WorldWideScience

Sample records for high mass-resolution ion

  1. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  2. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  3. Characterization of flux-grown Trace-element-doped titanite using the high-mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdab, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of titanite can be readily grown under ambient pressure from a mixture of CaO, TiO2 and SiO2 in the presence of molten sodium tetraborate. The crystals produced are euhedral and prismatic, lustrous and transparent, and up to 5 mm in length. Titanite obtained by this method contains approximately 4300 ppm Na and 220 ppm B contributed from the flux. In addition to dopant-free material, titanite containing trace alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Sr, Ba), transition metals (Sc, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta), rare-earth elements (REE), actinides (Th, U) and p-block elements (F, S, Cl, Ge, Sn and Pb) have been prepared using the same procedure. Back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging accompanied by ion-microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analysis confirms significant incorporation of selected trace-elements at structural sites. Regardless of some zonation, the large size of the crystals and broad regions of chemical homogeneity make these crystals useful as experimental starting material, and as matrix-matched trace-element standards for a variety of microbeam analytical techniques where amorphous titanite glass, heterogeneous natural titanite or a non-titanite standard may be less than satisfactory. Trace-element-doped synthetic crystals can also provide a convenient proxy for a better understanding of trace-element incorporation in natural titanite. Comparisons with igneous, authigenic and high-temperature metasomatic titanite are examined. The use of high-mass-resolution SIMS also demonstrates the analytical challenges inherent to any in situ mass-spectrometry-based analysis of titanite, owing to the production of difficult-to-resolve molecular interferences. These interferences are dominated by Ca-Ca, Ca-Ti and Ti-Ti dimers that are significant in the mass range of 80-100, affecting all isotopes of Sr and Zr, as well as 89Y and 93Nb. Methods do exist for the evaluation of interferences by these dimers and of polyatomic interferences on the LREE.

  4. A fragmentation study of kaempferol using electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry at high mass resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Raymond E.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng

    2004-02-01

    A mass spectrometric method based on the combined use of electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation and tandem mass spectrometry at high mass resolution has been applied to an investigation of the structural characterization of protonated and deprotonated kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). Low-energy product ion mass spectra of [M+H]+ ions showed simple fragmentations of the C ring that permitted characterization of the substituents in the A and B rings. In addition, four rearrangement reactions accompanied by losses of C2H2O, CHO[radical sign], CO, and H2O were observed. Low-energy product ion mass spectra of [M-H]- ions showed only four rearrangement reactions accompanied by losses of OH[radical sign], CO, CH2O, and C2H2O. The use of elevated cone voltages permitted observation of product ion mass spectra of selected primary and secondary fragment ions so that each fragment ion reported was observed as a direct product of its immediate precursor ion. Product ion mass spectra examined at high mass resolution allowed unambiguous determination of the elemental composition of fragment ions and resolution of two pairs of isobars. Fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures have been proposed.

  5. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m∕Δm > 2500. The system design...

  6. High-mass-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of metabolites from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Alice; Buck, Achim; Balluff, Benjamin; Sun, Na; Gorzolka, Karin; Feuchtinger, Annette; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Weirich, Gregor; Erlmeier, Franziska; Langer, Rupert; Aubele, Michaela; Zitzelsberger, Horst; McDonnell, Liam; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are the gold standard for histological examination, and they provide valuable molecular information in tissue-based research. Metabolite assessment from archived tissue samples has not been extensively conducted because of a lack of appropriate protocols and concerns about changes in metabolite content or chemical state due to tissue processing. We present a protocol for the in situ analysis of metabolite content from FFPE samples using a high-mass-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) platform. The method involves FFPE tissue sections that undergo deparaffinization and matrix coating by 9-aminoacridine before MALDI-MSI. Using this platform, we previously detected ∼1,500 m/z species in the mass range m/z 50-1,000 in FFPE samples; the overlap compared with fresh frozen samples is 72% of m/z species, indicating that metabolites are largely conserved in FFPE tissue samples. This protocol can be reproducibly performed on FFPE tissues, including small samples such as tissue microarrays and biopsies. The procedure can be completed in a day, depending on the size of the sample measured and raster size used. Advantages of this approach include easy sample handling, reproducibility, high throughput and the ability to demonstrate molecular spatial distributions in situ. The data acquired with this protocol can be used in research and clinical practice.

  7. An update of combined measurements of the new Higgs-like boson with high mass resolution channels

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    An update is presented of the measurement of the newly discovered boson properties using the high mass resolution channels, $H\\rightarrow\\,\\gamma\\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ^{(*)}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$, with up to 4.8 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and 13 fb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. The combined mass measurement derived from the $H\\rightarrow\\,\\gamma\\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ^{(*)}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ channels is $m_H=125.2 \\pm 0.3\\,(stat)\\,\\, \\pm 0.6\\,(sys)$ GeV. The combination of all final states, including the recently updated low mass resolution channels $H\\rightarrow\\,WW^{(*)}{\\rightarrow\\,}\\ell\

  8. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  9. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  10. Analysis of high mass resolution PTR-TOF mass spectra from 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB environmental chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB photo-oxidation experiments was performed in the 27-m3 Paul Scherrer Institute environmental chamber under various NOx conditions. A University of Innsbruck prototype high resolution Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF was used for measurements of gas and particulate phase organics. The gas phase mass spectrum displayed ~200 ion signals during the TMB photo-oxidation experiments. Molecular formulas CNmHnNoOp were determined and ion signals were separated and grouped according to their C, O and N numbers. This allowed to determine the time evolution of the O:C ratio and of the average carbon oxidation state OSC of the reaction mixture. Both quantities were compared with master chemical mechanism (MCMv3.1 simulations. The O:C ratio in the particle phase was about twice the O:C ratio in the gas phase. Average carbon oxidation states of secondary organic aerosol (SOA samples OSCSOA were in the range of −0.34 to −0.31, in agreement with expected average carbon oxidation states of fresh SOA (OSC = −0.5 − 0.

  11. Fragmentation and Dijet Mass Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D

    2004-01-01

    At the LHC the overlap of minimum bias events and the jet energy deposits in a calorimeter causes a degradation in the dijet mass resolution. Guided by QCD, a judicious set of cuts can be developed to mitigate this degradation.

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacometabolomic study of pirfenidone in normal mouse tissues using high mass resolution MALDI-FTICR-mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Fernandez, Isis E; Wei, Mian; Wu, Yin; Aichler, Michaela; Eickelberg, Oliver; Walch, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of pirfenidone as the first worldwide-approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis treatment, its pharmacodynamic properties and the metabolic response to pirfenidone treatment have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to get molecular insights of pirfenidone-related pharmacometabolomic response using MALDI-FTICR-MSI. Quantitative MALDI-FTICR-MSI was carried out for determining the pharmacokinetic properties of pirfenidone and its related metabolites 5-hydroxymethyl pirfenidone and 5-carboxy pirfenidone in lung, liver and kidney. To monitor the effect of pirfenidone administration on endogenous cell metabolism, additional in situ endogenous metabolite imaging was performed in lung tissue sections. While pirfenidone is highly abundant and delocalized across the whole micro-regions of lung, kidney and liver, 5-hydroxymethyl pirfenidone and 5-carboxy pirfenidone demonstrate heterogeneous distribution patterns in lung and kidney. In situ endogenous metabolite imaging study of lung tissue indicates no significant effects of pirfenidone on metabolic pathways. Remarkably, we found 129 discriminative m/z values which represent clear differences between control and treated lungs, the majority of which are currently unknown. PCA analysis and heatmap view can accurately distinguish control and treated groups. This is the first pharmacokinetic study to investigate the tissue distribution of orally administered pirfenidone and its related metabolites simultaneously in organs without labeling. The combination of pharmametabolome with histological features provides detailed mapping of drug effects on metabolism as response of healthy lung tissue to pirfenidone treatment.

  13. Analysis of the chemical composition of organic aerosol at the Mt. Sonnblick observatory using a novel high mass resolution thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (hr-TD-PTR-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzinger, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337989338; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Staudinger, M.; Schauer, G.; Roeckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233

    2010-01-01

    For the first time a high mass resolution thermal desorption proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (hr-TD-PTR-MS) was deployed in the field to analyze the composition of the organic fraction of aerosols. We report on measurements from the remote Mt. Sonnblick observatory in the Austrian alps

  14. High mass resolution, high angular acceptance time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for planetary missions under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This final report covers three years and several phases of work in which instrumentation for the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) were successfully developed. There were two main thrusts to this research: (1) to develop and test methods for electrostatically scanning detector field-of-views, and (2) to improve the mass resolution of plasma mass spectrometers to M/delta M approximately 25, their field-of-view (FOV) to 360 degrees, and their E-range to cover approximately 1 eV to 50 keV. Prototypes of two different approaches to electrostatic scanning were built and tested. The Isochronous time-of-flight (TOF) and the linear electric field 3D TOF devices were examined.

  15. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  16. New high-resolution electrostatic ion mass analyzer using time of flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. C.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Lundgren, R. A.; Sheldon, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a high-resolution ion-mass analyzer is described, which is based on an accurate measurement of the time of flight (TOF) of ions within a region configured to produce a harmonic potential. In this device, the TOF, which is independent of ion energy, is determined from a start pulse from secondary electrons produced when the ion passes through a thin carbon foil at the entrance of the TOF region and at a stop pulse from the ion striking a microchannel plate upon exciting the region. A laboratory prototype instrument called 'VMASS' was built and was tested at the Goddard Space Flight Center electrostatic accelerator, showing a good mass resolution of the instrument. Sensors of the VMASS type will form part of the WIND Solar Wind and Suprathermal Ion experiment, the Soho mission, and the Advanced Composition Explorer.

  17. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  18. High precision electric gate for time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer having a chamber with electrodes to generate an electric field in the chamber and electric gating for allowing ions with a predetermined mass and velocity into the electric field. The design uses a row of very thin parallel aligned wires that are pulsed in sequence so the ion can pass through the gap of two parallel plates, which are biased to prevent passage of the ion. This design by itself can provide a high mass resolution capability and a very precise start pulse for an ion mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the ion will only pass through the chamber if it is within a wire diameter of the first wire when it is pulsed and has the right speed so it is near all other wires when they are pulsed.

  19. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  20. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  1. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs...

  2. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I d

  3. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  4. Surface nanostructures by single highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, S; Heller, R; El-Said, A S; Meissl, W; Aumayr, F

    2009-06-03

    It has recently been demonstrated that the impact of individual, slow but highly charged ions on various surfaces can induce surface modifications with nanometer dimensions. Generally, the size of these surface modifications (blisters, hillocks, craters or pits) increases dramatically with the potential energy of the highly charged ion, while the kinetic energy of the projectile ions seems to be of little importance. This paper presents the currently available experimental evidence and theoretical models and discusses the circumstances and conditions under which nanosized features on different surfaces due to the impact of slow highly charged ions can be produced.

  5. Handbook for highly charged ion spectroscopic research

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, Roger; Currell, Fred; Martinson, Indrek; Hagmann, Siegbert

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged ions are key research objects in atomic physics. Precision spectroscopy of such ions provides a powerful tool for exploring relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects. Additionally, the interaction of high-energy heavy-ions with matter is itself a topic of importance in many areas of applied physics, including fusion and plasma physics, accelerator physics, materials science and semiconductor device preparation and behavior. This work provides a complete overview of modern methods of studying highly charged ions. With chapters covering everything from the essential backgro

  6. Hydration of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S; Weiss, Alexander K H; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M

    2011-08-01

    Based on a series of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulations, the broad spectrum of structural and dynamical properties of hydrates of trivalent and tetravalent ions is presented, ranging from extreme inertness to immediate hydrolysis. Main group and transition metal ions representative for different parts of the periodic system are treated, as are 2 threefold negatively charged anions. The results show that simple predictions of the properties of the hydrates appear impossible and that an accurate quantum mechanical simulation in cooperation with sophisticated experimental investigations seems the only way to obtain conclusive results.

  7. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-03-13

    Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy.

  8. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  9. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  10. Fourier Transfrom Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-03-01

    At high magnetic field (9.4 tesla at NHMFL), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry performance improves dramatically: mass resolving power, axialization efficiency, and scan speed (each proportional to B), maximum ion mass, dynamic range, ion trapping period, kinetic energy, and electron self-cooling rate for sympathetic cooling (each proportional to B^2), and ion coalescence tendency (proportional 1/B^2). These advantages may apply singly (e.g., unit mass resolution for proteins of >100,000 Da), or compound (e.g., 10-fold improvement in S/N ratio for 9.4 T vs. 6 T at the same resolving power). Examples range from direct determination of molecular formulas of diesel fuel components by accurate mass measurement (=B10.1 ppm) to protein structure and dynamics probed by H/D exchange. This work was supported by N.S.F. (CHE-93-22824; CHE-94-13008), N.I.H. (GM-31683), Florida State University, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL.

  11. Experimental recombination rates for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold Schuch [Dept. of Atomic Physics, Stockholm Univ., Frescativ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies of recombination between free electrons and highly charged ions using electron coolers of heavy-ion storage rings have produced accurate rate coefficients of interest for plasma modeling and diagnostics. Some surprises were discovered which can lead to revisions of recombination models. With bare ions one finds at low energy a strong and puzzling deviation from radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic recombination with C3+, N4+ show that jj coupling gives essential contributions to the cross section also for light ions. (author)

  12. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  13. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S

    2013-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  14. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A.; Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 1012 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  15. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed.

  16. Oxygen ion energization observed at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Waara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of significant heating (up to 8 keV perpendicular to the geomagnetic field of outflowing oxygen ions at high altitude (12 RE above the polar cap. The shape of the distribution functions indicates that most of the heating occurs locally (within 0.2–0.4 RE in altitude. This is a clear example of local ion energization at much higher altitude than usually reported. In contrast to many events at lower altitudes, it is not likely that the locally observed wave fields can cause the observed ion energization. Also, it is not likely that the ions have drifted from some nearby energization region to the point of observation. This suggests that additional fundamentally different ion energization mechanisms are present at high altitudes. One possibility is that the magnetic moment of the ions is not conserved, resulting in slower outflow velocities and longer time for ion energization.

  17. High Spatial Resolution Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for the Masses: A Novel Orthogonal ToF FIB-SIMS Instrument with In Situ AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Whitby

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and performance of an orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF secondary ion mass spectrometer that can be retrofitted to existing focused ion beam (FIB instruments. In particular, a simple interface has been developed for FIB/SEM instruments from the manufacturer Tescan. Orthogonal extraction to the mass analyser obviates the need to pulse the primary ion beam and does not require the use of monoisotopic gallium to preserve mass resolution. The high-duty cycle and reasonable collection efficiency of the new instrument combined with the high spatial resolution of a gallium liquid metal ion source allow chemical observation of features smaller than 50 nm. We have also demonstrated the integration of a scanning probe microscope (SPM operated as an atomic force microscope (AFM within the FIB/SEM-SIMS chamber. This provides roughness information, and will also allow true three dimensional chemical images to be reconstructed from SIMS measurements.

  18. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    OpenAIRE

    S. GamminoINFN, LNS, Catania

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyc...

  19. (r) Mass Resolution versus Chamber Resolution in ALICE Dimuon Forward Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao

    2007-01-01

    The precisions and its sources of spatial resolutions of tracking chambers and mass resolutions of dimuon signals in ALICE Dimuon Forward Spectrometer are explored by tracking and reconstruction of AliRoot software. The dependences of (r) mass resolution on spatial resolution of tracking chambers are presented with and without background events through simulations.

  20. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Weber, M. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1995-11-01

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H{sup -}-sources each delivering a 70 mA H{sup -}-beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs.

  1. A high charge state multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Keller, R. (Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (US))

    1990-01-01

    Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (GSI) to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam. Results demonstrate that charge state as high as +7 can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. The brightness of a 11-mA xenon ion beam is found to be 26 A/({pi} mm mrad){sup 2}.

  2. High-Intensity, High Charge-State Heavy Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J

    2004-01-01

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions will be reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. The benefits and limitations for these type sources will be described, for both dc and pulsed applications. Possible future improvements in these type sources will also be discussed.

  3. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  4. Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.

  5. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  6. Magnotospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garrido

    Full Text Available High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O+ and He+ emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O+ (83.4 nm ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He+ and 83.4 nm O+ emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 RE or more is in a favourable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  7. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  8. (The physics of highly charged ions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1990-10-12

    The Fifth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions drew more than 200 participants, providing an excellent overview of this growing field. Important technical developments and experimental results in electron-ion collisions were reported. The merging of fast ion beams from accelerators or storage rings with advanced high-intensity electron-beam targets has yielded data of unprecedented quality on radiative and dielectronic recombination, providing stringent tests of theory. Long-awaited technical innovations in electron-impact excitation measurements were also reported. The level of activity in multicharged ion-surface interactions has increased. More sophisticated experimental studies of the neutralization process have shown the inadequacy of previously accepted mechanisms, and theoretical activity in this area is just being initiated. The IAEA meetings addressed atomic and molecular data needs for fusion research, with ITER providing a key focus. Such data are especially critical to modeling and diagnostics of the edge plasma. The ALADDIN data base system has been universally accepted and has streamlined the exchange of numerical data among data centers and the fusion community. The IAEA continues to play a pivotal role in the identification of data needs, and in the coordination of data compilation and research activities for fusion applications.

  9. High-energy ion implantation for ULSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Komori, S.; Kuroi, T.; Akasaka, Y. (LSI R and D Lab., Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Itami (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The ''well engineering'' of a retrograde twin well formed by high-energy ion implantation for 0.5 {mu}m CMOS is demonstrated to be quite useful in improving many device characteristics, such as leakage current reduction, soft-error immunity, low latchup susceptibility, smaller device isolation dimensions, etc. In forming a heavily doped buried layer by high-energy ion implantation, a drastic reduction in leakage current has been found. This would be caused by gettering of impurities or microdefects by secondary defects which are induced either by implantation of dopant itself (''self-gettering'') or by an additional implantation of oxygen, carbon or fluorine (''proximity gettering''). (orig.).

  10. Surface spectroscopy using high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, B.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Gray, T.J.; Justiniano, E.; Peercy, P.S.

    1983-04-01

    Surface atoms ionized by high energy heavy ions have been detected by time-of-flight and quadrupole mass spectroscopic techniques. The experimental arrangements are described and potential applications are suggested. Both techniques are demonstrated to produce significant improvements in the detection of atomic hydrogen, with the TOF method producing a nine order of magnitude increase in the sensitivity of atomic hydrogen compared to standard nuclear analysis methods.

  11. High-Power, High-Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in high-power photovoltaic technology have enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high-specific power solar arrays. At high specific powers, power levels ranging from 50 to several hundred kilowatts are feasible. Ion thrusters offer long life and overall high efficiency (typically greater than 70 percent efficiency). In Phase I, the team at ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc., built a 25-kW, 50-cm ion thruster discharge chamber and fabricated a laboratory model. This was in response to the need for a single, high-powered engine to fill the gulf between the 7-kW NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) system and a notional 25-kW engine. The Phase II project matured the laboratory model into a protoengineering model ion thruster. This involved the evolution of the discharge chamber to a high-performance thruster by performance testing and characterization via simulated and full beam extraction testing. Through such testing, the team optimized the design and built a protoengineering model thruster. Coupled with gridded ion thruster technology, this technology can enable a wide range of missions, including ambitious near-Earth NASA missions, Department of Defense missions, and commercial satellite activities.

  12. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  14. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap): An experimental realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  16. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  17. Frequency metrology using highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the scaling laws of relativistic fine structure splitting, many forbidden optical transitions appear within the ground state configurations of highly charged ions (HCI). In some hydrogen-like ions, even the hyperfine splitting of the 1s ground state gives rise to optical transitions. Given the very low polarizability of HCI, such laser-accessible transitions are extremely impervious to external perturbations and systematics that limit optical clock performance and arise from AC and DC Stark effects, such as black-body radiation and light shifts. Moreover, AC and DC Zeeman splitting are symmetric due to the much larger relativistic spin-orbit coupling and corresponding fine-structure splitting. Appropriate choice of states or magnetic sub-states with suitable total angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers can lead to a cancellation of residual quadrupolar shifts. All these properties are very advantageous for the proposed use of HCI forbidden lines as optical frequency standards. Extremely magnified relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, and nuclear size contributions to the binding energies of the optically active electrons make HCI ideal tools for fundamental research, as in proposed studies of a possible time variation of the fine structure constant. Beyond this, HCI that cannot be photoionized by vacuum-ultraviolet photons could also provide frequency standards for future lasers operating in that range.

  18. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkov, G. Yu., E-mail: gyushkov@mail.ru; Nikolaev, A. G.; Frolova, V. P. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  19. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  20. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  1. High Gluon Densities in Heavy Ions Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction $x$ of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of "saturation" which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the "saturation momentum", that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small $x$ gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in hea...

  2. Transfer ionization in collisions with a fast highly charged ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitkiv, A B

    2013-07-26

    Transfer ionization in fast collisions between a bare ion and an atom, in which one of the atomic electrons is captured by the ion whereas another one is emitted, crucially depends on dynamic electron-electron correlations. We show that in collisions with a highly charged ion a strong field of the ion has a very profound effect on the correlated channels of transfer ionization. In particular, this field weakens (strongly suppresses) electron emission into the direction opposite (perpendicular) to the motion of the ion. Instead, electron emission is redirected into those parts of the momentum space which are very weakly populated in fast collisions with low charged ions.

  3. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  4. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  5. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  6. Production of highly charged argon ions from a room temperature electron beam ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tie-Shan; PENG Hai-Bo; Ovsyannikov V P; Kentsch U; Ullmann F; CHENG Rui; Zschornack G

    2008-01-01

    In this work.highly charged ions have been extracted from the advanced Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS-A) developed in a scientific cooperation between the Dresden University of Technology and the DREEBIT GmbH Dresden.The charge state distributions of ions extracted from the EBIS-A are measured in and extracted in the leaky mode.3×105 Ar18+ ions per pulse are extracted in the pulse mode.The ion charge state distribution is a function of the ionization time.

  7. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  8. Ion sources for high-power hadron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources are a critical component of all particle accelerators. They create the initial beam that is accelerated by the rest of the machine. This paper will introduce the many methods of creating a beam for high-power hadron accelerators. A brief introduction to some of the relevant concepts of plasma physics and beam formation is given. The different types of ion source used in accelerators today are examined. Positive ion sources for producing H+ ions and multiply charged heavy ions are covered. The physical principles involved with negative ion production are outlined and different types of negative ion sources are described. Cutting edge ion source technology and the techniques used to develop sources for the next generation of accelerators are discussed.

  9. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  10. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Djekic, S. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Haeffner, H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Hermanspahn, N. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Moore, R. [McGill University (Canada); Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Weber, C. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Werth, G. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy.

  11. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M; Versolato, O O; Windberger, A; Brunner, F R; Ballance, T; Eberle, S N; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; Hansen, A K; Gingell, A D; Drewsen, M; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2012-08-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H(2) partial pressure of about 10(-15) mbar (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been set up to provide cold Be(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions.

  12. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...... (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been...... set up to provide cold Be+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions....

  13. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  14. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is preferent

  15. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is

  16. Comparison of unit resolution SRM and TOF-MS at 12,000 mass resolution for quantitative bioanalysis of 11 steroids from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousu, Timo; Tolonen, Ari

    2012-03-01

    The use of high-resolution MS systems for quantitative bioanalysis is a growing field, even though a clear majority of bioanalytical methods are still based on MS/MS with triple quadrupole (QqQ) instrumentation. The recent advances in TOF-MS technology have provided increased linear range and a high selectivity of detection by increased mass resolution and mass accuracy, making these instruments attractive for quantitative analysis due to lack of a need for compound-specific detection reaction optimization and their capability to collect data for a high number of compounds by sensitive wide mass range data acquisition. Here, 11 steroids spiked to human plasma were analyzed by LC-MS using both a QqQ MS system and a TOF instrument operating at 12,000 mass resolution. Sample preparation was performed by hybrid SPE technology. The LOD were 0.5-5 and 0.5-20 ng/ml in plasma for all analytes with QqQ and TOF-MS detection, respectively. Although the results show wider linear range and slightly better sensitivity for most of the compounds with QqQ in comparison to TOF, acceptable performance was obtained for most of the compounds within the range of LOD to 2000 ng/ml (in plasma), this was also the case with LC-TOF-MS analysis. The main problem in TOF-MS analysis at 12,000 mass resolution from plasma was selectivity rather than sensitivity or linear range.

  17. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion....... The introduction of new powerful HTS electrophysiological techniques is predicted to cause a revolution in ion channel drug discovery.......Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels...

  18. Highly charged ion X-rays from Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Boucard, S.; Covita, D. S.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Schlesser, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simons, L.M.; Stingelin, L.; Trassinelli, Martino; Veloso, J.; Wasser, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation from the highly-charged ions contained in the plasma of Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources constitutes a very bright source of X-rays. Because the ions have a relatively low kinetic energy ($\\approx 1$~eV) transitions can be very narrow, containing only small Doppler broadening. We describe preliminary accurate measurements of two and three-electron ions with $Z=16$--18. We show how these measurement can test sensitively many-body relativistic calculations or can be used as X-...

  19. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A. [SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., 1-17-6 Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-0032 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  20. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  1. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms.

  2. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  3. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  4. High energy heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, S L; Guo, H Y; Tu, C Q; Wang, Y L; Doke, T; Kato, T; Ozaki, K; Kyan, A; Piao, Y; Murakami, T

    1999-01-01

    Bubble detectors which are commonly used as neutron detectors have been demonstrated through this study to be good detectors for registration of high energy heavy ion tracks. Large size bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy were irradiated to heavy ions Ar and C up to 650 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u, respectively. Very clear features of stringy tracks of high energy heavy ions and their fragmentations are manifested and distinguishable. A single track created by a specific high energy heavy ion is composed of a line of bubbles, which is visible by naked eyes and retained for months without reduction in size. The creation of heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors is governed by a threshold whose essence is approximately a critical value of energy loss rate (dE/dX) sub c similar to that of etch track detectors. Ranges of heavy ions in bubble detectors are apparent and predictable by existing formulas. Identification of high energy heavy ions and the applications to heavy ion physics, cosmic rays, exot...

  5. Probing high energy levels of lanthanide ions - experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijzel, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of lanthanide ions. High-resolution emission and excitation spectra were recorded to investigate the VUV energy levels of lanthanide ions in fluoride and phosphate host lattices. A parameterized model for the calculation of the energy-level

  6. State selective capture by highly charged Xe ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, V. G.; Knoop, S.; Morgenstern, R.; Hoekstra, R.; McCullough, RW; Currell, FJ; Greenwood, J; Gribakin, G; Scott, MP

    2007-01-01

    Single-electron capture in collisions of highly charged ions Xe18+ and Xe24+ with Na atoms is investigated by measuring the momenta of the Na recoil ions. The Q-value spectrum in Xe18+ + Na collisions shows capture into lower n states compared with Classical over-barrier model (CBM) calculations.

  7. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  8. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. VI. Spectral graph analysis of chaotropic ion aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-11-01

    Carrying out molecular dynamics simulations and graph theoretical analyses of high salt solutions, and comparing numerically calculated vibrational spectroscopic properties of water with femtosecond IR pump-probe experimental data, we have recently found that ions in high salt solutions can form two morphologically different ion aggregate structures. In the cases of NaCl solutions, Na+ and Cl- tend to form compact cluster-like ion aggregate in high NaCl solutions. In contrast, K+ and SCN- form spatially extended network-like ion aggregates that also exhibit a percolating network behavior. Interestingly, a variety of graph theoretical properties of ion network in high KSCN solutions were found to be very similar to those of water H-bonding network. It was shown that spatially extended ion networks in high KSCN solutions are completely intertwined with water H-bonding networks, which might be the key to understand the high solubility of thiocyanate salts in water. Here, we further consider two salts that have been extensively studied experimentally by using femtosecond IR pump-probe technique, which are NaClO4 and NaBF4. Note that ClO4 - and BF4 - are well-known chaotropic ions that have been believed to behave as water structure breaker. To understand how such chaotropic ions affect water H-bonding structure, we carried out spectral graph analyses of molecular dynamics simulation data of these aqueous solutions. Graph spectra and degree distribution of ion aggregates formed in high NaBF4 and NaClO4 solutions show that these chaotropic anions also have a strong propensity to form ion networks. The fact that salts containing chaotropic ions like SCN-, BF4 - , and ClO4 - have very high solubility limits in water could then be related to our observation that these chaotropic anions with counter cations in high salt solutions are capable of forming intricate ion networks intertwined with water H-bonding networks. We anticipate that the present graph theoretical analysis

  9. Biomimetic ion nanochannels as a highly selective sequential sensor for zinc ions followed by phosphate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cuiping; Su, Haiyan; Sun, Zhongyue; Wen, Long; Tian, Demei; Xu, Kai; Hu, Junfeng; Wang, Aming; Li, Haibing; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-08

    A novel biomimetic ion-responsive multi-nanochannel system is constructed by covalently immobilizing a metal-chelating ligand, 2,2'-dipicolylamine (DPA), in polyporous nanochannels prepared in a polymeric membrane. The DPA-modified multi-nanochannels show specific recognition of zinc ions over other common metal ions, and the zinc-ion-chelated nanochannels can be used as secondary sensors for HPO4(2-) anions. The immobilized DPA molecules act as specific-receptor binding sites for zinc ions, which leads to the highly selective zinc-ion response through monitoring of ionic current signatures. The chelated zinc ions can be used as secondary recognition elements for the capture of HPO4(2-) anions, thereby fabricating a sensing nanodevice for HPO4(2-) anions. The success of the DPA immobilization and ion-responsive events is confirmed by measurement of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle (CA), and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the systems. The proposed nanochannel sensing devices display remarkable specificity, high sensitivity, and wide dynamic range. In addition, control experiments performed in complex matrices suggest that this sensing system has great potential applications in chemical sensing, biotechnology, and many other fields.

  10. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  11. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  12. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  13. MEMS ion-sorption high vacuum pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzebyk, T.; Knapkiewicz, P.; Szyszka, P.; Gorecka-Drzazga, A.; Dziuban, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    In the article a miniature MEMS-type ion-sorption vacuum pump has been presented. The influence of electric and magnetic field, as well as horizontal and vertical dimensions of the micropump and type of material used for electrodes on the pump properties has been investigated. It has been found that the micropump works efficiently as long as the magnetic field is higher than 0.3 T, and pumping cell is larger than 1x1x1 mm3. The pump allows generating vacuum at the level of 10-7-10-9 hPa in 100 mm3 volume.

  14. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Jensen, Bo Skaaning; Korsgaard, Mads P G; Christophersen, Palle

    2003-01-01

    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels. A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion channel targets accessible for drug screening. Specifically, genuine HTS parallel processing techniques based on arrays of planar silicon chips are being developed, but also lower throughput sequential techniques may be of value in compound screening, lead optimization, and safety screening. The introduction of new powerful HTS electrophysiological techniques is predicted to cause a revolution in ion channel drug discovery.

  15. Development of a laser ion source for production of high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Yamada, K.; Kurashima, S.

    2017-09-01

    A laser ion source has been developed as a high-intensity source for the ion implanter and the single pulsed beam of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron at TIARA. Highly charged beams of C5+ and C6+ ions and low-charged beams of heavy ions such as C, Al, Ti, Cu, Au, and Pt are required for the single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron and for the ion implanter, respectively. In the vacuum chamber of the ion source, a target holder on a three-dimensional linear-motion stage provides a fresh surface for each laser shot. A large-sized target with a maximum size of 300 mm × 135 mm is mounted on the holder for long-term operation. The ion current (ion charge flux) in the laser-produced plasma is measured by a Faraday cup and time-of-flight spectra of each charge state are measured using a 90° cylindrical electrostatic analyzer just behind the Faraday cup. Carbon-plasma-generation experiments indicate that the source produces intense high- and low-charged pulsed ion beams. At a laser energy of 483 mJ (2.3 × 1013 W/cm2), average C6+ current of 13 mA and average C5+ current of 23 mA were obtained over the required time duration for single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron (49 ns for C6+ and 80 ns for C5+). Furthermore, at 45 mJ (2.1 × 1012 W/cm2), an average C2+ current of 1.6 mA over 0.88 μs is obtained.

  16. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonin, A. A., E-mail: a.adonin@gsi.de; Hollinger, R. [Linac and Operations/Ion Sources, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  17. Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-Energy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an ion. We present calculations of these spectra for ions of identical linear energy transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these ions. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for ions. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-energy ions in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.

  18. Ion beams in SEM: An experiment towards a high brightness low energy spread electron impact gas ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jun, D.S.; Kutchoukov, V.G.; Kruit, P.

    2011-01-01

    A next generation ion source suitable for both high resolution focused ion beam milling and imaging applications is currently being developed. The new ion source relies on a method of which positively charged ions are extracted from a miniaturized gas chamber where neutral gas atoms become ionized b

  19. Highly Charged Protein Ions: The Strongest Organic Acids to Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Leeming, Michael G; Zhang, Fangtong; Funston, Toby T; Donald, William A

    2017-07-10

    The basicity of highly protonated cytochrome c (cyt c) and myoglobin (myo) ions were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry, ion-molecule reactions (IMRs), and theoretical calculations as a function of charge state. Surprisingly, highly charged protein ions (HCPI) can readily protonate non-polar molecules and inert gases, including Ar, O2 , and N2 in thermal IMRs. The most HCPIs that can be observed are over 130 kJ mol(-1) less basic than the least basic neutral organic molecules known (tetrafluoromethane and methane). Based on theoretical calculations, it is predicted that protonated cyt c and myo ions should spontaneously lose a proton to vacuum for charge states in which every third residue is protonated. In this study, HCPIs are formed where every fourth residue on average is protonated. These results indicate that protein ions in higher charge states can be formed using a low-pressure ion source to reduce proton-transfer reactions between protein ions and gases from the atmosphere. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Measurement of Metastable Lifetimes of Highly-Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is part of a series of measurements of metastable lifetimes of highly-charged ions (HCIs) which contribute to optical absorption, emission and energy balance in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), stellar atmospheres, etc. Measurements were carried out using the 14-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at the JPL HCI facility. The ECR provides useful currents of charge states such as C(sup(1-6)+), Mg(sup(1-6)+) and Fe(sup(1-17)+). In this work the HCI beam is focused into a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap for measuring lifetimes via optical decays.

  1. Trapped ion imaging with a high numerical aperture spherical mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, G; Dietrich, M R; Kurz, N; Blinov, B B, E-mail: shugang@u.washington.ed [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-1560 (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Efficient collection and analysis of trapped ion qubit fluorescence is essential for robust qubit state detection in trapped ion quantum computing schemes. We discuss simple techniques of improving photon collection efficiency using high numerical aperture (N.A.) reflective optics. To test these techniques we placed a spherical mirror with an effective N.A. of about 0.9 inside a vacuum chamber in the vicinity of a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate stable and reliable trapping of single barium ions, in excellent agreement with our simulations of the electric field in this setup. While a large N.A. spherical mirror introduces significant spherical aberration, the ion image quality can be greatly improved by a specially designed aspheric corrector lens located outside the vacuum system. Our simulations show that the spherical mirror/corrector design is an easy and cost-effective way to achieve high photon collection rates when compared to a more sophisticated parabolic mirror setup.

  2. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  3. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L., E-mail: sunlt@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  4. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  5. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  6. Focused ion beams using a high-brightness plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharay, Samar

    2002-10-01

    High-brightness ion beams, with low energy spread, have merits for many new applications in microelectronics, materials science, and biology. Negative ions are especially attractive for the applications that involve beam-solid interactions. When negative ions strike a surface, especially an electrically isolated surface, the surface charging voltage is limited to few volts [1]. This property can be effectively utilized to circumvent problems due to surface charging, such as device damage and beam defocusing. A compact plasma source, with the capability to deliver either positive or negative ion beams, has been developed. H- beams from this pulsed source showed brightness within an order of magnitude of the value for beams from liquid-metal ion sources. The beam angular intensity is > 40 mAsr-1 and the corresponding energy spread is 1 Acm-2 and a spot size of 100 nm. Such characteristics of focused beam parameters, using a dc source, will immediately open up a large area of new applications. [1] P. N. Guzdar, A. S. Sharma, S. K. Guharay, "Charging of substrates irradiated by particle beams" Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3302 (1997). [2] S. K. Guharay, E. Sokolovsky, J. Orloff, "Characteristics of ion beams from a Penning source for focused ion beam applications" J. Vac. Sci Technol. B17, 2779 (1999).

  7. Gridless, very low energy, high-current, gaseous ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizir, A. V.; Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, M. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    We have made and tested a very low energy gaseous ion source in which the plasma is established by a gaseous discharge with electron injection in an axially diverging magnetic field. A constricted arc with hidden cathode spot is used as the electron emitter (first stage of the discharge). The electron flux so formed is filtered by a judiciously shaped electrode to remove macroparticles (cathode debris from the cathode spot) from the cathode material as well as atoms and ions. The anode of the emitter discharge is a mesh, which also serves as cathode of the second stage of the discharge, providing a high electron current that is injected into the magnetic field region where the operating gas is efficiently ionized. In this discharge configuration, an electric field is formed in the ion generation region, accelerating gas ions to energy of several eV in a direction away from the source, without the use of a gridded acceleration system. Our measurements indicate that an argon ion beam is formed with an energy of several eV and current up to 2.5 A. The discharge voltage is kept at less than 20 V, to keep below ion sputtering threshold for cathode material, a feature which along with filtering of the injected electron flow, results in extremely low contamination of the generated ion flow.

  8. ECR Ion Source for a High-Brightness Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Justin; McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed

    2011-10-01

    New technology is being developed for high-brightness, high-current cyclotrons with performance benefits for accelerator-driven subcritical fission power, medical isotope production, and proton beam cancer therapy. This paper describes the design for a 65 kV electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source that will provide high-brightness beam for injection into the cyclotron. The ion source is modeled closely upon the one that is used at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Modifications are being made to provide enhanced brightness and compatibility for higher-current operation.

  9. Laserspray ionization, a new atmospheric pressure MALDI method for producing highly charged gas-phase ions of peptides and proteins directly from solid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D; Herath, Thushani N; McEwen, Charles N

    2010-02-01

    The first example of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) process producing multiply charged mass spectra nearly identical to those observed with electrospray ionization (ESI) is presented. MALDI is noted for its ability to produce singly charged ions, but in the experiments described here multiply charged ions are produced by laser ablation of analyte incorporated into a common MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, using standard solvent-based sample preparation protocols. Laser ablation is known to produce matrix clusters in MALDI provided a threshold energy is achieved. We propose that these clusters (liquid droplets) are highly charged, and under conditions that produce sufficient matrix evaporation, ions are field-evaporated from the droplets similarly to ESI. Because of the multiple charging, advanced mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge range can be used for protein characterization. Thus, using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, low femtomole quantities of proteins produce full-range mass spectra at 100,000 mass resolution with <5-ppm mass accuracy and with 1-s acquisition. Furthermore, the first example of protein fragmentation using electron transfer dissociation with MALDI is presented.

  10. Laserspray Ionization, a New Atmospheric Pressure MALDI Method for Producing Highly Charged Gas-phase Ions of Peptides and Proteins Directly from Solid Solutions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D.; Herath, Thushani N.; McEwen, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    The first example of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) process producing multiply charged mass spectra nearly identical to those observed with electrospray ionization (ESI) is presented. MALDI is noted for its ability to produce singly charged ions, but in the experiments described here multiply charged ions are produced by laser ablation of analyte incorporated into a common MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, using standard solvent-based sample preparation protocols. Laser ablation is known to produce matrix clusters in MALDI provided a threshold energy is achieved. We propose that these clusters (liquid droplets) are highly charged, and under conditions that produce sufficient matrix evaporation, ions are field-evaporated from the droplets similarly to ESI. Because of the multiple charging, advanced mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge range can be used for protein characterization. Thus, using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, low femtomole quantities of proteins produce full-range mass spectra at 100,000 mass resolution with <5-ppm mass accuracy and with 1-s acquisition. Furthermore, the first example of protein fragmentation using electron transfer dissociation with MALDI is presented. PMID:19955086

  11. High intensity ion beams in rf undulator linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Masunov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a radio frequency undulator field to accelerate a high intensity ion beam in a linac is discussed. Such an accelerator can be realized using the periodical interdigital H-type resonator structure. The accelerating force is produced by an electric field which is a combination of two or more spatial harmonics, none of them being synchronous with the ion beam. The value of this force is proportional to the squared charge. The equations of motion in Hamiltonian form are derived by means of smooth approximation. The analysis of the 3D effective potential function allows finding the conditions of the beam focusing and acceleration. Two ways to increase ion beam intensity are considered: (i to enlarge beam cross section; (ii to neutralize the beam space charge by accelerating ions with opposite charge signs within the same bunch. The basic results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  12. First composition measurements of positive chemiions in aircraft jet engine exhaust: detection of numerous ion species containing organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Division

    2002-06-01

    First mass-spectrometric composition measurements with high mass resolution of positive chemiions (CI) were made in the exhaust of an aircraft jet engine at ground level. The ion mass spectrometer used was a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer with a high mass resolution and a large mass range (up to 2000 atomic mass units (amu)). The mass spectrum which extends from 150 to 2000 amu is very crowded showing a mass peak at nearly every mass number m. CI with odd m are much more abundant than CI with even m. Groups of mass peaks separated by 14 amu are clearly noticeable indicating CH{sub 2} groups. Probably many of the observed positive CI are protonated massive volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of the observed positive CI may also be cluster ions composed of VOCs. (author)

  13. Ions in the Enceladus plume: Cassini/CAPS ion measurements at high energy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.; Hill, T. W.; Jones, G. H.; Tokar, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    During several Cassini encounters with Saturn's satellite, Enceladus, the spacecraft crossed through the plume of water vapor and dust south of the satellite with a spacecraft orientation which allowed the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) to observe ions and nanograin dust particles associated with the plume. During three of these encounters, E7 (November 2, 2009), E17 (March XX, 2012) and E18 (April YY, 2012), the trajectories were very similar and parallel to the equatorial plane (i.e. little north-south velocity, so that the spacecraft moved perpendicular to the rotation axis of Enceladus.) Previous analysis, using data from the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (IMS) and electron spectrometer (ELS), identified cold ions at rest with respect to Enceladus [1], negative water group and water cluster ions [2], and both positively and negatively charged dust particles in the 0.5 to 2 nm (1000 to 20,000 AMU) size range [3,4]. We present observations from the third CAPS sensor, the ion beam spectrometer (IBS). Although this sensor lacks the angular resolution of the other CAPS sensors, it has an energy resolution of 1.4%, roughly an order of magnitude greater than the ELS and IMS sensors. The IBS data allows us to estimate the temperature and flow speed of the low energy ions in the plume, and characterize the structure of the plume ionosphere. We find that the plume is highly structured, down to the 2-s (17 km along track) limit of the instrument's sampling. Distinct regions of cold, dense ions, resembling a collisional ionosphere, are intermixed with a broad background of warmer, non-thermal ions, possibly resulting from charge exchange between magnetospheric ions and plume neutrals. Despite the sensor's lack of intrinsic angular resolution, the ion flux and energy spectra are consistent with a drift velocity away from Saturn and in the direction of the upstream flow. References: [1] Tokar et al., 2009, Cassini detection of Enceladus' cold water-group plume ionosphere

  14. Studies of highly charged iron ions using electron beam ion traps for interpreting astrophysical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Clementson, J.; Eberle, S.; Epp, S. W.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kubiček, K.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Mäckel, V.; Porter, F. S.; Rudolph, J. K.; Simon, M. C.; Steinbrügge, R.; Träbert, E.; Ullrich, J.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-09-01

    For over a decade, the x-ray astrophysics community has enjoyed a fruitful epoch of discovery largely as a result of the successful launch and operation of the high resolution, high sensitivity spectrometers on board the Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku x-ray observatories. With the launch of the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer on the Astro-H x-ray observatory in 2014, the diagnostic power of high resolution spectroscopy will be extended to some of the hottest, largest and most exotic objects in our Universe. The diagnostic utility of these spectrometers is directly coupled to, and often limited by, our understanding of the x-ray production mechanisms associated with the highly charged ions present in the astrophysical source. To provide reliable benchmarks of theoretical calculations and to address specific problems facing the x-ray astrophysics community, electron beam ion traps have been used in laboratory astrophysics experiments to study the x-ray signatures of highly charged ions. A brief overview of the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik's FLASH-EBIT operated at third and fourth generation advanced light sources, including a discussion of some of the results are presented.

  15. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  16. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  17. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  18. High energy ion beam analysis at ARRONAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France); GIP ARRONAX, Saint-Herblain (France); Guertin, A.; Metivier, V.; Michel, N.; Ragreb, D.; Servagent, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: ARRONAX, acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes' is a high energy cyclotron. It is characterized by the acceleration of several types of particle beams: 68 MeV alpha, 15-35 MeV deuterons and 30-68 MeV protons. A platform was implemented on ARRONAX to perform non-destructive materials analysis with X and gamma rays emission (PIXE-PIGE). A proper selection of the projectile type and beam energy allows to analyze heavy and light elements in thin and thick samples. Our research activities are oriented along three axes: 1) Measurements of K X-ray production cross section for various elements to complement the databases at high energy. A first experiment has been conducted to measure these cross sections for copper and gold with protons energy between 34 and 68 MeV. 2) Study of the detection sensitivity which depends on the nuclear background and the Bremsstrahlung radiations. A dedicated shielding has been developed and detection limits below tens of μg/g/μC have been assessed using different referenced samples from IAEA. 3) Determination of concentration profile as function of the depth in a thick target. Using layered samples, we have showed for a target consisting of three different layers, the possibility to determine the sequence and thickness of each layer by using X and gamma rays measured respectively during and after irradiation. During this talk, I will present the characteristics and the capabilities of our platform. In the near future we intend to install the PIGE technique and use it with 15 MeV deuterons to analyze lightweight elements. (author)

  19. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  20. High Affinity Binding of Indium and Ruthenium Ions by Gastrins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S Baldwin

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone gastrin binds two ferric ions with high affinity, and iron binding is essential for the biological activity of non-amidated forms of the hormone. Since gastrins act as growth factors in gastrointestinal cancers, and as peptides labelled with Ga and In isotopes are increasingly used for cancer diagnosis, the ability of gastrins to bind other metal ions was investigated systematically by absorption spectroscopy. The coordination structures of the complexes were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectroscopy. Changes in the absorption of gastrin in the presence of increasing concentrations of Ga3+ were fitted by a 2 site model with dissociation constants (Kd of 3.3 x 10-7 and 1.1 x 10-6 M. Although the absorption of gastrin did not change upon the addition of In3+ ions, the changes in absorbance on Fe3+ ion binding in the presence of indium ions were fitted by a 2 site model with Kd values for In3+ of 6.5 x 10-15 and 1.7 x 10-7 M. Similar results were obtained with Ru3+ ions, although the Kd values for Ru3+ of 2.6 x 10-13 and 1.2 x 10-5 M were slightly larger than observed for In3+. The structures determined by EXAFS all had metal:gastrin stoichiometries of 2:1 but, while the metal ions in the Fe, Ga and In complexes were bridged by a carboxylate and an oxygen with a metal-metal separation of 3.0-3.3 Å, the Ru complex clearly demonstrated a short range Ru-Ru separation, which was significantly shorter, at 2.4 Å, indicative of a metal-metal bond. We conclude that gastrin selectively binds two In3+ or Ru3+ ions, and that the affinity of the first site for In3+ or Ru3+ ions is higher than for ferric ions. Some of the metal ion-gastrin complexes may be useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  1. High dielectric constant ceramics for ion-electron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, I

    2002-01-01

    Ferroelectric disks, coated with proper electrodes, can easily produce a dense plasma cloud when excited with a high-voltage pulse. This plasma can be a source of either electrons or ions depending on the sign of the extracting field set in front of the disk. We present the behavior of the disks operating at high frequency as emitters of both electrons and ions in two experimental configurations: (a) without and (b) with two screening grids. These two screening grids are inserted when the plasma must be confined within the cathode region. The system is capable of providing ion pulses of a few hundred milliamperes, whose length can range from a hundred nanoseconds to dozen microseconds. The electron pulses of energetic electrons have typically an amplitude higher than a couple of amperes. Tests at MHz repetition rate were positive as for stable operation.

  2. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  3. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experimentsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K+ beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  4. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  5. Mass spectrometry improvement on an high current ion implanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.G., E-mail: jgabriel@deea.isel.ipl.pt [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa and Centro de Fisica Nuclear of the University of Lisbon, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisbon (Portugal); Alegria, F.C., E-mail: falegria@lx.it.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Technical University of Lisbon and Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Redondo, L.M., E-mail: lmredondo@deea.isel.ipl.pt [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa and Centro de Fisica Nuclear of the University of Lisbon, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisbon (Portugal); Rocha, J., E-mail: jrocha@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The development of accurate mass spectrometry, enabling the identification of all the ions extracted from the ion source in a high current implanter is described. The spectrometry system uses two signals (x-y graphic), one proportional to the magnetic field (x-axes), taken from the high-voltage potential with an optic fiber system, and the other proportional to the beam current intensity (y-axes), taken from a beam-stop. The ion beam mass register in a mass spectrum of all the elements magnetically analyzed with the same radius and defined by a pair of analyzing slits as a function of their beam intensity is presented. The developed system uses a PC to control the displaying of the extracted beam mass spectrum, and also recording of all data acquired for posterior analysis. The operator uses a LabVIEW code that enables the interfacing between an I/O board and the ion implanter. The experimental results from an ion implantation experiment are shown.

  6. Electronic transitions in highly charged ion-atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Ullrich, J.; Schuch, R.; Olson, R. E.; Dörner, R.

    1989-09-01

    Three different aspects of electronic transitions in fast, highly charged ion-atom collisions are discussed. First, experimental data and n-CTMC calculations for differential multiple ionization cross sections of 1.4 {MeV}/{u} U 32+on rare gas atoms are presented. It is shown that the electronic motion has a dramatic influence on the kinematics of the emitted particles (in particular the nuclei). The possibility is discussed to measure in fast ionizing processes by a recoil ion-projectile coincidence technique the internal sum momentum of "electron clusters" in atoms. This new "technique" opens a new field of atomic structure research at high-energy heavy-ion accelerators. Second, the use of the H-like heavy ions as projectiles is discussed to measure, through observable interference structures, static and dynamic properties of transiently formed superheavy quasimolecular systems. Third, the "ancient" gas target-solid target difference in the impact-parameter dependence of K-shell ionization in nearly symmetric ion-atom collisions is presented. This severe discrepancy between gas and solid still remains an unsolved fundamental problem in the field of inner-shell ionization in the MO regime.

  7. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g{sup −1}. • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g{sup −1} and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g{sup −1} at 4 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability.

  8. Collision phenomena involving highly-charged ions in astronomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.

    2001-01-01

    A description of the role of highly charged ions in various astronomical objects; includes the use of critical quantities such as cross sections for excitation, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR); and lifetimes, branching ratios, and A-values.

  9. Correlations and fluctuations in high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dai-Mei; WANG Ya-Ping; WEI Li-Hua; CAI Xu

    2008-01-01

    An overview of research status of soft physics in high energy heavy-ion collision experiments and recent experimental results are presented.The experimental status on fluctuations and correlations has been reviewed and the outlook for research status of soft physics in LHC/ALICE has been introduced in this paper.

  10. Collisions of Slow Highly Charged Ions with Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Burgdoerfer, J.; Lemell, C.; Schiessl, K.; Solleder, B.; Reinhold, C; Tokesi, K.; Wirtz, Ludger

    2006-01-01

    Progress in the study of collisions of multiply charged ions with surfaces is reviewed with the help of a few recent examples. They range from fundamental quasi-one electron processes to highly complex ablation and material modification processes. Open questions and possible future directions will be discussed.

  11. COTS Li-Ion Cells in High Voltage Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis; Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Cowles, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Testing at NASA JSC and COMDEV shows that Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Li Ion cells can not be used in high voltage batteries safely without considering the voltage stresses that may be put on the protective devices in them during failure modes.

  12. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line...... with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width, and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very...

  13. Peripheral collisions of highly charged ions with metal clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng-Jun; Hu Bi-Tao; Luo Xian-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the dynamical classical over-barrier model,the soft collisions between slow highly charged ions(SHCIs)Ar17+ and the large copper clusters under large impact parameters have been studied in this paper.We present the dominant mechanism of the electron transfer between SHCls and a large metal cluster by computational simulation.The evolution of the occupation of projectile ions,KLχ satellite lines,X-ray yields,Auger electron spectrum and scattering angles are provided.

  14. Morphology of High-Multiplicity Events in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Naselsky, P; Christensen, P R; Damgaard, P H; Frejsel, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A; Hansen, M; Kim, J; Verkhodanov, O; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss opportunities that may arise from subjecting high-multiplicity events in relativistic heavy ion collisions to an analysis similar to the one used in cosmology for the study of fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). To this end, we discuss examples of how pertinent features of heavy ion collisions including global characteristics, signatures of collective flow and event-wise fluctuations are visually represented in a Mollweide projection commonly used in CMB analysis, and how they are statistically analyzed in an expansion over spherical harmonic functions. If applied to the characterization of purely azimuthal dependent phenomena such as collective flow, the expansion coefficients of spherical harmonics are seen to contain redundancies compared to the set of harmonic flow coefficients commonly used in heavy ion collisions. Our exploratory study indicates, however, that these redundancies may offer novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of those event-wise fluctuations t...

  15. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  16. Internal conversion in highly-stripped {sup 83}Kr ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The transition probability per unit time for the decay of a nuclear level via internal conversion (IC), {lambda}IC, depends on the electron environment of the nucleus. For example, inner-shell conversion in highly-charged ions can change appreciably as electrons are successively removed from the ion. Magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions are especially sensitive to this effect since the internal conversion depends strongly on the electron density at the nucleus. Hence, measurements of {lambda}IC,q, the internal conversion rate in an ion with charge state q, can provide good tests of theoretical electron wave functions if the electron configuration in the ions is known. In a previous experiment, a new method which identifies charge-changing events during passage of ion beams through a magnetic spectrometer was used to determine {lambda}IC,q for the 14.4-keV isomer in {sup 57}Fe. This contribution reports measurements made using the same technique for the 9.4-keV isomer in {sup 83}Kr. A beam of {sup 83}Kr with energy 650 MeV bombarded a Au target with a thickness 300 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Secondary scattered beams were accepted and analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrometer. The numbers of excited nuclei decaying during passage through the spectrometer and their internal conversion rates were deduced from the pattern of events measured in the spectrometer focal plane.

  17. Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs between 1200 and 1900 km altitude are investigated. The NEIALs were found in the background gates of data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR at 78° N looking field-aligned. Only strongly enhanced lines are detected at such high altitudes. The estimated enhancement above incoherent scattering integrated over the antenna beam and preintegration time of 10 s reaches about 10 000. Both lines are always enhanced above 1000 km altitude, and the downshifted line, corresponding to upward propagating ion-acoustic waves, is always stronger than the upshifted line, for downgoing waves. The ratio of the downshifted and upshifted peaks is often remarkably constant along a profile. Using the line positions as indicators of the ion-acoustic speeds and the bulk drift velocity, we find that the bulk drift does not exceed the ion-acoustic (sound speed, but extrapolation of the profiles suggests that the sound barrier is reached around 2000 km in one event. The highest ion-acoustic speed is seen near 600 km, above the density peak, indicating that electrons are heated not only by ionizing precipitation but significantly also by upgoing waves. Upflow continues to speed up above the estimated temperature maximum. A certain qualitative similarity to the solar corona seems to be the case.

  18. High-precision experiments on a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boell, O.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    A single, trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Two Ra{sup +} experiments are under construction at KVI. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for an all-optical, high-stability frequency standard, i.e. a clock. The off-the-shelf availability of semiconductor lasers for all necessary transitions is highly advantageous. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. The same system and experimental hardware will be used to search for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics by measuring Atomic Parity Violation. This will serve as a low-energy test of the running of the electroweak mixing angle. Recent calculations have shown Ra{sup +} to be the superior candidate. Recently we have succeeded in the production and efficient slowing down of isotopes around {sup 213}Ra at the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility of KVI. Progress has been made in the development of ion traps and in the laser set-up in a dedicated laser laboratory. Laser spectroscopy of the radium ion and the first ever trapping of this particle are planned in the near future.

  19. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, W.; Wang, G. C. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  20. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  1. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  2. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  3. High resolution EUV spectroscopy of xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safdar; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We performed high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy measurements of highly charged xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap. The spectra were recorded with a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer while varying the electron beam energy between 200 and 890 eV. We measured the wavelengths for several lines of Rh-like Xe9+ - Cd-like Xe6+ and Cu-like Xe25+- Se-like Xe20+ in the range of 150-200 Å with an uncertainty of 0.05 Å. Previously, most of these lines have been reported from EBITs with a wavelength uncertainty of 0.2 Å. Additionally, based on the electron beam energy dependence of the observed spectra we tentatively identified three new lines, which were reported as unidentified lines in the previous studies.

  4. Ion-ion coincidence imaging at high event rate using an in-vacuum pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jingming; Furch, Federico J.; Durá, Judith; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John; Schulz, Claus Peter; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-07-01

    A new ion-ion coincidence imaging spectrometer based on a pixelated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector has been developed for the investigation of molecular ionization and fragmentation processes in strong laser fields. Used as a part of a velocity map imaging spectrometer, the detection system is comprised of a set of microchannel plates and a Timepix detector. A fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) is used to enhance the ion time-of-flight resolution by correlating timestamps registered separately by the Timepix detector and the TDC. In addition, sub-pixel spatial resolution (algorithm. This performance is achieved while retaining a high event rate (104 per s). The spectrometer was characterized and used in a proof-of-principle experiment on strong field dissociative double ionization of carbon dioxide molecules (CO2), using a 400 kHz repetition rate laser system. The experimental results demonstrate that the spectrometer can detect multiple ions in coincidence, making it a valuable tool for studying the fragmentation dynamics of molecules in strong laser fields.

  5. Electron impact ionization of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K L

    1992-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections can provide valuable information about the charge-state and power balance of highly charged ions in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the present work, a novel technique based on x-ray measurements has been used to infer the ionization cross section of highly charged lithiumlike ions on the Livermore electron beam ion trap. In particular, a correspondence is established between an observed x ray and an ionization event. The measurements are made at one energy corresponding to approximately 2.3 times the threshold energy for ionization of lithiumlike ions. The technique is applied to the transition metals between Z=22 (titanium, Ti[sup 19+]) and Z=26 (iron, Fe[sup 23+]) and to Z=56 (barium, Ba[sup 53+]). The results for the transition metals, which have an estimated 17-33% uncertainty, are in good overall agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave calculation. However, less good agreement is found for barium, which has a larger uncertainty. Methods for properly accounting for the polarization in the x-ray intensities and for inferring the charge-state abundances from x-ray observations, which were developed for the ionization measurements, as well as an x-ray model that assists in the proper interpretation of the data are also presented.

  6. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  7. Analysis of bromotryptophan and hydroxyproline modifications by high-resolution, high-accuracy precursor ion scanning utilizing fragment ions with mass-deficient mass tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Hanno; Mann, Matthias

    2002-12-15

    Protein modifications are often detected by precursor ion scanning. When quadrupole TOF mass spectrometers are used for precursor ion scanning with high-resolution, high-accuracy fragment ion selection, "reporter" ions are required to have a unique mass within +/-0.04 Da or less instead of +/-0.5 Da on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, the traditional instrument used for precursor ion scanning. Thus, characteristic fragment ions can be utilized even if other fragment ions have the same nominal mass as long as the characteristic fragment ions are slightly mass deficient as compared to the other fragments, i.e., when they have an inherent mass-deficient mass tag. Here, the immonium ions of bromotryptophan and hydroxyproline are described as two fragment ions characteristic for tryptophan-brominated and proline-hydroxylated peptides, respectively. The "reporter" ion of trytophan-brominated peptides is highly mass deficient due to the presence of bromine, thereby allowing the selective detection of these species and the distinction from other dipeptidic a-, b-, and y-fragment ions by high-resolution, high-accuracy precursor ion scanning. This strategy also enables the differentiation between precursors giving rise to the oxygen-containing immonium ion of hydroxyproline and precursors of the immonium ions of near-ubiquitous leucine/isoleucine. Both immonium ions have the same nominal mass of 86 Da, but the exact masses differ by less than 0.04 Da. High-resolution, high-accuracy precursor ion scanning enabled the identification of proline-hydroxylated and tryptophan-brominated species and the directed analysis of species carrying these modifications in a highly complex Conus textile conotoxin mixture. This lead to the characterization of one novel C. textile conotoxin containing a bromotryptophan residue and one novel C. textile conotoxin carrying two hydroxyproline residues.

  8. Atom probe field ion microscopy of high resistivity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibrandij, S.J.; Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    1998-02-01

    Over the last 30 years the atom probe has proved to be a powerful tool for studying nanometer-sized compositional fluctuations in a wide range of metallic alloys but has had only limited applications to semiconductors and ceramics. One of the primary reasons for this difference is the higher resistivity of semiconducting and ceramic specimens. Because of this high resistivity, the high voltage field evaporation pulse is attenuated before it reaches the apex of the specimen thereby making the pulse ineffective for field evaporation. Experiments have demonstrated that both variants of the voltage-pulsed atom probe (i.e., those instruments in which the field evaporation pulse is applied directly to the specimen and those in which the negative pulse is applied to a counter electrode in front of the specimen) are equally affected. In this overview, the limits of applicability of the voltage-pulsed atom probe to high resistivity materials are examined. In this study, a wide range of materials have been examined to determine whether field ion microscopy and voltage-pulsed field evaporation can be achieved and the results are summarized in the report. Field ion microscopy including dc field evaporation was possible for all materials except bulk ceramic insulators and glasses. Field ion microscopy requires some conductivity both to achieve a high electric field at the apex of the specimen, and also to support the field ion current. In contrast, voltage-pulsed field evaporation requires transmission of the pulse to the apex of the specimen. All metallic alloys including high resistance alloys and metallic glasses were successfully field evaporated with a voltage pulse. Specimens that were produced from bulk material of several conducting ceramics including MoSi, TiB and TiC were also successfully field evaporated with a voltage pulse.

  9. New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Sidorov, A.; Razin, S.; Vodopyanov, A.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.

    2016-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller's ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 1013 cm-3) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10-4-10-3 mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ṡ mm ṡ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.

  10. New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga@ipfran.ru; Sidorov, A.; Vodopyanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller’s ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.

  11. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  12. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  13. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, Karim; Mauger, Alain; Groult, Henri; Goodenough, John B; Julien, Christian M

    2013-03-15

    While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  14. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  15. RISR Observations of High Ion Temperatures: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, H.; Semeter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Incoherent scatter radars (ISRs) measure the frequency spectrum of the scattered signal from random thermal fluctuations in the ionospheric plasma. Once fitted to a theoretical model, the shape of the spectrum provides estimates to a number of plasma parameters including the ion temperature. The theoretical models of the frequency spectrum of the scattered signal have been often developed based on a set of assumptions on the state of the plasma. One of the most common assumptions is that the plasma is in thermal equilibrium consisting of electron and ion populations that can be described by Maxwellian distributions. Such an assumption, however, is commonly violated at high latitudes where the interactions between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere result in a very dynamic plasma environment. One example of such violations occurs on the edge of auroral arcs when the presence of strong electric fields (Joule heating and investigate the possible role of ISR misfitting (caused by deviation of the ion distribution from Maxwellian) in over estimating the ion temperature.

  16. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesenberger, M; Kendl, A

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very well described by the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the characteristic gradient scale length of the blob. We compare the global gyrofluid model with a partly linearized local model. For low ion temperatures we find that simulations of the global model show more coherent blobs with an increased cross-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in ...

  17. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Westenskow, Glen; Grote, D P; Halaxa, Erni; Kwan, Joe W

    2005-01-01

    To provide compact high-brightness heavy-ion beams for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm2 was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. More than 90% of the ions were in the Ar+ state, and the energy spread from charge exchange was found to be small. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of a 61-beamlet injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We will report on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, the test will be carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We will measure the beam’s emittance after the beamlets are merged and have bee...

  18. Letter: High-mass capabilities of positive-ion and negative-ion direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-01-01

    Of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(+)) tricyanomethide (A(-)) high-mass cluster ions of both positive ([C(n)A(n-1)](+)) and negative ([C(n-1)A(n)](-)) charge were generated and detected by direct analysis in real time (DART) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). After optimization of the settings of the DART ionization source and of the mass analyzer ions of m/z values unprecedented in DART-MS were detected. Thus, the upper m/z limits of positive-ion and negative-ion DART- MS were substantially expanded. Negative-ion DART-MS delivered cluster ions up to [C(15)A(16)](-), m/z 3527 (nominal mass of monoisotopic ion), while positive-ion DART-MS even yielded ions up to [C(30)A(29)](+), m/z 6784. The identification of the cluster ions is supported by their accurate mass and exact mass differences corresponding to CA between adjacent cluster ion peaks.

  19. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E.; Sorokin, M.; Facsko, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV 129Xe(33-40)+ and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I9+ and 374 MeV-2.2 GeV 197Au25+. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  20. Microscopic descriptions of high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    The essentials of the equation-of-motion (EOM) approach are given and some of its significant and interesting results are described. A framework for the theoretical description of high-energy heavy-ion (HE-HI) collisions is presented; specifically included are a critical assessment of various approaches--EOM calculations, Boltzmann equations/cascade calculations, and hydrodynamics--their relationships and their respective domains of applicability, if any, to HE-HI collisions. 11 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  1. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  2. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    was used instead. This code makes the assumption that the background ion and electron behaviour can be approximated with a fluid model whilst...electron behaviour occurring from this aperture was also published in High Power Laser Science and Engineering [4]. A significant breakthrough was also...acceleration to transparency. This was published in Physics of Plasmas [12]. Through one- dimensional modelling of the interaction, it was also

  3. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  4. High-current ion beam from a moving plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.; John, P.K.; Ponomarenko, A.G.

    1979-05-01

    High-current ion beams in the 10--20-keV range are extracted from a moving plasma. Current densities up to 2.5 A/cm/sup 2/ are obtained at the plasma boundary, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than the Bohm current. Total currents of over 100 A are obtained from the plasma. Simple geometric focusing gives current densities approx.200 A/cm/sup 2/ at the focus.

  5. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  6. High precision wavelength measurements of QED-sensitive forbidden transitions in highly charged argon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganić, I; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; DuBois, R; Fritzsche, S; Shabaev, V M; Orts, R Soria; Tupitsyn, I I; Zou, Y; Ullrich, J

    2003-10-31

    We present the results of an experimental study of magnetic dipole (M1) transitions in highly charged argon ions (Ar X, Ar XI, Ar XIV, Ar XV) in the visible spectral range using an electron beam ion trap. Their wavelengths were determined with, for highly charged ions, unprecedented accuracy up to the sub-ppm level and compared with theoretical calculations. The QED contributions, calculated in this Letter, are found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than the experimental error and are absolutely indispensable to bring theory and experiment to a good agreement. This method shows great potential for the study of QED effects in relativistic few-electron systems.

  7. Highly charged ion research at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-01-04

    Spectroscopy performed with the three Livermore electron beam ion traps is reviewed, which is continuing and complementing the innumerable contributions to atomic physics provided over the years by heavy-ion accelerators. Numerous spectrometers were developed that cover the spectral bands from the visible to the hard x ray region. These enabled exhaustive line surveys useful for x-ray astrophysics and for systematic studies along iso-electronic sequences, such as the 4s-4p, 3s-3p, and 2s-2p transitions in ions of the Cu-I, Na-I, and Li-I sequences useful for studying QED and correlation effects as well as for precise determinations of atomic-nuclear interactions. They also enabled measurements of radiative transition probabilities of very long-lived (milli- and microseconds) and very short-live (femtosecond) levels. Because line excitation processes can be controlled by choice of the electron beam energy, the observed line intensities are used to infer cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, resonance excitation, and innershell ionization. These capabilities have recently been expanded to simulate x-ray emission from comets by charge exchange. Specific contributions to basic atomic physics, nuclear physics, and high-temperature diagnostics are illustrated.

  8. High Voltage Operation of Helical Pulseline Structures for Ion Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Waldron, William; Reginato, Lou

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept for the acceleration of heavy ions using a helical pulseline requires the launching of a high voltage traveling wave with a waveform determined by the beam transport physics in order to maintain stability and acceleration.* This waveform is applied to the front of the helix, creating over the region of the ion bunch a constant axial acceleration electric field that travels down the line in synchronism with the ions. Several methods of driving the helix have been considered. Presently, the best method of generating the waveform and also maintaining the high voltage integrity appears to be a transformer primary loosely coupled to the front of the helix, generating the desired waveform and achieving a voltage step-up from primary to secondary (the helix). This can reduce the drive voltage that must be brought into the helix enclosure through the feedthroughs by factors of 5 or more. The accelerating gradient is limited by the voltage holding of the vacuum insulator, and the material and helix g...

  9. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  10. An electrostatic deceleration lens for highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, J; Roy, A; Kanjilal, D; Ahuja, R; Safvan, C P

    2010-04-01

    The design and implementation of a purely electrostatic deceleration lens used to obtain beams of highly charged ions at very low energies is presented. The design of the lens is such that it can be used with parallel as well as diverging incoming beams and delivers a well focused low energy beam at the target. In addition, tuning of the final energy of the beam over a wide range (1 eV/q to several hundred eV/q, where q is the beam charge state) is possible without any change in hardware configuration. The deceleration lens was tested with Ar(8+), extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, having an initial energy of 30 keV/q and final energies as low as 70 eV/q have been achieved.

  11. Samarium Ion Exchanged Montmorillonite for High Temperature Cumene Cracking Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binitha, N. N.; Silija, P. P.; Suraj, V.; Yaakob, Z.; Sugunan, S.

    2011-02-01

    Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Brønsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene.

  12. Samarium Ion Exchanged Montmorillonite for High Temperature Cumene Cracking Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binitha, N N; Silija, P P; Yaakob, Z [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Taman Muhibah, 02600, Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Suraj, V [Department of Applied Chemistry, CUSAT, Cochin 22, Kerala (India); Sugunan, S, E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.in [National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Broensted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene.

  13. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  14. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  15. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  16. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  17. Ion beam enhancement in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation in non-relativistic mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Z. C.; Lei, M. K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pushkarev, A. I. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Beam and Plasma Technology, High Technologies Physics Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200–300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.

  18. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  19. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  20. Nano-textured high sensitivity ion sensitive field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, M.; Sadeghipari, M.; Akbari, M.; Shahsafi, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-07

    Nano-textured gate engineered ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), suitable for high sensitivity pH sensors, have been realized. Utilizing a mask-less deep reactive ion etching results in ultra-fine poly-Si features on the gate of ISFET devices where spacing of the order of 10 nm and less is achieved. Incorporation of these nano-sized features on the gate is responsible for high sensitivities up to 400 mV/pH in contrast to conventional planar structures. The fabrication process for this transistor is inexpensive, and it is fully compatible with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor fabrication procedure. A theoretical modeling has also been presented to predict the extension of the diffuse layer into the electrolyte solution for highly featured structures and to correlate this extension with the high sensitivity of the device. The observed ultra-fine features by means of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tools corroborate the theoretical prediction.

  1. Analytical possibilities of highly focused ion beams in biomedical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M. Q.; Ji, X.; Vajandar, S. K.; Mi, Z. H.; Hoi, A.; Walczyk, T.; van Kan, J. A.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.; Osipowicz, T.

    2017-09-01

    At the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), a 3.5 MV HVEE Singletron™ accelerator serves to provide MeV ion beams (mostly protons or He+) to six state-of-the-art beam lines, four of which are equipped with Oxford triplet magnetic quadrupole lens systems. This facility is used for a wide range of research projects, many of which are in the field of biomedicine. Here we presented a discussion of currently ongoing biomedical work carried out using two beamlines: The Nuclear Microscopy (NM) beamline is mainly used for trace elemental quantitative mapping using a combination of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), to measure the trace elemental concentration of inorganic elements, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to characterise the organic matrix, and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide information on the lateral areal density variations of the specimen. Typically, a 2.1 MeV proton beam, focused to 1-2 μm spot size with a current of 100 pA is used. The high resolution single cell imaging beamline is equipped with direct STIM to image the interior structure of single cells with proton and alpha particles of sub-50 nm beam spot sizes. Simultaneously, forward scattering transmission ion microscopy (FSTIM) is utilized to generate images with improved contrast of nanoparticles with higher atomic numbers, such as gold nanoparticles, and fluorescent nanoparticles can be imaged using Proton Induced Fluorescence (PIF). Lastly, in this facility, RBS has been included as an option if required to determine the depth distribution of nanoparticles in cells, albeit with reduced spatial resolution.

  2. High $p_{T}$ physics in the heavy ion era

    CERN Document Server

    Rak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, this book provides an overview of the basic concepts of large transverse momentum particle physics, with a focus on pQCD phenomena. It examines high $p_{T}$ probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions and will serve as a handbook for those working on RHIC and LHC data analyses. Starting with an introduction and review of the field, the authors look at basic observables and experimental techniques, concentrating on relativistic particle kinematics, before moving onto a discussion about the origins of high $p_{T}$ physics. The main features of high $p_{T}$ physics are placed within a historical context and the authors adopt an experimental outlook, highlighting the most important discoveries leading up to the foundation of modern QCD theory. Advanced methods are described in detail, making this book especially useful for newcomers to the field.

  3. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, B.; Ruan, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O{sup 7+}, 620 eμA of Ar{sup 11+}, 430 eμA of Ar{sup 12+}, 430 eμA of Xe{sup 20+}, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  4. High density QCD and entropy production at heavy ion colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    The role of entropy production in the context of probing QCD properties at high densities and finite temperatures in ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei is inspected. It is argued that the entropy generated in these reactions provides a powerful tool to investigate the space-time evolution and the question whether and how a deconfined plasma of quarks and gluons is formed. I will address the questions how entropy is produced, and how it is measurable. The uncertainties in predicting the different contributions to the total entropy and particle multiplicities during the course of heavy ion collisions are also discussed.

  5. Ground state hyperfine splitting of high Z hydrogenlike ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shabaev, V M; Kühl, T; Artemiev, A N; Yerokhin, V A

    1997-01-01

    The ground state hyperfine splitting values of high Z hydrogenlike ions are calculated. The relativistic, nuclear and QED corrections are taken into account. The nuclear magnetization distribution correction (the Bohr-Weisskopf effect) is evaluated within the single particle model with the g_{S}-factor chosen to yield the observed nuclear moment. An additional contribution caused by the nuclear spin-orbit interaction is included in the calculation of the Bohr-Weisskopf effect. It is found that the theoretical value of the wavelength of the transition between the hyperfine splitting components in ^{165}Ho^{66+} is in good agreement with experiment.

  6. Modelling surface restructuring by slow highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, G.; Tőkési, K.; Betz, G.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2013-12-01

    We theoretically investigate surface modifications on alkaline earth halides due to highly charged ion impact, focusing on recent experimental evidence for both etch pit and nano-hillock formation on CaF2 (A.S. El-Said et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, (2012) 117602 [1]). We discuss mechanisms for converting the projectile potential and kinetic energies into thermal energy capable of changing the surface structure. A proof-of-principle classical molecular dynamics simulation suggests the existence of two thresholds which we associate with etch pit and nano-hillock formation in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  7. Modelling surface restructuring by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, G., E-mail: georg.wachter@tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Tőkési, K. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Betz, G. [Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    We theoretically investigate surface modifications on alkaline earth halides due to highly charged ion impact, focusing on recent experimental evidence for both etch pit and nano-hillock formation on CaF{sub 2} (A.S. El-Said et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, (2012) 117602 [1]). We discuss mechanisms for converting the projectile potential and kinetic energies into thermal energy capable of changing the surface structure. A proof-of-principle classical molecular dynamics simulation suggests the existence of two thresholds which we associate with etch pit and nano-hillock formation in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  8. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions on Al oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, R E; Pomeroy, J M; Sosolik, C E

    2010-03-03

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) carry a large amount of potential energy that can be dissipated within femtoseconds upon interaction with a surface. HCI-insulator collisions result in high sputter yields and surface nanofeature creation due to strong coupling between the solid's electronic system and lattice. For HCIs interacting with Al oxide, combined experiments and theory indicate that defect mediated desorption can explain reasonably well preferential O atom removal and an observed threshold for sputtering due to potential energy. These studies have relied on measuring mass loss on the target substrate or probing craters left after desorption. Our approach is to extract highly charged ions onto the Al oxide barriers of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions and measure the increased conductance in a finished device after the irradiated interface is buried under the top metal layer. Such transport measurements constrain dynamic surface processes and provide large sets of statistics concerning the way individual HCI projectiles dissipate their potential energy. Results for Xe(q +) for q = 32, 40, 44 extracted onto Al oxide films are discussed in terms of postirradiation electrical device characteristics. Future work will elucidate the relationship between potential energy dissipation and tunneling phenomena through HCI modified oxides.

  9. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  10. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  11. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  12. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William L; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Păunescu, Teodor G; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A; Brown, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  13. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low-frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  14. Dielectronic recombination measurements of highly-charged heliumlike and neonlike ions using an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Knapp, D.A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, M.H.; Scofield, J.H.; Bennett, C.L.; DeWitt, D.R.; Henderson, J.R.; Lee, P.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Levine, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at LLNL is a unique device designed to measure the interactions of electrons with highly-charged ions. We describe three methods used at EBIT to directly measure the dielectronic recombination (DR) process: the intensity of the stabilizing x-rays is measured as a function of electron beam energy; the ions remaining in a particular ionization state are counted after the electron beam has been held at a fixed electron energy for a fixed time; and high-resolution spectroscopy is used to resolve individual DR satellite lines. In our discussions, we concentrate on the KLL resonances of the heliumlike target ions (V{sup 21+} to Ba{sup 54+}), and the LMM resonances of the neonlike target ions (Xe{sup 44+} to Th{sup 80+}). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  15. A new aluminium-ion battery with high voltage, high safety and low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haobo; Wang, Wei; Yu, Zhijing; Yuan, Yan; Wang, Shuai; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2015-07-28

    A new kind of Al-ion battery with carbon paper as the cathode, high-purity Al foil as the anode and ionic liquid as the electrolyte is proposed in this work. The significance of the presented battery is going to be an extremely high average voltage plateau of ca. 1.8 V vs. Al(3+)/Al.

  16. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-09-20

    We report on ion mobility separations (IMS) achievable using traveling waves in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) module having a 44-cm path length and sixteen 90º turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission, and ion mobility separations with different RF, TW parameters and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The TW-SLIM module demonstrated highly robust performance and the ion mobility resolution achieved even with sixteen close spaced turns was comparable to a similar straight path TW-SLIM module. We found an ion mobility peak capacity of ~ 31 and peak generation rate of 780 s-1 for TW speeds of <210 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ~ 0.9-m drift tube-based IMS-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater ion mobility resolutions via greatly extended ion path lengths and compact serpentine designs that do not significantly impact the instrumentation profile, a direction described in a companion manuscript.

  17. Development of Highly Sensitive Ion Imager Corresponding to Real-Time Readout Having Single-Ion Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Naoya; Aoyama, Satoshi; Kawahito, Shoji; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    We designed a new type of stacked complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active pixel sensor (SCAPS) for charged particles with real-time readout and single-ion detection capabilities. Here we present the characteristics of a new imager, SCAPS-II, which implements a newly devised pixel structure of 504×504 pixels for high sensitivity and a noise-reduction mechanism with analog accumulation capabilities inside the column readout circuits. The sensitivity for ions was estimated to be 150 µV/ion under 10 keV Si+ ion irradiation, which is 5 times greater than that of conventional SCAPS. The noise floor was at the 3 ion level without the noise-reduction mechanism at a frame rate of 0.16 s/frame. The noise reduction mechanism reduced the noise to the 1.7 ion level at 0.3 s/frame with 13 samplings. A combination of the noise-reduction mechanism and a multiple-frame-averaging technique achieved a noise level of 0.3 ions. Single-ion detectability was demonstrated using a combination of the noise-reduction mechanism and the multiple-frame-averaging technique that reduced the noise to the 0.3 ion level with 13 samplings, employing an integration circuit and 50-frame averaging at 14.4 s/frame.

  18. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST.

  19. Droplet-free high-density metal ion source for plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Keiji [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakamura@solan.chubu.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Hiroaki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on plasma parameters and ion composition of droplet-free Zr ion source for plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Zirconium (Zr) ions were obtained by ionizing sputtered Zr atoms in inductively-coupled argon discharge. The characteristics of plasma density, plasma potential and electron temperature were typical ones of such a inductive discharge, and the plasma parameters were not significantly influenced by mixing the sputtered Zr atoms into the plasma. Actually, the main ionic component was still Ar{sup +} ions, and the ion density ratio of [Zr{sup +}]/[Ar{sup +}] was as low as {approx}8%. Increase in sputtering rate of the Zr source will be necessary to improve the ion density ratio.

  20. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  1. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  2. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Reheem, A. M.; Ahmed, M. M.; Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.

  3. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Donald F; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissu...

  4. Experiments and Researches on Production of Highly Charged Metallic Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), series of experiments have been done to produce metallic ion beams on the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source. By now, numerous methods have been tested, in which oven heating and MIVOC (Metallic Ion from Volatile Compounds) are both included.According to the experiments, the results show that oven heating is much better than MIVOC. In most of our

  5. Nano-Composite Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Microbatteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TPL Inc. proposes to develop a novel, high performance, nanostructured cathode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. The proposed approach will modify lithium...

  6. High ion conducting polymer nanocomposite electrolytes using hybrid nanofillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Changyu; Hackenberg, Ken; Fu, Qiang; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ardebili, Haleh

    2012-03-14

    There is a growing shift from liquid electrolytes toward solid polymer electrolytes, in energy storage devices, due to the many advantages of the latter such as enhanced safety, flexibility, and manufacturability. The main issue with polymer electrolytes is their lower ionic conductivity compared to that of liquid electrolytes. Nanoscale fillers such as silica and alumina nanoparticles are known to enhance the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes. Although carbon nanotubes have been used as fillers for polymers in various applications, they have not yet been used in polymer electrolytes as they are conductive and can pose the risk of electrical shorting. In this study, we show that nanotubes can be packaged within insulating clay layers to form effective 3D nanofillers. We show that such hybrid nanofillers increase the lithium ion conductivity of PEO electrolyte by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, significant improvement in mechanical properties were observed where only 5 wt % addition of the filler led to 160% increase in the tensile strength of the polymer. This new approach of embedding conducting-insulating hybrid nanofillers could lead to the development of a new generation of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes with high ion conductivity and improved mechanical properties.

  7. Spectroscopy of few-electron highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbutt, M R

    2000-01-01

    attainable precision is as high as 0.2%. New techniques for measuring QED effects in the ground states of the hydrogen-like ions are proposed, which avoid the need for absolute x-ray calibration. Using the fast-beam laser resonance technique the 1s2p sup 3 P sub 0 - sup 3 P sub 1 fine-structure interval in helium-like Mg sup 1 sup 0 sup + has been measured, with the result nu-tilde sub 0 sub 1 = 833.133 (14) cm sup - sup 1. This measurement is a very sensitive test of the higher-order relativistic and QED terms of the theory for the fine-structure in helium and the light helium-like ions. This theory will be used to obtain a new value for the fine structure constant by comparing its results with precision measurements of the n = 2 fine structure in helium. Although there is a large discrepancy between the present measurement and the current theoretical value for this interval, the discrepancy lies within the estimated size of the unevaluated terms in the theory. A preliminary measurement of the 2s Lamb shift ...

  8. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  9. High Temperature Carbonized Grass as a High Performance Sodium Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Yao, Yonggang; Wan, Jiayu; Henderson, Doug; Zhang, Xiaogang; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-11

    Hard carbon is currently considered the most promising anode candidate for room temperature sodium ion batteries because of its relatively high capacity, low cost, and good scalability. In this work, switchgrass as a biomass example was carbonized under an ultrahigh temperature, 2050 °C, induced by Joule heating to create hard carbon anodes for sodium ion batteries. Switchgrass derived carbon materials intrinsically inherit its three-dimensional porous hierarchical architecture, with an average interlayer spacing of 0.376 nm. The larger interlayer spacing than that of graphite allows for the significant Na ion storage performance. Compared to the sample carbonized under 1000 °C, switchgrass derived carbon at 2050 °C induced an improved initial Coulombic efficiency. Additionally, excellent rate capability and superior cycling performance are demonstrated for the switchgrass derived carbon due to the unique high temperature treatment.

  10. Improved ion transmission from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum using a multicapillary inlet and electrodynamic ion funnel interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim; Udseth; Smith

    2000-10-15

    A heated multicapillary inlet and ion funnel interface was developed to couple an electrospray ionization (ESI) source to a high-vacuum stage for obtaining improved sensitivity in mass spectrometric applications. The inlet was constructed from an array of seven thin-wall stainless steel tubes soldered into a central hole of a cylindrical heating block. An electrodynamic ion funnel was used in the interface region to more effectively capture, focus, and transmit ions from the multicapillary inlet. The interface of seven capillary inlets with the ion funnel showed more than 7 times higher transmission efficiency compared to that of a single capillary inlet with the ion funnel and a 23-fold greater transmission efficiency than could be obtained using the standard orifice-skimmer interface of a triple-quadrupole MS. The multiple-capillary inlet and ion funnel interface showed an overall 10% ion transmission efficiency and approximately 3-4% overall detection efficiency of ions from solution based (i.e., prior to electrospray). The improved performance was achieved under conditions where ESI operation is robust and results in a significant increase in dynamic range.

  11. Ion drag force in plasmas at high electronegativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, I; Yu, M Y; Stenflo, L; Xu, S

    2005-07-01

    The electric as well as the positive- and negative-ion drag forces on an isolated dust grain in an electronegative plasma are studied for large negative-ion densities, when the negative ions are not Boltzmann distributed. The investigation is carried out for submicrometer dust particles, so that the theory of Coulomb scattering is applicable for describing ion-dust interaction. Among the forces acting on the dust grain, the negative-ion drag force is found to be important. The effects of the negative-ion density, neutral-gas pressure, and dust-grain size on the forces are also considered. It is shown that by increasing the density of the negative ions one can effectively manipulate the dust grains. Our results imply that both dust voids and balls can be formed.

  12. Formation of Nanoscale Intermetallic Phases in Ni Surface Layer at High Intensity Implantation of Al Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A.Bozhko; S.V.Fortuna; I.A.Kurzina; I.B.Stepanov; E.V.Kozlov; Yu.P. Sharkeev

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental study of nanoscale intermetallic formation in surface layer of a metal target at ion implantation are presented. To increase the thickness of the ion implanted surface layer the high intensive ion implantation is used. Compared with the ordinary ion implantation, the high intensive ion implantation allows a much thicker modified surface layer. Pure polycrystalline nickel was chosen as a target. Nickel samples were irradiated with Al ions on the vacuum-arc ion beam and plasma flow source "Raduga-5". It was shown that at the high intensity ion implantation the fine dispersed particles of Ni3Al, NiAl intermetallic compounds and solid solution Al in Ni are formed in the nickel surface layer of 200 nm and thicker. The formation of phases takes place in complete correspondence with the Ni-Al phase diagram.

  13. Uncharted Frontiers in the Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Crespo, J; Kim, S H; Neill, P; Utter, S; Widmann, K

    2000-01-01

    The development of novel techniques is critical for maintaining a state-of-the-art core competency in atomic physics and readiness for evolving programmatic needs. We have carried out a three-year effort to develop novel spectroscopic instrumentation that added new dimensions to our capabilities for measuring energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and electron-ion excitation processes. The new capabilities created were in areas that heretofore had been inaccessible to scientific scrutiny and included high-resolution spectroscopy of hard x rays, femtosecond lifetime measurements, measurements of transition probabilities of long-lived metastable levels, polarization spectroscopy, ultra-precise determinations of energy levels, and the establishment of absolute wavelength standards in x-ray spectroscopy. Instrumentation developed during the period included a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, a flat-field EUV spectrometer, and the development and deployment of absolutely calibrated monolithic cry...

  14. Two models with rescattering for high energy heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, H.; Hansen, Ole; Humanic, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    The effects of hadronic rescattering in high energy relativistic Au+Au collisions are studied using two very different models to describe the early stages of the collision. One model is based on a hadronic thermal picture and the other on a superposition of parton-parton collisions. Operationally, the output hadrons from each of these models are used as input to a hadronic rescattering calculation. The results of the rescattering calculations from each model are then compared with rapidity and transverse momentum distributions from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider BRAHMS experiment. In spite of the different points of view of the two models of the initial stage, after rescattering, the observed differences between the models are mostly “washed out” and both models give observables that agree roughly with each other and with experimental data.

  15. Zirconium oxidation under high energy heavy ion irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bérerd, N; Moncoffre, N; Jaffrezic, H; Balanzat, E; democrite-00023380, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the study of zirconium oxidation under irradiation with high energetic Xe ions. The irradiations were performed on the IRRSUD beam line at GANIL (Caen). The oxygen partial pressure was fixed at 10$^{-3}$ Pa and two temperature conditions were used, either 480$\\circ$C reached by Joule effect heating or 280$\\circ$C due to Xe energy deposition. Zirconia was fully characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Grazing Angle X-ray Diffraction. Apparent diffusion coefficients of oxygen in ZrO2 were determined from these experiments by using a model which takes into account a surface exchange between oxygen gas and the ZrO2 surface. These results are compared with thermal oxidation data.

  16. In situ measurement of ions parameters of laser produced ion source using high resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, S.; Kaur, C.; Rastogi, V.; Poswal, A. K.; Munda, D. S.; Bhatia, R. K.; Nataraju, V.

    2016-08-01

    The laser produced plasma based heavy ion source has become an outstanding front end for heavy ion accelerators. Before being implemented in the heavy ion accelerators its detailed characterization is required. For this purpose, a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola spectrometer comprising of Time-of-Flight diagnostics has been developed for the characterization of ions with energy in the range from 1 keV to 1 MeV/nucleon and incorporated in the Laser plasma experimental chamber. The ion spectrometer is optimized with graphite target. The carbon ions of charge states C1+ to C6+ are observed in the energy range from 3 keV to 300 keV, which has also been verified by Time-of-Flight measurement. Experimental results were matched with simulation done by SIMION 7.0 code which is used for the design of the spectrometer. We also developed data analysis software using Python language to measure in situ ion's parameters and the results are in better agreement to the experimental results than the commercially available software SIMION 7.0. The resolution of the spectrometer is ΔE/E = 0.026 @ 31 keV for charge state (C4+) of carbon.

  17. Production of intense highly charged ion beams by IMP 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source has been constructed over the last two years. The source was designed and tested by making use of the latest results from ECR ion source development, such as high mirror magnetic field, large plasma volume, and biased probe. 140μA of O7+, 185μA of Ar11+ and 50 μA of Xe26+ could be produced with a RF power of 800 W. The intense beams of highly charged metallic ions are produced by means of the method of a metal evaporation oven and volatile compound through axial access. The test results are 130μA of Ca11+, 70μA of Ca12+ and 65μA of Fe10+. The ion source has been put into operation for the cyclotron at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

  18. High-precision metrology of highly charged ions via relativistic resonance fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postavaru, O; Harman, Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-21

    Resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions is investigated with regard to precisely measuring atomic properties. For this purpose an ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation is employed that allows for studying relativistic ions. These systems provide a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying x-ray lasers. We show how the narrowing of sidebands in the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by interference due to an additional optical driving can be exploited to determine atomic dipole or multipole moments to unprecedented accuracy.

  19. Heavy ion isotope resolution with polymer detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Quadras Roca, Alejo; Ortega Girón, Manuel; Fernández Moreno, Francisco; Font Garcia, Josep Lluís; Casas Ametller, Montserrat; Baixeras Divar, Carmen; Gonzalo Cestero, Miguel

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion mass resolution power of polymer detectors Lexan and cellulose nitrate is systematically studied both for accelerator and for cosmic ions. It is concluded that a satisfactory isotopic discrimination, better than 1 u, is hardly attainable with these detectors. Peer Reviewed

  20. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  1. Highly-charged-ion-induced electron emission from C-60 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Kowarik, G.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    The secondary electron yields as a result of highly charged ions impinging on clean Au(111) and thin films of C-60 on Au have been measured. This has been done for film thicknesses of one to five monolayers and several charge states of Ar and Xe ions. For all ions an increase of 35% in the secondary

  2. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    2003-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  3. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  4. Generation of heavy ion beams using high-intensity short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, George; McGuffey, Chris; Thomas, Alec; Krushelnick, Karl; Beg, Farhat

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of ion acceleration from high-Z material irradiated by intense sub-picosecond lasers is presented. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. At least four technical hurdles have been identified: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration and poor energy coupling due to high reflectivity of the plasma. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we observed transitions from Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) to the Breakout Afterburner regime (BoA) and to Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) akin to light ions. The numerical simulations predict gold ions beams with high directionality (high fluxes (>1011 ions/sr) and energy (>10 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  5. QED corrections to atomic wavefunctions in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Johan

    2015-11-18

    Bound electron states in highly charged ions are strongly influenced by the effects of relativity and quantum electrodynamics (QED). These effects induce shifts of the binding energies as well as corrections to observables related to atomic processes. In this work a numerical procedure is described and implemented in which the QED effects are treated as corrections to relativistic bound-state wavefunctions. This approach, which is based on the recently developed covariant evolution-operator formalism, allows for a merging of QED with the standard methods of many-body perturbation theory. In particular, it enables an evaluation of the combined effect of QED and electron correlation in few-electron systems. Numerical results for this effect are presented for the ground state energy of helium-like ions. A detailed analysis of the contribution from the electron self-energy is carried out in both the Feynman and Coulomb gauge. It is found that the Feynman gauge suffers from large numerical cancellations and acquires significant contributions from terms involving multiple interactions with the nuclear potential (the so-called many-potential terms), while the Coulomb gauge is well suited for an approximate treatment based on terms involving only freely propagating electrons (the zero-potential terms). With the help of QED-corrected wavefunctions it is also possible to compute corrections to observables in basic atomic processes. In this work some of the one-loop QED corrections (those derivable from perturbed wavefunctions and energies) to the differential cross section and distribution of polarization in radiative recombination of initially bare uranium nuclei are evaluated, as well as the corresponding corrections to the ratio τ{sub E1}/τ{sub M2} of the electric dipole and magnetic quadrupole transition amplitudes in the 2p{sub 3/2}→1s radiative decay of hydrogenlike uranium. The results from these calculations are all of the expected magnitude, namely on the order

  6. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  7. Photoconductivity studies of the ferrocyanide ion under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    The photoaquation of the ferrocyanide ion was studied using a high-pressure photoconductivity apparatus and a steady-state high-pressure mercury lamp. The first-order photocurrent rise-time could be related to the relative quantum efficiency of the photoaquation process, while the dark decay of the photocurrent yielded a relative value of the bimolecular rate-constant for the reverse reaction. Kinetic measurements were carried out on dilute solutions of potassium ferrocyanide in pure water, and in 20% ethanol. The photocurrent yield in aqueous solution was dependent upon secondary chemical equilibria which were sensitive to pressure in a predictable way. In ethanolic solution, the dependence of photocurrent yield on pressure followed the variation of the reciprocal solvent vicosity. In both aqueous and alcoholic solution, the photoaquation quantum efficiency decreased exponentially with pressure, as did the biomolecular rate-constant for the dark reaction in aqueous solution. The pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate-constant in the alcoholic solution indicated a diffusion-limited process. The pressure dependence of the photoaquation quantum yield, and of the bimolecular rate-constant in aqueous solution, was interpreted in terms of an activation volume model. The photoaquation data for both the aqueous and the alcoholic solutions agreed with a hypothetical mechanism whereby ligand-to-metal bond-breaking, and solvent-to-metal bond-formation, are effectively simultaneous. The results for the aqueous dark reaction strongly indicated breaking of the solvent-to-metal bond as the rate-limiting step.

  8. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  9. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  10. "Electron/Ion Sponge"-Like V-Based Polyoxometalate: Toward High-Performance Cathode for Rechargeable Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Bowei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Huanhuan; Tian, Bingbing; Chen, Minghua; Fan, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yizhong; Sum, Tze Chien; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2017-07-25

    One key challenge facing room temperature Na-ion batteries lies in identifying earth-abundant, environmentally friendly and safe materials that can provide efficient Na(+) storage sites in Na-ion batteries. Herein, we report such a material, polyoxometalate Na2H8[MnV13O38] (NMV), with entirely different composition and structure from those cathode compounds reported before. Ex-situ XPS and FTIR analyses reveal that NMV cathode behaves like an "electron/Na-ion sponge", with 11 electrons/Na(+) acceptability per mole, which has a decisive contribution to the high capacity. The extraordinary structural features, evidenced by X-ray crystallographic analysis, of Na2H8[MnV13O38] with a flexible 2D lamellar network and 1D open channels provide diverse Na ion migration pathways, yielding good rate capability. First-principle calculations demonstrate that a super-reduced state, [MnV13O38](20-), is formed with slightly expanded size (ca. 7.5%) upon Na(+) insertion compared to the original [MnV13O38](9-). This "ion sponge" feature ensures the good cycling stability. Consequently, benefiting from the combinations of "electron/ion sponge" with diverse Na(+) diffusion channels, when revealed as the cathode materials for Na-ion batteries, Na2H8[MnV13O38]/G exhibits a high specific capacity (ca. 190 mA h/g at 0.1 C), associates with a good rate capability (130 mA h/g at 1 C), and a good capacity retention (81% at 0.2 C). Our results promote better understanding of the storage mechanism in polyoxometalate host, enrich the existing rechargeable SIBs cathode chemistry, and enlighten an exciting direction for exploring promising cathode materials for Na-ion batteries.

  11. Preparation of cold Mg{sup +}ion clouds for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions at SPECTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazan, Radu Mircea

    2012-02-15

    The bound electrons in hydrogen-like or lithium-like heavy ions experience extremely strong electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding of the nucleus. Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in the lead region provides a sensitive tool to test strong-field quantum electro dynamics (QED), especially in the magnetic sector. Previous measurements on hydrogen-like systems performed in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) or at the experimental storage ring (ESR) were experimentally limited in accuracy due to statistics, the large Doppler broadening and the ion energy. The full potential of the QED test can only be exploited if measurements for hydrogen- and lithium-like ions are performed with accuracy improved by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Therefore, the new Penning trap setup SPECTRAP - dedicated for laser spectroscopy on trapped and cooled highly charged ions - is currently commissioned at GSI Darmstadt. Heavy highly charged ions will be delivered to this trap by the HITRAP facility in the future. SPECTRAP is a cylindrical Penning trap with axial access for external ion injection and radial optical access mounted inside a cold-bore superconducting Helmholtz-type split-coil magnet. To reach the targeted accuracy in laser spectroscopy, an efficient and fast cooling process for the highly charged ions must be employed. This can be realized by sympathetic cooling with a cloud of laser-cooled light ions. Within this thesis work, a laser system and an ion source for the production of such a {sup 24}Mg{sup +} ion cloud was developed and commissioned at SPECTRAP. An all-solid-state laser system for the generation of 279.6 nm light was designed and built. It consists of a fiber laser at 1118.5 nm followed by frequency quadrupling using two successive second-harmonic generation stages with actively stabilized ring resonators and nonlinear crystals. The laser system can deliver more than 15 mW of UV laser power under optimal conditions and requires little

  12. Highly charged ions as a basis of optical atomic clockwork of exceptional accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevianko, Andrei; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2012-11-02

    We propose a novel class of atomic clocks based on highly charged ions. We consider highly forbidden laser-accessible transitions within the 4f(12) ground-state configurations of highly charged ions. Our evaluation of systematic effects demonstrates that these transitions may be used for building exceptionally accurate atomic clocks which may compete in accuracy with recently proposed nuclear clocks.

  13. High-resolution Thomson parabola for ion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, J. A.; Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Letzring, S. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mastrosimone, D. [University of Rochester - Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Sinenian, N. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed, constructed, and used at the OMEGA-EP facility. Laser-accelerated multi-MeV ions from hemispherical C targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a multi-kG magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 25 kV/cm. The ion drift region has a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 400-MeV C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is ten-inch manipulator (TIM)-mounted at OMEGA-EP and can be used opposite either of the EP ps beams. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-Vdc power available in EP TIM carts. Flux control derives from the insertion depth into the target chamber and the user-selected pinhole dimensions. The detector consists of CR39 backed by an image plate. A fully relativistic simulation code for calculating ion trajectories was employed for design optimization. Excellent agreement of code predictions with the actual ion positions on the detectors is observed. Through pit counting of carbon-ion tracks in CR39, it is shown that conversion efficiency of laser light to energetic carbon ions exceeds {approx}5% for these targets.

  14. High-resolution Thomson parabola for ion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, J A; Flippo, K A; Offermann, D T; Lopez, F E; Oertel, J A; Mastrosimone, D; Letzring, S A; Sinenian, N

    2011-11-01

    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed, constructed, and used at the OMEGA-EP facility. Laser-accelerated multi-MeV ions from hemispherical C targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a multi-kG magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 25 kV/cm. The ion drift region has a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 400-MeV C(6+) and C(5+) may be resolved. TPIE is ten-inch manipulator (TIM)-mounted at OMEGA-EP and can be used opposite either of the EP ps beams. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-Vdc power available in EP TIM carts. Flux control derives from the insertion depth into the target chamber and the user-selected pinhole dimensions. The detector consists of CR39 backed by an image plate. A fully relativistic simulation code for calculating ion trajectories was employed for design optimization. Excellent agreement of code predictions with the actual ion positions on the detectors is observed. Through pit counting of carbon-ion tracks in CR39, it is shown that conversion efficiency of laser light to energetic carbon ions exceeds ~5% for these targets. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. Universal electromagnetic suspension balance with nanogramme mass resolution for measurement of sorption on small samples in top and bottom loading configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, C. G.; Petermann, M.; Fieback, T. M.

    2017-04-01

    Determination of mass increase or decrease of very small amplitude is a task which goes hand in hand with gravimetric adsorption and absorption measurement and thermogravimetry. Samples are subjected to various process conditions and as such can experience a change in mass, i.e. when adsorbing gas from the process atmosphere, or can decrease in mass, such as when being dried or when thermal decomposition takes place. Current instruments used for such analysis, especially at high pressures, are often based on magnetic suspension balances, and have a maximum mass resolution of a few 10‑6 g. This necessitates more often than not quite significant sample quantities, which can sometimes not easily be manufactured, e.g. in the case of metal organic framework adsorbents, or which in other cases do not have a sufficient specific surface area resulting in low measuring effect. A new apparatus based on a high resolution thermogravimetric analyser has been developed. This new apparatus combines very high resolution of up to a few 10‑8 g with a relatively high sample mass of up to 1.5 g, whilst eliminating many of the disadvantages of the microbalances previously used in magnetic suspension balances. An interface was developed which permits free configuration of the new balance as top or bottom loading. Validation measurements of known adsorbents were subsequently performed, with sample quantities up to a factor of 174 smaller than in literature.

  16. Silver: high performance anode for thin film lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillades, G.; Sarradin, J.

    Among metals and intermetallic compounds, silver exhibits a high specific capacity according to the formation of different Ag-Li alloys (up to AgLi 12) in a very low voltage range versus lithium (0.250-0 V). Electrochemical results including Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as well as cycling behaviour experiments confirmed the interesting characteristics of silver thin film electrodes prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering. XRD patterns recorded at different electrochemical stages of the alloying/de-alloying processes showed the complexity of the silver-lithium system under dynamic conditions. Cycling life depends on several parameters and particularly of the careful choice of cut-off voltages. In very well monitored conditions, galvanostatic cycles exhibited flat reversible plateaus with a minimal voltage value (0.050 V) between charge and discharge, a feature of great interest in the use of an electrode. The first results of a lithium ion battery with both silver and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 thin films are presented.

  17. Effects of Photon Absorption in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Joshua; Somanathan, Sidharth; Fries, Ranier

    2014-09-01

    Photons are an important probe of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in high-energy collisions of nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since the mean free path of photons is larger than the size of the fireball of nuclear matter, final state interactions of photons are usually neglected. In light of recent tension between theoretical calculations and data from RHIC and LHC, we study the effect of reabsorption of photons on elliptic flow v2 and on the nuclear modification factor RAA. We consider photons emitted in primary hard collisions and thermal photons from quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas. We use the jet-quenching code PPM to simulate the propagation of those photons in a fireball of quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas created by collisions of heavy nuclei. For the absorption cross-sections we consider three different approaches: (a) Compton and pair production processes calculated by us in a static approximation, (b) the photon damping rates calculated by Thoma (1995), and (c) absorption rates derived from a recent photon calculation by van Hees et al.

  18. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  19. The interactions of high-energy, highly-charged ions with fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1985, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered a new form of carbon, the fullerene, C{sub 60}, which consists of 60 carbon atoms in a closed cage resembling a soccer ball. In 1990, Kritschmer et al. were able to make macroscopic quantities of fullerenes. This has generated intense activity to study the properties of fullerenes. One area of research involves collisions between fullerenes and atoms, ions or electrons. In this paper we describe experiments involving interactions between fullerenes and highly charged ions in which the center-of-mass energies exceed those used in other work by several orders of magnitude. The high values of projectile velocity and charge state result in excitation and decay processes differing significantly from those seen in studies 3 at lower energies. Our results are discussed in terms of theoretical models analogous to those used in nuclear physics and this provides an interesting demonstration of the unity of physics.

  20. Phase stability and microstructures of high entropy alloys ion irradiated to high doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Songqin; Gao, Michael C.; Yang, Tengfei; Liaw, Peter K.; Zhang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The microstructures of AlxCoCrFeNi (x = 0.1, 0.75 and 1.5 in molar ratio) high entropy alloys (HEAs) irradiated at room temperature with 3 MeV Au ions at the highest fluence of 105, 91, and 81 displacement per atom, respectively, were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analyses show that the initial microstructures and phase composition of all three alloys are retained after ion irradiation and no phase decomposition is observed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) and disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phases show much less defect cluster formation and structural damage than the NiAl-type ordered B2 phase. This effect is explained by higher entropy of mixing, higher defect formation/migration energies, substantially lower thermal conductivity, and higher atomic level stress in the disordered phases.

  1. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Tebartz, A.; Ding, J.; Neumann, N. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Astbury, S.; Carroll, D. C.; Scott, G. G. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, A.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Wagner, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  2. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A; Kar, S; Tebartz, A; Ahmed, H; Astbury, S; Carroll, D C; Ding, J; Doria, D; Higginson, A; McKenna, P; Neumann, N; Scott, G G; Wagner, F; Roth, M; Borghesi, M

    2016-08-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  3. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Ahmed M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K; Anderson, Gordon A; Prost, Spencer A; Norheim, Randolph V; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-09-20

    We report on ion mobility (IM) separations achievable using traveling waves (TW) in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module having a 44 cm path length and 16 90° turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission and IM separations with different RF, TW parameters, and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work, TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The module demonstrated highly robust performance and, even with 16 closely spaced turns, achieving IM resolution performance and ion transmission comparable to a similar straight path module. We found an IM peak capacity of ∼31 and peak generation rate of 780 s(-1) for TW speeds of ∼80 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ∼0.9-m drift tube-based IM-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 Torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater IM resolution via greatly extended ion path lengths and using compact serpentine designs.

  4. Monodisperse antimony nanocrystals for high-rate Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes: nano versus bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Kravchyk, Kostiantyn; Walter, Marc; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2014-03-12

    We report colloidal synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanocrystals with mean size tunable in the 10-20 nm range and with narrow size distributions of 7-11%. In comparison to microcrystalline Sb, 10 and 20 nm Sb nanocrystals exhibit enhanced rate-capability and higher cycling stability as anode materials in rechargeable Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. All three particle sizes of Sb possess high and similar Li-ion and Na-ion charge storage capacities of 580-640 mAh g(-1) at moderate charging/discharging current densities of 0.5-1C (1C-rate is 660 mA g(-1)). At all C-rates (0.5-20C, e.g. current densities of 0.33-13.2 Ag(1-)), capacities of 20 nm Sb particles are systematically better than for both 10 nm and bulk Sb. At 20C-rates, retention of charge storage capacities by 10 and 20 nm Sb nanocrystals can reach 78-85% of the low-rate value, indicating that rate capability of Sb nanostructures can be comparable to the best Li-ion intercalation anodes and is so far unprecedented for Na-ion storage.

  5. Ion Composition of Titan's Ionosphere Observed During T9 Magnetotail Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Hartle, Richard; Cooper, John; Shappirio, Marcus; Johnson, Robert; Simpson, David

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, Sittler et al., (2010) presented new results on the T9 encounter by the Cassini spacecraft when it passed through Titan s induced magnetotail. Two crossings were observed, but the first crossing, event 1, is thought to be out flowing ionosphere plasma. T9 is ideal for CAPS IMS probing of the ionosphere, since the ion densities at the higher altitudes of the T9 flyby approx. 10,000 km, allows measurements to be made down to 1 eV without saturating its detectors. Sittler et al., (2010) reported possible detection of NH4+ ions, but favored the detection of CH5+ and C2H5+ ions. In this report we investigate both the medium mass resolution (straight through (ST)) and high mass resolution (linear electric field (LEF)) composition data from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). We present a more in depth analysis of the composition data and make comparisons with ionospheric models including nitrogen chemistry such as that by Vuitton et al. (2007). The LEF data does not support NH4+ identification, but favors a CH5+ and C2H5+ identification, but also molecular ions C2N+ and CH2NH2+ are chemically allowed possibilities.

  6. ECR Ion Source of High Charge States%高电荷态ECR离子源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子民; 刘占稳; 赵红卫

    2000-01-01

    介绍了目前ECR离子源的发展状况和国际上几台典型的ECR离子源.%Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is the most efficient facility for producing highly charged ions.So far more than 1 emA of O6+ and 0.02eμA of U55+ have been delivered by ECR ion source. In this paper the latest develop-ment of ECR ion source is presented and several typical ECR ion sources in the world is introduced.

  7. Naphthatimide as Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensor for Ag+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Sheng; LI,Wei; CHEN,Kong-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The naphthalimide derivative NA1 was synthesized, which consists of a bis(2-(ethylthio)ethyl)amine group binding cations and naphthalimide unit as chromogenic and fluorogenic signaling subunit. Absorption and emission spectra and the effect of polarity of solvents and pH values were studied. The photo-induced electron transfer (PET) occurred from the donor of bis(2-(ethylthio)ethyl)amine group to the naphthalimide fluorophore. The present study demonstrates that NA1 is a viable candidate as a fluorescent receptor for a new Ag+ ion sensor. This silver ion chemosensor can discriminate Ag+ ion well among heavy metal ions by an enhancement of the fluorescence intensity in ethanol-water (1:9, V:V). And NA1 is also a pH-sensor because the fluorescence of the compound varies with the pH values.

  8. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  9. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-11-04

    Measurements of 2s{sub l/2}-2p{sub 3/2} electric dipole and 2p{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U{sup 82+} through U{sup 89+} have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer {minus}39.21 {plus_minus} 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy of lithiumlike U{sup 89+}. A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell.

  10. Injection to the pick-up ion regime from high energies and induced ion power laws

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H -J; Verscharen, D

    2008-01-01

    Though pick-up ions (PUIs) are a well known phenomenon in the inner heliosphere, their phase-space distribution nevertheless is a theoretically unsettled problem. Especially the question of how pick-up ions form their suprathermal tails, extending to far above their injection energies, still now is unsatistactorily answered. Though Fermi-2 velocity diffusion theories have revealed that such tails are populated, they nevertheless show that resulting population densities are much less than seen in observations showing power-laws with a velocity index of ``-5''. We first investigate here, whether or not observationally suggested power-laws can be the result of a quasi-equilibrium state between suprathermal ions and magnetohydrodynamic turbulences in energy exchange with eachother. We demonstrate that such an equilibrium cannot be established. We furthermore show that Fermi-2 type energy diffusion in the outer heliosphere is too inefficient to determine the shape of the distribution function there. As we can show...

  11. A high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer utilizing hydronium ions (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) for measurements of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Koss, Abigail; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Stark, Harald; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-07-01

    Proton transfer reactions between hydronium ions (H3O+) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provide a fast and highly sensitive technique for VOC measurements, leading to extensive use of proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in atmospheric research. Based on the same ionization approach, we describe the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) utilizing H3O+ as the reagent ion. The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS has sensitivities of 100-1000 cps ppb-1 (ion counts per second per part-per-billion mixing ratio of VOC) and detection limits of 20-600 ppt at 3σ for a 1 s integration time for simultaneous measurements of many VOC species of atmospheric relevance. The ToF analyzer with mass resolution (m/Δm) of up to 6000 allows the separation of isobaric masses, as shown in previous studies using similar ToF-MS. While radio frequency (RF)-only quadrupole ion guides provide better overall ion transmission than ion lens system, low-mass cutoff of RF-only quadrupole causes H3O+ ions to be transmitted less efficiently than heavier masses, which leads to unusual humidity dependence of reagent ions and difficulty obtaining a humidity-independent parameter for normalization. The humidity dependence of the instrument was characterized for various VOC species and the behaviors for different species can be explained by compound-specific properties that affect the ion chemistry (e.g., proton affinity and dipole moment). The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS was successfully deployed on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for the SONGNEX campaign in spring of 2015. The measured mixing ratios of several aromatics from the H3O+ ToF-CIMS agreed within ±10 % with independent gas chromatography measurements from whole air samples. Initial results from the SONGNEX measurements demonstrate that the H3O+ ToF-CIMS data set will be valuable for the identification and characterization of emissions from various sources, investigation of secondary

  12. Development of heating device / development of the high current ion source for neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon Ju; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kyong Jin; Ko Tae Kyong [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    The design and fabrication of a high current ion source for NBI was carried out. The scale of an ion source was reduced for mock-up test. To develop the high current ion source with the high operational stability and the long lifetime, the parameters including an arc current, gas pressure and extraction voltage should be optimized. If fabricated ion source would be tested, its parameters could be optimized experimentally. Through the optimization of the ion source parameter, the core technology for NBI is established and the experiment of current drive in the fusion device can be performed. This technology also can be applied to the ion beam technology in the field of new material synthesis and semiconductor industry. 24 refs., 22 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  13. Commercial intermediate pressure MALDI ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometer capable of producing highly charged laserspray ionization ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutan, Ellen D; Wang, Beixi; Trimpin, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The first examples of highly charged ions observed under intermediate pressure (IP) vacuum conditions are reported using laser ablation of matrix/analyte mixtures. The method and results are similar to those obtained at atmospheric pressure (AP) using laserspray ionization (LSI) and/or matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII). Electrospray ionization (ESI), LSI, and MAII are methods operating at AP and have been shown, with or without the use of a voltage or a laser, to produce highly charged ions with very similar ion abundance and charge states. A commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) mass spectrometry (MS) instrument (SYNAPT G2) was used for the IP developments. The necessary conditions for producing highly charged ions of peptides and small proteins at IP appear to be a pressure drop region and the use of suitable matrixes and laser fluence. Ionization to produce these highly charged ions under the low pressure conditions of IP does not require specific heating or a special inlet ion transfer region. However, under the current setup, ubiquitin is the highest molecular weight protein observed. These findings are in accord with the need to provide thermal energy in the pressure drop region, similar to LSI and MAII, to improve sensitivity and extend the types of compounds that produce highly charged ions. The practical utility of IP-LSI in combination with IMS-MS is demonstrated for the analysis of model mixtures composed of a lipid, peptides, and a protein. Further, endogenous multiply charged peptides are observed directly from delipified mouse brain tissue with drift time distributions that are nearly identical in appearance to those obtained from a synthesized neuropeptide standard analyzed by either LSI- or ESI-IMS-MS at AP. Efficient solvent-free gas-phase separation enabled by the IMS dimension separates the multiply charged peptides from lipids that remained on the delipified tissue. Lipid and peptide

  14. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2008-02-01

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  15. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomograp...

  16. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, S.; Bartnik, A.; Bazarov, I. V.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Hoffstaetter, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high continuous wave beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and continuous wave beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates of the ions while employing bunch gaps, and the sinusoidal shaking frequency necessary for clearing via beam shaking. In all cases, we achieve a maximum ion clearing of at least 70% or higher, and in some cases our data is consistent with full ion clearing.

  17. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Greubel, C.; Peeper, K. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Hartung, P. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m{sup -2} rad{sup -2} eV{sup -1} directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1}. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H{sup -}-current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 {mu}A because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1} in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  18. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M.; Reichart, P.; Carli, W.; Greubel, C.; Peeper, K.; Hartung, P.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-02-01

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m -2 rad -2 eV -1 directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 μA mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H --current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 μA because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 μA mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1 in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  19. High temperature annealing studies of strontium ion implanted glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odutemowo, O.S., E-mail: u12052613@tuks.co.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Malherbe, J.B.; Prinsloo, L.; Langa, D.F. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Wendler, E. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Glassy carbon samples were implanted with 200 keV strontium ions to a fluence of 2 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analysis with Raman spectroscopy showed that ion bombardment amorphises the glassy carbon structure. Partial recovery of the glassy carbon structure was achieved after the implanted sample was vacuum annealed at 900 °C for 1 h. Annealing the strontium ion bombarded sample at 2000 °C for 5 h resulted in recovery of the glassy carbon substrate with the intensity of the D peak becoming lower than that of the pristine glassy carbon. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) showed that the implanted strontium diffused towards the surface of the glassy carbon after annealing the sample at 900 °C. This diffusion was also accompanied by loss of the implanted strontium. Comparison between the as-implanted and 900 °C depth profiles showed that less than 30% of the strontium was retained in the glassy carbon after heat treatment at 900 °C. The RBS profile after annealing at 2000 °C indicated that no strontium ions were retained after heat treatment at this temperature.

  20. High temperature annealing studies of strontium ion implanted glassy carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutemowo, O. S.; Malherbe, J. B.; Prinsloo, L.; Langa, D. F.; Wendler, E.

    2016-03-01

    Glassy carbon samples were implanted with 200 keV strontium ions to a fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Analysis with Raman spectroscopy showed that ion bombardment amorphises the glassy carbon structure. Partial recovery of the glassy carbon structure was achieved after the implanted sample was vacuum annealed at 900 °C for 1 h. Annealing the strontium ion bombarded sample at 2000 °C for 5 h resulted in recovery of the glassy carbon substrate with the intensity of the D peak becoming lower than that of the pristine glassy carbon. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) showed that the implanted strontium diffused towards the surface of the glassy carbon after annealing the sample at 900 °C. This diffusion was also accompanied by loss of the implanted strontium. Comparison between the as-implanted and 900 °C depth profiles showed that less than 30% of the strontium was retained in the glassy carbon after heat treatment at 900 °C. The RBS profile after annealing at 2000 °C indicated that no strontium ions were retained after heat treatment at this temperature.

  1. Strongly Enhanced Effects of Lorentz-Symmetry Violation in Yb$^+$ and Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S

    2016-01-01

    A Lorentz-symmetry test with Ca$^+$ ions demonstrated the potential of using quantum information inspired technology for tests of fundamental physics. A systematic study of atomic-system sensitivities to Lorentz violation identified the ytterbium ion as an ideal system with high sensitivity as well as excellent experimental controllability. A test of Lorentz-violating physics in the electron-photon sector with Yb$^+$ ions has the potential to reach levels of 10$^{-23}$, five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current best bounds. Similar sensitivities may be also reached with highly charged ions.

  2. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  3. Shot-to-shot reproducibility in the emission of fast highly charged metal ions from a laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krása, J; Velyhan, A; Margarone, D; Krouský, E; Krouský, L; Jungwirth, K; Rohlena, K; Ullschmied, J; Parys, P; Ryć, L; Wołowski, J

    2012-02-01

    The generation of fast highly charged metal ions with the use of the sub-nanosecond Prague Asterix Laser System, operated at a fundamental wavelength of 1315 nm, is reported. Particular attention is paid to shot-to-shot reproducibility in the ion emission. Au and Pd targets were exposed to intensities up to 5 × 10(16) W∕cm(2). Above the laser intensity threshold of ∼3 × 10(14) W∕cm(2) the plasma is generated in a form of irregular bursts. The maximum energy of protons constituting the leading edge of the fastest burst reaches a value up to 1 MeV. The fast ions in the following bursts have energy gradually decreasing with the increasing burst number, namely, from a value of about 0.5 MeV∕charge regardless of the atomic number and mass of the ionized species.

  4. Highly charged ions from laser-cluster interactions: local-field-enhanced impact ionization and frustrated electron-ion recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Thomas; Ramunno, Lora; Brabec, Thomas

    2007-12-07

    Our molecular dynamics analysis of Xe_{147-5083} clusters identifies two mechanisms that contribute to the yet unexplained observation of extremely highly charged ions in intense laser cluster experiments. First, electron impact ionization is enhanced by the local cluster electric field, increasing the highest charge states by up to 40%; a corresponding theoretical method is developed. Second, electron-ion recombination after the laser pulse is frustrated by acceleration electric fields typically used in ion detectors. This increases the highest charge states by up to 90%, as compared to the usual assumption of total recombination of all cluster-bound electrons. Both effects together augment the highest charge states by up to 120%, in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  5. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  7. Energetic Ion Mitigation Methodology for High Power Plasma Thruster Cathodes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The presence of energetic ions, that appear under high cathode current operation, stand as a showstopper to the realization of high power electric propulsion....

  8. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  9. Matter Power Spectrum Covariance Matrix from the DEUS-PUR {\\Lambda}CDM simulations: Mass Resolution and non-Gaussian Errors

    CERN Document Server

    Blot, Linda; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Reverdy, Vincent; Rasera, Yann

    2014-01-01

    The upcoming generation of galaxy surveys will probe the distribution of matter in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. Measurements of the matter power spectrum at different scales and redshifts will provide stringent constraints on the cosmological parameters. However, on non-linear scales this will require an accurate evaluation of the covariance matrix. Here, we compute the covariance matrix of the matter power spectrum for the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology from an ensemble of N-body simulations of the Dark Energy Universe Simulation - Parallel Universe Runs (DEUS-PUR). This consists of 12288 realizations of a $(656\\,h^{-1}\\,\\textrm{Mpc})^3$ simulation box with $256^3$ particles. We combine this set with an auxiliary sample of 96 simulations of the same volume with $1024^3$ particles to assess the impact of non-Gaussian uncertainties due to mass resolution effects. We find this to be an important source of systematic errors at high redshift and small intermediate scales. We introduce an empirica...

  10. Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, Douglas P.; /Fermilab; Welton, Robert F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; /DESY; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

    2006-08-01

    The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

  11. Ion density and dielectric breakdown in the afterglow of a high-current arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutgers, W.R.; Verhagen, F.C.M.; De Zeeuw, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The ion density in the afterglow of a high-current atmospheric arc-discharge and electrical breakdown have been investigated in atomic (argon), molecular (nitrogen) and electronegative (carbon dioxide) media. From the decay with time of the ion density, effective recombination coefficients can be calculated. When the ion density is reduced to values below 2 x 10/sup 17/m/sup -3/, the afterglow plasma changes from a resistive into a dielectric medium. (J.C.R.)

  12. Measurements of excitation spectra and level lifetimes for highly charged neon ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友德; 马新文; 杨治虎; 杜一飞; 刘惠萍; 赵孟春; 郭天瑞; 王春芳

    1997-01-01

    Beam foil experiments were carried out for 47 MeV Ne ions passing through C (39 μg/cm2) and Al (3 4mg/cm2) foils. Highly charged H-, He-, Li-, and Be-like ions were obtained after the foils. The excitation spectra and level lifetimes for these ions were measured, and transition configurations for most measured lines were identified

  13. Electron dynamics at surfaces induced by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, R

    1998-01-01

    Energy spectra of electrons resulting from hydrogen-like multiply charged N6+ and Q(7+) ions on various surfaces are presented and discussed. Por metal target surfaces thr formation and decay of hollow atoms during the approach towards the surface is rather well understood in terms of the classical

  14. Electron dynamics at surfaces induced by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, R

    Energy spectra of electrons resulting from hydrogen-like multiply charged N6+ and Q(7+) ions on various surfaces are presented and discussed. Por metal target surfaces thr formation and decay of hollow atoms during the approach towards the surface is rather well understood in terms of the classical

  15. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andelkovic, Z., E-mail: z.andelkovic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, S. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany); Steinmann, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency.

  16. An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Thomas; Varentsov, Victor; Sabourov, Amanda; Gratta, Giorgio; Dilling, Jens; DeVoe, Ralph; Sinclair, David; Fairbank, William; Albert, Joshua B; Auty, David J; Barbeau, Phil S; Beck, Douglas; Benitez-Medina, Cesar; Breidenbach, Martin; Cao, Guofu F; Chambers, Christopher; Cleveland, Bruce; Coon, Matthew; Craycraft, Adam; Daniels, Timothy; Daugherty, Sean J; Didberidze, Tamar; Dolinski, Michelle J; Dunford, Matthew; Fabris, Lorenzo; Farine, Jacques; Feldmeier, Wolfhart; Fierlinger, Peter; Gornea, Razvan; Graham, Kevin; Heffner, Mike; Hughes, Mitchell; Jewell, Michael; Jiang, Xiaoshan S; Johnson, Tessa N; Johnston, Sereres; Karelin, Alexander; Kaufman, Lisa J; Killick, Ryan; Koffas, Thomas; Kravitz, Scott; Kruecken, Reiner; Kuchenkov, Alexey; Kumar, Krishna S; Leonard, Douglas S; Leonard, Francois; Licciardi, Caio; Lin, Yi-Hsuan H; Ling, Jiajie; MacLellan, Ryan; Marino, Michael G; Mong, Brian; Moore, David; Odian, Allen; Ostrovskiy, Igor; Ouellet, Christian; Piepke, Andreas; Pocar, Andrea; Retiere, Fabrice; Rowson, Peter C; Rozo, Maria P; Schubert, Alexis; Smith, Erica; Stekhanov, Victor; Tarka, Michal; Tolba, Tamer; Tosi, Delia; Twelker, Karl; Vuilleumier, Jean-Luc L; Walton, Josiah; Walton, Timothy; Weber, Manuel; Wen, Liangjian J; Wichoski, Ubi; Yang, Liang; Yen, Yung-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

  17. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, M., E-mail: kashiwagi.mieko@jaea.go.jp; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  18. Testing spatial α-variation with optical atomic clocks based on highly charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berengut J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review recent works illustrating the potential use of highly charged ions as the basis of optical atomic clocks of exceptional accuracy and very high sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant, α. The tendency towards large transition energies in highly charged ions can be overcome using level crossings, which allow transitions between different orbitals to be within the range of usual lasers. We present simple scaling laws that demonstrate reduced systematics that could be realised in highly charged ion clocks. Such clocks could allow us to corroborate astronomical studies that suggest a spatial gradient in values of α across the Universe.

  19. Lifetime of anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X P; Dong, Z H; Han, X G; Xin, J P; Lei, M K

    2007-02-01

    Generation of high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) has been studied experimentally using polyethylene as the anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with an external magnetic field. The HIPIB is extracted from the anode plasma produced during the surface discharging process on polyethylene under the electrical and magnetic fields in MIDs, i.e., high-voltage surface breakdown (flashover) with bombardments by electrons. The surface morphology and the microstructure of the anode polymer are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The surface roughening of the anode polymer results from the explosive release of trapped gases or newly formed gases under the high-voltage discharging, leaving fractured surfaces with bubble formation. The polyethylene in the surface layer degrades into low-molecular-weight polymers such as polyethylene wax and paraffin under the discharging process. Both the surface roughness and the fraction of low molecular polymers apparently increase as the discharging times are prolonged for multipulse HIPIB generation. The changes in the surface morphology and the composition of anode polymer lead to a noticeable decrease in the output of ion beam intensity, i.e., ion current density and diode voltage, accompanied with an increase in instability of the parameters with the prolonged discharge times. The diode voltage (or surface breakdown voltage of polymer) mainly depends on the surface morphology (or roughness) of anode polymers, and the ion current density on the composition of anode polymers, which account for the two stages of anode polymer degradation observed experimentally, i.e., stage I which has a steady decrease of the two parameters and stage II which shows a slow decrease, but with an enhanced fluctuation of the two parameters with increasing pulses of HIPIB generation.

  20. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The interactions of high-energy, highly charged Xe ions with buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1994-12-31

    Ionization and fragmentation have been measured for C{sub 60} molecules bombarded by highly charged (up to 35+) xenon ions with energies ranging up to 625 MeV. The observed mass distribution of positively charged fragments is explained in terms of a theoretical model indicating that the total interaction cross section contains roughly equal contributions from (a) excitation of the giant plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. Preliminary results of measurements on VUV photons emitted in these interactions are also presented.

  2. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  3. Time-of-flight mass spectrographs—From ions to neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    After their introduction to space physics in the mid 1980s time-of-flight (TOF) spectrographs have become a main staple in spaceborne mass spectrometry. They have largely replaced magnetic spectrometers, except when extremely high mass resolution is required to identify complex molecules, for example, in the vicinity of comets or in planetary atmospheres. In combination with electrostatic analyzers and often solid state detectors, TOF spectrographs have become key instruments to diagnose space plasma velocity distributions, mass, and ionic charge composition. With a variety of implementation schemes that also include isochronous electric field configurations, TOF spectrographs can respond to diverse science requirements. This includes a wide range in mass resolution to allow the separation of medium heavy isotopes or to simply provide distributions of the major species, such as H, He, and O, to obtain information on source tracers or mass fluxes. With a top-hat analyzer at the front end, or in combination with deflectors for three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the distribution function of ions can be obtained with good time resolution. Most recently, the reach of TOF ion mass spectrographs has been extended to include energetic neutral atoms. After selecting the arrival direction with mechanical collimation, followed by conversion to ions, adapted TOF sensors form a new branch of the spectrograph family tree. We review the requirements, challenges, and implementation schemes for ion and neutral atom spectrographs, including potential directions for the future, while largely avoiding overlap with complementary contributions in this special issue.

  4. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andr& #233

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  5. Low loss two-step ion-exchanged waveguides with high surface refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah; Mittler, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Two-step ion-exchanged waveguides with high surface refractive indices are fabricated under a variety of conditions. By modifying the conventional two-step ion exchange, the losses and the effective diffusion depth can be decreased without a significant effect on the surface refractive index. The influence of the first step, K+-Na+ ion exchange, performed time dependably on the surface refractive index change is investigated. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is performed to establish the diffusion profiles of various ions.

  6. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  7. Highly confined ions store charge more efficiently in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, C; Péan, C; Rotenberg, B; Madden, P A; Daffos, B; Taberna, P-L; Simon, P; Salanne, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquids exhibit specific properties when they are adsorbed in nanoporous structures. This is particularly true in the context of supercapacitors, for which an anomalous increase in performance has been observed for nanoporous electrodes. This enhancement has been traditionally attributed in experimental studies to the effect of confinement of the ions from the electrolyte inside sub-nanometre pores, which is accompanied by their partial desolvation. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations of realistic supercapacitors and show that this picture is correct at the microscopic scale. We provide a detailed analysis of the various environments experienced by the ions. We pick out four different adsorption types, and we, respectively, label them as edge, planar, hollow and pocket sites upon increase of the coordination of the molecular species by carbon atoms from the electrode. We show that both the desolvation and the local charge stored on the electrode increase with the degree of confinement.

  8. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versolato, O.O.; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.

    2013-01-01

    17 + . However, lasers pectroscopy of HCIs is hindered by the large (∼ 106 K) temperatures at which they are produced and trapped. An unprecedented improvement in such laser spectroscopy can be obtained when HCIs are cooled down to the mK range in a linear Paul trap. We have developed a cryogenic...... linear Paul trap in which HCIs will be sympathetically cooled by 9Be +  ions. Optimized optical access for laser light is provided while maintaining excellent UHV conditions. The Paul trap will be connected to an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) which is able to produce a wide range of HCIs. This EBIT...... will also provide the first experimental input needed for the determination of the transition energies inIr 17+ , enabling further laser-spectroscopic investigations of this promising HCI....

  9. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H{sup -} current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm{sup 2}. The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H{sup -} current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  10. Development and characterization of a high-reliability, extended-lifetime H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Gabriel; Barrows, Preston; Sherman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Phoenix Nuclear Labs (PNL) has designed and constructed a long-lifetime, negative hydrogen (H-) ion source, in partnership with Fermilab for an ion beam injector servicing future Intensity Frontier particle accelerators. The specifications for the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) section are 5-10 mA of continuous H- ion current at 30 keV with 99% continuous uptime at PNL. Positive ions and hyperthermal neutrals drift toward a low-work-function surface, where a fraction is converted into H- hydrogen ions, which are subsequently extracted into a low-energy beam using electrostatic lenses. A magnetic filter preferentially removes high-energy electrons emitted by the source plasma, in order to mitigate H- ion destruction via electron-impact detachment. The design of the source subsystems and preliminary diagnostic results will be presented.

  11. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  12. High resolution magnetic force microscopy using focused ion beam modified tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Siekman, M.H.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscope tips coated by the thermal evaporation of a magnetic 30 nm thick Co film have been modified by focused ion beam milling with Ga+ ions to produce tips suitable for magnetic force microscopy. Such tips possess a planar magnetic element with high magnetic shape anisotropy, an ex

  13. Isotope separation using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, David A.; Purves, Randy W.; Guevremont, Roger E-mail: roger.guevremont@nrc.ca

    2000-08-01

    A new apparatus for gas-phase separation of stable elemental isotopes at atmospheric pressure is described. A gaseous mixture of chloride isotopes was generated using electrospray ionization and introduced into the analyzer region of a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS). The ion current exiting the FAIMS was sampled into a quadrupole mass spectrometer for isotope identification.

  14. Potential and Kinetic Electron Emissions from HOPG Surface Irradiated by Highly Charged Xenon and Neon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Yu; ZHAO Yong-Tao; SUN Jian-Rong; LI De-Hui; QAYYUM Abdul; LI Jin-Yu; WANG Ping-Zhi; XIAO Guo-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged 129 Xeq+ (q =10-30) and 40Neq+ (q =4-8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are reported. The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions. The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields. Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xeq+-HOPG and Neq+-HOPG combinations. A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission.%@@ Highly charged 129 Xeq+(q =10-30) and 40Neq+(q =4-8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite(HOPG) are reported.The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions.The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields.Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xeq+-HOPG and Neq+-HOPG combinations.A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission.

  15. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Takao Sakaguchi

    2015-05-01

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, obtained particularly at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  16. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-04

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  17. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; A. Schäfer; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  18. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  19. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  20. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  1. Potential Effects in the Interaction of Highly Charged Ions with Solid Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakurai, Makotoi; Sasaki, Kouji; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Kato, Daiji; A. Sakaue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    .... It is known that the luminescence of Er2O3 provides information on its crystallinity. We observed luminescence of various samples including Er2O3 during the irradiation with highly charged ions produced by an electron beam ion source (EBIS...

  2. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, Warren, MI 48387, USA Keywords: nanostructured materials, lithium ion batteries, cathode... key consideration for batteries used in vehicle applications, the rate capability, cyclability, and safety of LIBs have been identified as critical...diffraction planes ( Figure 1). With the intercalation of the Al13 Keggin pillars, the position of the 001 plane shifts to 6.7 degrees two-theta, along with

  3. Deflection of high-intensity pulsed ion beam in focusing magnetically insulated ion diode with a passive anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. P.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, L.; Zhang, Z. C.; Yu, N.; Pushkarev, A.; Lei, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The focused high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) of 100 ns order pulse is generated with respect to its spatial stability in two types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with geometrical focusing configuration using the passive anode, i.e., insulation of electrons with an external magnetic-field and a self-magnetic field, respectively. Anode plasma formation for the ion beam generation is based on different processes in the two types of MIDs, as the surface breakdown on the polymer-coated anode operated in the unipolar pulse mode for the external-magnetic field MID and the explosive electron emission on the graphite anode in the bipolar-pulse mode for the self-magnetic field MID. Typical energy density per pulse is in the range of 3-6 J/cm2, at an accelerating voltage of 200-300 kV with a pulse duration of 120-150 ns. The spatial deviations of the HIPIB is evaluated by measuring the energy density distribution by using an infrared diagnostic method considering neutralizing during the ion beam propagation to the focal plane with a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The ion beam deviation is about ±1.5 mm for the external-magnetic field MID and ±2.5 mm for the self-magnetic field MID, leading to a fluctuation in the energy density of 1%-12%, and 9%-27% within a 10 mm range at the focal point, respectively. It is revealed that the displacement of different parts of a beam spot occurs nonsynchronously, mainly attributable to the intrinsic diode processes of plasma generation and expansion, and ion beam extraction from the anode-cathode gap, while the influence of magnetic field in the transportation region is negligible. The ion beam spatial deviation has a major influence on the shot-to-shot stability of ion beam, and it is suggested that the stability can be enhanced via diode process improvement.

  4. Generation of fast highly charged ions in laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowski, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Badziak, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Boody, F P [Ion Light Technologies GmbH, Bad Abbach (Germany); Czarnecka, A [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gammino, S [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Jablonski, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Krasa, J [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Laska, L [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Parys, P [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Rohlena, K [Institute of Physics, ASCR (Czech Republic); Rosinski, M [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Ryc, L [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Torrisi, L [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Ullschmied, J [IPALS Research Centre ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-12-15

    The nonthermal and nonlinear coupling of strong laser light wave with plasma transfers a part of laser energy into hot electrons and fast ions. The efficiency of these effects depends on the characteristics of a laser pulse, target properties and irradiation geometry. The reported studies were performed with the use of a high-power and high-energy iodine PALS laser system (energy up to 1 kJ in a 0.4 ns pulse at wavelength of 1315 nm and energy up to 250 J at wavelength of 438 nm). The properties of the laser-produced ion streams were determined with the use of ion diagnostics based on the time-of-flight method. The characteristics of x-rays were measured using various semiconductor detectors. The main ion stream characteristics as well as the ion acceleration processes in plasmas of different Z numbers were studied in dependence on laser pulse parameters. The parameters of a fast ion group depend evidently on Z number of the ions. The influence of the electron density scale length on fast ion generation was investigated using a low intensity laser pre-pulses to generate preformed plasmas (pre-plasmas) with which the main laser pulse interacted. The obtained results suggest that ion acceleration processes were most effective at a specific electron density gradient scale length of pre-plasma determined by the pre-pulse parameters.

  5. Fractal Pattern Growth in Ti-Implanted Steel with High Ion Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 刘安东

    2002-01-01

    We report on the formation of metal nanometre phase and fractal patterns in steel using metal vapour vacuum arc source ion implantation with high ion flux. The dense nanometre phases are cylindrical and well dispersed in the Ti-implanted layer with an ion flux up to 50μA/cm2. The collision fractal pattern is formed in Ti-implanted steel with an ion flux of 25μA/cm2 and the disconnected fractal pattern is observed with an ion flux of 50μA/cm2.The average density ofnanometre phases decreases from 1.2 × 1011/cm2 to 6.5 × 1010/cm2 as the ion flux increases from 25 μA/cm2 to 50 μA/cm2. Fractal pattern growth is in remarkable agreement with Sander's diffusion-limited aggregation model. The alloy clusters have diffused and aggregated in chains forming branches to grow a beautiful tree during Ti implantation with an ion flux ranging from 75μA/cm2 to 85μA/cm2. We discuss the model of fractal pattern growth during ion implantation with high ion flux.

  6. Novel aspects on the irradiation of HOPG surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, R. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shen, Q. [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Wilhelm, R.A. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, R. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ginzel, R.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J.R. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, C. [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Aumayr, F., E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    As a continuation of our previous work, we present new results regarding the interaction of slow highly charged ions with HOPG. Lateral atomic force microscopy measurements with calibrated cantilevers were performed to investigate in more detail the locally enhanced friction at ion impact sites, which has been reported earlier. For very high charge states, apart from ever-present changes in frictional and electronic properties, we find evidence for true topographic surface modifications (hillocks). In complementary studies, we have investigated these structures regarding their conductivity by employing high-resolution conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, we demonstrate the possibility to etch ion-induced surface structures by thermal annealing.

  7. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

  8. Acceleration of dust grains by means of the high energy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S.M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzinezhad, F. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A.R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-08

    The acceleration of charged dust grains by a high energy ion beam is investigated by obtaining the dispersion relation. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of dust grains are compared with each other. The role of dusty plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength in the acceleration process are discussed. In addition, the stimulated waves by an ion beam in a fully magnetized dust–ion plasma are studied. It is shown that these waves are unstable at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field. It is also indicated that the growth rates increase by either increasing the ion and dust densities or decreasing the magnetic field strength. Finally, the results of our research show that the high energy ion beam can accelerate charged dust grains.

  9. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., PALS Centre, Prague (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Messina University (Italy); Picciotto, A.; Serra, E. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Trento (Italy); Giuffrida, L. [CELIA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (France); Mangione, A. [ITA - Istituto Tecnologie Avanzate, Trapani (Italy); Rosinski, M.; Parys, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2012-02-15

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  10. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven accelerationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Torrisi, L.; Picciotto, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Serra, E.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Limpouch, J.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 1016-1019 W/cm2. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  11. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D; Krasa, J; Prokupek, J; Velyhan, A; Torrisi, L; Picciotto, A; Giuffrida, L; Gammino, S; Cirrone, P; Cutroneo, M; Romano, F; Serra, E; Mangione, A; Rosinski, M; Parys, P; Ryc, L; Limpouch, J; Laska, L; Jungwirth, K; Ullschmied, J; Mocek, T; Korn, G; Rus, B

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10(16)-10(19) W∕cm(2). The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  12. Ion acoustic shock and solitary waves in highly relativistic plasmas with nonextensive electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) -like equation is derived to study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic solitions in a highly relativistic plasma containing relativistic ions and nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons using the well known reductive perturbation technique. The KdVB-like equation is solved employing the Bernoulli's equation method taking unperturbed positron to electron concentration ratio, electron to positron temperature ratio, strength of nonextensivity, ion kinematic viscosity, and highly relativistic streaming factor. It is found that these parameters significantly modify the structures of the solitonic excitation. The ion acoustic shock profiles are observed due to the influence of ion kinematic viscosity. In the absence of dissipative term to the KdVB equation, compressive and rarefactive solitons are observed in case of superthermality, but only compressive solitons are found for the case of subthermality.

  13. Surface modification of oxide layer on Si using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M., E-mail: msakurai@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Liu, S.; Sakai, S. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Terui, T. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Sakaue, H.A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Surface modification using highly charged ions is presented. The surface of a Si wafer which is covered with a native oxide layer is used as a sample. The sample was irradiated with Ar{sup 11+} ions at a fluence of 10{sup 13}–10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. The Ar{sup 11+} ions were obtained from an electron beam ion source (Kobe EBIS). The surface was investigated using secondary electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that the native oxide layer is sputtered by the irradiation of Ar{sup 11+} ions and that the structural modification makes the density of the oxide layer lower and the electric conductivity higher.

  14. The use of Electrolyte Additives to Improve the High Temperature Resilience of Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Lucht, B. L.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of electrolyte additves to improve the resillience of Lithium ion cells. The objective of this work is to identify lithium-ion electrolytes, which will lead to Li-ion cells with a wide operational temperature range (+60 to -60 C), and to develop Li-ion electrolytes which result in cells that display improved high temperature resilience. Significant improvement in the high temperature resilience of Li-ion cells containing these additives was observed, with the most dramatic benefit being displayed by addition of DMAc. When the electrochemical properties of the individual electrodes were analyzed, the degradation of the anode kinetics was slowed most dramatically by the incorporation of DMAc into the electrolytes. Whereas, the greatest retention in the cathode kinetics was observed in the cell containing the electrolyte with VC added.

  15. The Effects of Radiation and Thermal Stability of Sm-Co High Temperature Magnets For High Power Ion Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since high temperature Sm-Co based magnets were developed, a number of new applications have been introduced. NASA?s Xe+ ion propulsion engine used in Deep Space I...

  16. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kiyama, S; Fujiwara, Y; Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H

    2015-11-01

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm(2)) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E(ib) ≈ 150-200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E(ib) is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  17. Topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, L.G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F. [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of nonstandard guiding centre orbits is presented, which is relevant to MeV ions in a Tokamak. The orbit equation has been simplified from the start, allowing to present an analytic classification of the possible orbits. The topological transitions of the orbits during collisional slowing down are described. In particular, the characteristic equations reveal the existence of a single fixed point in the relevant phase plane, and the presence of a bifurcation curve corresponding to the locus of the pinch orbits. A significant particle inward pinch has been discovered. (authors). 7 figs.

  18. Particle orbit simulation for high energy heavy ion implanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E.

    1995-10-01

    We have studied an Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac structure for application to heavy ion implanter. It is possible to vary the output energy by changing the voltage between gaps only. Operating frequency of this IHQ linac is 30 MHz and the synchronous phase is -30deg{r_brace} with the exception of -90deg{r_brace} at the first gap that works as a bunching section. The calculated results show that the output energy can be varied from 0.48 MeV (30 keV/u) to 1.6 MeV (100 keV/u) for {sup 16}O{sup +}. (author).

  19. Design and performance of a high-flux electrospray ionization source for ion soft landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, K Don D; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2015-05-01

    We report the design and evaluation of a new high-intensity electrospray ionization source for ion soft-landing experiments. The source incorporates a dual ion funnel, which enables operation with a higher gas load through an expanded diameter heated inlet into the additional first region of differential pumping. This capability allowed us to examine the effect of the inner diameter (ID) of the heated stainless steel inlet on the total ion current transmitted through the dual funnel interface and, more importantly, the mass-selected ion current delivered to the deposition target. The ion transmission of the dual funnel is similar to the transmission of the single funnel used in our previous soft landing studies. However, substantially higher ion currents were obtained using larger ID heated inlets and an orthogonal inlet geometry, in which the heated inlet was positioned perpendicular to the direction of ion propagation through the instrument. The highest ion currents were obtained using the orthogonal geometry and a 1.4 mm ID heated inlet. The corresponding stable deposition rate of ∼1 μg of mass-selected ions per day will facilitate future studies focused on the controlled deposition of complex molecules on substrates for studies in catalysis, energy storage, and self-assembly.

  20. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, I.; Carlberg, C.; Fritioff, T.; Douysset, G.; Schoenfelder, J.; Schuch, R. E-mail: schuch@physto.se

    2002-07-21

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a time. In this paper we demonstrate that mass precision of a few parts in 10{sup 10} also can be obtained in a warm trap at a pressure of about 5x10{sup -12} mbar by stabilizing the pressure in the He-dewar, the trap temperature and the frequency synthesizer. In order to reduce the influence of changes of the magnetic field to a level below 10{sup -10}, the scanning of the frequencies close to the resonances of both the ion of interest and the reference ion is done in a total time <2 min. Trapping of ions is a statistical procedure, allowing more than one ion to be trapped in each measurement cycle. However, after completing the measurements it is possible to reject all information except for events based on 1 and 2 trapped ions. The procedures of producing, transporting, catching, exciting and measuring the cyclotron resonance frequencies of highly charged ions and the mass reference ions with the time-of-flight method are described. In routine measurements with

  1. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Creissen, Alain V.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-07

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it had many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices one could employ in their studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus Subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  2. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolić, Nikola; Creissen, Alain; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it has many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices that could be employed in studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied, and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  3. A high power ion thruster for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan M.; Snyder, John S.; Schneider, Analyn C.; Johnson, Lee K.; Sengupta, Anita

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System ion thruster was developed for potential outer planet robotic missions using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). This engine was designed to operate at power levels ranging from 13 to 28 kW at specific impulses of 6000-8500 s and for burn times of up to 10 years. State-of-the-art performance and life assessment tools were used to design the thruster, which featured 57-cm-diameter carbon-carbon composite grids operating at voltages of 3.5-6.5 kV. Preliminary validation of the thruster performance was accomplished with a laboratory model thruster, while in parallel, a flight-like development model (DM) thruster was completed and two DM thrusters fabricated. The first thruster completed full performance testing and a 2000-h wear test. The second successfully completed vibration tests at the full protoflight levels defined for this NEP program and then passed performance validation testing. The thruster design, performance, and the experimental validation of the design tools are discussed in this paper.

  4. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  5. Advanced Nanostructured Cathode for Ultra High Specific Energy Lithium Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode materials for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining a high level of...

  6. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  7. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  8. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  9. Investigation of scintillation detectors for relativistic heavy ion calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lozeva, R; Balabanski, D L; Gerl, J; Górska, M; Kojouharov, I; Kopatch, Y; Mandal, S; Schaffner, H; Wollersheim, H J

    2003-01-01

    The new DELTA E/E detection system, calorimeter telescope (CATE), for charge and mass determination of heavy ions at high energies (>=100 MeV/n) has been designed. CATE, a calorimeter telescope will consist of position sensitive Si detectors for DELTA E determination and scintillators, readout by either PIN diode or PMT, for total-E determination. Different scintillation detectors were tested with sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Sn, sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Pb, sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U beams of (100-300) MeV/n ion energy. By properly selecting the beam species from the FRS and applying position corrections, an energy resolution of approx =0.5% FWHM was observed. The corresponding mass resolution of 1/200 is adequate for employment of CATE in the Fast Beam RISING campaign at GSI.

  10. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  11. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. I. Experimental results on the transmission of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Gruber, Elisabeth; Smejkal, Valerie; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    We report on energy loss measurements of slow (v ≪v0 ), highly charged (Q >10 ) ions upon transmission through a 1-nm-thick carbon nanomembrane. We emphasize here the scaling of the energy loss with the velocity and charge exchange or loss. We show that a weak linear velocity dependence exists, whereas charge exchange dominates the kinetic energy loss, especially in the case of a large charge capture. A universal scaling of the energy loss with the charge exchange and velocity is found and discussed in this paper. A model for charge-state-dependent energy loss for slow ions is presented in paper II in this series [R. A. Wilhelm and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 052709 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052709].

  12. High-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions at the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschmann, G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of high-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions obtained by the hot plasma composition experiment on AMPTE/CCE provide direct support for the single-particle approach to acceleration in current layers. These high-speed flows are attributed to single-fluid momentum balance across a magnetopause with a normal magnetic field and a tangential electric field. The flow speeds of the two ion species are found to be approximately equal.

  13. High-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions at the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschmann, G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1989-06-01

    Observations of high-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions obtained by the hot plasma composition experiment on AMPTE/CCE provide direct support for the single-particle approach to acceleration in current layers. These high-speed flows are attributed to single-fluid momentum balance across a magnetopause with a normal magnetic field and a tangential electric field. The flow speeds of the two ion species are found to be approximately equal.

  14. Collision geometry and particle production in high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-Ping; ZHOU Dai-Mei; HUANG Rui-Dian; CAI Xu

    2008-01-01

    An overview of research status of soft physics in high energy heavy-ion collision experiments and recent experimental results are presented.This paper includes four parts:1)Theoretical predictions of quarkgluon plasma and introduction for high energy heavy ion collision experiments.2)Experimental status on collision geometry.3)Experimental status on particle production.4)Conclusion and outlook for research status of soft physics in LHC/ALICE.

  15. Separation of seven arsenic species by ion-pair and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Sven Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion were subjected to ion-exchange and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. The ion exchange method was superior in selectivity and time of analysis for the arsenic anions. The ammonium ions...... used for the ion-pair method only resulted in separation of some of the anionic arsenic compounds. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for on-line arsenic-specific detection....

  16. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An expression is derived for determining the ion temperature from the values of all extracted ion currents. One aim is to study the ion temperature behavior in argon plasmas without and with mixing different...

  17. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  18. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  19. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  20. The Mushroom: A half-sky energetic ion and electron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Andrews, G. B.; Cooper, S. A.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hayes, J. R.; Layman, R. S.; McNutt, R. L.; Nelson, K. S.; Parker, C. W.; Schlemm, C. E.; Stokes, M. R.; Begley, S. M.; Boyle, M. P.; Burgum, J. M.; Do, D. H.; Dupont, A. R.; Gold, R. E.; Haggerty, D. K.; Hoffer, E. M.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Liang, S. X.; London, S. M.; Noble, M. W.; Roelof, E. C.; Seifert, H.; Strohbehn, K.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Westlake, J. H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a time-of-flight mass spectrometer design for the measurement of ions in the 30 keV to 10 MeV range for protons (up to 40 MeV and 150 MeV for He and heavy ions, respectively) and 30 keV to 1 MeV range for electrons, covering half of the sky with 80 apertures. The instrument, known as the "Mushroom," owing to its shape, solves the field of view problem for magnetospheric and heliospheric missions that employ three-axis stabilized spacecraft, yet still require extended angular coverage; the Mushroom is also compatible with a spinning spacecraft. The most important new feature of the Mushroom is the method through which uncomplicated electrostatic optics and clean position sensing combine to permit many apertures to fit into a compact, low-mass sensor head (or wedge), several of which (ideally eight) compose a full instrument. Most of the sensor head's volume is an empty, equipotential region, resulting in the modest 250 g mass of each 10-aperture wedge. The Mushroom is capable of separating ion species across most of its energy range and angular field of view. For example, separation of the neighboring 3He and 4He isotopes is excellent; the full width at half maximum mass resolution has been measured to be 0.24 amu to 0.32 amu, respectively. Converting this to a Gaussian width σm in mass m, this represents a σm/m mass resolution better than 0.04. This separation is highly desirable for the flight program for which the first Mushroom was built, the Solar Probe Plus mission. More generally, we estimate the mass resolution to be σm/m ≈ 0.1, but this is energy, mass, and angularly dependent. We also discuss the solid-state detector stack capability, which extends the energy range of protons and helium, with composition, to 100 MeV.

  1. High Power High Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion): 50 CM Ion Thruster for Near-Earth Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in high power, photovoltaic technology has enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high specific power, high power, solar arrays. At high specific...

  2. High resolution charge spectroscopy of heavy ions with FNTD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, J. A.; Kodaira, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.; Akselrod, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the improvement of the heavy charge particle charge resolution of Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detector (FNTD) technology. Fluorescent intensity of individual heavy charge particle tracks is used to construct the spectrum. Sources of spectroscopic line broadening were investigated and several fluorescent intensity correction procedures were introduced to improve the charge resolution down to δZ = 0.25 c.u. and enable FNTD technology to distinguish between all projectile fragments of 290 MeV carbon ions. The benefits of using FNTD technology for fragmentation study include large dynamic range and wide angular acceptance. While we describe these developments in the context of fragmentation studies, the same techniques are readily extended to FNTD LET spectroscopy in general.

  3. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@daad-alumni.de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Munoz Hernandez, Gerardo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Pedro Antonio de los Santos 84, Col. Sn. Miguel Chapultepec, C.P. 11850, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital, E-mail: alfontal@bgu.ac.il [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2012-02-15

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms - tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  4. Surface Erosion of GaN Bombarded by Highly Charged 208Pbq+-Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Qing; ZHANG Chong-Hong; YANG Yi-Tao; YAO Cun-Feng; LI Bing-Sheng; JIN Yun-Fan; SUN You-Mei; SONG Shu-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Surface change of gallium nitride specimens after bombardment by highly charged Pbq+-ions (q=25, 35) at room temperature is studied by means of atomic force microscopy. The experimental results reveal that the surface of GaN specimens is significantly etched and erased. An unambiguous step-up is observed. The erosion depth not only strongly depends on the charge state of ions, but also is related to the incident angle of Pbq+ -ions and the ion dose. The erosion depth of the specimens in 60°incidence (tilted incidence) is significantly deeper than that of the normal incidence. The erosion behaviour of specimens has little dependence on the kinetic energy of ion (E,k=360, 700keV). On the other hand, surface roughness of the irradiated area is obviously decreased due to erosion compared with the un-irradiated area. A flat terrace is formed.

  5. Detecting single graphene layer by using fluorescence from high-speed Ar^7+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Hong

    2008-03-01

    A highly-charged-ion interacting with graphite causes structural change in nano-scales [1]. While when the ion's kinetic energy reaches few MeVs, the induced is not the structural change but electronic excitation. An experiment [2] showed fluorescence from Ar^7+ ions penetrating through carbon foil with kinetic energy of 2 MeV. Motivated by this experiment, we tested interaction between an Ar^7+ ion and a graphene sheet by the time-dependent density functional approach, and found that the electronic excitation in the Ar^ 7+ ion is also the case even when the incident kinetic energy is 500 KeV and the target thickness is only mono-atomic layer. This simulation suggests the possibility of detecting a suspended mono-atomic layer of graphene [3] by monitoring fluorescence from the penetrated Ar^7+ ions. We will discuss its importance for analyzing bombardment of solids by highly charged, high-speed ions and possible experiments according to the present result. References: [1] T. Meguro, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett 79, 3866 (2001). [2] S. Bashkin, H. Oona, E. Veje, Phys, Rev. A25, 417 (1982). [3] J. Mayer et al., Nature (London), 446, 60 (2007).

  6. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Full, Steven; Bazarov, Ivan; Dobbins, John; Dunham, Bruce; Hoffstaetter, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high CW beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and CW beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates...

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  8. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  9. High yield sample preconcentration using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Honggu; Chung, Taek Dong; Ramsey, J Michael

    2010-07-15

    The development and analysis of a microfluidic sample preconcentration system using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] is reported. The preconcentration is based on the phenomenon of concentration polarization which develops at the boundaries of the poly-AMPS with buffer solutions. A negatively charged polymer, poly-AMPS, positioned between two microchannels efficiently extracts cations through its large cross section, resulting in efficient anion sample preconcentration. The present work includes the development of a robust polymer that is stable over a wide range of buffers with varying chemical compositions. The sample preconcentration effect remains linear to over 3 mM (0.15 pmol) and 500 microM (15 fmol) for fluorescein and TRITC-tagged albumin solutions, respectively. The system can potentially be used for concentrating proteins on microfluidic devices with subsequent analysis for proteomic applications.

  10. Modified Thomson spectrometer design for high energy, multi-species ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, D.; Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Doria, D.; Ahmed, H.; Hanton, F. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Cerchez, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany); Fernandez, J. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Green, J. S.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Najmudin, Z.; Streeter, M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ruiz, J. A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” 00161 Rome (Italy); Zepf, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Helmholtz Institut Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    A modification to the standard Thomson parabola spectrometer is discussed, which is designed to measure high energy (tens of MeV/nucleon), broad bandwidth spectra of multi-species ions accelerated by intense laser plasma interactions. It is proposed to implement a pair of extended, trapezoidal shaped electric plates, which will not only resolve ion traces at high energies, but will also retain the lower energy part of the spectrum. While a longer (along the axis of the undeflected ion beam direction) electric plate design provides effective charge state separation at the high energy end of the spectrum, the proposed new trapezoidal shape will enable the low energy ions to reach the detector, which would have been clipped or blocked by simply extending the rectangular plates to enhance the electrostatic deflection.

  11. High Voltage Li-Ion Battery Using Exfoliated Graphite/Graphene Nanosheets Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Marco; Brutti, Sergio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-04

    The achievement of a new generation of lithium-ion battery, suitable for a continuously growing consumer electronic and sustainable electric vehicle markets, requires the development of new, low-cost, and highly performing materials. Herein, we propose a new and efficient lithium-ion battery obtained by coupling exfoliated graphite/graphene nanosheets (EGNs) anode and high-voltage, spinel-structure cathode. The anode shows a capacity exceeding by 40% that ascribed to commercial graphite in lithium half-cell, at very high C-rate, due to its particular structure and morphology as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Li-ion battery reveals excellent efficiency and cycle life, extending up to 150 cycles, as well as an estimated practical energy density of about 260 Wh kg(-1), that is, a value well exceeding the one associated with the present-state Li-ion battery.

  12. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI-96)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaya, Yohko; Kambara, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI-96) which was held on September 23-26, 1996 in Omiya, Saitama, Japan, hosted by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). The first conference of this series was held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. The subject was the "Production and Physics of Highly Charged Ions". The conference has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992) and Vienna, Austria (1994). When the first conference of this series was held, various highly charged ions were available from many heavy ion accelerators, which had been constructed since the 1960's, and ion sources such as EBIS and ECRIS, which were then new facilities. Subsequently, many other experimental techniques have been developed to study or to control highly charged ions, such as ion traps, EBIT's, storage rings, high-brilliance synchrotron radiation, and so forth. Now the properties of highly charged ions themselves and their interactions with various kinds of materials can be studied systematically using ions of any element at various collision energies. These studies will result in a deeper insight into their nature as well as giving us important basic data for use in the fields closely related to atomic physics. About 190 scientists from 18 countries registered at the HCI-96. The number of invited talks was 21 and that of contrib- uted papers 215. In these proceedings, 20 papers of invited talks and 116 papers on contributions are included. They are classified into categories of "Structure and Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions and Fundamental Aspects", "Highly Charged Ions in Plasmas and Strong Fields", "Interactions of Highly Charged Ions with Atoms and Ions", "Dynamic Processes Related to Molecules and Clusters", "Interactions of Highly Charged Ions with

  13. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor for femtomolar detection of silver ion in aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Daniel Arulraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical sensing for the trace level detection of silver ion in aqueous solution still remains a challenge using simple, rapid, and inexpensive method. We report that thionine can be used as a fluorescent probe for the detection of Ag+ ion. The successive addition of Ag+ ion to the solution containing thionine quenches (turns-off the fluorescence intensity of thionine. Association and quenching constants have been estimated by the Benesi–Hildebrand method and Stern–Volmer plot, respectively. From the plot, the nature of the fluorescence quenching was confirmed as static quenching. An important feature of our chemosensor is high selectivity towards the determination of silver ion in aqueous solution over the other competitive metal ions. The detection limit of the sensor achieved 5 fM for Ag+ ion, which is superior to all previously reported chemosensors. The NMR and FT-IR studies were also carried out to support the complex formation between thionine and Ag+ ion. The practicality of the proposed chemosensor for determination of Ag+ ion was carried in untreated water samples.

  14. Reliable operation of the Brookhaven EBIS for highly charged ion production for RHIC and NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, E., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Alessi, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Binello, S., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Kanesue, T., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; McCafferty, D., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Morris, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Okamura, M., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Pikin, A., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Ritter, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Schoepfer, R., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC EBIS) was commissioned at Brookhaven in September 2010 and since then it routinely supplies ions for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) as the main source of highly charged ions from Helium to Uranium. Using three external primary ion sources for 1+ injection into the EBIS and an electrostatic injection beam line, ion species at the EBIS exit can be switched in 0.2 s. A total of 16 different ion species have been produced to date. The length and the capacity of the ion trap have been increased by 20% by extending the trap by two more drift tubes, compared with the original design. The fraction of Au{sup 32+} in the EBIS Au spectrum is approximately 12% for 70-80% electron beam neutralization and 8 pulses operation in a 5 Hertz train and 4-5 s super cycle. For single pulse per super cycle operation and 25% electron beam neutralization, the EBIS achieves the theoretical Au{sup 32+} fractional output of 18%. Long term stability has been very good with availability of the beam from RHIC EBIS during 2012 and 2014 RHIC runs approximately 99.8%.

  15. Reliable operation of the Brookhaven EBIS for highly charged ion production for RHIC and NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, E.; Alessi, J.; Binello, S.; Kanesue, T.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Ritter, J.; Schoepfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC EBIS) was commissioned at Brookhaven in September 2010 and since then it routinely supplies ions for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) as the main source of highly charged ions from Helium to Uranium. Using three external primary ion sources for 1+ injection into the EBIS and an electrostatic injection beam line, ion species at the EBIS exit can be switched in 0.2 s. A total of 16 different ion species have been produced to date. The length and the capacity of the ion trap have been increased by 20% by extending the trap by two more drift tubes, compared with the original design. The fraction of Au32+ in the EBIS Au spectrum is approximately 12% for 70-80% electron beam neutralization and 8 pulses operation in a 5 Hertz train and 4-5 s super cycle. For single pulse per super cycle operation and 25% electron beam neutralization, the EBIS achieves the theoretical Au32+ fractional output of 18%. Long term stability has been very good with availability of the beam from RHIC EBIS during 2012 and 2014 RHIC runs approximately 99.8%.

  16. Matter power spectrum covariance matrix from the DEUS-PUR ΛCDM simulations: mass resolution and non-Gaussian errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, L.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Alimi, J.-M.; Reverdy, V.; Rasera, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming generation of galaxy surveys will probe the distribution of matter in the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. Measurements of the matter power spectrum at different scales and red shifts will provide stringent constraints on the cosmological parameters. However, on non-linear scales this will require an accurate evaluation of the covariance matrix. Here, we compute the covariance matrix of the three-dimensional matter density power spectrum for the concordance ΛCDM cosmology from an ensemble of N-body simulations of the Dark Energy Universe Simulation - Parallel Universe Runs (DEUS-PUR). This consists of 12 288 realizations of a (656 h-1 Mpc)3 simulation box with 2563 particles. We combine this set with an auxiliary sample of 96 simulations of the same volume with 10243 particles. We find the N-body mass resolution effect to be an important source of systematic errors on the covariance at high redshift and small intermediate scales. We correct for this effect by introducing an empirical statistical method which provide an accurate determination of the covariance matrix over a wide range of scales including the baryon oscillations interval. Contrary to previous studies that used smaller N-body ensembles, we find the power spectrum distribution to significantly deviate from expectations of a Gaussian random density field at k ≳ 0.25 h Mpc-1 and z < 0.5. This suggests that for the finite-volume surveys, an unbiased estimate of the ensemble-averaged band power at these scales and red shifts may require a more careful assessment of non-Gaussian errors than previously considered.

  17. Expanding the linear dynamic range for quantitative liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry utilizing natural isotopologue signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hanghui, E-mail: Hanghui.Liu@senomyx.com [Senomyx Inc. 4767 Nexus Centre Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Lam, Lily; Yan, Lin; Chi, Bert [Senomyx Inc. 4767 Nexus Centre Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • Less abundant isotopologue ions were utilized to decrease detector saturation. • A 25–50 fold increase in the upper limit of dynamic range was demonstrated. • Linear dynamic range was expanded without compromising mass resolution. - Abstract: The linear dynamic range (LDR) for quantitative liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry can be extended until ionization saturation is reached by using a number of target isotopologue ions in addition to the normally used target ion that provides the highest sensitivity. Less abundant isotopologue ions extend the LDR: the lower ion abundance decreases the probability of ion detector saturation. Effectively the sensitivity decreases and the upper limit of the LDR increases. We show in this paper that the technique is particularly powerful with a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer because the data for all ions are automatically acquired, and we demonstrated this for four small organic molecules; the upper limits of LDRs increased by 25–50 times.

  18. Ion recombination correction factors (P(ion)) for Varian TrueBeam high-dose-rate therapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Molineu, Andrea; Followill, David S

    2012-11-08

    Ion recombination is approximately corrected for in the Task Group 51 protocol by Pion, which is calculated by a two-voltage measurement. This measurement approach may be a poor estimate of the true recombination, particularly if Pion is large (greater than 1.05). Concern exists that Pion in high-dose-per-pulse beams, such as flattening filter free (FFF) beams, may be unacceptably high, rendering the two-voltage measurement technique inappropriate. Therefore, Pion was measured for flattened beams of 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for FFF beams of 6 and 10 MV. The values for the FFF beams were verified with 1/V versus 1/Q curves (Jaffé plots). Pion was also measured for electron beams of 6, 12, 16, 18, and 20 MeV on a traditional accelerator, as well as on the high-dose-rate Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The measurements were made at a range of depths and with PTW, NEL, and Exradin Farmer-type chambers. Consistent with the increased dose per pulse, Pion was higher for FFF beams than for flattening filter beams. However, for all beams, measurement locations, and chambers examined, Pion never exceeded 1.018. Additionally, Pion was always within 0.3% of the recombination calculated from the Jaffé plots. We conclude that ion recombination can be adequately accounted for in high-dose-rate FFF beams using Pion determined with the standard two-voltage technique.

  19. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, the maximum charge state and then q/A increase in the rear side, so that ions near the front are further accelerated to high energy.

  20. Development of the negative ion source at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Akira [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    On formation of direct high frequency chopped negative hydrogen ion beam from surface forming type negative hydrogen ion source, incident acceleration due to proton synchrotron was tried for a forming experiment and its application. By overlapping a high frequency pulse onto a bias DC voltage of convertor electrode, control of formation of negative hydrogen ion with high speed RF pulse of 2 MHz could be realized. And, incidence into 12 GeV proton accelerator to catch RF particles with waiting bucket system due to booster synchrotron, was effective for control of longitudinal emittance in the booster synchrotron. As a result, controls of the beam width and shape emitted from the booster synchrotron were possible. On application of high speed chopped negative hydrogen ion beam to accelerator, improvement of beam capture efficiency to the accelerated RF bucket, control of longitudinal emittance of accelerated beam, beam measurement at incidence into the accelerator and so forth were conducted. In this paper, results of the high speed chopped beam formation experiment using surface plasma forming type negative ion source and application of high speed beam chopping method synchronized with high frequency pulse at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics are described. (G.K.)

  1. High Power High Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion): 50 CM Ion Thruster for Near-Earth Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in high power, photovoltaic technology has enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high specific power, high power, solar arrays. New thin film solar...

  2. Highly Sensitive and Patchable Pressure Sensors Mimicking Ion-Channel-Engaged Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Son, Young Jun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Biological ion channels have led to much inspiration because of their unique and exquisite operational functions in living cells. Specifically, their extreme and dynamic sensing abilities can be realized by the combination of receptors and nanopores coupled together to construct an ion channel system. In the current study, we demonstrated that artificial ion channel pressure sensors inspired by nature for detecting pressure are highly sensitive and patchable. Our ion channel pressure sensors basically consisted of receptors and nanopore membranes, enabling dynamic current responses to external forces for multiple applications. The ion channel pressure sensors had a sensitivity of ∼5.6 kPa(-1) and a response time of ∼12 ms at a frequency of 1 Hz. The power consumption was recorded as less than a few μW. Moreover, a reliability test showed stability over 10 000 loading-unloading cycles. Additionally, linear regression was performed in terms of temperature, which showed no significant variations, and there were no significant current variations with humidity. The patchable ion channel pressure sensors were then used to detect blood pressure/pulse in humans, and different signals were clearly observed for each person. Additionally, modified ion channel pressure sensors detected complex motions including pressing and folding in a high-pressure range (10-20 kPa).

  3. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zorin, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Sidorov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Bokhanov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Izotov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Razin, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Skalyga, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  4. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M.A., E-mail: dorf1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Zorin, V.G.; Sidorov, A.V.; Bokhanov, A.F.; Izotov, I.V.; Razin, S.V.; Skalyga, V.A. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-01

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available; however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (∼100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (∼10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) with a relatively low electron temperature (∼50–100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (∼1 A/cm{sup 2}) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP.

  5. Effects of vinylene carbonate on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ji-Yong; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    The effects of vinylene carbonate (VC) on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries are investigated. 1.3 M of LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) of 3:3:4 volume ratio is used as original electrolyte for 18650 cylindrical cells with LiCoO 2 cathode and graphite anode. VC is then added to electrolyte. At the initial stage of the high temperature storage, higher open-circuit voltage (OCV) is maintained when increasing the VC concentration. As the storage time increases, OCV of higher VC concentration drops gradually, and then the gas evolution takes place abruptly. Gas analysis shows methane (CH 4) decreases with increase of the VC concentration due to formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the graphite. Since the residual VC after formation of the SEI layer decomposes on the cathode surface, carbon dioxide (CO 2) dramatically increases on the cathode with the VC concentration, leaving poly(VC) film at the anode surface, as suggested by XPS test results.

  6. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V.; Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-09-07

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm{sup 2} are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D{sub 2}O and TiD{sub 2} targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D{sup +} beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} was detected with a system of two {sup 3}He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD{sub 2} target bombarded by D{sup +} beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.

  7. High-pressure studies on the calcium-ion-sensitive fluorophore Fluo-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eric W.; Urayama, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Fluorescence-based methods for intracellular calcium ion sensing are well established at ambient pressure. Because calcium ions play a ubiquitous role in cellular signaling, extending techniques of intracellular calcium-sensing to high pressures would play an important role in understanding the large variety of piezophysiologic effects. Here, we characterize the intracellular calcium-ion-sensitive fluorophore Fluo-4 under hydrostatic pressures up to 500 atm (50 MPa). Using an EGTA/MOPS solution as a calcium-buffer reference, we investigate the pressure dependence of the reaction pK and determine the thermodynamic volume change associated with the Fluo-4 calcium-binding reaction.

  8. Damage correlations in semiconductor devices exposed to gamma and high energy swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, N.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2015-05-01

    NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs are irradiated by different high energy swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The damage created by different heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs have been correlated and studied in the same dose range. The recoveries in the electrical characteristics of different swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma irradiated devices have been studied after annihilation.

  9. Diamond single crystal-surface modification under high- fluence ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, V. A.; Borisov, A. M.; Kazakov, V. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Palyanov, Yu N.; Popov, V. P.; Shmytkova, E. A.; Sigalaev, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The modification of (111) face of synthetic diamond has been studied experimentally for high-fluence 30 keV argon bombardment. It has been found that ion irradiation leads to the electrically conductive layer formation the sheet resistance of which decreases more than 100 times while changing the temperature of the irradiated diamond from 70 to 400 oC. This effect, as well as significant changes of optical transmittance after ion irradiation are associated with ion-induced structural changes of irradiated diamond obtained by the methods of Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  11. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  12. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm2 and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  13. Aberrations due to solenoid focusing of a multiply charged high-current ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, G; Lisi, N; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Tambini, J

    2000-01-01

    At the output of a laser ion source, a high current of highly charged ions with a large range of charge states is available. The focusing of such a beam by magnetic elements causes a nonlinear space-charge field to develop which can induce large aberrations and emittance growth in the beam. Simulation of the beam from the CERN laser ion source will be presented for an ideal magnetic and electrostatic system using a radially symmetric model. In addition, the three dimensional software KOBRA3 is used for the simulation of the solenoid line. The results of these simulations will be compared with experiments performed on the CERN laser ion source with solenoids (resulting in a hollow beam) and a series of gridded electrostatic lenses. (5 refs).

  14. Suppressed ion-scale turbulence in a hot high-β plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.; Fulton, D. P.; Ruskov, E.; Lau, C.; Deng, B. H.; Tajima, T.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Holod, I.; Lin, Z.; Gota, H.; Tuszewski, M.; Dettrick, S. A.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    An economic magnetic fusion reactor favours a high ratio of plasma kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure in a well-confined, hot plasma with low thermal losses across the confining magnetic field. Field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are potentially attractive as a reactor concept, achieving high plasma pressure in a simple axisymmetric geometry. Here, we show that FRC plasmas have unique, beneficial microstability properties that differ from typical regimes in toroidal confinement devices. Ion-scale fluctuations are found to be absent or strongly suppressed in the plasma core, mainly due to the large FRC ion orbits, resulting in near-classical thermal ion confinement. In the surrounding boundary layer plasma, ion- and electron-scale turbulence is observed once a critical pressure gradient is exceeded. The critical gradient increases in the presence of sheared plasma flow induced via electrostatic biasing, opening the prospect of active boundary and transport control in view of reactor requirements.

  15. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  16. The analysis of high amplitude of potential oscillations near the hollow cathode of ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Xie, Kan; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Zun; Zhang, Cen; Gu, Zengjie; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhaorui; Ouyang, Jiting

    2017-05-01

    The influence of gas flow, current level, and different shapes of anode on the oscillation amplitude and the characteristics of the hollow cathode discharge were investigated. The average plasma potential, temporal measurements of plasma potential, ion density, the electron temperature, as well as waveforms of plasma potential for test conditions were measured. At the same time, the time-resolved images of the plasma plume were also recorded. The results show that the potential oscillations appear at high discharge current or low flow rate. The potential oscillation boundaries, the position of maximum amplitude of plasma potential, and the position where the highest ion density was observed, were found. Both of the positions are affected by different shapes of anode configurations. This high amplitude of potential oscillations is ionization-like instabilities. The xenon ions ionized in space was analyzed for the fast potential rise and spatial dissipation of the space xenon ions was the reason for the gradual potential delay.

  17. Intensity ratio measurements for density sensitive lines of highly charged Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Safdar, E-mail: safdaruetian@gmail.com; Shimizu, Erina [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University (Japan); Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI) (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: n-nakamu@ils.uec.ac.jp [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity ratio of density sensitive emission lines emitted from Fe ions in the extreme ultraviolet region is important for astrophysics applications. We report high-resolution intensity ratio measurements for Fe ions performed at Tokyo EBIT laboratory by employing a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer. The experimental intensity ratios of Fe X and Fe XII are plotted as a function of electron density for different electron beam currents. The experimental results are compared with the predicted intensity ratios from the model calculations.

  18. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Mir; Roberto Lugo; Islam Bogachan Tahirbegi; Josep Samitier

    2014-01-01

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), where the sulfur at...

  19. Incomplete Ion Dissociation Underlies the Weakened Attraction between DNA Helices at High Spermidine Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Jie; Rau, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the salt sensitivity of the hexagonal-to-cholesteric phase transition of spermidine-condensed DNA. This transition precedes the resolubilization of precipitated DNA that occurs at high spermidine concentration. The sensitivity of the critical spermidine concentration at the transition point to the anion species and the NaCl concentration indicates that ion pairing of this trivalent ion underlies this unusual transition. Osmotic pressure measurements of spermidine salt sol...

  20. Stability of Conductive Carbon Additives for High-voltage Li-ion Battery Cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Benedicte Eikeland

    2014-01-01

    Conductive carbon additives are important constituents of the current state-of-the-art Li-ion battery cathodes, as the traditional active cathode materials are characterized by too low electronic conductivities. In high-voltage Li-ion batteries, these additives are subject for anion intercalation and electrolyte oxidation, which might cause changes in the conductive carbon network in the cathode, and hence the overall cycling performance of the electrode. This thesis has focused on study the ...

  1. Quasi-stationary spectrum of Rydberg atoms in the field of a highly charged ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K.; Nedeljkovic, N.N.

    1985-05-14

    The complex energies of highly excited states of a hydrogen-like atom in the presence of a multicharged ion are determined for internuclear distances, corresponding to the position of energy levels close to the top of the potential barrier which separates the two Coulomb centres. The results obtained are used to determine the contribution of considered internuclear distances to the electron-capture cross section in Rydberg-atom-multicharged-ion slow collisions.

  2. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  3. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO+), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  4. Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA): Simulations, Development and Initial Testing of a Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Instrument for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R.; Danell, R. M.; Gundersen, C.; Hovmand, L.; Southard, A.; Tan, F.; Grubisic, A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S. A.; Mahaffy, P.; Cottin, H.; Briois, C.; Colin, F.; Szopa, C.; Vuitton, V.; Makarov, A.; Reinhardt-Szyba, M.

    2016-10-01

    AROMA combines a linear ion trap and Orbitrap mass analyzer to enable: quantitative measurements of organic and inorganic compounds; selective isolation of targeted mass ranges; tandem mass spectrometry; and, ultrahigh mass resolution and accuracy.

  5. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Belomestnykh, Sergei; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael M; Calaga, Rama; Chang, Xiangyun; Fedotov, Alexei; Gassner, David; Hammons, Lee; Hahn, Harald; Hao, Yue; He, Ping; Jackson, William; Jain, Animesh; Johnson, Elliott C; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jrg; Luo, Yun; Mahler, George; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Minty, Michiko; Parker, Brett; Pikin, Alexander; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Rao, Triveni; Roser, Thomas; Skaritka, John; Sheehy, Brian; Tepikian, Steven; Than, Yatming; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsentalovich, Evgeni; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Wang, Gang; Webb, Stephen; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Wencan; Zelenski, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. A new ERL accelerator, which provide 5-30 GeV electron beam, will ensure 10^33 to 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 level luminosity.

  6. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions.

  7. Measuring ion velocity distribution functions through high-aspect ratio holes in inductively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Darnon, M.; Dubois, J.; Bezard, P.; Mourey, O.; Petit-Etienne, C.; Vallier, L.; Despiau-Pujo, E.; Sadeghi, N. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-02-29

    Several issues associated with plasma etching of high aspect ratio structures originate from the ions' bombardment of the sidewalls of the feature. The off normal angle incident ions are primarily due to their temperature at the sheath edge and possibly to charging effects. We have measured the ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) at the wafer surface in an industrial inductively coupled plasma reactor by using multigrid retarding field analyzers (RFA) in front of which we place 400 μm thick capillary plates with holes of 25, 50, and 100 μm diameters. The RFA then probes IVDF at the exit of the holes with Aspect Ratios (AR) of 16, 8, and 4, respectively. The results show that the ion flux dramatically drops with the increase in AR. By comparing the measured IVDF with an analytical model, we concluded that the ion temperature is 0.27 eV in our plasma conditions. The charging effects are also observed and are shown to significantly reduce the ion energy at the bottom of the feature but only with a “minor” effect on the ion flux and the shape of the IVDF.

  8. EUV magnetic-dipole lines from highly-charged high-Z ions with an open 3d shell

    CERN Document Server

    Osin, D; Reader, J; Ralchenko, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used to produce highly-charged ions of hafnium, tantalum and gold with an open 3d shell. The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from these ions were recorded with a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4.5 nm to 25 nm. A total of 133 new spectral lines, primarily due to magnetic-dipole transitions within the ground-state $3d^n$ configurations of the Co-like to K-like ions, were identified by comparing energy-dependent experimental spectra with a detailed collisional-radiative modeling of the EBIT plasma.

  9. A highly sensitive colorimetric and ratiometric sensor for fluoride ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu Xu; Jin Tang; He Tian

    2008-01-01

    A new benzoimidazole-naphthalimide derivative 4 was synthesized and its photophysical properties were studied.This compound showed highly selectively and sensitive colorimetric and ratiometric sensing ability for fluoride anion.

  10. Monte Carlo Study of High Pressure Ion Chamber Energy Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; XIAO; Xue-fu; ZHANG; Li; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing

    2012-01-01

    <正>High pressure gas ionization chamber (HPIC) is the most popular instrument for environmental radiation measurement because of low inherent background, good stability, better directional response and high precision. The energy response of HIPC is not good because its wall is not made of air effective material, and the response of 100 keV photons is about 60% higher than normal. The energy response of

  11. High-resolution fast ion microscopy of single whole biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Watt, Frank

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution microscopy techniques have become an essential tool in both biological and biomedical sciences, enabling the visualization of biological processes at cellular and subcellular levels. For many years, these imaging techniques utilized conventional optical microscopes including those with confocal facilities. However, the spatial resolutions achieved were largely limited to around 200 nm, as determined by the diffraction of light. To overcome this diffraction barrier, considerable scientific and technological effort has resulted in the development of super-resolution optical-based techniques, scanning probe microscopies, and also techniques utilizing charged particles (e.g., energetic electrons and ions) or high-energy photons (e.g., X-ray), which exhibit much shorter de Broglie wavelengths. Among the charged particle techniques, those utilizing mega-electron-volt (MeV) ion beams appear to have unique advantages primarily because MeV ions can penetrate through several microns of biological tissue (e.g., whole cells) with little deflection in their trajectories, and hence spatial resolutions are maintained while traversing the sample. Recently, we have witnessed the significant development of MeV ion beam focusing systems in reducing beam dimensions well below 100 nm, such that single whole cell imaging at 20 nm spatial resolutions is now possible. In this review, two super resolution imaging modalities that utilize MeV highly focused ion beams are discussed: Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM), which images the areal density of cells and gives an insight into the cellular structure, and Proton/Helium-ion Induced Fluorescence Microcopy (P/HeIFM), which images the fluorescence emission of fluorescent markers and probes used as labels within the cells. This review hopes to demonstrate the potential of MeV ion microscopy, which is still in its infancy, and describe the simultaneous use of STIM and P/HeIFM as a new and powerful multifaceted

  12. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  13. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-03-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)

  14. High concentration of calcium ions in Golgi apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUESHAOBAI; M.ROBERTNICOUD; 等

    1994-01-01

    The interphase NIH3T3 cells were vitally fluorescentstained with calcium indicator fluo-3 and Glogi probe C6-NBD-ceramide,and then the single cells were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy(LSCFM) for subcellular distributions of Ca2+ and the location of Golgi apparatus.In these cells,the intracellular Ca2+ were found to be highly concentrated in the Golgi apparatus.The changes of distribution of cytosolic high Ca2+ region and the Golgi apparatus coincided with the cell cycle phase.In calcium free medium,when the plasma membrane of the cells which had been loaded with fluo-3/AM were permeated by digitonin,the fluorescence of the Golgi region decreased far less than that of the cytosol.Our results indicated that the Glogi lumen retained significantly high concentration of free calcium.

  15. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  16. The european FAZIA initiative: a high-performance digital telescope array for heavy-ion studies

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, G; Pasquali, G; Pastore, G; Bini, M; Carboni, S; Olmi, A; Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Stefanini, A; Valdre', S; Bonnet, E; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bruno, M; Chbihi, A; Cinausero, M; Degerlier, M; Edelbruck, P; Frankland, J D; Gramegna, F; Gruyer, D; Guerzoni, M; Kordjasz, A; Kozik, T; Neindre, N Le; Lopez, O; Marchi, T; Marini, P; Morelli, L; Ordine, A; Parlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Salomon, F; Spadaccini, G; Twarog, T; Vient, E; Vigilante, M

    2013-01-01

    The european Fazia collaboration aims at building a new modular array for charged product identification to be employed for heavy-ion studies. The elementary module of the array is a Silicon-Silicon-CsI telescope, optimized for ion identification also via pulse shape analysis. The achievement of top performances imposes specific electronics which has been developed by FAZIA and features high quality charge and current preamplifiers, coupled to fully digital front-end. During the initial R&D phase, original and novel solutions have been tested in prototypes, obtaining unprecedented ion identification capabilities. FAZIA is now constructing a demonstrator array consisting of about two hundreds telescopes arranged in a compact and transportable configuration. In this contribution, we mainly summarize some aspects studied by FAZIA to improve the ion identification. Then we will briefly discuss the FAZIA program centered on experiments to be done with the demonstrator. First results on the isospin dynamics obt...

  17. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event upsets and latch up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Umesh; S R Kulkarni; R Sandhya; G R Joshi; R Damle; M Ravindra

    2005-08-01

    Several very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices which are not available in radiation hardened version are still required to be used in spacecraft systems. Thus these components need to be tested for highenergy heavy ion irradiation to find out their tolerance and suitability in specific space applications. This paper describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) and single event latch up (SEL). The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon (Si), and silver (Ag), for studying single event effects (SEE) is briefly described. The heavy ion testing of a few VLSI devices is performed in the general purpose scattering chamber of the Pelletron facility, available at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The test results with respect to SEU and SEL are discussed.

  18. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2015-04-28

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  19. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  20. HITRAP - a facility for experiments on heavy highly charged ions and on antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andjelkovic, Z; Barth, W; Brantjes, N P M; Braeuning-Demian, A; Dahl, L; Herfurth, F; Kester, O; Kluge, H J; Koszudowski, S; Kozhuharov, C; Maero, G; Noertershaeuser, W [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Birkl, G [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Blank, I; Goetz, S [Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Blaum, K [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bodewits, E; Hoekstra, R [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Church, D [Texas AM University, Texas (United States); Pfister, J, E-mail: w.quint@gsi.d [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    HITRAP is a facility for very slow highly-charged heavy ions at GSI. HITRAP uses the GSI relativistic ion beams, the Experimental Storage Ring ESR for electron cooling and deceleration to 4 MeV/u, and consists of a combination of an interdigital H-mode (IH) structure with a radiofrequency quadrupole structure for further deceleration to 6 keV/u, and a Penning trap for accumulation and cooling to low temperatures. Finally, ion beams with low emittance will be delivered to a large variety of atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Presently, HITRAP is in the commissioning phase. The deceleration of heavy-ion beam from the ESR storage ring to an energy of 500 keV/u with the IH structure has been demonstrated and studied in detail. The commissioning of the RFQ structure and the cooler trap is ongoing.

  1. High-resolution electron collision spectroscopy with multicharged ions in merged beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestinsky, M.

    2007-04-18

    The Heidelberg ion storage ring Tsr is currently the only ring equipped with two independent devices for the collinear merging of a cold electron beam with stored ions. This greatly improves the potential of electron-ion collision experiments, as the ion beam can be cooled with one electron beam, while the other one is used as a dedicated target for energy-resolved electron collision processes, such as recombination. The work describes the implementation of this system for rst electron collision spectroscopy experiments. A detection system has been realized including an ion detector and specroscopic beam-control software and instrumentation. Moreover, in order to improve the spectroscopic resolution systematical studies of intrinsic relaxation processes in the electron beam have been carried out. These include the dependence on the electron beam density, the magnetic guiding eld strength, and the acceleration geometry. The recombination measurements on low-lying resonances in lithiumlike Sc{sup 18+} yield a high-precision measurement of the 2s-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy in this system. Operation of the two-electron-beam setup at high collision energy ({approx}1000 eV) is established using resonances of hydrogenlike Mg{sup 11+}, while the unique possibility of modifying the beam-merging geometry con rms its importance for the electron-ion recombination rate at lowest relative energy, as demonstrated on F{sup 6+}. (orig.)

  2. Escape of high-energy oxygen ions through magnetopause reconnection under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasahara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During a storm recovery phase on 15 May 2005, the Geotail spacecraft repeatedly observed high-energy (>180 keV oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath near the equatorial plane. We focused on the time period from 11:20 UT to 13:00 UT, when Geotail observed the oxygen ions and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was constantly northward. The magnetic reconnection occurrence northward and duskward of Geotail is indicated by the Walén analysis and convective flows in the magnetopause boundary layer. Anisotropic pitch angle distributions of ions suggest that high-energy oxygen ions escaped from the northward of Geotail along the reconnected magnetic field lines. From the low-energy particle precipitation in the polar cap observed by DMSP, which is consistent with magnetic reconnection occurring between the magnetosheath field lines and the magnetospheric closed field lines, we conclude that these oxygen ions are of ring current origin. Our results thus suggest a new escape route of oxygen ions during northward IMF. In the present event, this escape mechanism is more dominant than the leakage via the finite Larmor radius effect across the dayside equatorial magnetopause.

  3. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  4. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  5. High power electron and ion beam research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, J.A.; Sudan, R.N. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered in volume II include: collective accelerators; microwaves and unneutralized E-beams; technology of high-current E-beam accelerators and laser applications of charged-particle beams. Abstracts of twenty-nine papers from the conference were prepared for the data base in addition to six which appeared previously. (GHT)

  6. Collective Thomson scattering system for determination of ion properties in a high flux plasma beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meiden, H. J.; Vernimmen, J. W. M.; Bystrov, K.; Jesko, K.; Kantor, M. Y.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering system has been developed for measuring ion temperature, plasma velocity and impurity concentration in the high density magnetized Magnum-PSI plasma beam, allowing for measurements at low temperature (<5 eV) and high electron density >4 × 1020 m−3, while

  7. Ions from Different Sources in the near-Earth High-Latitude Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, R.; Semkova, J.; Fedorov, A.; Smirnov, V.

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the characteristics of the ion population in the near-Earth (distances from 5 Re to 10 Re) magnetotail region poleward of the exterior cusp and the auroral field lines. The study presented is based on data from the Low Energy Plasma Composition Experiment (AMEI-2) aboard the high-apogee INTERBALL-1 satellite. Characteristic features of the region are the low plasma density and the low electron energy. We discuss several cases of ion spectral and composition measurements, using He++ as a tracer of SW plasma and O+ as a tracer of ionospheric plasma. Ion fluxes exhibit complex structure bearing the history of ions origin and consecutive acceleration. Both Solar wind and ionospheric ions are present in this region. O+ beams are regularly observed, as expected, going away or towards the Earth, with energies up to about 2 keV/q. A small amount of isotropic, high-temperature plasma sheet ions is always present. But dominating is a He++ population with energies in the interval 1 - 2.5 keV/q, either isotropic in pitch angle or consisting of counter-flowing ions with wide pitch-angular distribution. We discuss the possible relation of these populations with the ion populations observed downtail in the lobes, the PSBL, the 'mixed region' at the dusk flunk as identified by Fuselier et al. on base of ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 (J. Geophys. Res., 1999) and the lobe-plasma transition layer, defined by WIND data by Wilbert et al, (J. Geophys. Res., 2001).

  8. EBIT spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions relevant to hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is a versatile device for studying highly charged ions. We have been using two types of EBITs for the spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions. One is a high-energy device called the Tokyo-EBIT, and another is a compact low-energy device called CoBIT. Complementary use of them enables us to obtain spectroscopic data for ions over a wide charge-state range interacting with electrons over a wide energy range. In this talk, we present EBIT spectra of highly charged ions for tungsten, iron, bismuth, etc., which are relevant to hot plasmas. Tungsten is considered to be the main impurity in the ITER (the next generation nuclear fusion reactor) plasma, and thus its emission lines are important for diagnosing and controlling the ITER plasma. We have observed many previously unreported lines to supply the lack of spectroscopic data of tungsten ions. Iron is one of the main components of the solar corona, and its spectra are used to diagnose temperature, density, etc. The diagnostics is usually done by comparing observed spectra with model calculations. An EBIT can provide spectra under a well-defined condition; they are thus useful to test the model calculations. Laser-produced bismuth plasma is one of the candidates for a soft x-ray source in the water window region. An EBIT has a narrow charge state distribution; it is thus useful to disentangle the spectra of laser-produced plasma containing ions with a wide charge-state range. Performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS09KOAJ003) and JSPS KAKENHI Number 23246165, and partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics.

  9. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  10. Optical transitions in highly charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A

    2012-08-17

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf(16+) is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf(16+) has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest α sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  11. Study of the degradation process of polyimide induced by high energetic ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severin, Daniel

    2008-09-19

    The dissertation focuses on the radiation hardness of Kapton under extreme radiation environment conditions. To study ion-beam induced modifications, Kapton foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (e.g. Ti, Mo, Au, and U) within a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10}-5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). The irradiated Kapton foils were analysed by means of infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, tensile strength measurement, mass loss analysis, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For testing the radiation stability of Kapton at the cryogenic operation temperature (5-10 K) of the superconducting magnets, additional irradiation experiments were performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL, France) focusing on the online analysis of the outgassing process of small volatile degradation fragments. The investigations of the electrical properties analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy exhibit a different trend: high fluence irradiations with light ions (e.g. Ti) lead to a slight increase of the conductivity, whereas heavy ions (e.g. Sm, Au) cause a drastic change already in the fluence regime of nonoverlapping tracks (5 x 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}). Online analysis of the outgassing process during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures shows the release of a variety of small gaseous molecules (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, and short hydro carbons). Also a small amount of large polymer fragments is identified. The results allow the following conclusions which are of special interest for the application of Kapton as insulating material in a high-energetic particle radiation environment. a) The material degradation measured with the optical spectroscopy and tensile strength tests are scalable with the dose deposited by the ions. The high correlation of the results allows the prediction of the mechanical degradation with the simple and non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. The degradation curve points to a

  12. Characterization of highly efficient heavy-ion mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazama Yusuke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy-ion mutagenesis is recognised as a powerful technology to generate new mutants, especially in higher plants. Heavy-ion beams show high linear energy transfer (LET and thus more effectively induce DNA double-strand breaks than other mutagenic techniques. Previously, we determined the most effective heavy-ion LET (LETmax: 30.0 keV μm-1 for Arabidopsis mutagenesis by analysing the effect of LET on mutation induction. However, the molecular structure of mutated DNA induced by heavy ions with LETmax remains unclear. Knowledge of the structure of mutated DNA will contribute to the effective exploitation of heavy-ion beam mutagenesis. Results Dry Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were irradiated with carbon (C ions with LETmax at a dose of 400 Gy and with LET of 22.5 keV μm-1 at doses of 250 Gy or 450 Gy. The effects on mutation frequency and alteration of DNA structure were compared. To characterise the structure of mutated DNA, we screened the well-characterised mutants elongated hypocotyls (hy and glabrous (gl and identified mutated DNA among the resulting mutants by high-resolution melting curve, PCR and sequencing analyses. The mutation frequency induced by C ions with LETmax was two-fold higher than that with 22.5 keV μm-1 and similar to the mutation frequency previously induced by ethyl methane sulfonate. We identified the structure of 22 mutated DNAs. Over 80% of the mutations caused by C ions with both LETs were base substitutions or deletions/insertions of less than 100 bp. The other mutations involved large rearrangements. Conclusions The C ions with LETmax showed high mutation efficiency and predominantly induced base substitutions or small deletions/insertions, most of which were null mutations. These small alterations can be determined by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detection systems. Therefore, C ions with LETmax might be useful as a highly efficient reverse genetic system in conjunction with SNP detection

  13. High rate multiplicity detector for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bennett, M.J. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Carroll, J.B. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chiba, J. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Chikanian, A. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cronqvist, M. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dardenne, Y. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Debbe, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Doke, T. [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Engelage, J. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Flores, I. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Greiner, L. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hayano, R.S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hallman, T.J. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Heckman, H.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kashiwagi, T. [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kikuchi, J. [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kumar, B.S. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kuo, C. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lindstrom, P.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J.W. [Universities Space Research Association/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nagamiya, S.; E878 Collaboration

    1995-04-21

    We have constructed and operated a detector to measure the multiplicity of secondary particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the E878 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS facility. We describe the operation and performance of the detector in a high rate Au beam environment, and interpret the multiplicity data in terms of the impact parameters of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. ((orig.)).

  14. Observations of Multi - Component Ion Beams in the High-Altitude Cusp/Cleft Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, R.; Semkova, J.; Smirnov, V.; Fedorov, A.

    Both Solar wind and the Earth ionosphere serve as sources of magnetospheric plasma. Having entered (SW ions) or being ejected (ionospheric ions) into the magnetosphere, ions are involved in the magnetospheric circulation. The common idea is that ions, convected to the lobe region, due to the ExB drift, enter the region of the plasma sheet and get energized by different processes. Magnetospheric plasma flows have been widely investigated, using mainly energy-per-charge measurements. While this method successfully differentiates ion species, which have near - equal flow speed and low thermal velocities [e.g. Seki et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1998], the ionic composition of hot magnetospheric flows could only be revealed in mass or mass-per-charge measurements. Recent plasma flows studies based on ion composition measurements [Lennartson, J. Geophys. Res., 2001] showed a great deal of similarity between the tailward drifts of the different ions, especially in the transition region between the central plasma sheet and the tail lobes, and evoked the idea of near-Earth mixing of the Solar wind and ionospheric ions. We present some experimental evidence on near-Earth mixing of magnetospheric ions of different origin. Used are data from the Low Energy Plasma Composition Experiment (AMEI-2) onboard the high-apogee INTERBALL-1 satellite. We present and discuss several cases of ion beams with energies above 3 keV, registered in the cusp/cleft region at distances from 5 to 9 Re, in which both He++ and O+ are present. The beams are observed on filed lines connected with different magnetospheric regions: the LLBL, the plasma mantle and the lobe. The energy/pitch angle behaviour of both He++ (Solar wind origin) and O+ (ionospheric origin) reveals great similarity, as if they are from one and the same source. Only the wider distributions of the He++ fluxes and the narrow ones of the O+ ions indicate their different origin. The distributions bare the signatures of various acceleration

  15. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ayman S; Wilhelm, Richard A; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-16

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (^{129}Xe^{Q+}) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q=15 to Q=36, the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  16. Soft x-ray laser spectroscopy on trapped highly charged ions at FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, S W; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Brenner, G; Mäckel, V; Mokler, P H; Treusch, R; Kuhlmann, M; Yurkov, M V; Feldhaus, J; Schneider, J R; Wellhöfer, M; Martins, M; Wurth, W; Ullrich, J

    2007-05-04

    In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate high-resolution resonant laser excitation in the soft x-ray region at 48.6 eV of the 2 (2)S(1/2) to 2 (2)P(1/2) transition of Li-like Fe23+ ions trapped in an electron beam ion trap by using ultrabrilliant light from Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). High precision spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions at this and upcoming x-ray lasers with an expected accuracy gain up to a factor of a thousand, become possible with our technique, thus potentially yielding fundamental insights, e.g., into basic aspects of QED.

  17. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography......, prior information makes up for this lack of data. We restrict the target velocity space through the measured absence of FIDA light, impose phase-space densities to be non-negative, and encode the known geometry of neutral beam injection (NBI) sources. We further use a numerical simulation as prior...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  18. Initial Results on Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX-IA) for High Intensity Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Prabir K; Baca, David; Bieniosek, Frank; Coleman, Joshua E; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Eylon, Shmuel; Gilson, Erik P; Grant Logan, B; Greenway, Wayne; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Leitner, Matthaeus; Rose, David; Sefkow, Adam; Sharp, William M; Shuman, Derek; Thoma, Carsten H; Vanecek, David; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam neutralization and compression experiments are designed to determine the feasibility of using compressed high intensity ion beams for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and for inertial fusion power. To quantitatively ascertain the various mechanisms and methods for beam compression, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) facility is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In the first compression experiment, a 260 KeV, 25 mA, K+ ion beam of centimeters size is radially compressed to a mm size spot by neutralization in a meter-long plasma column and beam peak current is longitudinally compressed by an induction velocity tilt core. Instrumentation, preliminary results of the experiments, and practical limits of compression are presented. These include parameters such as emittance, degree of neutralization, velocity tilt time profile, and accuracy of measurements (fast and spatially high resolution diagnostic) are discussed.

  19. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ayman S.; Wilhelm, Richard A.; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (129Xe Q+ ) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q =15 to Q =36 , the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  20. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  1. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  2. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W.

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36 000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H+, 40Ar8+, 129Xe30+, 209Bi33+, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  3. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36 000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H{sup +}, {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}, {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+}, {sup 209}Bi{sup 33+}, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  4. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A.; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An express

  5. The effect of carbon impurities on molybdenum surface morphology evolution under high-flux low-energy helium ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Novakowski, T. J.; Gonderman, S.; Bharadwaj, N.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the role of carbon (C) impurities, in molybdenum (Mo) fuzz evolutions on Mo surface during 100 eV He+ ion irradiations. In this study we considered 0.01, 0.05, and 0.5% C+ ion impurities in He+ ion irradiations. For introducing such tiny C+ ion impurities, gas mixtures of He and CH4 have been chosen in following ratios; 99.95: 0.05, 99.75: 0.25, and 97.5: 2.5. Apart from these three cases, two additional cases, 100% He+ ion (for Mo fuzz growth due to only He+ ions) and 100% H+ ion (for confirming the significance of tiny 0.04-2.0% H+ ions in terms of Mo fuzz evolutions on Mo surface, if any), have also been considered. Ion energy (100 eV), ion fluence (2.6 × 1024 ions m-2), and target temperature (923 K) were kept constant for each experiment and their selections were based on our previous studies [1,2]. Our study shows homogeneously populated and highly dense Mo fuzz evolutions on entire Mo surface for 100% He+ ion irradiation case. Enhancement of C+ ion impurities in He+ ions causes a sequential reduction in Mo fuzz evolutions, leading to almost complete prevention of Mo fuzz evolutions for 0.5% C+ ion impurity concentrations. Additionally, no fuzz formation for 100% H+ ion irradiation at all, were seen (apart from some tiny nano-structuring, in very limited regions). This indicates that there is no significant role of H+ ions in Mo fuzz evolutions (at least for such tiny amount, 0.04-2.0% H+ ions). The study is significant to understand the behavior of potential high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs), in the, presence of tiny amount of C impurities, for nuclear fusion relevant applications.

  6. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.; Simon, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features on several of the electro-active dust sensors utilized in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microprobe. The negatively biased dust sensor surfaces acted as ion traps for cations produced in the plasma plumes of impacting particles. Impactor residue surrounds most impact features to two or three feature diameters. After etching away a layer of carbonaceous/silicaceous surface contamination, low mass resolution elemental survey scans are used to tentatively identify the presence of impactor debris. High mass resolution two-dimensional elemental maps and three dimensional depth profiling of the feature and surrounding area show the distribution and relative composition of the debris. The location of these sensors on the six primary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) sides provides a unique opportunity to further define the debris environment. Researchers applied the same techniques to impact and contaminant features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on row 12 and exposed to the environment during the entire mission.

  7. Electrolytes with Improved Safety Characteristics for High Voltage, High Specific Energy Li-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Whitcanack, L. W.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2012-01-01

    (1) NASA is actively pursuing the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices for future lunar and Mars missions; (2) The Exploration Technology Development Program, Energy Storage Project is sponsoring the development of advanced Li-ion batteries and PEM fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and rovers and as the primary energy storage system for Lunar Surface Systems; (3) At JPL, in collaboration with NASA-GRC, NASA-JSC and industry, we are actively developing advanced Li-ion batteries with improved specific energy, energy density and safety. One effort is focused upon developing Li-ion battery electrolyte with enhanced safety characteristics (i.e., low flammability); and (4) A number of commercial applications also require Li-ion batteries with enhanced safety, especially for automotive applications.

  8. Demonstration of long-pulse acceleration of high power positive ion beam with JT-60 positive ion source in Japan–Korea joint experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A., E-mail: kojima.atsushi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Hanada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Jeong, S.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, D.H.; Kim, T.S.; Lee, K.W.; Park, M.; Jung, B.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mogaki, K.; Komata, M.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The long-pulse acceleration of the high-power positive ion beam has been demonstrated with the JT-60 positive ion source in the joint experiment among Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) under the collaboration program for the development of plasma heating and current drive systems. In this joint experiment, the increase of the heat load and the breakdowns induced by the degradation of the beam optics due to the gas accumulation was one of the critical issues for the long-pulse acceleration. As a result of development of the long-pulse operation techniques of the ion source and facilities of the neutral beam test stand in KAERI, 2 MW 100 s beam has been achieved for the first time. The achieved beam performance satisfies the JT-60SA requirement which is designed to be a 1.94 MW ion beam power from an ion source corresponding to total neutral beam power of 20 MW with 24 ion sources. Therefore, it was found that the JT-60 positive ion sources were applicable in the JT-60SA neutral beam injectors. Moreover, because this ion source is planned to be a backup ion source for KSTAR, the operational region and characteristic has been clarified to apply to the KSTAR neutral beam injector.

  9. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  10. X-ray resonant photoexcitation: linewidths and energies of Kα transitions in highly charged Fe ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J K; Bernitt, S; Epp, S W; Steinbrügge, R; Beilmann, C; Brown, G V; Eberle, S; Graf, A; Harman, Z; Hell, N; Leutenegger, M; Müller, A; Schlage, K; Wille, H-C; Yavaş, H; Ullrich, J; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R

    2013-09-06

    Photoabsorption by and fluorescence of the Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions are essential mechanisms for x-ray radiation transfer in astrophysical environments. We study photoabsorption due to the main Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions from heliumlike to fluorinelike (Fe24+ to Fe17+) using monochromatic x rays around 6.6 keV at the PETRA III synchrotron photon source. Natural linewidths were determined with hitherto unattained accuracy. The observed transitions are of particular interest for the understanding of photoexcited plasmas found in x-ray binary stars and active galactic nuclei.

  11. Advanced high brightness ion rf accelerator applications in the nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of modern rf linear accelerators to provide intense high quality beams of protons, deuterons, or heavier ions is opening new possibilities for transmuting existing nuclear wastes, for generating electricity from readily available fuels with minimal residual wastes, for building intense neutron sources for materials research, for inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions, and for other new applications. These are briefly described, couched in a perspective of the advances in the understanding of the high brightness beams that has enabled these new programs. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Surface modifications induced by high fluxes of low energy helium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyeli, İrem; Marot, Laurent; Mathys, Daniel; van de Sanden, Mauritius C M; De Temmerman, Gregory

    2015-04-28

    Several metal surfaces, such as titanium, aluminum and copper, were exposed to high fluxes (in the range of 10(23) m(-2) s(-1)) of low energy (pillars, are observed on these metals. The differences and similarities in the development of surface morphologies are discussed in terms of the material properties and compared with the results of similar experimental studies. The results show that He ions induced void growth and physical sputtering play a significant role in surface modification using high fluxes of low energy He ions.

  13. A comparison of batch and single wafer high dose arsenic ion implantation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, R.B.; Filo, A.J.; Kannan, V.C.; Feygenson, A.; Prematta, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    High dose, low energy (4x10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ at 15 keV) arsenic ion implantation into silicon was performed in batch and single wafer mode using medium and high current ion implanters. An investigation of implanted and annealed samples by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal wave technique, and sheet resistance mapping showed little to no difference of arsenic profiles and residual damage between batch and single wafer implantation conditions when the sample temperature during implantation was kept below 120/sup 0/C. (orig.).

  14. A comparison of batch and single wafer high dose arsenic ion implantation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R. B.; Filo, A. J.; Kannan, V. C.; Feygenson, A.; Prematta, R. J.

    1989-04-01

    High dose, low energy (4×10 15 cm -2 at 15 keV) arsenic ion implantation into silicon was performed in batch and single wafer mode using medium and high current ion implanters. An investigation of implanted and annealed samples by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal wave technique, and sheet resistance mapping showed little to no difference of arsenic profiles and residual damage between batch and single wafer implantation conditions when the sample temperature during implantation was kept below 120° C.

  15. Laboratory measurements of K-shell transitions in highly charged iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, René; Rudolph, Jan K.; Bernitt, Sven; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.

    2016-09-01

    The x-ray spectra of celestial sources show a plethora of features originating from highly charged ions. These can be used to determine the flow, temperatures, and abundances of elements in the star, which are needed to benchmark-stellar evolution models. However, the underlying atomic transition data of the ions are often only known by theoretical calculations, thus testing them in laboratory measurements is crucial. We present our measurements of energies, natural linewidths, radiative and Auger decay rates for K-shell transitions in He-like to F-like iron ions. In this experiments, an electron beam ion trap was used to create a target of highly charged ions, which were resonantly excited by monochromatic light from the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. Fluorescence was observed while simultaneously detecting photoionization by the change in the ionic charge state. This method, combined with the high resolution of the monochromator used, yields uncertainties on the ppm-level for the excitation energies and below 10% for the linewidths and transition rates, thus providing a valuable benchmark for atomic theory.

  16. Comparison of UV and high-energy ion irradiation of methanol:ammonia ice

    CERN Document Server

    Caro, G M Munoz; Boduch, P; Rothard, H; Domaracka, A; Jimenez-Escobar, A

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to compare the effects induced in ices of astrophysical relevance by high-energy ions, simulating cosmic rays, and by vacuum ultraviolet (UV) photons. This comparison relies on in situ infrared spectroscopy of irradiated CH3OH:NH3 ice. Swift heavy ions were provided by the GANIL accelerator. The source of UV was a microwave-stimulated hydrogen flow discharge lamp. The deposited energy doses were similar for ion beams and UV photons to allow a direct comparison. A variety of organic species was detected during irradiation and later during ice warm-up. These products are common to ion and UV irradiation for doses up to a few tens of eV per molecule. Only the relative abundance of the CO product, after ice irradiation, was clearly higher in the ion irradiation experiments. For some ice mixture compositions, the irradiation products formed depend only weakly on the type of irradiation, swift heavy ions, or UV photons. This simplifies the chemical modeling of energetic ice processing ...

  17. High-speed flows of H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/ ions at the magnetopause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschmann, G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1989-06-01

    During a crossing of the subsolar magnetopause into the boundary layer the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on AMPTE/CCE has provided the first observations of high-speed flows of both H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/ ions. Furthermore, the flow velocities of the two species showed good agreement. When considered as a single fluid, the ion flow obeys the MHD momentum balance relation for a rotational discontinuity, and thus is consistent with expectations for magnetic reconnection. This balance test does not, however, predict that the flow speeds of H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/ should be equal. Thus our observations provide information not contained in the fluid description. The observed agreement between the flow velocities of different ion species follows if one considers the motion of individual ions across the magnetopause current sheet. Assuming that the motion conserves the particles' pitch-angle, or changes it by an equal amount, as for adiabatic motion, all particles will gain the same amount in speed regardless of mass. The particles gain their energy by sliding along the magnetopause in the direction of the tangential electric field intrinsic to the reconnection process. To preserve equality of speed, the He/sup + +/ ions must move twice the distance of the H/sup +/ ions. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  18. Longitudinal Ion Acceleration from High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Underdense Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Willingale, L; Nilson, P M; Clarke, R J; Dangor, A E; Kaluza, M C; Karsch, S; Lancaster, K L; Mori, W B; Schreiber, J; Thomas, A G R; Wei, M S; Krushelnick, K; Najmudin, Z

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal ion acceleration from high-intensity (I ~ 10^20 Wcm^-2) laser interactions with helium gas jet targets (n_e ~ 0.04 n_c) have been observed. The ion beam has a maximum energy for He^2+ of approximately 40 MeV and was directional along the laser propagation path, with the highest energy ions being collimated to a cone of less than 10 degrees. 2D particle-in-cell simulations have been used to investigate the acceleration mechanism. The time varying magnetic field associated with the fast electron current provides a contribution to the accelerating electric field as well as providing a collimating field for the ions. A strong correlation between the plasma density and the ion acceleration was found. A short plasma scale-length at the vacuum interface was observed to be beneficial for the maximum ion energies, but the collimation appears to be improved with longer scale-lengths due to enhanced magnetic fields in the ramp acceleration region.

  19. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Breese, M.B.H.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Allen, M.G.; Bettiol, A.A.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2013-07-28

    We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both types of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

  1. High-Performance Aluminum-Ion Battery with CuS@C Microsphere Composite Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Jiao, Shuqiang; Wang, Junxiang; Chen, Hao-Sen; Tian, Donghua; Lei, Haiping; Fang, Dai-Ning

    2017-01-24

    On the basis of low-cost, rich resources, and safety performance, aluminum-ion batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage batteries in large-scale energy applications. A rechargeable aluminum-ion battery has been fabricated based on a 3D hierarchical copper sulfide (CuS) microsphere composed of nanoflakes as cathode material and room-temperature ionic liquid containing AlCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) as electrolyte. The aluminum-ion battery with a microsphere electrode exhibits a high average discharge voltage of ∼1.0 V vs Al/AlCl4(-), reversible specific capacity of about 90 mA h g(-1) at 20 mA g(-1), and good cyclability of nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency after 100 cycles. Such remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the well-defined nanostructure of the cathode material facilitating the electron and ion transfer, especially for chloroaluminate ions with large size, which is desirable for aluminum-ion battery applications.

  2. Surface and structure modification induced by high energy and highly charged uranium ion irradiation in monocrystal spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yitao, E-mail: yangyt@impcas.ac.cn [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Gou, Jie; Zhang, Liqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Meng, Yancheng; Zhang, Hengqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Yizhun [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Due to its high temperature properties and relatively good behavior under irradiation, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) is considered as a possible material to be used as inert matrix for the minor actinides burning. In this case, irradiation damage is an unavoidable problem. In this study, high energy and highly charged uranium ions (290 MeV U{sup 32+}) were used to irradiate monocrystal spinel to the fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} to study the modification of surface and structure. Highly charged ions carry large potential energy, when they interact with a surface, the release of potential energy results in the modification of surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed the occurrence of etching on surface after uranium ion irradiation. The etching depth reached 540 nm. The surprising efficiency of etching is considered to be induced by the deposition of potential energy with high density. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the (4 4 0) diffraction peak obviously broadened after irradiation, which indicated that the distortion of lattice has occurred. After multi-peak Gaussian fitting, four Gaussian peaks were separated, which implied that a structure with different damage layers could be formed after irradiation.

  3. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.W. (ed.); Wozniak, G.J. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4..pi.. detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented.

  4. Kelvin-Helmholz instability in high energy heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Csernai, L P; Anderlik, Cs

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical development of collective flow is studied in a 3+1D fluid dynamical model, with globally symmetric, peripheral initial conditions, which take into account the shear flow caused by the forward motion on the projectile side and the backward motion on the target side. While at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 A TeV semi-peripheral Pb+Pb collisions the earlier predicted rotation effect is visible, at more peripheral collisions, with high resolution and low numerical viscosity the initial development of a Kelvin-Helmholz instability is observed, which alters the flow pattern considerably. This effect provides a precision tool for studying the low viscosity of Quark-gluon Plasma.

  5. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y

    2016-01-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, ...

  6. Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Observations of improved radio frequency (RF) heating efficiency in high-confinement (H-) mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. We present the first full-wave simulation to couple kinetic physics of the well confined core plasma to the poorly confined scrape-off plasma. The new simulation is used to scan the launched fast-wave spectrum and examine the steady-state electric wave field structure for experimental scenarios corresponding to both reduced, and improved RF heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave-numbers that required for fast-wave propagation excites large amplitude (kVm 1 ) coaxial standing modes in the wave electric field between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggest these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency. Also, the H-mode density pedestal and fast-wave cutoff within the confined plasma allow for the excitation of whispering gallery type eigenmodes localised to the plasma edge.

  7. Laser spectroscopy on forbidden transitions in trapped highly charged Ar(13+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäckel, V; Klawitter, R; Brenner, G; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; Ullrich, J

    2011-09-30

    We demonstrate resonant fluorescence laser spectroscopy in highly charged ions (HCI) stored in an electron beam ion trap by investigating the dipole-forbidden 1s(2)2s(2)2p (2)P(3/2)-(2)P(1/2) transition in boronlike Ar(13+) ions. Forced evaporative cooling yielded a high resolving power, resulting in an accurate wavelength determination to λ=441.255 68(26)  nm. By applying stronger cooling and two-photon excitation, new optical frequency standards based upon ultrastable transitions in such HCI could be realized in the future, e.g., for the search of time variations of the fine-structure constant.

  8. Highly charged ions in a dilute plasma: an exact asymptotic solution involving strong coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lowell S; Dooling, David C; Preston, Dean L

    2006-05-01

    The ion sphere model introduced long ago by Salpeter is placed in a rigorous theoretical setting. The leading corrections to this model for very highly charged but dilute ions in thermal equilibrium with a weakly coupled, one-component background plasma are explicitly computed, and the subleading corrections shown to be negligibly small. This is done using the effective field theory methods advocated by Brown and Yaffe. Thus, corrections to nuclear reaction rates that such highly charged ions may undergo can be computed precisely. Moreover, their contribution to the equation of state can also be computed with precision. Such analytic results for very strong coupling are rarely available, and they can serve as benchmarks for testing computer models in this limit.

  9. Electroweak Decay Studies of Highly Charged Radioactive Ions with TITAN at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Leach, K G; Klawitter, R; Leistenschneider, E; Lennarz, A; Brunner, T; Frekers, D; Andreiou, C; Kwiatkowski, A A; Dilling, J

    2016-01-01

    Several modes of electroweak radioactive decay require an interaction between the nucleus and bound electrons within the constituent atom. Thus, the probabilities of the respective decays are not only influenced by the structure of the initial and final states in the nucleus, but can also depend strongly on the atomic charge. Conditions suitable for the partial or complete ionization of these rare isotopes occur naturally in hot, dense astrophysical environments, but can also be artificially generated in the laboratory to selectively block certain radioactive decay modes. Direct experimental studies on such scenarios are extremely difficult due to the laboratory conditions required to generate and store radioactive ions at high charge states. A new electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) decay setup with the TITAN experiment at TRIUMF has successfully demonstrated such techniques for performing spectroscopy on the radioactive decay of highly charged ions.

  10. High resolution imaging using scanning ion conductance microscopy with improved distance feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Li; Nicholas Johnson; Victor Ostanin; Andrew Shevchuk; Liming Ying; Yuri Korchev; David Klenerman

    2008-01-01

    Microscopy is an essential technique for observation on living cells. There is currently great interest in applying scanning probe microscopy to image-living biological cells in their natural environment at the nanometer scale. Scanning ion conductance microscopy is a new form of scanning probe microscopy, which enables non-contact high-resolution imaging of living biological cells. Based on a scanned nanopipette in physiological buffer, the distance feedback control uses the ion current to control the distance between the pipette tip and the sample surface. However, this feedback control has difficulties over slopes on convoluted cell surfaces, which limits its resolution. In this study, we present an improved form of feedback control that removes the contribution of up to the third-order slope from the ion current signal, hence providing a more accurate signal for controlling the distance. We show that this allows faster and lower noise topographic high-resolution imaging.

  11. On the Plasma (ion) Carburized Layer of High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Ueda; N. Kanayama; K. Ichii; T. Oishi; H. Miyake

    2004-01-01

    The manganese concentration of austenitic stainless steel decreases from the inner layer towards the surface of the plasma (ion) carburized layer due to the evaporation of manganese from the specimen surface. The carbon concentration in the carburized layer is influenced by alloyed elements such as Ct, Ni, Si, and Mo, as well as Nitrogen. This study examined the effects of nitrogen on the properties of the carburized layer of high nitrogen stainless steel. Plasma (ion)carburizing was carried out for 14.4 ks at 1303 K in an atmosphere of CH4+H2 gas mixtures under a pressure of 350 Pa. The plasma carburized layer of the high nitrogen stainless steel was thinner than that of an austentric stainless steel containing no nitrogen. This suggested that the nitrogen raised the activity of carbon in the plasma carburized layer, GDOES measurement indicated that the nitrogen level in the layer did not vary after plasma (ion) carburizing.

  12. Non-linear interaction between high energy ions and MHD-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Tommy

    2001-12-01

    When heating a fusion plasma with ICRE or NBI a non-Maxwellian distribution function with high energy ions is created. Ions which are in resonance with a MHD mode will interact with the electric field from the mode and in some circumstances energy will flow from the particles to the mode or opposite. A quasi-linear model for the interaction between high energy ions and a MHD mode has been developed. To solve the time evolution of the MHD mode a module has been implemented into the Monte Carlo code FIDO, which is used for calculating a 3-dimensional distribution function. The model has been tested for an internal kink mode during fishbone oscillations.

  13. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron beam ion trap with the electron beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce $K\\alpha$ x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted--wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-$Z$ element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  14. A high-resolution mass spectrometer to measure atmospheric ion composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Junninen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present recent achievements on developing and testing a tool to detect the composition of ambient ions in the mass/charge range up to 2000 Th. The instrument is an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (APi-TOF, Tofwerk AG. Its mass accuracy is better than 0.002%, and the mass resolving power is 3000 Th/Th. In the data analysis, a new efficient Matlab based set of programs (tofTools were developed, tested and used. The APi-TOF was tested both in laboratory conditions and applied to outdoor air sampling in Helsinki at the SMEAR III station. Transmission efficiency calibrations showed a throughput of 0.1–0.5% in the range 100–1300 Th for positive ions, and linearity over 3 orders of magnitude in concentration was determined. In the laboratory tests the APi-TOF detected sulphuric acid-ammonia clusters in high concentration from a nebulised sample illustrating the potential of the instrument in revealing the role of sulphuric acid clusters in atmospheric new particle formation. The APi-TOF features a high enough accuracy, resolution and sensitivity for the determination of the composition of atmospheric small ions although the total concentration of those ions is typically only 400–2000 cm-3. The atmospheric ions were identified based on their exact masses, utilizing Kendrick analysis and correlograms as well as narrowing down the potential candidates based on their proton affinities as well isotopic patterns. In Helsinki during day-time the main negative ambient small ions were inorganic acids and their clusters. The positive ions were more complex, the main compounds were (polyalkyl pyridines and – amines. The APi-TOF provides a near universal interface for atmospheric pressure sampling, and this key feature will be utilized in future laboratory and field studies.

  15. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  16. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanocell lattices by ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Osamu [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Nitta, Noriko, E-mail: nitta.noriko@kochi-tech.ac.jp [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Center for Nanotechnology, Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Taniwaki, Masafumi [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nanocell lattice with a high aspect ratio on InSb semiconductor surface was fabricated by ion beam irradiation. • The fabrication technique consisting of top-down and bottom-up processes was performed in FIB. • High aspect ratio of 2 was achieved in nanocell lattice with a 100 nm interval. • The intermediate-flux irradiation is favorable for fabrication of nanocell with a high aspect ratio. - Abstract: A high aspect ratio nanocell lattice was fabricated on the InSb semiconductor surface using the migration of point defects induced by ion beam irradiation. The fabrication technique consisting of the top-down (formation of voids and holes) and bottom-up (growth of voids and holes into nanocells) processes was performed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. A cell aspect ratio of 2 (cell height/cell diameter) was achieved for the nanocell lattice with a 100 nm dot interval The intermediate-flux ion irradiation during the bottom-up process was found to be optimal for the fabrication of a high aspect ratio nanocell.

  17. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular responses from HZE particles. Thus, low-energy heavy ions provide a valuable probe for studies of homologous recombination repair in radiation responses.

  18. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Meara, John M. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Davé, Romeel, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-12-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv {sub 90} statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10{sup 8.5-10.9} (r/150 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}, similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  19. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Islam, Md Tariqul; Karim, Hasanul; Ramabadran, Navaneet; Noveron, Juan C.; Lin, Yirong

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO2 nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  20. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  1. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.; et al

    2011-08-09

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our

  2. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka

    2016-06-22

    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  3. A Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of ion self-collisions on the ion velocity distribution function in the high-latitude F-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Barakat

    Full Text Available Non-Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions have been theoretically predicted and confirmed by observations, to occur at high latitudes. These distributions deviate from Maxwellian due to the combined effect of the E×B drift and ion-neutral collisions. The majority of previous literature, in which the effect of ion self-collisions was neglected, established a clear picture for the ion distribution under a wide range of conditions. At high altitudes and/or for solar maximum conditions, the ion-to-neutral density ratio increases and, hence, the role of ion self-collisions becomes appreciable. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to investigate the behaviour of O+ ions that are E×B-drifting through a background of neutral O, with the effect of O+ (Coulomb self-collisions included. Wide ranges of the ion-to-neutral density ratio ni/nn and the electrostatic field E were considered in order to investigate the change of ion behaviour with solar cycle and with altitude. For low altitudes and/or solar minimum (ni/nn≤ 10-5, the effect of self-collisions is negligible. For higher values of ni/nn, the effect of self-collisions becomes significant and, hence, the non-Maxwellian features of the O+ distribution are reduced. For example, the parallel temperature TiVert increases, the perpendicular temperature Ti decreases, the temperature anisotropy approaches unity and the toroidal features of the ion distribution function become less pronounced. Also, as E increases, the ion-neutral collision rate increases, while the ion-ion collision rate decreases. Therefore, the effect of ion self-collisions is reduced. Finally, the

  4. 90° Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Mitaroff, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: 208Pb 82+ lead ions at 40 GeV/ c per nucleon and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/ c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90° with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that—for such high energy heavy ion beams—a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0.84.

  5. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor: Thiacalix[4]arene-1-naphthalene carboxylate for Zn2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darjee, Savan M.; Modi, Krunal M.; Panchal, Urvi; Patel, Chirag; Jain, Vinod K.

    2017-04-01

    Thiacalix[4]arene based fluorescent sensor bearing two naphthoyl groups, thiacalix-1-naphthalene carboxylate (TCNC) has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, ESI-MS spectroscopic techniques. The interaction behavior of TCNC with various metal ions like Fe3+, Hg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, and Zn2+ was studied by UV-visible and emission spectrophotometry. It was observed that TCNC recognizes Zn2+ ions with high selectivity and sensitivity. The enhancement of fluorescence intensity due to presence of Zn2+ ions was not perturbed in the presence of high concentration of other associated metal ions. The 1:1 stoichiometry of TCNC:Zn2+ complex was confirmed by job's plot, ESI-MS study and 1H NMR titration. The binding constant and quantum yield were also calculated by using spectrofluorimetric titration data. Linear detection range of zinc ions was found to be 1 nM-740 nM. Furthermore, molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the binding affinity and possible interactions between TCNC and Zn2+ depicting that TCNC interact with Zn2+ via weak intramolecular forces. In addition to that molecular dynamics has also been performed to evaluate the conformational changes and it's structural stability in the particular environment.

  6. Measurement of ion species in high current ECR H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source for IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinto, K., E-mail: shinto.katsuhiro@jaea.go.jp; Ichimiya, R.; Ihara, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kasugai, A.; Kitano, T.; Kondo, K.; Takahashi, H. [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Senée, F.; Bolzon, B.; Chauvin, N.; Gobin, R.; Valette, M. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Ayala, J.-M.; Marqueta, A.; Okumura, Y. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Ion species ratio of high current positive hydrogen/deuterium ion beams extracted from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator was measured by the Doppler shift Balmer-α line spectroscopy. The proton (H{sup +}) ratio at the middle of the low energy beam transport reached 80% at the hydrogen ion beam extraction of 100 keV/160 mA and the deuteron (D{sup +}) ratio reached 75% at the deuterium ion beam extraction of 100 keV/113 mA. It is found that the H{sup +} ratio measured by the spectroscopy gives lower than that derived from the phase-space diagram measured by an Allison scanner type emittance monitor. The H{sup +}/D{sup +} ratio estimated by the emittance monitor was more than 90% at those extraction currents.

  7. Development and validation of highly selective screening and confirmatory methods for the qualitative forensic analysis of organic explosive compounds with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with (photodiode array and) LTQ ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometric detections (HPLC-(PDA)-LTQOrbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoma; Koeberg, Mattijs; Kuijpers, Chris-Jan; Kok, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An LTQ-Orbitrap FTMS is a new (hybrid) mass spectrometric (MS) analyzer. It allows for the acquisition of full scan MS(n) (n-stage fragmentations, n=1-n) spectra with the linear ion trap detector (LTQ) at high speed and/or with the Fourier Transform-detector (Orbitrap) with ultra high mass resolution (>60,000 at m/zphoto diode array (PDA) detection. Two methods for the forensic screening and confirmation of all common trace explosives in post-blast residues have been developed on this instrument using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). In one run, the nitrogen-containing explosives are analyzed with the combination of "LC-(PDA)-APCI(-)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 1). In another run, peroxide explosives are analyzed with "LC-APCI(+)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 2). The performance of both methods has been validated according to procedures defined in the EU COMMISSION DECISION implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (DC 2002/657/EC) and other standards (NEN 17025 and NEN 7777). The methods are highly selective due to the simultaneous utilization of the Orbitrap FTMS and LTQ MS(2), both of which are highly selective detectors Tested explosive compounds can be detected in the molecular ion form by the Orbitrap analyzer with minimal mass interference in different matrices when using an extremely narrow mass tolerance detection window (≤2ppm). The identification of a detected compound follows an identification point system. Experimental results show that almost all explosive compounds meet the confirmation criteria (minimum 4 points) required for the positive identification by the DC 2002/657/EC.

  8. A Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of ion self-collisions on the ion velocity distribution function in the high-latitude F-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouthi, I. A.; Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Non-Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions have been theoretically predicted and confirmed by observations, to occur at high latitudes. These distributions deviate from Maxwellian due to the combined effect of the E x B drift and ion-neutral collisions. At high altitude and/or for solar maximum conditions, the ion-to-neutral density ratio increases and, hence, the role of ion self-collisions becomes appreciable. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to investigate the behavior of O(+) ions that are E x B-drifting through a background of neutral O, with the effect of O(+) (Coulomb) self-collisions included. Wide ranges of the ion-to-neutral density ratio n(sub i)/n(sub n) and the electrostatic field E were considered in order to investigate the change of ion behavior with solar cycle and with altitude. For low altitudes and/or solar minimum (n(sub i)/n(sub n) less than or equal to 10(exp -5)), the effect of self-collisions is negligible. For higher values of n(sub i)/n(sub n), the effect of self-collisions becomes significant and, hence, the non-Maxwellian features of the O(+) distribution are reduced. The Monte Carlo results were compared to those that used simplified collision models in order to assess their validity. In general, the simple collision models tend to be more accurate for low E and for high n(sub i)/n(sub n).

  9. Fragmentation dynamics of CO(2)(3+) investigated by multiple electron capture in collisions with slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, N; Hant, D; Schmidt, L Ph H; Titze, J; Jahnke, T; Czasch, A; Schöffler, M S; Kreidi, K; Jagutzki, O; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Dörner, R

    2010-03-12

    Fragmentation of highly charged molecular ions or clusters consisting of more than two atoms can proceed in a one step synchronous manner where all bonds break simultaneously or sequentially by emitting one ion after the other. We separated these decay channels for the fragmentation of CO(2)(3+) ions by measuring the momenta of the ionic fragments. We show that the total energy deposited in the molecular ion is a control parameter which switches between three distinct fragmentation pathways: the sequential fragmentation in which the emission of an O(+) ion leaves a rotating CO(2+) ion behind that fragments after a time delay, the Coulomb explosion and an in-between fragmentation--the asynchronous dissociation. These mechanisms are directly distinguishable in Dalitz plots and Newton diagrams of the fragment momenta. The CO(2)(3+) ions are produced by multiple electron capture in collisions with 3.2 keV/u Ar(8+) ions.

  10. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    When tentatively identifying compounds in complex mixtures using mass spectral libraries, multiple matches or no plausible matches due to a high level of chemical noise or interferences can occur. Worse yet, most analytes are not in the libraries. In each case, Ion Composition El...

  11. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  12. Theoretical nuclear database for high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical methods for estimating high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) particle absorption and fragmentation cross-sections are described and compared with available experimental data. Differences between theory and experiment range from several percent for absorption cross-sections up to about 25%-50% for fragmentation cross-sections.

  13. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  14. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge stat...

  15. Laser thermal annealing of Ge, optimized for highly activated dopants and diode ION/IOFF ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayesteh, M.; O'Connell, D.; Gity, F.;

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the influence of laser thermal annealing (LTA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on dopant activation and electrical performance of phosphorus and arsenic doped n+/p junction. High carrier concentration above 1020 cm-3 as well as an ION/IOFF ratio of approximately 105 and ide...

  16. A deposition record of inorganic ions from a high-alpine glacier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Bruetsch, S.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Schotterer, U.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The lowest five metres of an ice core from a high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, 4450m a.s.l., Switzerland) were analysed for ammonium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, nitrate, potassium, sodium, and sulphate by ion chromatography. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  17. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, FY 1989--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  18. Study of the general plasma characteristics of a high power multifilament ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1979-09-01

    A general assessment of the steady state and time dependent plasma properties which characterize a high power multifilament ion source is presented. Steady state measurements, obtained via a pulsed electrostatic probe data acquisition system, are described. Fluctuation measurements, obtained via a broadband digital spectral analysis system, are also given.

  19. The effects of high-voltage pulse electric discharges on ion adsorption on activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Sveshnikova, D. A.; Larin, S. V.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Shabanova, Z. E.; Yusupova, A. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of high-voltage pulse electric discharges (HPED) on sorption of boron and sulfate ions on activated carbons of different kinds (KM-2, BAU, DAK) were investigated. The effect of HPED activation on the sorption characteristics of the systems was found to be similar to the temperature effect.

  20. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  1. Highly charged ions interacting with carbon surfaces : An influence of surface structure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, R; Winters, D; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R

    Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to investigate the reaction of various carbon surfaces - including fullerene covered metal surfaces - on the impact of highly charged ions. An influence of the electronic surface structure on the interaction is clearly observed. However, the goal of

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ANGULAR-MOMENTUM ON DOUBLE ELECTRON-CAPTURE BY HIGHLY CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTHUMUS, JH; LUKEY, P; MORGENSTERN, R

    1992-01-01

    Double electron capture during collisions of highly charged ions with H-2 or He is studied by measuring and analysing energy spectra of the resulting autoionization electrons and by comparing the experimentally determined population probabilities for the various states with those calculated from a

  3. The measurements of light high-energy ions in NINA-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluate radiation damages on space-borne instruments and on space mission crews. In spite of that, sources of data on the flux of energetic ions at LEO are roughly limited to the AP-8 model, CREME/CREME96 codes and the SAMPEX, NOAA/TIROS satellites. The existing and operational European SAC-C/ICARE and PROBA-1/SREM instruments could also be potential sources for proton data at LEO. Although AP-8 and SAMPEX/PSB97 may be publicly accessed through the SPENVIS, they exhibit an order of magnitude difference in low altitude proton fluxes and they do not contain helium fluxes. Therefore, improved light ion radiation models are still needed.

    In this paper we present a procedure to identify and measure the energy of ions that are not stopped in the NINA-2 instrument. Moreover, problems related to particles that cross the instrument in the opposite direction are addressed and shown to be a possible cause of particle misidentification. Measuring fluxes of low abundance elements like energetic helium ions requires a good characterisation of all possible sources of backgrounds in the detector. Hints to determine the several contributions to the background are presented herein and may be applied to extract an order of magnitude of energetic ions fluxes from existing data sets, while waiting for dedicated high performance instruments.

  4. Ion-Acoustic Instability in the Presence of High Frequency Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sandu, D.; Schrittwieser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements are presented of a standing ion-acoustic wave instability, which is excited by a positively biased grid inserted perpendicularly into the plasma column of a single-ended Q-machine, under the influence of a high frequency signal superimposed onto the positive voltage at the grid....... The experimental results show that in certain regions of the frequency and amplitude of the h.f. signal the ion wave instability is stabilized or destabilized. A possible explanation of these effects is presented....

  5. X-ray characterization of surfaces irradiated with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, J.P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Ion Surface Advanced Processes (ISAP) muE., 2 Square Francois Couperin, 92160 Antony (France)], E-mail: jpbriand920@aol.com; Benhachoum, M. [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    Highly charged ions (HCI) approaching, touching or penetrating dielectric surfaces extract many electrons of the solid leading to the formation of permanent surface modifications. The ions which capture the electrons in their outermost shells form hollow atoms which emit X-rays during their decay to the ground state. In this paper one presents experiments showing that these X-rays) allow diagnosing the electric nature of the surfaces. HCI while modifying the structure of surfaces may then also be used to diagnose these changes on line or off line.

  6. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  7. Determining the mobility of ions by transient current measurements at high voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Peter; Schröter, Klaus; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas

    2007-08-24

    We present polarization and transient current experiments that allow an independent determination of the charge carrier density and the mobility of ions in polymer electrolytes at low charge carrier density. The method relies on a complete depletion of ions in the bulk electrolyte achieved by applying high voltages. Based on a qualitative model for the charge dynamics in this nonlinear regime, the method is exemplarily applied to a system of polymethylmethacrylate doped with small amounts of a lithium salt. The independently obtained values for the ionic mobility, the charge carrier density, and the conductivity are consistent for all salt concentrations studied. Criteria for the applicability of the method are discussed.

  8. Creation of nanohillocks on CaF2 surfaces by single slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A S; Heller, R; Meissl, W; Ritter, R; Facsko, S; Lemell, C; Solleder, B; Gebeshuber, I C; Betz, G; Toulemonde, M; Möller, W; Burgdörfer, J; Aumayr, F

    2008-06-13

    Upon impact on a solid surface, the potential energy stored in slow highly charged ions is primarily deposited into the electronic system of the target. By decelerating the projectile ions to kinetic energies as low as 150 x q eV, we find first unambiguous experimental evidence that potential energy alone is sufficient to cause permanent nanosized hillocks on the (111) surface of a CaF(2) single crystal. Our investigations reveal a surprisingly sharp and well-defined threshold of potential energy for hillock formation which can be linked to a solid-liquid phase transition.

  9. Acceleration and Utilization of Highly Stripped Charge State Heavy Ions at HI-13 Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Even higher linear energy transfer (LET) values of the heavy ions are necessary as the investigationsof single event effects (SEE) of satellite devices are developing rapidly. For example, the researches aredeveloped from the single-event upset (SEU) which needs comparatively low LET values towards singleevent latch up (SEL) and single event burnout (SEB) which requires high LET values, namely LET’s arehigher than 80 MeV mg-1,cm-2 and range of the ions in the silicon should be large than 20 micrometers,

  10. Collision of highly charged ion with clusters. Simulation study for electronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabana, Kazuhiro [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Collision of highly charged ion with cluster, for example, collision of C{sub 60}-Ar{sup 8+} at E=80 KeV, was simulated by the time-dependence Kohn-Shame equation. The distribution of electron densities and the self-consistent potential were obtained. A part of C{sub 60} potential curve became depressed by the Coulomb force of ion, so that the saddle point was produced on the potential. The behavior of electron transfer on the saddle point was agreed with the classical barrier model. Time-dependent density functional method was explained. (S.Y.)

  11. Possibility of resonant capture of antiprotons by highly charged hydrogenlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkin, M.; Lindroth, E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, an experimental setup was proposed by Lapierre et al. [ Physics with ultra slow antiproton beams, AIP Conference Proceedings (2005), Vol. 793, p. 361] which would allow antiprotons and highly charged ions to collide repeatedly in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) due to a nested trap configuration. As mentioned by the authors, such a setup may open the possibility to study antiproton capture into well-defined states through a resonant process which involves simultaneous electron excitation. In the present work, we give some theoretical estimations of the feasibility of that process.

  12. High-resolution tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, S R; Ambrosi, G; Balboni, C; Battiston, R; Burger, W J; Chang, Y H; Geissel, H; Ionica, M; Lustermann, W; Maehlum, G; Menichelli, M; Pauluzzi, M; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rapin, D; Ren, D; Ribordy, M; Sann, H; Schardt, D; Sümmerer, K; Viertel, Gert M

    1999-01-01

    Tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions has been investigated using a sup 1 sup 2 C beam of 1.5 GeV/u at GSI. The ionization charge spectrum and the charge sharing between strips are presented. The strip cluster of carbon ion can be selected based on the cluster charge with high efficiency and little contamination. The spatial resolution of the silicon strip detectors is evaluated. The angular distribution of multiple Coulomb scattering was investigated with lead absorbers. The results are compared to the Moliere theory and the Gaussian approximation of GEANT calculations. (author)

  13. Neutron measurements around a beam dump bombarded by high energy protons and lead ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2001-02-01

    Measurements of the spectral fluence and the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons produced by 250 GeV/ c protons and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon lead ions were performed at CERN around a thick beam dump. The experimental results obtained with protons were compared with calculations performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. As the available Monte Carlo codes do not transport particles with mass larger than one atomic mass unit, it is shown that for high energy heavy ions, estimates can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number.

  14. High-Energy Ions Emitted from Ar Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LEI An-Le; NI Guo-Quan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the energy spectra of Ar ions emitted from Ar clusters irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses. The Ar clusters were produced in the adiabatic expansion of Ar gas into vacuum at high backing pressures. The laser peak intensity was about 2×106 W/cm2 with a pulse duration of 45 fs. The maximum and the average energies of Ar ions are 0.2 MeV and 15kev at a backing pressure of 2. S MPa, respectively. They are almost independent of the backing pressures in the range of 0.6 to 4.5 MPa.

  15. Microcalorimeter/EBIT measurements of X-ray spectra of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kink, I.; Porto, J.V.; Gillaspy, J.D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Laming, J.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Takacs, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Bandler, S.R.; Brickhouse, N.; Murray, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Barbera, M. [Osservatorio Astronomico G.S. Vaiana, Palermo (Italy); Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Spectra of highly charged Ar, Kr, Xe and Fe ions, produced in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT), have been recorded in a broad X-ray energy band (0.2 keV to 10 keV) with a microcalorimeter detector. The first analysis of the Kr spectra has been completed and most of the spectral lines have been identified as transitions of B- to Al-like Kr. Line intensity ratios of Fe XVII have been measured and compared with theoretical models. (orig.)

  16. The front end test stand high performance H- ion source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, D C; Lawrie, S; Letchford, A P; Gabor, C; Wise, P; Whitehead, M; Wood, T; Westall, M; Findlay, D; Perkins, M; Savage, P J; Lee, D A; Pozimski, J K

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the front end test stand (FETS) project is to demonstrate that chopped low energy beams of high quality can be produced. FETS consists of a 60 mA Penning Surface Plasma Ion Source, a three solenoid low energy beam transport, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, a chopper, and a comprehensive suite of diagnostics. This paper details the design and initial performance of the ion source and the laser profile measurement system. Beam current, profile, and emittance measurements are shown for different operating conditions.

  17. Precipitation of the Carbides $M_{23}C_{6}$ under the Irradiation by High Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Kochanski, T

    2000-01-01

    Carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation process in chromium-nickel steels 12H18N9ô and 00H17N14í2 irradiated with high energy heavy Ar^{+6} ions at 625^{o}ó has been studied. It was found that ion irradiation accelerates carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation in comparison to thermal annealing. It was shown that composition of carbides formed by irradiation in 00H17N14í2 steel formed under irradiation differs from composition of carbides precipitated during thermal ageing.

  18. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany) and Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de; Beyer, H.F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Brandau, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Kozhuharov, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kluge, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Schramm, U. [LMU, Munich (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and set-ups required to reach the physics goals is given.

  19. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Beyer, H.F.; Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (DE)] (and others)

    2006-11-15

    The key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and setups required to reach the physics goals is given. (orig.)

  20. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-12-12

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be