)) differed significantly from one another. At 4dpi, the VCO(2) of the uninoculated controls were significantly lower than the VCO(2) of inoculation survivors, but significantly higher than the VCO(2) of inoculation non-survivors. Inoculation survivors may have had high metabolic rates due to a combination of viral replication, organ damage, and an energy-intensive induced cellular immune response. The high 4dpi metabolic rate of inoculation survivors may reflect an effective immune response and may be seen as the metabolic signature of larvae that are in the process of surviving inoculation with HearSNPV.

  4. High Yolk Testosterone Transfer Is Associated with an Increased Female Metabolic Rate.

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Canale, Cindy I; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Yolk androgens of maternal origin are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although in many species short-term benefits of exposure to high yolk androgen concentrations for the offspring have been observed, females differ substantially in the amount of androgens they transfer to their eggs. It suggests that costs for the offspring or the mother constrain the evolution of maternal hormone transfer. However, to date, the nature of these costs remains poorly understood. Unlike most previous work that focused on potential costs for the offspring, we here investigated whether high yolk testosterone transfer is associated with metabolic costs (i.e., a higher metabolic rate) for the mother. We show that Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) females that deposit higher testosterone concentrations into their eggs have a higher resting metabolic rate. Because a higher metabolic rate is often associated with a shorter life span, this relationship may explain the negative association between yolk testosterone transfer and female longevity observed in the wild. Our results suggest that metabolic costs for the mother can balance the short-term benefits of yolk testosterone exposure for the offspring, thereby contributing to the maintenance of variation in maternal yolk hormone transfer in natural populations.

  5. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  6. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity.We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs.Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of tumor initiation, development and

  7. Groundwater-Surface water interaction in agricultural watershed that encompasses dense network of High Capacity wells

    Talib, A.; Desai, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Sands region of Wisconsin is characterized by productive trout streams, lakes, farmland and forest. However, stream channelization, past wetland drainage, and ground water withdrawals have disrupted the hydrology of this Central Sands region. Climatically driven conditions in last decade (2000-2008) alone are unable to account for the severely depressed water levels. Increased interception and evapotranspiration from afforested areas in central sand Wisconsin may also be culprit for reduced water recharge. Hence, there is need to study the cumulative effects of changing precipitation patterns, groundwater withdrawals, and forest evapotranspiration to improve projections of the future of lake levels and water availability in this region. Here, the SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model approach was applied at large spatio-temporal scale. The coupled model fully integrates a watershed model (SWAT) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). Surface water and ground water flows were simulated integratively at daily time step to estimate the groundwater discharge to the stream network in Central Sands that encompasses high capacity wells. The model was calibrated (2010-2013) and validated (2014-2017) based on streamflow, groundwater extraction, and water table elevation. As the long-term trends in some of the primary drivers is presently ambiguous in Central Sands under future climate, as is the case for total precipitation or timing of precipitation, we relied on a sensitivity student to quantitatively access how primary and secondary drivers may influence future net groundwater recharge. We demonstrate how such an approach could then be coupled with decision-making models to evaluate the effectiveness of groundwater withdrawal policies under a changing climate.

  8. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols.

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio 1. The biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage were analysed POST, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. All HIIT protocols caused an immediate increase in IL-6, TAC, CK, myoglobin and LDH. The most pronounced between-trials differences were found for the POST-exercise changes in IL-6 (Effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 1.51 ± 0.63, 0.84 ± 0.34 and 1.80 ± 0.60 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively) and myoglobin (1.11 ± 0.29, 0.45 ± 0.48 and 1.09 ± 0.22 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively). There were no substantial between-trial differences in other biochemical variables. In conclusion, the 15s/15s and 60s/60s protocols might be preferred to the 30s/30s protocols in order to maximize the training stimulus.

  9. MX 8: the next generation high capacity system for the transport of fresh MOX fuel

    Potelle, F.; Issard, H.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of reprocessing policy was made a long time ago in France, leading to the development of an advanced Pu recycling industry. In 1987, Saint Laurent was the first French reactor to be loaded with fresh MOX fuel. Transnucleaire, then in charge of transport packaging development, created the FS 69 concept, derived from the classical RCC concept for the transport of UO 2 fresh fuel. On the other hand, Cogema, as the main actor in the field of fuel cycle and thus in transport matters, developed the associated security truck and security caisson in order to provide the transport system with the acceptable Physical Protection devices required by French Authorities. As a whole, the security truck and the FS 69 have now been used for more than ten years with a remarkable level of efficiency and safety. Indeed, more than 600 fresh MOX fuel elements have been delivered, without any incident, both regarding safety or fuel integrity requirements. But, as a matter of fact, the replacement of FS 69 transport system is now scheduled for several reasons. First of all, the burnups achieved with UO 2 fuel progressed together with its enrichment within the last ten years, and the MOX 'equivalence' also implies that its Pu content be increased to enhance its reactor performances: from 5.25 % of Pu content today, the MOX fuel will reach 7% tomorrow, and almost 10% the day after tomorrow. Lastly, the reprocessing/recycling policy has been confirmed and amplified, leading to an increasing number of 'moxified' reactors. As a consequence, the French utility (EDF), the fuel designer (Fragema, the joint venture between Framatome and Cogema), the fuel manufacturer (Cogema), and the transporter (Transnucleaire) joined in a specific working group devoted to the development of the MX 8, the next generation high capacity system for the land transport of MOX fuel. (authors)

  10. Environmentally friendly and highly productive bi-component melt spinning of thermoregulated smart polymer fibres with high latent heat capacity

    Ch. Cherif

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A stable and reproducible bi-component melt spinning process on an industrial scale incorporating Phase Change Material (PCM into textile fibres has been successfully developed and carried out using a melt spinning machine. The key factor for a successful bi-component melt spinning process is that a deep insight into the thermal and rheological behaviour of PCM using Difference Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, and an oscillatory rheological investigation. PCM is very sensitive to the temperature and residence time of the melt spinning process. It is found that the optimal process temperature of PCM is 210 °C. The textile-physical properties and the morphology of the melt spun and further drawn bi-component core and sheath fibres (bico fibres were investigated and interpreted. The heat capacities of PCM incorporated in bico fibres were also determined by means of DSC. The melt spun bico fibres integrating PCM provide a high latent heat of up to 22 J/g, which is three times higher than that of state-of-the-art fibres, which were also obtained using the melt spinning process. Therefore, they have the potential to be used as smart polymer fibres for textile and other technical applications.

  11. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  13. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  14. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  15. Criminal Use of Assault Weapons and High-Capacity Semiautomatic Firearms: an Updated Examination of Local and National Sources.

    Koper, Christopher S; Johnson, William D; Nichols, Jordan L; Ayers, Ambrozine; Mullins, Natalie

    2017-10-02

    Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban. This study investigates current levels of criminal activity with assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics in the USA using several local and national data sources including the following: (1) guns recovered by police in ten large cities, (2) guns reported by police to federal authorities for investigative tracing, (3) guns used in murders of police, and (4) guns used in mass murders. Results suggest assault weapons (primarily assault-type rifles) account for 2-12% of guns used in crime in general (most estimates suggest less than 7%) and 13-16% of guns used in murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics together generally account for 22 to 36% of crime guns, with some estimates upwards of 40% for cases involving serious violence including murders of police. Assault weapons and other high-capacity semiautomatics appear to be used in a higher share of firearm mass murders (up to 57% in total), though data on this issue are very limited. Trend analyses also indicate that high-capacity semiautomatics have grown from 33 to 112% as a share of crime guns since the expiration of the federal ban-a trend that has coincided with recent growth in shootings nationwide. Further research seems warranted on how these weapons affect injuries and deaths from gun violence and how their regulation may impact public health.

  16. Facile ultrasonic synthesis of CoO quantum dot/graphene nanosheet composites with high lithium storage capacity.

    Peng, Chengxin; Chen, Bingdi; Qin, Yao; Yang, Shihe; Li, Chunzhong; Zuo, Yuanhui; Liu, Siyang; Yang, Jinhu

    2012-02-28

    In this paper, we report a facile ultrasonic method to synthesize well-dispersed CoO quantum dots (3-8 nm) on graphene nanosheets at room temperature by employing Co(4)(CO)(12) as cobalt precursor. The prepared CoO/graphene composites displayed high performance as an anode material for lithium-ion battery, such as high reversible lithium storage capacity (1592 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (over 95%), excellent cycling stability, and high rate capability (1008 mAh g(-1) with a total retention of 77.6% after 50 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1), dramatically increased from the initial 50 mA g(-1)). The extraordinary performance arises from the structure advantages of the composites: the nanosized CoO quantum dots with high dispersity on conductive graphene substrates supply not only large quantity of accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for lithium ions, which are beneficial for high capacity and rate capability. Meanwhile, the isolated CoO quantum dots anchored tightly on the graphene nanosheets can effectively circumvent the volume expansion/contraction associated with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, which is good for high capacity as well as cycling stability. Moreover, regarding the anomalous behavior of capacity increase with cycles (activation effect) observed, we proposed a tentative hypothesis stressing the competition between the conductivity increase and the amorphorization of the composite electrodes during cycling in determining the trends of the capacity, in the hope to gain a fuller understanding of the inner working of the novel nanostructured electrode-based lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Novel asymptotic results on the high-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-06-01

    The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework for the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels. As such, this novel framework for the higher-order statistics results in simple, closed-form expressions which are shown to be asymptotically tight bounds in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime of a variety of fading environment. In addition, it reveals the existence of differences (i.e., constant capacity gaps in log-domain) among different fading environments. By asymptotically tight bound we mean that the high SNR limit of the difference between the actual higher-order statistics of the channel capacity and its asymptotic bound (i.e., lower bound) tends to zero. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Metabolic Effects of High Altitude Trekking in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    de Mol, Pieter; Fokkert, Marion J.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Gans, Rijnold O. B.; Tack, Cees J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Limited information is available regarding the metabolic effects of high altitude trekking in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes took part, in a 12-day expedition to the summit of Mount Toubkal (altitude, 4,167 m), Morocco,

  19. Metabolic effects of high altitude trekking in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Mol, P. de; Fokkert, M.J.; Vries, S.T. de; Koning, E.J. de; Dikkeschei, B.D.; Gans, R.O.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bilo, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Limited information is available regarding the metabolic effects of high altitude trekking in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes took part in a 12-day expedition to the summit of Mount Toubkal (altitude, 4,167 m), Morocco,

  20. Retrofit Strategies for Incorporating Xenobiotic Metabolism into High Throughput Screening Assays (EMGS)

    The US EPA’s ToxCast program is designed to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints using a variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. However, existing HTS assays have limited or no xenobiotic metabolism which could lead to a mischaracterization...

  1. Hijacking CRISPR-Cas for high-throughput bacterial metabolic engineering: advances and prospects

    Mougiakos, Ioannis; Bosma, Elleke F.; Ganguly, Joyshree

    2018-01-01

    High engineering efficiencies are required for industrial strain development. Due to its user-friendliness and its stringency, CRISPR-Cas-based technologies have strongly increased genome engineering efficiencies in bacteria. This has enabled more rapid metabolic engineering of both the model host...... the range of organisms in which it can be used to create novel production hosts. This review analyses the current status of prokaryotic metabolic engineering towards the production of biotechnologically relevant products, based on the exploitation of different CRISPR-related DNA/RNA endonuclease variants....

  2. A high-throughput method for quantifying metabolically active yeast cells

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Rosenkjær, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    By redesigning the established methylene blue reduction test for bacteria and yeast, we present a cheap and efficient methodology for quantitative physiology of eukaryotic cells applicable for high-throughput systems. Validation of themethod in fermenters and highthroughput systems proved....... The drop in metabolic activity associated with the diauxic shift in yeast proved more pronounced for the MBRT-derived curve compared with OD curves, consistent with a dramatic shift in the ratio between live and dead cells at this metabolic event. This method provides a tool with numerous applications, e.......g. characterizing the death phase of stationary phase cultures, or in drug screens with pathogenic yeasts....

  3. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration......; C), propanol (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM; P), and propylacetate (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM and 15 g propylacetate/kg DM; PPA) in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14 d period. Daily rations were fed in three equally sized portions at 8 hour intervals and 8 hourly sets of ruminal fluid, arterial...

  4. High capacity V-based metal hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    Yang, Heng; Weadock, Nicholas J.; Tan, Hongjin; Fultz, Brent

    2017-01-01

    We report the successful development of Ti_(29)V_(62−x)Ni_9Cr_x (x = 0, 6, 12) body centered cubic metal hydride (MH) electrodes by addressing vanadium corrosion and dissolution in KOH solutions. By identifying oxygen as the primary source of corrosion and eliminating oxygen with an Ar-purged cell, the Cr-free Ti_(29)V_(62)Ni_9 alloy electrode achieved a maximum capacity of 594 mAh g^(-1), double the capacity of commercial AB_5 MH electrodes. With coin cells designed to minimize oxygen evolut...

  5. Low-cost and high-capacity short-range optical interconnects using graded-index plastic optical fiber

    Tangdiongga, E.; Yang, H.; Lee, S.C.J.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a transmission rate of 51.8 Gb/s over 100-meters of perfluorinated multimode graded-index plastic optical fiber using discrete multitone modulation. The results prove suitability of plastic fibers for low-cost high-capacity optical interconnects.

  6. Three-dimensional carbon network confined antimony nanoparticle anodes for high-capacity K-ion batteries.

    Han, Chunhua; Han, Kang; Wang, Xuanpeng; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Qi; Meng, Jiashen; Xu, Xiaoming; He, Qiu; Luo, Wen; Wu, Liming; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-04-19

    Antimony (Sb) represents a promising anode for K-ion batteries (KIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity and suitable working voltage. However, the large volume change that occurs in the potassiation/depotassiation process can lead to severe capacity fading. Herein, we report a high-capacity anode material by in situ confining Sb nanoparticles in a three-dimensional carbon framework (3D SbNPs@C) via a template-assisted freeze-drying treatment and subsequent carbothermic reduction. The as-prepared 3D SbNPs@C hybrid material delivers high reversible capacity and good cycling stability when used as the anode for KIBs. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and in situ X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the intrinsic mechanism of a K-Sb alloying reaction. Therefore, this work is of great importance to understand the electrochemical process of the Sb-based alloying reaction and will pave the way for the exploration of high performance KIB anode materials.

  7. Improving reversible capacities of high-surface lithium insertion materials – the case of amorphous TiO2

    Ganapathy, S.; Basak, S.; Lefering, A.; Rogers, E.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Wagemaker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorbed water and solvent molecules and their reactivity with components from the electrolyte in high-surface nano-structured electrodes remains a contributing factor toward capacity diminishment on cycling in lithium ion batteries due to the limit in maximum annealing temperature. Here, we

  8. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2011-01-01

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering

  9. Synthesis and properties of a high-capacity iron oxide adsorbent for fluoride removal from drinking water

    Zhang, Chang; Li, Yingzhen; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping; Fok, Jason

    2017-12-01

    A novel iron oxide adsorbent with a high fluoride adsorption capacity was prepared by a facile wet-chemical precipitation method and ethanol treatment. The ethanol-treated adsorbent was amorphous and had a high specific surface area. The adsorption capacity of the treated adsorbent was much higher than that of untreated adsorbent. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent prepared at a low final precipitation pH (≤9.0) and treated with ethanol reached 60.8 mg/g. A fast adsorption rate was obtained, and 80% of the adsorption equilibrium capacity was achieved within 2 min. The adsorbent had high fluoride-removal efficiency for water in a wide initial pH range of 3.5-10.3 and had a high affinity for fluoride in the presence of common co-anions. The ethanol treatment resulted in structure transformation of the adsorbent by inhibiting the crystallization of the nano-precipitates. The adsorption was confirmed to be ion exchange between fluoride ions and the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface.

  10. Feasible Metabolic Schema Associated with High pH Springs in the Philippines

    DAWN eCARDACE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign targeting high pH springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to evaluate feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms.

  11. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  12. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with HIV in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Lombo, Bernardo; Alkhalil, Imran; Golden, Marjorie P; Fotjadhi, Irma; Ravi, Sreedhar; Virata, Michael; Lievano, Marta; Diez, Jose; Ghantous, Andre; Donohue, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as the standard of care for HIV disease, there has been a precipitous decline in the death rate due to HIV/ AIDS. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV infected patients. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 259 patients with HIV infection treated with cART from an urban community hospital. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Study patients were included regardless of the duration of cART. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27% using IDF criteria and 26% using ATP III criteria. Logistic regression analysis found an association between treatment with the protease inhibitor darunavir and metabolic syndrome. (OR 3.32 with 95% confidence interval between 1.54 and 7.15). There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in HIV patients treated with cART, especially those taking the protease inhibitor darunavir.

  13. An unusual cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis: pyroglutamic acidemia. A case report.

    Romero, Jorge E; Htyte, Nay

    2013-01-01

    Pyroglutamic acidemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder, which is usually diagnosed at early ages. The mechanism of action is thought to be glutathione depletion, and its clinical manifestations consist of hemolytic anemia, mental retardation, ataxia, and chronic metabolic acidosis. However, an acquired form has been described in adult patients, who usually present with confusion, respiratory distress, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). It is also associated with many conditions, including chronic acetaminophen consumption. A 68-year-old white male, with chronic acetaminophen use presented to our service on multiple occasions with severe HAGMA. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and required mechanical ventilation and aggressive supportive measures. After ruling out the most frequent etiologies for his acid-base disorder and considering the long history of Tylenol ingestion, his 5-oxiproline (pyroglutamic acid) levels were sent to diagnose pyroglutamic acidemia. Clinicians need to be aware of this cause for metabolic acidosis since it might be a more common metabolic disturbance in compromised patients than would be expected. Subjects with HAGMA that cannot be explained by common causes should be tested for the presence of 5-oxoproline. Discontinuation of the offending drug is therapeutic.

  14. Chitin Oligosaccharide Modulates Gut Microbiota and Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

    Junping Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has been proved to be an indispensable link between nutrient excess and metabolic syndrome, and chitin oligosaccharide (NACOS has displayed therapeutic effects on multiple diseases such as cancer and gastritis. In this study, we aim to confirm whether NACOS can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic syndrome by rebuilding the structure of the gut microbiota community. Male C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD were treated with NACOS (1 mg/mL in drinking water for five months. The results indicate that NACOS improved glucose metabolic disorder in HFD-fed mice and suppressed mRNA expression of the protein regulators related to lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation in adipose tissues. Additionally, NACOS inhibited the destruction of the gut barrier in HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, 16S ribosome RNA sequencing of fecal samples demonstrates that NACOS promoted the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria remarkably and decreased the abundance of inflammogenic taxa. In summary, NACOS partly rebuilt the microbial community and improved the metabolic syndrome of HFD-fed mice. These data confirm the preventive effects of NACOS on nutrient excess-related metabolic diseases.

  15. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  16. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  17. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  18. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; de Wolf, F.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van Leth, F. C.; Lowe, S. H.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pogány, K.; van der Poll, T.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; van der Valk, M.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van Eeden, A.; ten Veen, J. H.; van Dam, P. S.; Roos, J. C.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  19. Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Enzymatic Hydrolysate from High Purity Oleuropein and DPPH Radical Scavenging Capacity

    Yuan, Jiaojiao; Li, Bing; Qin, Frank G. F.; Tu, Junling

    2018-01-01

    High purify oleuropein (81.04% OL) was hydrolyzed by hemicellulase and phenols was existed in the ethyl acetate extract of enzymatic hydrolysate (EAE). The results presented that there were hydroxytyrosol (HT), tyrosol, caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid in EAE by HPLC, and HT content was 19.36%. Antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging capacity) were all added as the samples concentration increased, and dose-effect relationships also existed. HT possessed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity, followed by Vc, and eugenol, OL, caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.

  20. Uncommonly high levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and antioxidant capacity in the leaf sheaths of dye sorghum

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Berghofer, E.; Siebenhandl-Ehn, S.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from leaf sheaths of farmers varieties of dye sorghum cultivated and used in Benin as a source of biocolorings were analyzed for their anthocyanidin and phenolic contents, as well as their antioxidant capacity. The aim was to identify and quantify the types of anthocyanin and phenolic

  1. High-Capacity Quantum Secure Communication with Authentication Using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Pairs

    Xiao Min; Xu Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new protocol for quantum secure communication with authentication is proposed. The proposed protocol has a higher capacity as each EPR pair can carry four classical bits by the XOR operation and an auxiliary photon. The security and efficiency are analyzed in detail and the major advantage of this protocol is that it is more efficient without losing security. (paper)

  2. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  3. Study of genetic effects of high energy radiations with different ionizing capacities on extracellular phages.

    Bresler, S E; Kalinin, V L; Kopylova, Y U; Krivisky, A S; Rybchin, V N; Shelegedin, V N

    1975-07-01

    The inactivating and mutagenic action of high-energy radiations with different ionizing capacities (gamma-rays, protons, alpha-particles and accelerated ions of 12C and 20Ne) was studied by using coliphages lambda11 and SD as subjects. In particular the role of irradiation conditions (broth suspension, pure buffer, dry samples) and of the host functions recA, exrA and polA was investigated. The dose-response curve of induced mutagenesis was studied by measuring the yield of vir mutants in lambda11 and plaque mutants in SD. The following results were obtained. (1) The inactivation kinetics of phages under the action of gamma-rays and protons was first order to a survival of 10(-7). Heavy ions also showed exponential inactivation kinetics to a survival of 10(-4). At higher doses of 20Ne ion bombardment some deviation from one-hit kinetics was observed. For dry samples of phages the dimensions of targets for all types of radiation were approximately proportional to the molecular weights of phage DNA's. For densely ionizing radiation (heavy ions) the inactivating action was 3-5 times weaker than for gamma-rays and protons. (2) Mutagenesis was observed for all types of radiation, but heavy ions were 1-5-2 times less efficient than gamma-rays. For both phages studied the dose-response curve of mutagenesis was non-linear. The dependence on the dose was near to parabolic for lambda11. For SD a plateau or maximum of mutagenesis was observed for the relative number of mutants at a survival of about 10(-4). (3) Host-cell functions recA and exrA were practically indifferent for survival of gamma-irradiated phage lambda11, but indispensable for mutagenesis. Mutation recAI3 abolished induced vir mutations totally and exrA- reduced them significantly. The absence of the function polA had a considerable influence on phage survival, but no effect on vir mutation yield (if compared at the same survival level). (4) In conditions of indirect action of gamma-rays no vir mutations were

  4. Highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states as source of specific heat capacity anomalies in magnetic frustrated systems

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Anomalies of the specific heat capacity are investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the geometrically frustrated tetrahedron recursive lattice. It is shown that the Schottky-type anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity is related to the existence of unique highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states which are formed on the borders between neighboring plateau-like ground states. It is also shown that the very existence of these single-point ground states with large residual entropies predicts the appearance of another anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity for low temperatures, namely, the field-induced double-peak structure, which exists, and should be observed experimentally, along with the Schottky-type anomaly in various frustrated magnetic system.

  5. Circulation, metabolism, and ventilation during prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide and to high altitude

    Klausen, K.; Rasmussen, B; Gjellerod, H.; Madsen, H.; Petersen, E.

    1968-01-01

    Eight volunteers were exposed to CO (13% COHb) or high altitude (3454 m). There was no change in circulation, metabolism, or ventilation during CO exposure. With similar arterial O/sub 2/ concentration from high-altitude, V/sub e/ (BTPS) increased, Pa/sub CO/sub 2// decreased. Regulating mechanisms respond to a decrease in Pa/sub CO/sub 2// rather than a gereral lack in tissue O/sub 2/ per se.

  6. Tailoring nanostructured MnO2 as anodes for lithium ion batteries with high reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency

    Zhang, Lifeng; Song, Jiajia; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-03-01

    Developing high energy storage lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using manganese oxides as anodes is an attractive challenge due to their high theoretical capacity and abundant resources. However, the manganese oxides anodes still suffer from the low initial Coulombic efficiency and poor rate performance. Herein, we demonstrate that nano-sized morphological engineering is a facile and effective strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of the manganese dioxide (MnO2) for LIBs. The tailored MnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit high reversible capacity (1095 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), high initial Coulombic efficiency (94.5%) and good rate capability (464 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performance of MnO2 NPs can be attributed to the presences of numerous electrochemically active sites and interspaces among the NPs.

  7. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running.

    Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Malisch, Jessica L; Garland, Theodore

    2005-06-01

    Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, using 48 females from generation 35. Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. Following this, V(O2max) was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2). Almost all measurements, except heliox V(O2max), were significantly repeatable. After accounting for differences in body mass (S running speeds on the treadmill. However, running speeds and V(O2max) during voluntary exercise were significantly higher in S lines. Nevertheless, S mice never voluntarily achieved the V(O2max) elicited during their forced treadmill trials, suggesting that aerobic capacity per se is not limiting the evolution of even higher wheel-running speeds in these lines. Our results support the hypothesis that S mice have genetically higher motivation for wheel-running and they demonstrate that behavior can sometimes evolve independently of performance capacities. We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations.

  8. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ∼90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of ultra-high pressure homogenisation on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol and vitamin content of clear apple juice.

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Rüfer, Corinna E; Gervilla, Ramón; Guamis, Buenaventura; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Saldo, Jordi

    2011-07-15

    Ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) is a recently developed technology and is still under study to evaluate its effect on different aspects of its application to food products. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of UHPH treatments on quality characteristics of apple juice such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol composition, vitamin C and provitamin A contents, in comparison with raw (R) and pasteurised (PA) apple juice. Several UHPH treatments that include combinations of pressure (100, 200 and 300MPa) and inlet temperatures (4 and 20°C) were assayed. Apple juice was pasteurised at 90°C for 4min. Antioxidant capacity was analysed using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay while total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. According to the FRAP and DPPH assays, UHPH processing did not change apple juice antioxidant capacity. However, significant differences were detected between samples analysed by TEAC and ORAC assays. In spite of these differences, high correlation values were found between the four antioxidant capacity assays, and also with total polyphenol content. The analysis and quantification of individual phenols by HPLC/DAD analytical technique reflects that UHPH-treatment prevented degradation of these compounds. Vitamin C concentrations did not change in UHPH treated samples, retaining the same value as in raw juice. However, significant losses were observed for provitamin A content, but lower than in PA samples. UHPH-treatments at 300MPa can be an alternative to thermal treatment in order to preserve apple juice quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Phloretin Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Metabolic Homeostasis.

    Alsanea, Sary; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects of phloretin treatment on body weight and composition, fat content in the liver, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance were monitored and compared to the control animals. Phloretin treatment significantly blocks high-fat diet-induced weight gain but did not induce weight loss in obese animals. Phloretin improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation. RT-PCR analysis showed that phloretin treatment suppresses expression of macrophage markers (F4/80 and Cd68) and pro-inflammatory genes (Mcp-1 and Ccr2) and enhances adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue. In addition, phloretin treatment elevated the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and 1b (Cpt1a and Cpt1b) and reduced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1), de novo lipogenesis transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2), and its target monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (Mgat-1) genes. These results provide direct evidence to support a possible use of phloretin for mitigation of obesity and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.

  14. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plus High-Sugar Diet Provokes a Metabolic Crisis That Inhibits Growth

    Kemppainen, Esko; George, Jack; Garipler, Görkem; Tuomela, Tea; Kiviranta, Essi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Dunn, Cory D.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila mutant tko25t exhibits a deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced by mechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko25t larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by high-sugar diet. These include elevated pyruvate and lactate, decreased ATP and NADPH. Dietary pyruvate or lactate supplementation phenocopied the effects of high sugar. Based on tissue-specific rescue, the crucial tissue in which this metabolic crisis initiates is the gut. It is accompanied by down-regulation of the apparatus of cytosolic protein synthesis and secretion at both the RNA and post-translational levels, including a novel regulation of S6 kinase at the protein level. PMID:26812173

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plus High-Sugar Diet Provokes a Metabolic Crisis That Inhibits Growth.

    Kemppainen, Esko; George, Jack; Garipler, Görkem; Tuomela, Tea; Kiviranta, Essi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Dunn, Cory D; Jacobs, Howard T

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila mutant tko25t exhibits a deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced by mechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko25t larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by high-sugar diet. These include elevated pyruvate and lactate, decreased ATP and NADPH. Dietary pyruvate or lactate supplementation phenocopied the effects of high sugar. Based on tissue-specific rescue, the crucial tissue in which this metabolic crisis initiates is the gut. It is accompanied by down-regulation of the apparatus of cytosolic protein synthesis and secretion at both the RNA and post-translational levels, including a novel regulation of S6 kinase at the protein level.

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plus High-Sugar Diet Provokes a Metabolic Crisis That Inhibits Growth.

    Esko Kemppainen

    Full Text Available The Drosophila mutant tko25t exhibits a deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced by mechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko25t larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by high-sugar diet. These include elevated pyruvate and lactate, decreased ATP and NADPH. Dietary pyruvate or lactate supplementation phenocopied the effects of high sugar. Based on tissue-specific rescue, the crucial tissue in which this metabolic crisis initiates is the gut. It is accompanied by down-regulation of the apparatus of cytosolic protein synthesis and secretion at both the RNA and post-translational levels, including a novel regulation of S6 kinase at the protein level.

  17. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  18. Optimal Capacitor Bank Capacity and Placement in Distribution Systems with High Distributed Solar Power Penetration

    Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cho, Gyu-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Oh, Yun-Sik [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Kim, Min-Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Kim, Ji-Soo [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University, Korea

    2018-02-01

    Capacitor banks have been generally installed and utilized to support distribution voltage during period of higher load or on longer, higher impedance, feeders. Installations of distributed energy resources in distribution systems are rapidly increasing, and many of these generation resources have variable and uncertain power output. These generators can significantly change the voltage profile across a feeder, and therefore when a new capacitor bank is needed analysis of optimal capacity and location of the capacitor bank is required. In this paper, we model a particular distribution system including essential equipment. An optimization method is adopted to determine the best capacity and location sets of the newly installed capacitor banks, in the presence of distributed solar power generation. Finally we analyze the optimal capacitor banks configuration through the optimization and simulation results.

  19. High capacity Si/DC/MWCNTs nanocomposite anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Zhou Zhibin; Xu Yunhua; Liu Wengang; Niu Libin

    2010-01-01

    Nanocomposites comprising nanocrystal silicon (Si), disordered carbon (DC), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) - denoted as Si/DC/MWCNTs - have been prepared by pyrolyzing the phenol-formaldehyde resin (PFR) mixed with Si and MWCNTs. This nanocomposite anode material showed a discharge capacity of 1216 mAh/g in the first cycle, and a charge capacity of 711 mAh/g after 20 charge-discharge, much higher than that of Si/DC composite. It can be observed that Si particles wrapped in MWCNTs were homogeneously embedded into the matrix of the DC. The improved electrochemical performance is hypothesized to be mainly attributed to the morphology stability of the composite due to the excellent resiliency and distinct electric conductivity of the MWCNTs.

  20. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity.

    Meyers, Allison M; Mourra, Devry; Beeler, Jeff A

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6) received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets.

  1. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity.

    Allison M Meyers

    Full Text Available The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6 received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets.

  2. Concepts for a low emittance-high capacity storage ring for the Diamond Light Source

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal; Zegenhagen, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is investigating several paths for a possible machine upgrade to Diamond II. The exercise is driven by a joint assessment of the science capabilities opened by a very low emittance ring and the machine design that will underpin them. The consultation is made on a beamline-by-beamline basis and has highlighted a significant preference for lattices that combine both a low emittance and large capacity for IDs.

  3. High Capacity Cathode and Carbon Nanotube-Supported Anode for Enhanced Energy Density Batteries

    2017-09-07

    110-118, 2014. [15] J. B. Fei, et al., “Controlled preparation of MnO2 hierarchical hollow nanostructures and their application in water treatment ...and fixed load step ( grey shading) cell voltage and electrode potentials plotted vs. cell capacity, (b) 5th cycle discharge and fixed load step ( grey ...42  Figure 26. (a) 5th cycle discharge and fixed load step ( grey

  4. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  5. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  6. Capacity extended bismuth-antimony cathode for high-performance liquid metal battery

    Dai, Tao; Zhao, Yue; Ning, Xiao-Hui; Lakshmi Narayan, R.; Li, Ju; Shan, Zhi-wei

    2018-03-01

    Li-Bi based liquid metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted interest due to their potential for solving grid scale energy storage problems. In this study, the feasibility of replacing the bismuth cathode with a bismuth-antimony alloy cathode in lithium based LMBs is investigated. The influence of the Bi:Sb ratio on voltage characteristics is evaluated via the constant current discharge method and electrochemical titration. On observing the cross section of the electrode at various stages of discharge, it is determined that both Sb and Bi form solid intermetallics with Li on the cathode. Additionally, the addition of Bi not only reduces the melting temperature of the Bi:Sb intermetallic but also actively contributes to the electrode capacity. Thereafter, a Li|LiCl-LiF|Sb-Bi liquid metal battery with 3 A h nameplate capacity, assembled and cycled at 1 C rate, is found to possess a stable capacity for over 160 cycles. The overall performance of this battery is discussed in the context of cost effectiveness, energy and coulombic efficiencies.

  7. Rapid high-throughput assay to assess scavenging capacity index using DPPH.

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Arribas, Silvia M; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-11-15

    A new microplate-adapted DPPH rapid assay was developed to assess the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and foods. The assay was carried out in buffered medium (methanol: 10mmol/l Tris buffer pH 7.5, 1:1 v/v) and reaction was completed at 10min. The scavenging capacity index (SCI), a theoretical antioxidant parameter directly related to the antioxidant capacity of samples, was calculated. SCI for pure compounds: gallic acid (6.76±0.08), quercetin (7.89±0.24), catechin (6.05±0.23), trolox (2.32±0.03), ascorbic acid (2.52±0.15) and gluthatione (1.08±0.08) and foods (μmol DPPH scavenged/100ml): tropical juice (655.62±12.18), mediterraneo juice (702.87±11.13), apple juice (212.52±17.22), pomegranate juice (319.83±9.45), red grape nectar (1093.05±18.69), Don Simon orange juice (632.94±17.22) and date syrup (15992.34±250.7) were comparable to those in previous reports using the classic DPPH assay. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the SCI on the same and different days was less than 8.12% in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  9. Nanoscale surface modification of Li-rich layered oxides for high-capacity cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Lan, Xiwei; Xin, Yue; Wang, Libin; Hu, Xianluo

    2018-03-01

    Li-rich layered oxides (LLOs) have been developed as a high-capacity cathode material for Li-ion batteries, but the structural complexity and unique initial charging behavior lead to several problems including large initial capacity loss, capacity and voltage fading, poor cyclability, and inferior rate capability. Since the surface conditions are critical to electrochemical performance and the drawbacks, nanoscale surface modification for improving LLO's properties is a general strategy. This review mainly summarizes the surface modification of LLOs and classifies them into three types of surface pre-treatment, surface gradient doping, and surface coating. Surface pre-treatment usually introduces removal of Li2O for lower irreversible capacity while surface doping is aimed to stabilize the structure during electrochemical cycling. Surface coating layers with different properties, protective layers to suppress the interface side reaction, coating layers related to structural transformation, and electronic/ionic conductive layers for better rate capability, can avoid the shortcomings of LLOs. In addition to surface modification for performance enhancement, other strategies can also be investigated to achieve high-performance LLO-based cathode materials.

  10. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  11. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  12. High energy diets-induced metabolic and prediabetic painful polyneuropathy in rats.

    Fang Xie

    Full Text Available To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals.

  13. High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats

    Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt) deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals. PMID:23451227

  14. Ultra high resolution SFC-MS as a high throughput platform for metabolic phenotyping: application to metabolic profiling of rat and dog bile.

    Jones, Michael D; Rainville, Paul D; Isaac, Giorgis; Wilson, Ian D; Smith, Norman W; Plumb, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Ultra high resolution SFC-MS (on sub-2μm particles) coupled to mass spectrometry has been evaluated for the metabolic profiling of rat and dog bile. The selectivity of the SFC separation differed from that seen in previous reversed-phase UPLC-MS studies on bile, with the order of elution for analytes such as e.g., the bile acids showing many differences. The chromatography system showed excellent stability, reproducibility and robustness with relative standard deviation of less than 1% for retention time obtained over the course of the analysis. SFC showed excellent chromatographic performance with chromatographic peak widths in the order of 3s at the base of the peak. The use of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide as a mobile phase solvent also reduced the overall consumption of organic solvent by a factor of 3 and also reduced the overall analysis time by a factor of 30% compared to reversed-phase gradient LC. SFC-MS appear complementary to RPLC for the metabolic profiling of complex samples such as bile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SnO and SnO·CoO nanocomposite as high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Das, B., E-mail: bijoy822000@gmail.com; Reddy, M.V.; Chowdari, B.V.R, E-mail: phychowd@nus.edu.sg

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The preparation methods are simple, low cost and can be scaled up for large production. • SnO is cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. • SnO shows high reversible capacity (Theoretical reversible capacity: 875 mA h g{sup −1}). • We showed high reversible capacity and columbic efficiency for SnO and SnO based composites. • We addressed the capacity degradation by introducing secondary phase (CoO and CNT etc.) - Abstract: We prepared SnO nanoparticles (SnO–S) and SnO·CoO nanocomposites (SnO·CoO–B) as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by chemical and ball-milling approaches, respectively. They are characterized by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. The Li- storage performance are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. The SnO–S and SnO·CoO–B showed improved cycling performance due to their finite particle size (i.e. nano-size) and presence of secondary phase (CoO). Better cycling stability is noticed for SnO·CoO–B with the expense of their reversible capacity. Also, addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to SnO–S further improved the cycling performance of SnO–S. When cycled at 60 mA g{sup −1}, the first-cycle reversible capacities of 635, 590 and 460 (±10) mA h g{sup −1} are noticed for SnO–S, SnO@CNT and SnO·CoO–B, respectively. The capacity fading observed are 3.7 and 1.8 mA h g{sup −1} per cycle for SnO–S and SnO@CNT, respectively; whereas 1–1.2 mA h g{sup −1} per cycle for SnO·CoO–B. All the samples show high coulombic efficiency, 96–98% in the range of 5–50 cycles.

  16. Metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles in cows from herds with high or low mastitis incidence.

    Holtenius, K; Persson Waller, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Holtenius, P; Hallén Sandgren, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.

  17. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  18. Fabrication of high-capacity polyelectrolyte brush-grafted porous AAO-silica composite membrane via RAFT polymerization.

    Song, Cunfeng; Wang, Meijie; Liu, Xin; Wang, He; Chen, Xiaoling; Dai, Lizong

    2017-09-01

    Surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has been utilized to fabricate high-capacity strong anion-exchange (AEX) membrane for the separation of protein. By means of RAFT polymerization, quaternized poly(3-(methacrylamidomethyl)-pyridine) brushes formed 3-dimensional nanolayers on the surface of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO)-silica composite membrane. The surface properties of the membranes were analyzed by SEM, water contact angle, ATR-FTIR, XPS and TGA. To investigate the adsorption performance, the new AEX membranes were applied to recover a model protein, ovalbumin (OVA). High adsorption capacities of 95.8mg/g membranes (static) and 65.3mg/g membranes (dynamic) were obtained at ambient temperature. In the further studies, up to 90% of the adsorbed OVA was efficiently eluted by using phosphate buffer-1M NaCl as elution medium. The successful separation of OVA with high purity from a mixture protein solution was also achieved by using the AEX membranes. The present study demonstrated that under mild reaction condition, RAFT polymerization can be used to fabricate ion-exchange membrane which has many remarkable features, such as high capacity and selectivity, easy elution and so on. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Stress Dispersed Cu Metal Anode by Laser Multiscale Patterning for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Capacity

    Jin-Young So

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric power production continues to increase as the industry advances, and the demand for high-capacity batteries for efficient operation of the electric power produced is higher than ever before. Si has been attracting a great deal of attention recently as an anode electrode material because of its high theoretical capacity. However, it suffers from significant capacity-loss, resulting from the volume-expansion of Si during charge and discharge cycles. Inspired by the multiscale structures commonly found in nature, we attempt to solve this problem by patterning the surface of the Cu current-collector. To this end, we develop a direct, one-step method using laser patterning to manufacture a multiscale structure on the surface of the current-collector. The inherent exfoliation characteristic of the Cu current-collector allows the spontaneous formation of the multiscale structure while being irradiated with a laser. A micro/nano structure, with a different surface area, is fabricated by varying the laser output at three levels, and the batteries prepared with the fabricated Cu current-collector are tested to evaluate their charge-discharge characteristics and electrochemical impedance. The results show that the multiscale structure reduces mechanical stress. The initial capacity of the Cu current-collector is proportional to the laser output, and the initial capacity of the coin cell prepared with the Cu current-collector, fabricated at the highest laser output, is 396.7% higher than that of the coin cell prepared with a bare Cu current-collector. The impedance is inversely proportional to the laser output. The charge transfer resistance of the coin cell prepared with the Cu current-collector and irradiated with the highest laser output is 190.2% lower than that of the coin cell prepared with the bare Cu current-collector.

  20. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  1. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  2. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  3. Approach for implementing burnup credit in high-capacity truck casks

    Boshoven, J.; Hopf, J.; Su, S.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) will be submitting an application for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the GA-4 and GA-9 Casks in 1992. To maintain a capacity of four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies, the GA-4 Cask uses burnup credit as part of the criticality control for the higher enrichments. Using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Burnup Credit Program as a basis, GA presents here an approach to burnup credit analysis to be included in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Influence of two high-intensity intermittent training programmes on anaerobic capacity in humans

    K Buśko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of a maximal effort training programme with variation of the pedalling rate on the anaerobic capacity, post-exercise maximal concentration of lactic acid (LA and acid-alkali balance changes in the capillary blood. Identification of the dependence between the lactic acid concentration and the anaerobic capacity produced in the Wingate test was also the goal. The hypothesis that cycloergometer training consisting of maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW will elicit bigger changes of measured values in comparison to training with a load of 5% BW was verified. Twenty non-athletes, students of UPE took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (M10; n=9 performed maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW. The second group (M5; n=11 performed maximal efforts with a load of 5% BW. Control measurements of anaerobic capacity (Wingate test were taken every Monday: before the test (0, during 4 weeks of training (1-4 and for 2 weeks after the test (5-6. Blood for the determination of lactic acid concentration and acid-alkali balance was taken from the fingertip before performing the Wingate test – in the 5th, 7th, 9th and 30th resting minute. Changes of maximal power (Pmax were not statistically significant in either group. Significant differences were found between the two groups after the second week of rest. For mean power (Pm the most important changes were noted in the first week from training (M10 – 6.5%; M5 – 11.0% No significant differences were found between groups. Average values of the individual LA concentration peak (the highest LA concentration occurring after the Wingate test for each individual changed significantly in group M10 from 15.233±2.367 mmol/l in the measurement made before training to 12.340±2.353 mmol/l in the measurement taken 2 weeks after training. Group M5 is characterised by a change of this factor

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plus High-Sugar Diet Provokes a Metabolic Crisis That Inhibits Growth

    Kemppainen, Esko; George, Jack; Garipler, G?rkem; Tuomela, Tea; Kiviranta, Essi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Dunn, Cory D.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila mutant tko(25t) exhibits a deficiency ofmitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced bymechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko(25t) larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by h...

  6. Synthesis of metal-adeninate frameworks with high separation capacity on C{sub 2}/C{sub 1} hydrocarbons

    He, Yan-Ping, E-mail: hyp041@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Nan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Hunan GuangYi Experimental Middle School, Changsha, Hunan 410014 (China); Tan, Yan-Xi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-06-15

    By introducing isophthalic acid or 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid to assemble with adenine and cadmium salt, two isostructural and anionic porous metal-organic frameworks (1 and 2) possessing the novel (4,8)-connected sqc topology are presented here. 1 shows permanent porosity with Langmuir surface area of 770.1 m{sup 2}/g and exhibits high separation capacity on C{sub 2}/C{sub 1} hydrocarbons. - Graphical abstract: The assembly between isophthalic acid, adenine ligands and Cd{sup 2+} ions leads to an anionic porous metal-organic frameworks, which shows permanent porosity and exhibits high C{sub 2}/C{sub 1} hydrocarbons separation capacity. Display Omitted.

  7. Recent advances in high-capacity free-space optical and radio-frequency communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Ashrafi, Solyman

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed. A potential modal basis set to achieve MDM is to use orbital angular momentum (OAM) of EM waves. In such a system, multiple OAM beams each carrying an independent data stream are multiplexed at the transmitter, propagate through a common medium and are demultiplexed at the receiver. As a result, the total capacity and spectral efficiency of the communication system can be multiplied by a factor equal to the number of transmitted OAM modes. Over the past few years, progress has been made in understanding the advantages and limitations of using multiplexed OAM beams for communication systems. In this review paper, we highlight recent advances in the use of OAM multiplexing for high-capacity free-space optical and millimetre-wave communications. We discuss different technical challenges (e.g. atmospheric turbulence and crosstalk) as well as potential techniques to mitigate such degrading effects. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069770

  8. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Superposed Redox Chemistry of Fused Carbon Rings in Cyclooctatetraene-Based Organic Molecules for High-Voltage and High-Capacity Cathodes.

    Zhao, Xiaolin; Qiu, Wujie; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Yingqin; Wang, Kaixue; Zhang, Wenqing; Kang, Litao; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-01-24

    Even though many organic cathodes have been developed and have made a significant improvement in energy density and reversibility, some organic materials always generate relatively low voltage and limited discharge capacity because their energy storage mechanism is solely based on redox reactions of limited functional groups [N-O, C═X (X = O, N, S)] linking to aromatic rings. Here, a series of cyclooctatetraene-based (C 8 H 8 ) organic molecules were demonstrated to have electrochemical activity of high-capacity and high-voltage from carbon rings by means of first-principles calculations and electronic structure analysis. Fused molecules of C 8 -C 4 -C 8 (C 16 H 12 ) and C 8 -C 4 -C 8 -C 4 -C 8 (C 24 H 16 ) contain, respectively, four and eight electron-deficient carbons, generating high-capacity by their multiple redox reactions. Our sodiation calculations predict that C 16 H 12 and C 24 H 16 exhibit discharge capacities of 525.3 and 357.2 mA h g -1 at the voltage change from 3.5 to 1.0 V and 3.7 to 1.3 V versus Na + /Na, respectively. Electronic structure analysis reveals that the high voltages are attributed to superposed electron stabilization mechanisms, including double-bond reformation and aromatization from carbon rings. High thermodynamic stability of these C 24 H 16 -based systems strongly suggests feasibility of experimental realization. The present work provides evidence that cyclooctatetraene-based organic molecules fused with the C 4 ring are promising in designing high-capacity and high-voltage organic rechargeable cathodes.

  10. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  11. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  12. Ability of Different Measures of Adiposity to Identify High Metabolic Risk in Adolescents

    Carla Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15–18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes, with exception of WHtR for boys. BMI, WC, and WHtR performed well in detecting high MRS, indicated by areas under the curve (AUC, with slightly greater AUC for BMI than for WC and WHtR in both sexes. Conclusion. All measures of adiposity were significantly associated with metabolic risk factors in a sample of Portuguese adolescents.

  13. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations.

    Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lihua; Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Cairong

    2017-08-02

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG). It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H₂ molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of -0.429 eV/H₂. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of -0.296 eV/H₂. The adsorption of H₂ molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H₂ molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  14. A completely automated flow, heat-capacity, calorimeter for use at high temperatures and pressures

    Rogers, P. S. Z.; Sandarusi, Jamal

    1990-11-01

    An automated, flow calorimeter has been constructed to measure the isobaric heat capacities of concentrated, aqueous electrolyte solutions using a differential calorimetry technique. The calorimeter is capable of operation to 700 K and 40 MPa with a measurement accuracy of 0.03% relative to the heat capacity of the pure reference fluid (water). A novel design encloses the calorimeter within a double set of separately controlled, copper, adiabatic shields that minimize calorimeter heat losses and precisely control the temperature of the inlet fluids. A multistage preheat train, used to efficiently heat the flowing fluid, includes a counter-current heat exchanger for the inlet and outlet fluid streams in tandem with two calorimeter preheaters. Complete system automation is accomplished with a distributed control scheme using multiple processors, allowing the major control tasks of calorimeter operation and control, data logging and display, and pump control to be performed simultaneously. A sophisticated pumping strategy for the two separate syringe pumps allows continuous fluid delivery. This automation system enables the calorimeter to operate unattended except for the reloading of sample fluids. In addition, automation has allowed the development and implementation of an improved heat loss calibration method that provides calorimeter calibration with absolute accuracy comparable to the overall measurement precision, even for very concentrated solutions.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Shear Strengthening Capacity of High Volume Fly Ash-Cementitious Composite

    Joseph, Aswin K.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses development of Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibre reinforced cementitious composites taking into account environmental sustainability. Composites with fly ash to cement ratios from 0 to 3 are investigated in this study. The mechanical properties of HVFA-cement composite are discussed in this paper at PVA fiber volume fraction maintained at 1% of total volume of composite. The optimum replacement of cement with fly ash was found to be 75%, i.e. fly ash to cement ratio (FA/C) of 3. The increase in fiber content from 1% to 2% showed better mechanical performance. A strain capacity of 2.38% was obtained for FA/C ratio of 3 with 2% volume fraction of fiber. With the objective of evaluating the performance of cementitious composites as a strengthening material in reinforced concrete beams, the beams deficient in shear capacity were strengthened with optimal mix having 2% volume fraction of fiber as the strengthening material and tested under four-point load. The reinforced concrete beams designed as shear deficient were loaded to failure and retrofitted with the composite in order to assess the efficiency as a repair material under shear.

  16. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations

    Yuhong Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The generalized gradient approximation (GGA function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG. It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H2 molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of −0.429 eV/H2. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of −0.296 eV/H2. The adsorption of H2 molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H2 molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  17. Unravelling the origin of irreversible capacity loss in NaNiO 2 for high voltage sodium ion batteries

    Wang, Liguang; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Pengjian; Yin, Geping; Wang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Layered transition metal compounds have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical capacity and energy density for sodium ion batteries. However, this kind of material suffers from serious irreversible capacity decay during the charge and discharge process. Here, using synchrotron-based operando transmission X-ray microscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction combined with electrochemical measurements, the visualization of the dissymmetric phase transformation and structure evolution mechanism of layered NaNiO2 material during initial charge and discharge cycles are clarified. Phase transformation and deformation of NaNiO2 during the voltage range of below 3.0 V and over 4.0 V are responsible for the irreversib