WorldWideScience

Sample records for high mass-resolution ion

  1. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  2. Ultra High-Mass Resolution Paper Spray by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Quinn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper Spray Ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization technique that utilizes an offline electro-osmotic flow to generate ions off a paper medium. This technique can be performed on a Bruker SolariX Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer by modifying the existing nanospray source. High-resolution paper spray spectra were obtained for both organic and biological samples to demonstrate the benefit of linking the technique with a high-resolution mass analyzer. Error values in the range 0.23 to 2.14 ppm were obtained for calf lung surfactant extract with broadband mass resolving power (m/Δm50% above 60,000 utilizing an external calibration standard.

  3. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  4. U-Pb geochronology of zircons form lunar Breccia 73217 using a sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    U-Pb age determinations on four lunar zircons from existing thin-sections of one highland breccia, 73217, using the recently constructed ion microprobe SHRIMP, are reported. The analytical reproducibility of SHRIMP is demonstrated, and procedures for measuring Pb/U, Th/U, and corecting for initial Pb are explained. Electron microprobe analyses for the zircons are also reported. The results show that the four zircons survived the lunar cataclysm without any identifiable effects on their U-Pb systematics. All four indicate a single age of 4356 +23 or -14 m.y. The zircons have experienced small variable amounts of Pb loss since crystallization, from almost zero up to about 10 percent. If this occurred during one later event, then age of the latter is between 1100 and 2300 m.y. 18 references

  5. Characterization of flux-grown Trace-element-doped titanite using the high-mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdab, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of titanite can be readily grown under ambient pressure from a mixture of CaO, TiO2 and SiO2 in the presence of molten sodium tetraborate. The crystals produced are euhedral and prismatic, lustrous and transparent, and up to 5 mm in length. Titanite obtained by this method contains approximately 4300 ppm Na and 220 ppm B contributed from the flux. In addition to dopant-free material, titanite containing trace alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Sr, Ba), transition metals (Sc, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta), rare-earth elements (REE), actinides (Th, U) and p-block elements (F, S, Cl, Ge, Sn and Pb) have been prepared using the same procedure. Back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging accompanied by ion-microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analysis confirms significant incorporation of selected trace-elements at structural sites. Regardless of some zonation, the large size of the crystals and broad regions of chemical homogeneity make these crystals useful as experimental starting material, and as matrix-matched trace-element standards for a variety of microbeam analytical techniques where amorphous titanite glass, heterogeneous natural titanite or a non-titanite standard may be less than satisfactory. Trace-element-doped synthetic crystals can also provide a convenient proxy for a better understanding of trace-element incorporation in natural titanite. Comparisons with igneous, authigenic and high-temperature metasomatic titanite are examined. The use of high-mass-resolution SIMS also demonstrates the analytical challenges inherent to any in situ mass-spectrometry-based analysis of titanite, owing to the production of difficult-to-resolve molecular interferences. These interferences are dominated by Ca-Ca, Ca-Ti and Ti-Ti dimers that are significant in the mass range of 80-100, affecting all isotopes of Sr and Zr, as well as 89Y and 93Nb. Methods do exist for the evaluation of interferences by these dimers and of polyatomic interferences on the LREE.

  6. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  7. Development and analytical characterization of a Grimm-type glow discharge ion source operated with high gas flow rates and coupled to a mass spectrometer with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Claus; Feldmann, Ingo; Gilmour, Dave; Hoffmann, Volker; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A Grimm-type glow discharge ion source has been developed and was coupled to a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with high mass resolution (Axiom, ThermoElemental, Winsford, UK) by exchanging the front plate of the ICP-MS interface system only. In addition to high discharge powers of up to 70 W, which are typical for a Grimm-type design, this source could be operated with relative high gas flow rates of up to 240 ml min -1 . In combination with a high discharge voltage the signal intensities are reaching a constant level within the first 20 s after the discharge has started. An analytical characterization of this source is given utilizing a calibration using the steel standard reference material NIST 1261A-1265A. The sensitivity for the investigated elements measured with a resolution of 4000 is in the range of 500-6000 cps μg -1 g -1 , and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the measured isotope relative to Fe of less than 8% for the major and minor components of the sample has been achieved. Limits of detection at ng g -1 levels could be obtained

  8. A fragmentation study of kaempferol using electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry at high mass resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Raymond E.; Miao, Xiu-Sheng

    2004-02-01

    A mass spectrometric method based on the combined use of electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation and tandem mass spectrometry at high mass resolution has been applied to an investigation of the structural characterization of protonated and deprotonated kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). Low-energy product ion mass spectra of [M+H]+ ions showed simple fragmentations of the C ring that permitted characterization of the substituents in the A and B rings. In addition, four rearrangement reactions accompanied by losses of C2H2O, CHO[radical sign], CO, and H2O were observed. Low-energy product ion mass spectra of [M-H]- ions showed only four rearrangement reactions accompanied by losses of OH[radical sign], CO, CH2O, and C2H2O. The use of elevated cone voltages permitted observation of product ion mass spectra of selected primary and secondary fragment ions so that each fragment ion reported was observed as a direct product of its immediate precursor ion. Product ion mass spectra examined at high mass resolution allowed unambiguous determination of the elemental composition of fragment ions and resolution of two pairs of isobars. Fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures have been proposed.

  9. An ultra-sensitive instrument for collision activated dissociation mass spectrometry with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louter, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the last decade Collision Activated Dissociation Mass Spectrometry (CAD-MS) has developed into an important and sometimes unique technique for the structure elucidation of ions. An extensive description of the double stage MS is given, which has been especially devloped for CAD-MS. A high mass resolution and a very high sensitivity are obtained by application of special techniques like post-acceleration of fragment ions, quadrupole (Q-pole) lenses and an electro-optical, simultaneous ion detection system. The operation of the rather complex ion-optics is demonstrated by application of a computer simulation of the tandem MS. Special attention is given to the action of the four Q-pole lenses and the second sector magnet upon curvature and position of the mass focal plane. Two mass calibration methods are described for the fragment spectra. The so-called polynomial-method applies a fifth-order polynomial approximation of the functional relation between position on the detector and corresponding relative momentum of fragment ions. The second method uses the matrix model of the instrument. The detector consists of two channelplates (CEMA), a fibre optics slab, coated with a phosphor layer, a camera objective and a 1024-channels photodiode-array. A bio-chemical and an organic-chemical application of the instrument are given. As bio-chemical application the peak m/z 59 in the pyrolysis mass spectrum of complete mycobacteria is identified. As an example of organic-chemical application the fragmentation process of 2,3-butadienoic acid has been investigated. (Auth.)

  10. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-09

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration.

  11. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  12. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  13. Analysis of high mass resolution PTR-TOF mass spectra from 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) environmental chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photo-oxidation experiments was performed in the 27-m3 Paul Scherrer Institute environmental chamber under various NOx conditions. A University of Innsbruck prototype high resolution Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF) was used for measurements of gas and particulate phase organics. The gas phase mass spectrum displayed ~200 ion signals during the TMB photo-oxidation experiments. Molecular formulas CmHnNoOp were determined and ion signals were separated and grouped according to their C, O and N numbers. This allowed to determine the time evolution of the O:C ratio and of the average carbon oxidation state solid #000; color: #000;">OSC of the reaction mixture. Both quantities were compared with master chemical mechanism (MCMv3.1) simulations. The O:C ratio in the particle phase was about twice the O:C ratio in the gas phase. Average carbon oxidation states of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples solid #000; color: #000;">OSCSOA were in the range of -0.34 to -0.31, in agreement with expected average carbon oxidation states of fresh SOA (solid #000; color: #000;">OSC = -0.5-0).

  14. Next-generation technologies for spatial proteomics: Integrating ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR imaging mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Rizzo, David G; Moore, Jessica L; Noto, Michael J; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool enabling the visualization of biomolecules in tissue. However, there are unique challenges associated with protein imaging experiments including the need for higher spatial resolution capabilities, improved image acquisition rates, and better molecular specificity. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR IMS platforms as they relate to these challenges. High spatial resolution MALDI-TOF protein images of rat brain tissue and cystic fibrosis lung tissue were acquired at image acquisition rates >25 pixels/s. Structures as small as 50 μm were spatially resolved and proteins associated with host immune response were observed in cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF enables unique applications including megapixel molecular imaging as demonstrated for lipid analysis of cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Additionally, imaging experiments using MALDI FTICR IMS were shown to produce data with high mass accuracy (z 5000) for proteins up to ∼20 kDa. Analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using MALDI FTICR IMS identified specific proteins localized to healthy tissue regions, within the tumor, and also in areas of increased vascularization around the tumor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High mass resolution, high angular acceptance time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for planetary missions under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This final report covers three years and several phases of work in which instrumentation for the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) were successfully developed. There were two main thrusts to this research: (1) to develop and test methods for electrostatically scanning detector field-of-views, and (2) to improve the mass resolution of plasma mass spectrometers to M/delta M approximately 25, their field-of-view (FOV) to 360 degrees, and their E-range to cover approximately 1 eV to 50 keV. Prototypes of two different approaches to electrostatic scanning were built and tested. The Isochronous time-of-flight (TOF) and the linear electric field 3D TOF devices were examined.

  16. Boundaries of mass resolution in native mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lössl, Philip; Snijder, Joost; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-06-01

    Over the last two decades, native mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study intact proteins and noncovalent protein complexes. Studied experimental systems range from small-molecule (drug)-protein interactions, to nanomachineries such as the proteasome and ribosome, to even virus assembly. In native MS, ions attain high m/z values, requiring special mass analyzers for their detection. Depending on the particular mass analyzer used, instrumental mass resolution does often decrease at higher m/z but can still be above a couple of thousand at m/z 5000. However, the mass resolving power obtained on charge states of protein complexes in this m/z region is experimentally found to remain well below the inherent instrument resolution of the mass analyzers employed. Here, we inquire into reasons for this discrepancy and ask how native MS would benefit from higher instrumental mass resolution. To answer this question, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of mass analyzers used to study intact biomolecules and biomolecular complexes in their native state, and we review which other factors determine mass resolving power in native MS analyses. Recent examples from the literature are given to illustrate the current status and limitations.

  17. Mass resolution for lepton pairs at Isabelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.; Paige, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments measuring e + e - and μ + μ-pairs will be the principal way of searching at ISABELLE for the Z 0 and for vector mesons made from new heavy quark-antiquark (Q anti Q ) pairs. Although the best possible mass resolution is clearly of benefit in such experiments, excessive resolution would lead to an unnecessarily large detector. It is believed that a mass resolution of a few percent is appropriate in searching both for the Z 0 and for new Q anti Q states. However, there are some interesting experiments which would require much better mass resolution, of order 1/4% FWHM. 9 references

  18. Ion optics of a high resolution multipassage mass spectrometer with electrostatic ion mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Baril, M [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et de Genie, Universite Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    Ion trajectories in an electrostatic ion mirror are calculated. The interferences of the extended fringing fields of the mirror with finite aperture are studied. The results of the calculations are represented by three transfer matrices, which describe ion trajectories under the effects of a fringing field at the entrances, of an idealized mirror region, and of a fringing field at the exit. The focusing effects and ion-optical properties of mass spectrometers with electrostatic ion mirrors can be evaluated by using these transfer matrices. A high performance multipassage mass spectrometer is designed. The system has one magnet and four electrostatic sector analyzers and two ion mirrors. The double focusing condition and stigmatic focusing condition are achieved in any passage of the system. The mass resolution increases linearly with the number of passages in a magnet. (orig.).

  19. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  20. High brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Hodgson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    A high brightness ion beam is obtainable by using lasers to excite atoms or molecules from the ground state to an ionized state in increments, rather than in one step. The spectroscopic resonances of the atom or molecule are used so that relatively long wavelength, low power lasers can be used to obtain such ion beam

  1. Using matrix peaks to map topography: Increased mass resolution and enhanced sensitivity in chemical imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonnell, Liam A.; Mize, Todd H.; Luxembourg, Stefan L.; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, Gert B.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; De Rooij, Nico F.; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) that sample topography leads to decreased mass resolution. Specifically, the ion's time of flight is dependent on where it was generated. Here, using matrix-enhanced SIMS, it is demonstrated that, in addition to increasing the yield of

  2. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  3. Highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Barnes, Alan V.; Magee, Ed; Newman, Mike; Schenkel, Thomas; McDonald, Joseph W.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2000-01-01

    An emission microscope using highly charged ions as the excitation source has been designed, constructed, and operated. A novel ''acorn'' objective lens has been used to simultaneously image electron and secondary ion emission. A resistive anode-position sensitive detector is used to determine the x-y position and time of arrival of the secondary events at the microscope image plane. Contrast in the image can be based on the intensity of the electron emission and/or the presence of particular secondary ions. Spatial resolution of better than 1 μm and mass resolution m/Δm of better than 400 were demonstrated. Background rejection from uncorrelated events of greater than an order of magnitude is also achieved. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced depth and mass resolution with HIRBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to heavier mass projectiles (HIRBS) has been limited, as these projectiles cause much more radiation damage in the detectors and curtail their lifetime. Despite this limitation interest in the use of heavier projectiles continues as there are several significant benefits which can accrue from their use. To properly understand the interaction of heavy ions with solids a systematic study of the energy loss and straggling of MeV heavy ions has been conducted and an empirical expression for these terms has been obtained. This expression has allowed the development of a realistic computer simulation which accurately predicts the energy spectra for a wide range of energies, projectiles and targets. In parallel with that study, measurements of the depth resolution of Si/Ge multilayer films using 4-6 MeV C projectiles have been used to verify the simulation. (orig.)

  6. High current density ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A high-current-density ion source with high total current is achieved by individually directing the beamlets from an electron bombardment ion source through screen and accelerator electrodes. The openings in these screen and accelerator electrodes are oriented and positioned to direct the individual beamlets substantially toward a focus point. 3 figures, 1 table

  7. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500 μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70 mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90 min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis

  8. ECRIS sources for highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1991-01-01

    The so-called Philips ionization gauge ion sources (PIGIS) were used until quite recently in heavy ion accelerators so multiply charged ions could only be obtained by incorporating a stripper to remove electrons. Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) now dominate as they produce more highly charged ions. (orig.)

  9. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  10. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  11. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in ∼0.5 A current beams with ∼20 micros pulse widths and ∼10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce ∼0.5 A, ∼60 keV Gd (A∼158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported

  12. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  13. High-intensity sources for light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H + and H - beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented

  14. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  15. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  16. Pulsed high current ion beam processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Perry, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pulsed high voltage ion source is considered for use in ion beam processing for the surface modification of materials, and deposition of conducting films on different substrates. The source consists of an Arkad'ev-Marx high voltage generator, a vacuum ion diode based on explosive ion emission, and a vacuum chamber as substrate holder. The ion diode allows conducting films to be deposited from metal or allow sources, with ion beam mixing, onto substrates held at a pre-selected temperature. The main variables can be set in the ranges: voltage 100-700 kV, pulse length 0.3 μs, beam current 1-200 A depending on the ion chosen. The applications of this technology are discussed in semiconductor, superconductor and metallizing applications as well as the direction of future development and cost of these devices for commercial application. 14 refs., 6 figs

  17. Simple, high current, antimony ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, H.

    1979-01-01

    A simple metal ion source capable of producing a continuous, uncontaminated, high current beam of Sb ions is presented. It produced a total ion current of 200 μA at 1 kV extraction voltage. A discharge occurred in the source at a pressure of 6 x 10 -4 Torr. The ion current extracted from the source increased with the 3/2 power of the extraction voltage. The perveance of the source and ion density in the plasma were 8 x 10 -9 and 1.8 x 10 11 cm -3 , respectively

  18. Detection of high mass cluster ions sputtered from Bi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, A; Hewitt, R W; Slusser, G J; Baitinger, W E; Cooks, R G; Winograd, N [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Delgass, W N [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. (USA); Varon, A; Devant, G [Societe RIBER, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1976-12-01

    The technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been employed to detect Bi/sup 3 +/ ions and associated oxides Bi/sub 3/Osub(x)sup(+)(x=1 to 4) from a Bi foil. Using a 3 keV Ar/sup +/ ion primary beam of 5x10/sup -7/ A/cm/sup 2/, mass resolution to nearly 700 with the requisite sensitivity has been achieved. The Bi surface was also monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA). The presence of a weak O 1s peak at 532.7 eV and a strong SIMS Bi/sup 3 +/ peak is interpreted to mean that the oxygen is weakly incorporated into the Bi lattice without disrupting metal-metal bonds.

  19. High accuracy ion optics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, R.J.; Evans, G.A.; Smith, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulation of focused ion beams for surface analysis of materials by SIMS, or for microfabrication by ion beam lithography plays an important role in the design of low energy ion beam transport and optical systems. Many computer packages currently available, are limited in their applications, being inaccurate or inappropriate for a number of practical purposes. This work describes an efficient and accurate computer programme which has been developed and tested for use on medium sized machines. The programme is written in Algol 68 and models the behaviour of a beam of charged particles through an electrostatic system. A variable grid finite difference method is used with a unique data structure, to calculate the electric potential in an axially symmetric region, for arbitrary shaped boundaries. Emphasis has been placed upon finding an economic method of solving the resulting set of sparse linear equations in the calculation of the electric field and several of these are described. Applications include individual ion lenses, extraction optics for ions in surface analytical instruments and the design of columns for ion beam lithography. Computational results have been compared with analytical calculations and with some data obtained from individual einzel lenses. (author)

  20. Surface ionization ion source with high current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Lin Zhizhou; Yu Lihua; Zhan Rongan; Huang Guojun; Wu Jianhua

    1986-04-01

    The working principle and structure of a surface ionization ion source with high current is described systematically. Some technological keypoints of the ion source are given in more detail, mainly including: choosing and shaping of the material of the surface ionizer, heating of the ionizer, distributing of working vapour on the ionizer surface, the flow control, the cooling problem at the non-ionization surface and the ion optics, etc. This ion source has been used since 1972 in the electromagnetic isotope separator with 180 deg angle. It is suitable for separating isotopes of alkali metals and rare earth metals. For instance, in the case of separating Rubidium, the maximum ion current of Rbsup(+) extracted from the ion source is about 120 mA, the maximum ion current accepted by the receiver is about 66 mA, the average ion current is more than 25 mA. The results show that our ion source have advantages of high ion current, good characteristics of focusing ion beam, working stability and structure reliability etc. It may be extended to other fields. Finally, some interesting phenomena in the experiment are disccused briefly. Some problems which should be investigated are further pointed out

  1. Development of a high current ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Wan; Jin, Jeong Tae

    1990-01-01

    A high current ion implanter of the energy of 100 Kev and the current of about 100 mA has been developed for using the high dose ion implantation, surface modification of steels and ceramics, and ion beam milling. The characteristics of the beam extraction and transportation are investigated. A duoPIGatron ion source compatible with gas ion extraction of about 100 mA, a single gap acceleration tube which is able to compensate the divergence due to the space charge effect, and a beam transport system with the concept of the space charge neutralization are developed for the high current machine. The performance of the constructed machine shows that nitrogen, argon, helium, hydrogen and oxygen ion beams are successfully extracted and transported at a beam divergence due to space charge effect is negligible in the operation pressure of 2 x 10 -5 torr. (author)

  2. Versatile high current metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ion implantation facility has been developed with which high current beams of practically all the solid metals of the periodic table can be produced. A multicathode, broad-beam, metal vapor vacuum arc ion source is used to produce repetitively pulsed metal ion beams at an extraction voltage of up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred kiloelectronvolts because of the ion charge state multiplicity, and with a beam current of up to several amps peak pulsed and several tens of milliamps time averaged delivered onto a downstream target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line of sight from ion source to target. Here we summarize some of the features of the ion source and the implantation facility that has been built up around it. (orig)

  3. High-energy ion implantation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    High-energy ion implantation is an extremely flexible type of surface treatment technique, in that it offers the possibility of treating almost any type of target material or product with ions of almost any chemical species, or combinations of chemical species. In addition, ion implantations can be combined with variations in temperature during or after ion implantation. As a result, the possibility of approaching a wide variety of surface-related materials science problems exists with ion implantation. This paper will outline factors pertinent to application of high-energy ion implantation to surface engineering problems. This factors include fundamental advantages and limitations, economic considerations, present and future equipment, and aspects of materials science

  4. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  5. Fourier Transfrom Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-03-01

    At high magnetic field (9.4 tesla at NHMFL), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry performance improves dramatically: mass resolving power, axialization efficiency, and scan speed (each proportional to B), maximum ion mass, dynamic range, ion trapping period, kinetic energy, and electron self-cooling rate for sympathetic cooling (each proportional to B^2), and ion coalescence tendency (proportional 1/B^2). These advantages may apply singly (e.g., unit mass resolution for proteins of >100,000 Da), or compound (e.g., 10-fold improvement in S/N ratio for 9.4 T vs. 6 T at the same resolving power). Examples range from direct determination of molecular formulas of diesel fuel components by accurate mass measurement (=B10.1 ppm) to protein structure and dynamics probed by H/D exchange. This work was supported by N.S.F. (CHE-93-22824; CHE-94-13008), N.I.H. (GM-31683), Florida State University, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL.

  6. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  7. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  8. A high current high frequency ions gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Prevot, F.; Vienet, R.

    1959-01-01

    A 10 mA protons gun has been developed for different purposes. The first part of the report studies the plasma production with a RF electromagnetic field. Then the ion extraction process is analysed with particular reference to space charge phenomena. The last part describes a three electrode electrostatic lens which focusses the beam. (author) [fr

  9. Highly charged ion trapping and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, B. R.; Church, D. A.; Gruber, L.; Holder, J. P.; Schneider, D.; Steiger, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP) has been operational at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The combination of RETRAP and EBIT provides a unique possibility of producing and re-trapping highly charged ions and cooling them to very low temperatures. Due to the high Coulomb potentials in such an ensemble of cold highly charged ions the Coulomb coupling parameter (the ratio of Coulomb potential to the thermal energy) can easily reach values of 172 and more. To study such systems is not only of interest in astrophysics to simulate White Dwarf star interiors but opens up new possibilities in a variety of areas (e.g. laser spectroscopy), cold highly charged ion beams

  10. Precision laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T.; Borneis, S.; Becker, S.; Dax, A.; Engel, T.; Grieser, R.; Huber, G.; Klaft, I.; Klepper, O.; Kohl, A.; Marx, D.; Meier, K.; Neumann, R.; Schmitt, F.; Seelig, P.; Voelker, L.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, intense beams of highly charged ions have become available at heavy ion cooler rings. The obstacle for producing these highly interesting candidates is the large binding energy of K-shell electrons in heavy systems in excess of 100 keV. One way to remove these electrons is to strip them off by passing the ion through material. In the cooler ring, the ions are cooled to a well defined velocity. At the SIS/ESR complex it is possible to produce, store, and cool highly charged ions up to bare uranium with intensities exceeding 10 8 atoms in the ring. This opens the door for precision laser spectroscopy of hydrogenlike-heavy ions, e.g. 209 Bi 82+ , and allows to examine the interaction of the single electron with the large fields of the heavy nucleus, exceeding any artificially produced electric and magnetic fields by orders of magnitude. In the electron cooler the interaction of electrons and highly charged ions otherwise only present in the hottest plasmas can be studied. (orig.)

  11. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  12. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MW Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system. (orig.)

  13. Mechanisms for production of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Various experimental data at high collision velocity are interpreted in terms of direct (D) and rearrangement (R) mechanisms for production of multiply charged ions. We consider double ionization in helium by protons, electrons, heavy ions, antiprotons, positrons and photons. Qualitative differences are discussed in the context of the R and D mechanisms. Multiple ionization in many electron atoms is considered as is simultaneous capture and ionization and fragmentation of methane molecules. Some other theoretical methods are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Weber, M. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1995-11-01

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H{sup -}-sources each delivering a 70 mA H{sup -}-beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs.

  15. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Weber, M.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H - -sources each delivering a 70 mA H - -beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs

  16. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseroth, Helmut; Hora, Heinrich; Regensburg Inst. of Tech.

    1996-01-01

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10 11 C 4+ ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ''hot'' electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author)

  17. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  18. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystronlike interaction with the accelerating cavities, leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, we describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  19. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystron-like interaction with the accelerating cavities leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, the author describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  20. High-energy ion tail formation due to ion acoustic turbulence in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1982-02-01

    The two-component ion energy spectra observed in the TRIAM-1 tokamak are explained as a result of the high-energy ion tail formation due to ion acoustic turbulence driven by a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating.

  1. Fundamental processes determining the highly charged ion production in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ion confinement and loss conditions in the open magnetic traps have been analyzed in this article. In EGRIS the the ions are confined in the negative potential well. The simultaneous application of ion cooling and pulse regime is proposed for pulse injection of highly charged ions in heavy ion accelerators and storage rings. 14 refs.; 3 figs

  2. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  3. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations

  4. Experiments on very high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper I describe experimental techniques which could be used to investigate central collision of very high energy heavy ions. For my purposes, the energy range is defined by the number of pions produced, Nsub(π) >> 100, and consequently Nsub(π) >> Nsub(nucleon). In this regime we may expect that new phenomena will appear. (orig.)

  5. Heavy ion fragmentation in high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the theoretical aspects of heavy ion collisions at high energies. A comparison with several experimental data obtained in a large variety of experiments is present. An emphasis is given on the basis of Glauber's theory of scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Prospects for high energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.

    1979-03-01

    The acceleration of heavy ions to relativistic energies (T greater than or equal to 1 GeV/amu) at the beam intensities required for fundamental research falls clearly in the domain of synchrotons. Up to date, such beams have been obtained from machines originally designed as proton acccelerators by means of modified RF-programs, improved vacuum and, most importantly, altered or entirely new injector systems. Similarly, for the future, substantial changes in synchrotron design itself are not foreseen, but rather the judicious application and development of presently known principles and technologies and a choice of parameters optimized with respect to the peculiarities of heavy ions. The low charge to mass ratio, q/A, of very heavy ions demands that superconducting magnets be considered in the interest of the highest energies for a given machine size. Injector brightness will continue to be of highest importance, and although space charge effects such as tune shifts will be increased by a factor q 2 /A compared with protons, advances in linac current and brightness, rather than substantially higher energies are required to best utilize a given synchrotron acceptance. However, high yeilds of fully stripped, very heavy ions demand energies of a few hundred MeV/amu, thus indicating the need for a booster synchrotron, although for entirely different reasons than in proton facilities. Finally, should we consider colliding beams, the high charge of heavy ions will impose severe current limitations and put high demands on system design with regard to such quantities as e.g., wall impedances or the ion induced gas desorption rate, and advanced concepts such as low β insertions with suppressed dispersion and very small crossing angles will be essential to the achievement of useful luminosities

  7. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhoff, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 10 13 /cm 2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  8. Utility of Higher Harmonics in Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Electrostatic Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekonski, Eric T; Johnson, Joshua T; McLuckey, Scott A

    2017-04-18

    Mass resolution (M/ΔM fwhm) is observed to linearly increase with harmonic order in a Fourier transform electrostatic linear ion trap (ELIT) mass spectrometer. This behavior was predicted by Grosshans and Marshall for frequency-multiple detection in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer only for situations when the prominent mechanism for signal decay is ion ejection from the trap. As the analyzer pressure in our ELIT chamber is relatively high, such that collisional scattering and collision-induced dissociation are expected to underlie much of the ion loss, we sought to explore the relationship between harmonic order and mass resolution. Mass resolutions of 36 900 (fundamental), 75 850 (2nd harmonic), and 108 200 (3rd harmonic) were obtained for GdO + (avg. m/z 173.919) with a transient length of 300 ms. To demonstrate that the mass resolution was truly increasing with harmonic order, the unresolved isotopes at the fundamental distribution of cytochrome c +8 (m/z ∼ 1549) were nearly baseline, resolved at the third harmonic (mass resolution ≈ 23 000) with a transient length of only 200 ms. This experiment demonstrates that, when the ion density is sufficiently low, ions with frequency differences of less than 4 Hz remain uncoalesced. Higher harmonics can be used to increase the effective mass resolution for a fixed transient length and thereby may enable the resolution of closely spaced masses, determination of a protein ion's charge state, and study of the onset of peak coalescence when the resolution at the fundamental frequency is insufficient.

  9. Probing the vacuum with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of the Fermion vacuum is briefly described, and applied to pair production in heavy ion collisions. We consider in turn low energies (<50 MeV/nucleon), intermediate energies (<5 GeV/nucleon), and ultrahigh energies such as would be produced in a ring collider. At high energies, interesting questions of Lorentz and gauge invariance arise. Finally, some applications to the structure of high Z atoms are examined. 14 refs., 11 figs

  10. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  11. New experimental initiatives using very highly charged ions from an 'electron beam ion trap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    A short review of the experimental program in highly-charged heavy ion physics conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility is presented. The heavy-ion research, involving ions up to fully stripped U 92+ , includes precision x-ray spectroscopy and lifetime studies, electron impact ionization and excitation cross section measurements. The investigations of ion-surface interactions following the impact of high-Z highly charged ions on surfaces are aimed to study the neutralization dynamics effecting the ion and the response of the surface as well. (author)

  12. A 2 MV heavy ion Van de Graaff implanter for research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemment, P.L.F.; Sealy, B.J.; Stephens, K.G.; Mynard, J.E.; Jeynes, C.; Browton, M.D.; Wilson, R.J.; Ma, M.X.; Cansell, A.; Mous, D.J.W.; Koudijs, R.

    1993-01-01

    A high energy heavy ion implantation system is described which is based upon a 2 MV High Voltage Engineering Europa Van de Graaff accelerator, which incorporates an ion source rapid exchange mechanism. The design and performance are described with particular reference to the system mass resolution, beam transport and performance of a sputter ion source. The system is used to provide a wide ranging implantation service and also supports material science studies, some of which are described briefly. (orig.)

  13. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  14. Ion filter for high temperature cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Yasuhiro; Nakamori, Masaharu.

    1994-01-01

    A porous ceramic pipe mainly comprising alumina is used as a base pipe, and then crud and radioactive ion adsorbing materials in high temperature and high pressure water mainly comprising a FeTiO 3 compound are flame-coated on the outer surface thereof to a film thickness of about 100 to 300μ m as an aimed value by an acetylene flame-coating method. The flame-coated FeTiO 3 layer is also porous, so that high temperature and high pressure water to be cleaned can pass through from the inside to the outside of the pipe. Cruds can be removed and radioactive ions can be adsorbed during passage. Since all the operations can be conducted at high temperature and high pressure state, cooling is no more necessary for the high temperature and high pressure water to be cleaned, heat efficiency of the plant can be improved and a cooling facility can be saved. Further, since the flame-coating of FeTiO 3 to the porous ceramic pipe can be conducted extremely easily compared with production of a sintering product, cost for the production of filter elements can be saved remarkably. (T.M.)

  15. High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Gary; Wirth, Brian; Motta, Athur; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Hosemann, Peter; Odette, Robert

    2018-04-30

    Project Objective: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the capability to predict the evolution of microstructure and properties of structural materials in-reactor and at high doses, using ion irradiation as a surrogate for reactor irradiations. “Properties” includes both physical properties (irradiated microstructure) and the mechanical properties of the material. Demonstration of the capability to predict properties has two components. One is ion irradiation of a set of alloys to yield an irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior that are substantially the same as results from neutron exposure in the appropriate reactor environment. Second is the capability to predict the irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior on the basis of improved models, validated against both ion and reactor irradiations and verified against ion irradiations. Taken together, achievement of these objectives will yield an enhanced capability for simulating the behavior of materials in reactor irradiations

  16. Ion sources development at GANIL for radioactive beams and high charge state ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.; Maunoury, L.

    2001-01-01

    The GANIL laboratory has in charge the production of ion beams for nuclear and non nuclear physics. This article reviews the last developments that are underway in the fields of radioactive ion beam production, increase of the metallic ion intensities and production of highly charges ion beams. (authors)

  17. Review of high energy heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that in high energy heavy ion collisions a physical conditions similar to the early stage of the Universe can be established in the laboratory. New phase of matter expected to be created is called the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Based on the motivation to create the QGP in the laboratory, heavy ion beams have been accelerated at AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory and also at CERN-SPS. Several interesting features of the data have been reported, among which are: the suppression of J/ψ production in Pb+Pb collisions, the enhancement of low mass lepton pairs, and the collective behavior of hadron production. These features are reviewed under the key words of Deconfinement, Chiral Restoration and Collectivity in the lecture. (author)

  18. High energy ion microbeams and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhru, H.; Nickles, E.; Haberl, A.; Morris, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years there has been rapid growth for the development of equipment for forming a focussed beam (0.5 - 2μm) with high energy ions. The State University of New York at Albany ion scanning microprobe has been used for several applications especially in the fields of materials and biological studies. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis have been performed on microelectronic circuits with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 μm. Studies on films of superconductors (YBa CuO) will be presented. Applications of microbeams for the biological studies and analytical techniques will be presented. Current and future role of microbeams and their limitations will be discussed. (author)

  19. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  20. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and, complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low- and high-spin studies in the same nucleus). (author). 47 refs., 8 figs.

  1. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based NBI in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar- and/or Ne-gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in the LHD plasmas heated with the high-energy negative-ion-based NBI. Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is much enhanced effectively in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionisation) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive Ne- and/or Ar-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with the wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density, and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with an addition of the centrally focused ECRH to the low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with the high-energy NBI heating indicate that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to the ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature would be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planed in near future in LHD. (author)

  2. Improvement of highly charged ion output from an ECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source is analyzed in this report. General methods to increase the output ion current and the attainable charged states of heavy ions are discussed. Some new ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the mathematical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used for numerical experiments to test these ways for improving the operation of the ECR source. (orig.)

  3. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S P; Jamieson, D N; Nugent, K W; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT [Electron Beam Ion Trap]: An experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Improvement of highly charged ion production in the ECR source of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source are analyzed in this report. A few possible ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the numerical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used to examine these ways to improve the ECR source operation according to the CERN program of heavy ion acceleration. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. High-current pulsed ion source for metallic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Abbott, S.; MacGill, R.; Sorensen, R.; Staples, J.; Thatcher, R.

    1981-03-01

    A new sputter-ion PIG source and magnet system, optimized for intermediate charge states, q/A of 0.02 to 0.03, is described. This source will be used with the new Wideroe-based injector for the SuperHILAC. Pulsed electrical currents of several emA of heavy metal ions have been produced in a normalized emittance area of .05π cm-mr. The source system is comprised of two electrically separate anode chambers, one in operation and one spare, which can be selected by remote control. The entire source head is small and quickly removable

  8. High-Power Ion Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance data are presented for the NASA/Hughes 30-cm-diam 'common' thruster operated over the power range from 600 W to 4.6 kW. At the 4.6-kW power level, the thruster produces 172 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of just under 4000 s. Xenon pressure and temperature measurements are presented for a 6.4-mm-diam hollow cathode operated at emission currents ranging from 5 to 30 A and flow rates of 4 sccm and 8 sccm. Highly reproducible results show that the cathode temperature is a linear function of emission current, ranging from approx. 1000 C to 1150 C over this same current range. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements obtained from a 30-cm-diam thruster are presented, suggesting that LIF could be a valuable diagnostic for real-time assessment of accelerator-arid erosion. Calibration results of laminar-thin-film (LTF) erosion badges with bulk molybdenum are presented for 300-eV xenon, krypton, and argon sputtering ions. Facility-pressure effects on the charge-exchange ion current collected by 8-cm-diam and 30-cm-diam thrusters operated on xenon propellant are presented to show that accel current is nearly independent of facility pressure at low pressures, but increases rapidly under high-background-pressure conditions.

  9. Measurement of few-electron uranium ions on a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    The high-energy electron beam ion trap, dubbed Super-EBIT, was used to produce, trap, and excite uranium ions as highly charged as fully stripped U 92+ . The production of such highly charged ions was indicated by the x-ray emission observed with high-purity Ge detectors. Moreover, high-resolution Bragg crystal spectromters were used to analyze the x-ray emission, including a detailed measurement of both the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole transitions. Unlike in ion accelerators, where the uranium ions move at relativistic speeds, the ions in this trap are stationary. Thus very precise measurements of the transition energies could be made, and the QED contribution to the transition energies could be measured within less than 1 %. Details of the production of these highly charged ions and their measurement is given

  10. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  11. Highly Supersonic Ion Pulses in a Collisionless Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Schrittwieser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The initial transient response of a collisionless plasma to a high positive voltage step is investigated. Four different pulses are observed. An electron plasma wave pulse is followed by an ion burst. The latter is overtaken and absorbed by a highly supersonic ion pulse. Thereafter, an ion...

  12. A high-energy electron beam ion trap for production of high-charge high-Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.; Elliott, S.R.; Magee, E.W.; Zasadzinski, R.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new high-energy electron beam ion trap, the first laboratory source of low-energy, few-electron, high-Z ions. We describe the device and report measurements of its performance, including the electron beam diameter, current density and energy, and measurements of the ionization balance for several high-Z elements in the trap. This device opens up a wide range of possible experiments in atomic physics, plasma physics, and nuclear physics. (orig.)

  13. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  14. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  15. DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM IONS IN WATERS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF SODIUM IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the result of determination the strontium ions concentration has been registered at low levels of strontium. The influence of nitric acid on the results is also discussed. In the case of using atomic absorption spectroscopy method no influence of sodium ions and nitric acid on the results of determination the strontium ions concentration was revealed. The metrological characteristics of both methods are evaluated.

  16. High resolution studies of the origins of polyatomic ions in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, Part I. Identification methods and effects of neutral gas density assumptions, extraction voltage, and cone material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski; Houk, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Common polyatomic ions (ArO + , NO + , H 2 O + , H 3 O + , Ar 2 + , ArN + , OH + , ArH + , O 2 + ) in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are identified using high mass resolution and studied using kinetic gas temperatures (T gas ) determined from a dissociation reaction approach. Methods for making accurate mass measurements, confirming ion identifications, and correcting for mass bias are discussed. The effects of sampler and skimmer cone composition and extraction voltage on polyatomic ion formation are also explored. Neutral species densities at several locations in the extraction interface are estimated and the corresponding effects of the T gas value are calculated. The results provide information about the origins of background ions and indicate possible locations for their formation or removal

  17. Ion source techniques for high-speed processing of material surface by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    1990-01-01

    The present paper discusses some key or candidate techniques for future ion source development and such ion sources developed by the author. Several types of microwave ion sources for producing low charge state ions have been developed in Japan. When a microwave plasma cathode developed by the author is adapted to a Kaufman type ion source, the electron emission currents are found to be 2.5 A for argon gas and 0.5-0.9 A for oxygen gas. An alternative ionization method for metal atoms is strongly required for high-speed processing of material surface by metal-ion beams. Detailed discussion is made of collisional ionization of vaporized atoms, and negative-ion production (secondary negative-ion emission by sputtering). An impregnated electrode type liquid-metal ion source developed by the author, which has a porous tip structure, is described. The negative-ion production efficiency is quite high. The report also presents a neutral and ionized alkaline-metal bombardment type heavy negative-ion source, which consists of a cesium plasma ion source, suppressor, target electrode, negative-ion extraction electrode, and einzel lens. (N.K.)

  18. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  19. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    published in the internationally leading journal Physical Review Letters. We continued to progress this pionee 15.  SUBJECT TERMS ion therapy, heavy ion ...Thomson parabola spectrometer: To separate and provide a measurement of the charge -to-mass ratio and energy spectrum of the different ion species...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE

  20. Quantum electrodynamical effects in heavy highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerokhin, V.A.; Artemyev, A.N.; Indelicato, P.; Shabaev, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present status of theoretical calculations of QED effects in highly charged ions is reviewed for several important cases: the Lamb shift in heavy H-like ions, the 2p 1/2 -2s transition energy in heavy Li-like ions, and the bound-electron g factor in H-like ions. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results. Special attention is paid to the discussion of uncertainties of theoretical predictions

  1. Super TOF secondary ion mass spectroscopy using very highly charged primary ions up to Th70+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, M.A.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, D.

    1995-01-01

    The LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) has made low emittance beams of slow highly charged ions available for ion-solid interaction studies. Such interactions feature the dominance of electronic over collisional effects, and the shock waves generated by the ionized target atoms can desorb large numbers of large molecular species from the surface. This paper presents the first systematic study of the sputtering process due to the incidence of slow very highly charged ions; Th 70+ ions are extracted from EBIT at 7 keV * q and directed onto thin SiO 2 films on Si. Results suggest secondary ion yields of up to 25 per incident ion for Th 70+ (secondary ion yield is increased over that for singly or moderately charged ions). Correlations of the negative, positive, and negative cluster ion yields show promise for application of highly charged ion induced sputtering for enhanced sensitivity and quantitative (absolute) SIMS analysis of deep submicron scale surface layers and polymeric and biomolecular material analysis

  2. Heavy ion reactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Bo.

    1977-01-01

    A review on heavy ion experiments at energies >0.1GeV/nucleon is presented. Reaction cross-sections, isotope production cross-sections and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Some recent models for heavy ion reactions like the abrasion-ablation model, the fireball model and the different shock-wave models are also presented

  3. 7th high energy heavy ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Stock, R.

    1985-03-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. They deal with relativistic heavy ion reactions, the expansion and freeze-out of nuclear matter, anomalon experiments, and multifragmentation and particle correlations in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  4. High Precision Beam Diagnostics for Ion Thrusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reijen, B.; Koch, N.; Lazurenko, A.; Weis, S.; Schirra, M.; Genovese, A.; Haderspeck, J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Thales diagnostic equipment for ion beam characterization consists of a gridded and single orifice retarding potential analyzer (RPA) and an energy selective mass spectrometer (ESMS). During the development phase of these sensors considerable effort was put into the removal of ion optical

  5. Performance Limitations in High-Energy Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with species other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. However, the experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, lattice configuration, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, attention must be paid to space charge, charge exchange, and intra-beam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for heavy ions. Ultimately cooling at full energy is needed to overcome this effect. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. The Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  6. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  7. Atomic physics of highly charged ions in an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.

    1990-07-01

    Two electron beam ion traps are in use at LLNL for the purpose of studying the properties of very highly charged ions and their interactions with electrons. This paper reviews the operation of the traps and discusses recent experiments in three areas: precision transition energy measurements in the limit of very high ion charge, dielectronic recombination measurements for the He-like isoelectronic sequence, and measurements of x-ray polarization. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  8. High-temperature superconductors induced by ion implantation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, A.C.; Johnson, E.

    1988-08-01

    High dose oxygen ion implantation (10 to the 17th power ions per sq. cm.) at elevated temperatures (300 C) has been shown to adjust the critical temperature of gamma-Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O materials. These results are in marked contrast to earlier work which showed complete destruction of superconducting properties for similar radiation doses, and marked reduction in superconducting properties at one-tenth this dose in the 1-2-3- compound only. Experiments also showed that the superconducting materials can be patterned into conducting and nonconducting areas without etching by ion implantation, allowing maintenance of planar geometries required for microcircuit fabrication. Experiments on deposition of thin films of high temperature superconductors for use with the ion implantation experiments showed that ion beam sputtering from a single target could achieve the correct stoichiometry. Variations of composition with ion beam energy and angle of sputtered ions were studied

  9. High-voltage scanning ion microscope: Beam optics and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magilin, D., E-mail: dmitrymagilin@gmail.com; Ponomarev, A.; Rebrov, V.; Ponomarov, A.

    2015-05-01

    This article is devoted to the conceptual design of a compact high-voltage scanning ion microscope (HVSIM). In an HVSIM design, the ion optical system is based on a high-brightness ion source. Specifically, the ion optical system is divided into two components: an ion injector and a probe-forming system (PFS) that consists of an accelerating tube and a multiplet of quadrupole lenses. The crossover is formed and controlled by the injector, which acts as an object collimator, and is focused on the image plane by the PFS. The ion microprobe has a size of 0.1 μm and an energy of 2 MeV. When the influence of the chromatic and third-order aberrations is theoretically taken into account, the HVSIM forms an ion microprobe.

  10. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  11. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels....... A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct...... characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion...

  12. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  13. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 μsec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  15. Thermal spike analysis of highly charged ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation of material using swift heavy ion or highly charged ion causes excitation of the electron subsystem at nanometer scale along the ion trajectory. According to the thermal spike model, energy deposited into the electron subsystem leads to temperature increase due to electron–phonon coupling. If ion-induced excitation is sufficiently intensive, then melting of the material can occur, and permanent damage (i.e., ion track) can be formed upon rapid cooling. We present an extension of the analytical thermal spike model of Szenes for the analysis of surface ion track produced after the impact of highly charged ion. By applying the model to existing experimental data, more than 60% of the potential energy of the highly charged ion was shown to be retained in the material during the impact and transformed into the energy of the thermal spike. This value is much higher than 20–40% of the transferred energy into the thermal spike by swift heavy ion. Thresholds for formation of highly charged ion track in different materials show uniform behavior depending only on few material parameters.

  16. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J.; Djekic, S.; Haeffner, H.; Hermanspahn, N.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Moore, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G.; Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J.; Weber, C.; Werth, G.

    2001-01-01

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy

  17. Space-charge compensation of highly charged ion beam from laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashev, S.A.; Collier, J.; Sherwood, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of matching an ion beam delivered by a high-intensity ion source with an accelerator is considered. The experimental results of highly charged ion beam transport with space-charge compensation by electrons are presented. A tungsten thermionic cathode is used as a source of electrons for beam compensation. An increase of ion beam current density by a factor of 25 is obtained as a result of space-charge compensation at a distance of 3 m from the extraction system. The process of ion beam space-charge compensation, requirements for a source of electrons, and the influence of recombination losses in a space-charge-compensated ion beam are discussed. (author)

  18. Behaviour of tetraalkylammonium ions in high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Kapron, James T

    2010-05-30

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an ion-filtering technique recently adapted for use with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to remove interferences during analysis of complex matrices. This is the first systematic study of a series of singly charged tetraalkylammonium ions by FAIMS-MS. The compensation voltage (CV) is the DC offset of the waveform which permits the ion to emerge from FAIMS and it was determined for each member of the series under various conditions. The electrospray ionization conditions explored included spray voltage, vaporizer temperature, and sheath and auxiliary gas pressure. The FAIMS conditions explored included carrier gas flow rate, electrode temperature and composition of the carrier gas. Optimum desolvation was achieved using sufficient carrier gas (flow rate > or = 2 L/min) to ensure stable response. Low-mass ions (m/z 100-200) are more susceptible to changes in electrode temperature and gas composition than high mass ions (m/z 200-700). As a result of this study, ions are reliably analyzed using standard FAIMS conditions (dispersion voltage -5000 V, carrier gas flow rate 3 L/min, 50% helium/50%nitrogen, inner electrode temperature 70 degrees C and outer electrode temperature 90 degrees C). Variation of FAIMS conditions may be of great use for the separation of very low mass tetraalkylammonium (TAA) ions from other TAA ions. The FAIMS conditions do not appear to have a major effect on higher mass ions. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of biological samples with delayed extraction for high mass and high spatial resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbellingen, Quentin P.; Elie, Nicolas; Eller, Michael J.; Della‐Negra, Serge; Touboul, David

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In Time‐of‐Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF‐SIMS), pulsed and focused primary ion beams enable mass spectrometry imaging, a method which is particularly useful to map various small molecules such as lipids at the surface of biological samples. When using TOF‐SIMS instruments, the focusing modes of the primary ion beam delivered by liquid metal ion guns can provide either a mass resolution of several thousand or a sub‐µm lateral resolution, but the combination of both is generally not possible. Methods With a TOF‐SIMS setup, a delayed extraction applied to secondary ions has been studied extensively on rat cerebellum sections in order to compensate for the effect of long primary ion bunches. Results The use of a delayed extraction has been proven to be an efficient solution leading to unique features, i.e. a mass resolution up to 10000 at m/z 385.4 combined with a lateral resolution of about 400 nm. Simulations of ion trajectories confirm the experimental determination of optimal delayed extraction and allow understanding of the behavior of ions as a function of their mass‐to‐charge ratio. Conclusions Although the use of a delayed extraction has been well known for many years and is very popular in MALDI, it is much less used in TOF‐SIMS. Its full characterization now enables secondary ion images to be recorded in a single run with a submicron spatial resolution and with a mass resolution of several thousand. This improvement is very useful when analyzing lipids on tissue sections, or rare, precious, or very small size samples. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26395603

  20. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  1. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  2. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Chen Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G.; Sullivan, Scott T.; Hudson, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates.

  3. Generation of intense, high-energy ion pulses by magnetic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A system based on the magnetic compression of ion rings, for generating intense (High-current), high-energy ion pulses that are guided to a target without a metallic wall or an applied external magnetic field includes a vacuum chamber; an inverse reflex tetrode for producing a hollow ion beam within the chamber; magnetic coils for producing a magnetic field, bo, along the axis of the chamber; a disc that sharpens a magnetic cusp for providing a rotational velocity to the beam and causing the beam to rotate; first and second gate coils for producing fast-rising magnetic field gates, the gates being spaced apart, each gate modifying a corresponding magnetic mirror peak (Near and far peaks) for trapping or extracting the ions from the magnetic mirror, the ions forming a ring or layer having rotational energy; a metal liner for generating by magnetic flux compression a high, time-varying magnetic field, the time-varying magnetic field progressively increasing the kinetic energy of the ions, the magnetic field from the second gate coil decreasing the far mirror peak at the end of the compression for extracting the trapped rotating ions from the confining mirror; and a disc that sharpens a magnetic half-cusp for increasing the translational velocity of the ion beam. The system utilizes the self-magnetic field of the rotating, propagating ion beam to prevent the beam from expanding radially upon extraction

  4. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters

  5. The emittance of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.R.; Devaney, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ion implantation is the main application for high current heavy ion beams. Transfer ratio is defined as the ratio of the total ion current leaving the ion source to the current delivered to the endstation. This ratio is monitored and logged and its importance is explained. It is also affected by other factors, such as the isotopic and molecular composition of the total ion beam. The transfer ratio reveals the fraction of ions which are intercepted by parts of the beamline system. The effects of these ions are discussed in two categories: processing purity and reliability. In discussing the emittance of ribbon beams, the two orthogonal planes are usually considered separately. Longitudinal emittance is determined by slot length and by plasma ion temperature. It has already been revealed that the longitudinal divergence of the beams from BF3 is perhaps double that of the beam from arsenic vapour or argon, at the same total perveance from the ion source. This poses the question: why is the ion temperature higher for BF3 than for As or Ar? The transverse emittance is in practical terms dominated by the divergence. It is the most fruitful area for improvement in most real-world systems. There is an intrinsic divergence arising from initial ion energies within the plasma, and there is emittance growth that can occur as a result of aberration in the beam extraction optics. (N.K.)

  6. A high current metal vapour vacuum arc ion source for ion implantation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C.; Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main features of the metal vapour vacuum arc(MEVA) as an ion source are presented. The technology utilizes the plasma production capabilities of a vacuum arc cathode. Some of the ions produced in this discharge flow through the anode and the 3 extraction grids to form an extracted ion beam. The high beam current and the potential for generating broad beams, make this technology suitable for implantation of large surface areas. The composition of the vacuum arc cathode determines the particular ions obtained from the MEVA source. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Recent US advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev, E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2007-01-01

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport, and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by >50X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. We are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy

  8. Application of Titanium Compounds to Reduce Fluoride Ion in Water Resources with High Fluoride Ion Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes studies on the sorption of fluoride ions from water by titanium compounds used in water treatment to reduce fluoride content in water resources. There are different methods of reducing fluoride ion in water, each associated with specific problems such as secondary contamination, environmental contamination, high costs, or the need for primary and secondary treatment. In this study, application of titanium sulfate and Metatitanic acid produced from titanium ore concentrate (ileminite is investigated in the removal of fluoride ion and the possibility of complete purification of fluorine containing wastewater is examined to determine the optimal conditions. Metatitanic acid has a great sorption property for fluoride ion. Also titanium sulfate is a suitable and more effective material for this purpose. Efficiency of this material in reducing fluoride ion content is 99.9% and it is possible to refresh sorbet material for reuse without problems arising from Ti+4 ion contamination.

  9. A high-flux low-energy hydrogen ion beam using an end-Hall ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, J. van; Sligte, E. te; Janssen, J.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Most ion sources that produce high-flux hydrogen ion beams perform best in the high energy range (keV). Alternatively, some plasma sources produce very-lowenergy ions (<< 10 eV). However, in an intermediate energy range of 10-200 eV, no hydrogen ion sources were found that produce high-flux beams.

  10. Spectroscopy of highly charged tungsten ions with Electron Beam Ion Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru; Murakami, Izumi; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Ohashi, Hayato; Yatsurugi, Junji; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra is investigated of electron energies from 490 to 1440 eV. Previously unreported lines are presented in the EUV range, and some of them are identified by comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations. (author)

  11. EUV spectrum of highly charged tungsten ions in electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, H.A.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Nakamura, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra was investigated for electron energy from 540 to 1370 eV. Previously unreported lines were presented in the EUV range, and comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations identified them. (author)

  12. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  13. Preparation of cold Mg+ion clouds for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions at SPECTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazan, Radu Mircea

    2012-02-01

    The bound electrons in hydrogen-like or lithium-like heavy ions experience extremely strong electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding of the nucleus. Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in the lead region provides a sensitive tool to test strong-field quantum electro dynamics (QED), especially in the magnetic sector. Previous measurements on hydrogen-like systems performed in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) or at the experimental storage ring (ESR) were experimentally limited in accuracy due to statistics, the large Doppler broadening and the ion energy. The full potential of the QED test can only be exploited if measurements for hydrogen- and lithium-like ions are performed with accuracy improved by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Therefore, the new Penning trap setup SPECTRAP - dedicated for laser spectroscopy on trapped and cooled highly charged ions - is currently commissioned at GSI Darmstadt. Heavy highly charged ions will be delivered to this trap by the HITRAP facility in the future. SPECTRAP is a cylindrical Penning trap with axial access for external ion injection and radial optical access mounted inside a cold-bore superconducting Helmholtz-type split-coil magnet. To reach the targeted accuracy in laser spectroscopy, an efficient and fast cooling process for the highly charged ions must be employed. This can be realized by sympathetic cooling with a cloud of laser-cooled light ions. Within this thesis work, a laser system and an ion source for the production of such a 24 Mg + ion cloud was developed and commissioned at SPECTRAP. An all-solid-state laser system for the generation of 279.6 nm light was designed and built. It consists of a fiber laser at 1118.5 nm followed by frequency quadrupling using two successive second-harmonic generation stages with actively stabilized ring resonators and nonlinear crystals. The laser system can deliver more than 15 mW of UV laser power under optimal conditions and requires little maintenance

  14. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  15. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu -1 , charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu -1 for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu -1 , charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar 16+ and Xe 44+ and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  16. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  17. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  18. ERC sources for the production of highly charged ions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) using rf between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this article we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz

  19. Production of microbunched beams of very highly charged ions with an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources produce very highly charged ions most efficiently in a batch mode as the confinement time can be directly optimized for the production of the desired charge state. If, after confinement, the voltage of the ion-confining downstream dam is lowered rapidly, all ions escape and form an ion beam pulse with a length of a few tens of μs. Raising the main trap voltage while maintaining a constant dam voltage in a open-quotes spill-over expulsionclose quotes reduces the energy spread of the expelled ions. The longer time periods of open-quotes slow-,close quotes open-quotes leaky batch mode-,close quotes and open-quotes direct current (dc) batch mode-close quotes expulsions allow for increasing the ion beam duty cycle. Combining the rapid expulsion with one of the latter methods allows for the expulsion of the ions of a single batch in many small microbunches with variable intervals, maintaining the low energy spread and the increased duty cycle of slow expulsions. Combining the open-quotes microbunchingclose quotes with open-quotes dc batch mode productionclose quotes and a multitrap operation will eventually allow for the production of equally intense ion bunches over a wide range of frequencies without any deadtime, and with minimal compromise on the most efficient production parameters. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  1. SAFT Li-ion Technology for High Rate Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nechev, Kamen; Deveney, Bridget; Guseynov, Teymur; Erbacher, John; Vukson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    SAFT will present an update of its state-of-the art Very High Power (VHP) Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology. The VHP cells are currently being qualified for use in military aircraft applications as well as in future military hybrid vehicles...

  2. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  3. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  4. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  6. Generation of high brightness ion beam from insulated anode PED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu

    1988-01-01

    Generation and focusing of a high density ion beam with high brightness from a organic center part of anode of a PED was reported previously. Mass, charge and energy distribution of this beam were analyzed. Three kind of anode were tried. Many highly ionized medium mass ions (up to C 4+ , O 6+ ) accelarated to several times of voltage difference between anode and cathode were observed. In the case of all insulator anode the current carried by the medium mass ions is about half of that carried by protons. (author)

  7. Characteristics of a High Current Helicon Ion Source With High Monatomic Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hwa-Dong; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Yong-Seok

    2006-01-01

    Applications of neutron need compact and high yield neutron sources as well as very intense neutron sources from giant devices such as accelerators. Ion source based neutron sources using nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He)n, D(t, 4He)n can meet the requirements. This type of neutron generators can be simply composed of an ion source and a target. High-performance neutron generators with high yield require ion sources with high beam current, high monatomic fraction and long lifetime. Helicon ion source can meet these requirements. To make high current ion source, characteristics of helicon plasma such as high plasma density can be utilized. Moreover, efficient plasma heating with RF power lead high fraction of monatomic ion beam. Here, Characteristics of helicon plasma sources are described. Design and its performances of a helicon ion source are presented

  8. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  9. Electron capture by highly charged low-velocity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Dubois, R.; Justiniano, E.; Gray, T.J.; Can, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a fast heavy ion beam to produce, by bombardment of gaseous targets, highly-charged low-velocity recoil ions, and the use of these secondary ions in turn as projectiles in studies of electron capture and ionization in low-energy collision systems. The interest in collisions involving low-energy highly-charged projectiles comes both from the somewhat simplifying aspects of the physics which attend the long-range capture and from applications to fusion plasmas, astrophysics and more speculative technology such as the production of X-ray lasers. The ions of interest in such applications should have both electronic excitation and center-of-mass energies in the keV range and cannot be produced by simply stripping fast heavy ion beams. Several novel types of ion source have been developed to produce low-energy highly-charged ions, of which the secondary ion recoil source discussed in this paper is one. (Auth.)

  10. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  11. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  12. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  13. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  14. Electronic excitation effects on secondary ion emission in highly charged ion-solid interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekioka, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Lehnert, U.; Fehrenbach, C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the secondary ion emission from the surface of conductive materials bombarded by highly charged heavy ions, we have done two types of experiments. First, we have measured the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (Al, Si, Ni, Cu) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=15-44) at 300 keV (v p =0.30 a.u) and at 1.0 MeV (v p =0.54 a.u). In view of the secondary ion yields as a function of the potential energy of the projectile, the increase rates below q=35, where the potential energy amounts to 25.5 keV, were rather moderate and showed a prominent increase above q=35. These phenomena were rather strong in the case of the metal targets. Second, we have measured the energy dependence of the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (C, Al) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=30,36,44) between 76 keV (v p =0.15 a.u) and 6.0 MeV (v p =1.3 a.u). A broad enhancement of the secondary ion yield has been found for Al target bombarded by Xe 44+ . From these experimental results, the electronic excitation effects in conductive materials for impact of slow highly charged heavy ions bearing high potential energy is discussed

  15. Small electrostatic storage rings; also for highly charged ions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.; Pedersen, U.V.

    2001-01-01

    Two years ago, a small electrostatic storage ring ELISA (electrostatic ion storage ring, Aarhus) was put into operation. The design of this small 7 m circumference ring was based on electrostatic deflection plates and quadrupoles. This is in contrast to the larger ion storage rings, which are based on magnetic focusing and deflection. The result is a small, relatively inexpensive, storage ring being able to store ions of any mass and any charge at low energy ( -11 mbar resulting in storage times of several tens of seconds for singly charged ions. The maximum number of singly charged ions that can be stored is a few 10 7 . Several experiments have already been performed in ELISA. These include lifetime studies of metastable ions and studies of fullerenes and metal-cluster ions. Lasers are also used for excitation of the circulating ions. Heating/cooling of the ring is possible. Cooling of the ring leads to significantly lower pressures, and correspondingly longer lifetimes. A change of the temperature of the vacuum chambers surrounding the ion beam also leads to a change of the spectrum of the black-body radiation, which has a significant influence on weakly bound negative ions. At the time of writing, at least two other electrostatic storage rings are being built, and more are planned. In the following, the electrostatic storage ring ELISA will be described, and results from some of the initial experiments demonstrating the performance will be shown. The relative merits of such a ring, as opposed to the larger magnetic rings and the smaller ion traps will be discussed. The potential for highly charged ions will be briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  16. Atomic structure of highly-charged ions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A. Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Atomic properties of multiply charged ions have been investigated using excitation of energetic heavy ion beams. Spectroscopy of excited atomic transitions has been applied from the visible to the extreme ultraviolet wavelength regions to provide accurate atomic structure and transition rate data in selected highly ionized atoms. High-resolution position-sensitive photon detection has been introduced for measurements in the ultraviolet region. The detailed structures of Rydberg states in highly charged beryllium-like ions have been measured as a test of long-range electron-ion interactions. The measurements are supported by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations and by many-body perturbation theory. The high-angular-momentum Rydberg transitions may be used to establish reference wavelengths and improve the accuracy of ionization energies in highly charged systems. Precision wavelength measurements in highly charged few-electron ions have been performed to test the most accurate relativistic atomic structure calculations for prominent low-lying excited states. Lifetime measurements for allowed and forbidden transitions in highly charged few-electron ions have been made to test theoretical transition matrix elements for simple atomic systems. Precision lifetime measurements in laser-excited alkali atoms have been initiated to establish the accuracy of relativistic atomic many-body theory in many-electron systems

  17. An enhanced production of highly charged ions in the ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaechter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Badescu- Singureanu, Al.I.; Stiebing, K.E.; Runkel, S.; Hohn, O.; Schmidt, L.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt - Boecking, H.

    2000-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS) are the ideal sources of highly charged heavy ions. Highly charged heavy ions are widely used in atomic physics research where they constitute a very efficient tool due to their very high electric potential of collision. The highly charged ions are also used in fusion plasma physics studies, in solid state surface physics investigations and are very efficient when injected in particle accelerators. More than 50 ECR ion sources are presently working in the whole world. Stable and intense highly charged heavy ions beams are extracted from ECR ion sources, in a wide range of ion species. RECRIS, the Romanian 14 GHz ECR Ion Source, developed in IFIN-HH, designed as a facility for atomic physics and materials studies, has been recently completed. The research field concerning the development of advanced ECRIS and the study of the physical processes of the ECR plasma are presently very dynamical , a fact well proved by the great number of scientific published works and the numerous dedicated international conferences and workshops. It is well established that the performance of ECRIS can substantially be enhanced if special techniques like a 'biased disk' or a special wall coating of the plasma chamber are employed. In the frame of a cooperation project between IFIN-HH ,Bucharest, Romania and the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany we developed, on the basis of previous research carried out in IFIN-HH, a new method to strongly increase the intensity of the ion beams extracted from the 14.4 GHz ECRIS in Frankfurt. In our method a special metal-dielectric structure (MD cylinder) was introduced in the ECRIS plasma chamber. In the experiment analyzed beams of Ar 16+ ions were increased in intensity by a factor of 50 as compared to the standard set up with stainless steel chamber. These results have been communicated at the International Conference on Ion Sources held at

  18. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    . A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct....... The introduction of new powerful HTS electrophysiological techniques is predicted to cause a revolution in ion channel drug discovery....

  19. High charge state metal ion production in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum arc is a rich source of highly ionized metal plasma that can be used to make a high current metal ion source. Vacuum arc ion sources have been developed for a range of applications including ion implantation for materials surface modification, particle accelerator injection for fundamental nuclear physics research, and other fundamental and applied purposes. Typically the source is repetitively pulsed with pulse length of order a millisecond and duty cycle or order 1% and operation of a dc embodiment has been demonstrated also. Beams have been produced from over 50 of the solid metals of the periodic table, with mean ion energy up to several hundred keV and with peak (pulsed) beam current up to several amperes. The ion charge state distribution has been extensively studied. Ion spectra have been measured for a wide range of metallic cathode materials, including Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U, as well as compound and alloy cathode materials such as TiC, SiC, UC, PbS, brass, and stainless steel. The ions generated are in general multiply-stripped with a mean charge state of from 1 to 3, depending on the particular metal species, and the charge state distribution can have components from Q = 1+ to 6+. Here the authors review the characteristics of vacuum arc ion sources from the perspective of their high charge state metal ion production

  20. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A A; Hollinger, R

    2014-02-01

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  1. Nonlinear energy loss of highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.Guenter.

    2000-01-01

    For slow, highly charged heavy ions strong coupling effects in the energy transfer from the projectile-ion to an electron target plasma become important. A theoretical description of this nonlinear ion stopping has to go beyond the standard approaches like the dielectric linear response or the binary collision model which are strictly valid only at weak ion-target coupling. Here we outline an improved treatment which is based on a suitable combination of binary collision and linear response contributions. As has been verified for isotropic, nonmagnetized electron plasmas by comparison with simulations, this approach well reproduces the essential features of nonlinear stopping up to moderate coupling strength. Its extension to anisotropic, magnetized electron plasmas basically involves the fully numerical determination of the momentum and energy transfer in binary ion-electron collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. First results of such calculations are presented and discussed

  2. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  3. High brightness K+ ion source for heavy ion fusion linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Rutkowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    Low emittance, high current, singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the Induction Linac System Experiment injector, ILSE. The ILSE, now in study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam considered is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated on a porous tungsten cup. The Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) 120keV cesium source was redesigned and modified with the aid of an ion optics and gun design program (EGUN) to enable the evaluation of the K + source performance at high extraction currents of about 80mA from a one inch diameter source. The authors report on the source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, phase space distributions using the double slit scanning technique, and source emitting surface temperature dependence on heating power using a wire pyrometer

  4. Low energy ion implantation and high energy heavy ion irradiation in C60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Dharmarasu, N.; Kojima, N.; Kanjilal, D.

    2001-01-01

    C 60 films have been bombarded with low energy boron ions and high energy swift heavy ions (SHI) of silver and oxygen at different doses. Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were carried out on the virgin and irradiated films and the results are in good agreement with each other. The films subject to low energy boron ion implantation showed destruction of the bukky balls whereas the films subject to high energy ion irradiation did not show appreciable effects on their structure. These results indicate that C 60 films are more prone to defects by elastic collision and subsequent implantation at lower energy. Irradiation at higher energy was less effective in creating appreciable defects through electronic excitation by inelastic collisions at similar energy density

  5. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  6. On the origin of increased sensitivity and mass resolution using silicon masks in MALDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diologent, Laurent; Franck, Julien; Wisztorski, Maxence; Treizebre, Anthony; Focsa, Cristian; Fournier, Isabelle; Ziskind, Michael

    2014-02-04

    Since its development, MALDI has proved its performance in the analysis of intact biomolecules up to high molecular weights, regardless of their polarity. Sensitivity of MALDI instruments is a key point for breaking the limits of observing biomolecules of lower abundances. Instrumentation is one way to improve sensitivity by increasing ion transmission and using more sensitive detection systems. On the other side, improving MALDI ion production yields would have important outcomes. MALDI ion production is still not well-controlled and, indeed, the amount of ions produced per laser shot with respect to the total volume of desorbed material is very low. This has particular implications for certain applications, such as MALDI MS imaging where laser beam focusing as fine as possible (5-10 μm) is searched in order to reach higher spatial resolution images. However, various studies point out an intrinsic decrease in signal intensity for strong focusing. We have therefore been interested in developing silicon mask systems to decrease an irradiated area by cutting rather than focusing the laser beam and to study the parameters affecting sensitivity using such systems. For this, we systematically examined variation with laser fluence of intensity and spectral resolution in MALDI of standard peptides when using silicon-etched masks of various aperture sizes. These studies demonstrate a simultaneous increase in spectral resolution and signal intensity. Origin of this effect is discussed in the frame of the two-step ionization model. Experimental data in the low fluence range are fitted with an increase of the primary ionization through matrix-silicon edge contact provided by the masks. On the other hand, behavior at higher fluence could be explained by an effect on the secondary ionization via changes in the plume dynamics.

  7. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.ar; Ferron, J. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and Ar{sup +}) and Li{sup +} ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  8. Highly charged ions generated with intense laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Szydlowski, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2003), s. 355-359 ISSN 0168-583X. [International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter /5./. Taormina-Giardini Naxos, 22.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-00053; IAEA(XE) 11535/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * highly charged ions * ion implantation * windowless electron multiplier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  9. High energy iron ion implantation into sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Pedraza, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Sapphire specimens of c-axis orientation were implanted at room temperature with iron ions at energies of 1.2 and of 2 MeV to various fluences up to 8 x 10 16 cm -2 . The damage induced by the implantations was assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in random and channeling geometries. Dechanneling in both sublattices was observed to saturate for all implantation conditions. Disorder in the aluminum sublattice was found to increase with depth at a significantly slower rate than in the oxygen sublattice. In the oxygen sublattice, a relative yield, χ, of 0.80 ± 0.11 was attained at a depth of 0.1 μm and remained constant up to the measured depth of 0.45 μm. In the aluminum sublattice, the disorder increased with depth and the dechanneling asymptotically approached χ =0.70 ± 0.04 at 0.45 μm. These results are discussed and compared with those for shallower Fe implantations obtained by other researchers

  10. Highly reversible open framework nanoscale electrodes for divalent ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard Y; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The reversible insertion of monovalent ions such as lithium into electrode materials has enabled the development of rechargeable batteries with high energy density. Reversible insertion of divalent ions such as magnesium would allow the creation of new battery chemistries that are potentially safer and cheaper than lithium-based batteries. Here we report that nanomaterials in the Prussian Blue family of open framework materials, such as nickel hexacyanoferrate, allow for the reversible insertion of aqueous alkaline earth divalent ions, including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+). We show unprecedented long cycle life and high rate performance for divalent ion insertion. Our results represent a step forward and pave the way for future development in divalent batteries.

  11. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g −1 . • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g −1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  12. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  13. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  14. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  15. High baryon density from relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Schlagel, T.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1993-10-01

    A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics, is developed and applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS energies. This model is in excellent agreement with observed particle spectra in heavy ion collisions using Si beams, where baryon densities of three and four times the normal nuclear matter density ({rho}{sub 0}) are reached. For Au on Au collisions, the authors predict the formation of matter at very high densities (up to 10 {rho}{sub 0}).

  16. Ion beams from high-current PF facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Pulsed beams of fast deuterons and impurity or admixture ions emitted from high-current PF-type facilities operated in different laboratories are dealt with. A short comparative analysis of time-integrated and time-resolved studies is presented. Particular attention is paid to the microstructure of such ion beams, and to the verification of some theoretical models. (author). 5 figs., 19 refs.

  17. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  18. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X.

    2016-01-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω 2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE 01 and HE 11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar 12+ , 0.92 emA Xe 27+ , and so on, will be presented

  19. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  20. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe 37+ , 1 e μA of Xe 43+ , and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe 44+ . To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi 31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi 31+ , 22 e μA of Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of Bi 50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  1. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  2. Microstructure ion Nuclear Spectra at High Excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.

    1969-01-01

    The statistical microstructure of highly excited systems is illustrated by the distribution and fluctuations of levels, widths and cross-sections of nuclei both for the case of sharp resonances and the continuum case. The coexistence of simple modes of excitation with statistical effects in terms of strength functions is illustrated by isobaric analogue states. The analogy is made with similar phenomena for coherent light, is solid-state physics and high-energy physics. (author)

  3. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Golcher, Edwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ~ few mm), high current density (J ~ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ~90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 μs pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (~ 1 μs), high current densities (~ 100 mA/cm+) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured (εn ≤ 0.006 π· mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ~ 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  4. Development of a CMOS process using high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolmeijer, A.

    1986-01-01

    The main interest of this thesis is the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) in electronic technology. Problems in developing a CMOS process are mostly related to the isolation well of p-n junctions. It is shown that by using high energy ion implantation, it is possible to reduce lateral dimensions to obtain a rather high packing density. High energy ion implantation is also presented as a means of simplifying CMOS processing, since extended processing steps at elevated temperatures are superfluous. Process development is also simplified. (Auth.)

  5. Ca-48 handling for a cyclotron ECR ion source to produce highly intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.Ya.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Kutner, V.B.; Shamanin, A.N.; Yakushev, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of highly intense ion beams of 48 Ca is one of the main tasks in experiments carried out within the framework of the synthesis of new superheavy elements. 48 Ca is very rare and expensive isotope, therefore there is necessity to reach the high intensity of ion beams of the isotope at a low consumption rate. Analysis and our preliminary experiments have showed that the best way of producing highly intense calcium ion beams is evaporation of metallic calcium in an ECR ion source. So we have developed a technique of metallic 48 Ca production by reducing CaO (this chemical form is available at the market with 40-80% of 48 Ca ) with aluminium powder. We used two tantalum crucibles: a larger, with a mixture of CaO + Al heated up to 1250 deg C, which was connected to the smaller (2 mm I.D. and 30 mm long) in which calcium vapour condensed. The temperature distribution in the small crucible was about 50 deg C at the bottom and about 500 deg C in the middle of the crucible. The pressure inside of the set-up was between 0.1 and 1 Pa. The production rate of metallic 48 Ca was 10-20 mg/h. The crucible with the condensed metallic Ca in argon atmosphere was transferred to the ECR-4M ion source, where it was inserted in a wired tubular oven and the calcium evaporation was controlled through the oven power supply. The application of metallic 48 Ca as the working substance for the ECR-4M ion source of the U-400 cyclotron of allowed us to approach a stable high intensity of 48 Ca ion beams: the intensities for the internal and external beams were 10 13 c -1 and 3.10 12 c -1 , respectively, at a consumption rate about 0.4 mg/h. A technique was developed for the reclamation of 48 Ca from the residue inside of the large crucible and from the inner parts of the ECR ion source. Extracting Ca from the inner parts of the ion source enabled us to save up to some 25% of the calcium used in the ECR ion source, so that the actual consumption rate was about 0.3 mg/h at the highest 48

  6. Highly charged ions at rest: The HITRAP project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Beier, T.; Dahl, L.; Eliseev, S.; Heinz, S.; Kester, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maero, G.; Quint, W.

    2005-01-01

    A decelerator will be installed at GSI in order to provide and study bare heavy nuclei or heavy nuclei with only few electrons at very low energies or even at rest. Highly-charged ions will be produced by stripping at relativistic energies. After electron cooling and deceleration in the Experimental Storage Ring the ions are ejected out of the storage ring at 4 MeV/u and further decelerated in a combination of an IH and RFQ structure. Finally, they are injected into a Penning trap where the ions are cooled to 4 K. From here, the ions can be transferred in a quasi dc or in a pulsed mode to different experimental setups. This article describes the technical concepts of this project as well as planned key experiments

  7. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm 2 ) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield ( ) at different operating conditions are presented for K + and Cs + contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K + beam of ∼90 mA/cm 2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm 2 ) and low operating pressures ( e psilon) n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  8. Highly charged ions: a miniature laboratory for new fundamental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillaspy, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Highly charged ions are 10-100 times smaller than ordinary atoms, yet they present within themselves a remarkably rich arena for testing fundamental aspects of physics. These tests are based on a precise analysis of the energy distribution of the photons that are emitted as electrons hop between energy levels within the highly charged ions. With sufficiently precise analysis, it may be possible to obtain new information about the structure of the vacuum, the effect of special relativity on many-body correlation, physics beyond the Standard Model, and the fundamental nature of quantum measurements. This talk will review the current state-of-the-art in the spectroscopy of highly charged ions, and give a look towards the future

  9. HIAF: New opportunities for atomic physics with highly charged heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Wen, W. Q.; Zhang, S. F.; Yu, D. Y.; Cheng, R.; Yang, J.; Huang, Z. K.; Wang, H. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Cai, X.; Zhao, Y. T.; Mao, L. J.; Yang, J. C.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Zhao, H. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2017-10-01

    A new project, High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), is currently being under design and construction in China. HIAF will provide beams of stable and unstable heavy ions with high energies, high intensities and high quality. An overview of new opportunities for atomic physics using highly charged ions and radioactive heavy ions at HIAF is given.

  10. High-Voltage, High-Impedance Ion Beam Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the anode tube with a loosely-crumpled, thin aluminized- mylar foil. This spoils the virtual cathode and greatly reduces the neutron signal, as seen...ions follow ballistic (straight-line) trajectories in the drift tube (see Sec. VIII), then (except for the small displacement associated with bending...mTorr) ambient in the drift tube . Based on our previous experience, we would expect charge, but not necessarily current, neutralization of the beam

  11. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  12. Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions (≅0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target

  13. High energy heavy ion beam lithography in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dymnikov, Alexander D.; Zachry, Daniel P.; Eschenazi, Elia V.; Wang, Yongqiang Q.; Greco, Richard R.; Glass, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    As high energy ions travel through a crystalline semiconductor materials they produce damage along the path which results in resistance to some of the wet chemical etching. A series of preliminary experiments have been performed at the Louisiana Accelerator Center (LAC) to examine the feasibility of irradiating high energy (keV-MeV) ions such as protons, xenon and gold through microscale masked structures on crystalline (n-type) Si substrates followed by wet chemical etch with KOH for attaining deep micromachining in Si. The results of these experiments are reported

  14. New aspects of high energy heavy-ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.K.

    1975-03-01

    New aspects of heavy ion reactions at incident energies in the region of 10 MeV/nucleon are discussed with an emphasis on the peripheral nature of the collisions, which leads to simplicities in the differential cross sections. The distortion of the peripheral distribution through the interference of direct and multistep processes is used to illustrate aspects of high energy reactions unique to heavy ions. The simplicities of the distributions for reactions on lighter nuclei are exploited to give new information about nuclear structure from direct and compound reactions at high energy. (16 figures, 32 references) (U.S.)

  15. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M., E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm{sup 2}, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  16. High-fidelity operations in microfabricated surface ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Trapped ion systems can be used to implement quantum computation as well as quantum simulation. To scale these systems to the number of qubits required to solve interesting problems in quantum chemistry or solid state physics, the use of large multi-zone ion traps has been proposed. Microfabrication enables the realization of surface electrode ion traps with complex electrode structures. While these traps may enable the scaling of trapped ion quantum information processing (QIP), microfabricated ion traps also pose several technical challenges. Here, we present Sandia's trap fabrication capabilities and characterize trap properties and shuttling operations in our most recent high optical access trap (HOA-2). To demonstrate the viability of Sandia's microfabricated ion traps for QIP we realize robust single and two-qubit gates and characterize them using gate set tomography (GST). In this way we are able to demonstrate the first single qubit gates with a diamond norm of less than 1 . 7 ×10-4 , below a rigorous fault tolerance threshold for general noise of 6 . 7 ×10-4. Furthermore, we realize Mølmer-Sørensen two qubit gates with a process fidelity of 99 . 58(6) % also characterized by GST. These results demonstrate the viability of microfabricated surface traps for state of the art quantum information processing demonstrations. This research was funded, in part, by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  17. Development of high current low energy H+ ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, A.T.; Crow, J.T.; Goebel, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this work is the development of an ion source suitable for double charge exchange of D + ions to D - ions in cesium or other vapor. Since the fraction of the D + which changes to D - may be as high as 0.35 in the energy below one keV, the process appears very favorable. What is desired is a source of several hundred cm 2 area, with a D + current density greater than, say 0.2A/cm 2 . Small angular spread is essential with up to about 0.1 radian being acceptable. A simple approach to this problem appears to be through fine mesh extraction electrodes. In this system a single grid facing the ion source plasma constitutes the entire extraction electrode system. If the potential difference between the grid and the source plasma is large compared to the ion energy at the plasma boundary, then the distance s 0 is just the Child-Langmuir distance corresponding to the ion current density J and the potential difference V 0 between the plasma and the grid

  18. Measurements of the Properties of Highly-charged high-Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustine J. Smith, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    We had proposed carrying out a systematic experimental investigation of the atomic physics of highly charged, high-Z ions, produced in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL electron beam ion trap (EBIT-I) in its high energy mode, superEBIT. In particular we were going to accurately measure line positions for Δn=0 transitions in few electron high-Z ions; this was meant to enable us to investigate relativistic and quantum electrodynamics QED contributions to the energy levels as well as the nuclear properties of heavy ions. We were also going to measure cross sections for various electron-ion interactions, the degree of polarization of emitted x-rays, and radiation cooling rates of various ionization stages of highly charged, high-Z ions. This would enable us to study fundamental atomic physics of high-Z ions at relativistic electron impact energies and in the intense nuclear fields of highly ionized, high-Z ions. This would extend previous measurements we have carried out to a regime where there is a paucity of good data. These measurements were expected to generate increased theoretical interest and activity in this area. The project will extend a very successful collaboration between Morehouse College (MC) and a national laboratory LLNL, Minority student training and development are major components of the proposal

  19. Interaction of energetic ions with high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, D.O.; Edie, D.; Grinenko, A.; Vorberger, J.

    2010-01-01

    highly compressed matter around the burning fusion core is however strongly increased due to degeneracy of the target electrons. This result implies the need for much larger hot spots than predicted by standard models. Similarly, the range of light ions considered for fast ignition is increased. This makes success of this efficient ICF approach harder to achieve, but already reflects the need for larger hot spots due to the larger spread of the α-particles heating. Acknowledgements: This work is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK.

  20. High energy metal ion implantation using 'Magis', a novel, broad-beam, Marx-generator-based ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion energy of the beam formed by an ion source is proportional to extractor voltage and ion charge state. Increasing the voltage is difficult and costly for extraction voltage over 100 kV. Here we explore the possibility of increasing the charge states of metal ions to facilitate high-energy, broad beam ion implantation at a moderate voltage level. Strategies to enhance the ion charge state include operating in the regimes of high-current vacuum sparks and short pulses. Using a time-of-flight technique we have measured charge states as high as 7+ (73 kA vacuum spark discharge) and 4+ (14 kA short pulse arc discharge), both for copper, with the mean ion charge states about 6.0 and 2.5, respectively. Pulsed discharges can conveniently be driven by a modified Marx generator, allowing operation of ''Magis'' with a single power supply (at ground potential) for both plasma production and ion extraction

  1. Low power ion spectrometer for high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.W.; Dullenkopf, P.; Glasmachers, A.; Melbert, J.; Winkelnkemper, W.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes in detail the electronic concept for a time-of-flight (TOF) ion spectrometer for high counting rates and high dynamic range which can be used as a satellite instrument. The detection principle of the spectrometer is based on a time-of-flight and energy measurement for each incident ion. The ionmass is related to these two quantities by a simple equation. The described approach for the mass identification systems is using an analog fast-slow concept: The fast TOF-signal preselects the gainstep in the much slower energy channel. The conversion time of the mass identifier is approximately 10 -6 s and the dynamic range of the energy channel is better than 10 3 (20 keV to 25 MeV). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a TOF-spectrometer capable to measure the ion composition in planetary magnetospheres. (orig.) [de

  2. Surface studies with high-energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensgaard, Ivan [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Physics

    1992-07-01

    High-energy ion scattering is an extremely useful technique for surface studies. Three methods for surface composition analysis (Rutherford backscattering, nuclear-reaction analysis and elastic recoil detection) are discussed. Directional effects in ion-beam surface interactions (shadowing and blocking) form the basis for surface structure analysis with high-energy ion beams and these phenomena are addressed in some detail. It is shown how surface relaxation and reconstruction, as well as positions of adsorbed atoms, can be determined by comparison with computer simulations. A special technique called transmission channelling is introduced and shown to be particularly well suited for studies of adsorption positions, even of hydrogen. Recent developments in the field are demonstrated by discussing a large number of important (experimental) applications which also include surface dynamics and melting, as well as epitaxy and interface structure. (author).

  3. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K + beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  4. Ion escape fluxes from the terrestrial high-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.R.; Schunk, R.W.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled continuity and momentum equations for H + , O + , and electrons were solved for the terrestrial ionosphere in order to determine the limiting ion escape fluxes at high latitudes. The effects of solar cycle, season, geomagnetic activity, and the altitude of the acceleration region on the ion escape fluxes were studied for average conditions. In addition, a systematic parameter study was conducted to determine the extent to which variations in ionospheric conditions (for example, electron temperature, ion temperature, induced vertical ion drifts, etc.) can affect the results. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) as solar activity increases, the general trend is for an increase in the limiting O + escape flux and a decrease in the limiting H + escape flux; (2) in winter the limiting escape fluxes of both O + and H + are larger than those in summer, particularly for low geomagnetic activity; (3) the O + content of the ion outflow increases with increasing ''demand'' imposed on the ionosphere by a high-altitude acceleration process, with increasing solar activity, with increasing geomagnetic activity, with increasing solar elevation from winter to summer, and with a lowering of the altitude of the acceleration region; (4) when H + is in a near-diffusive equilibrium state and a selective mechanism accelerates O + , the limiting O + escape flux is significantly reduced compared to that obtained when an H + outflow also occurs; and (5) at a given time or location the general trends described above can be significantly modified or even reversed owing to natural variations of the ionospheric ion and electron temperatures, induced vertical ion drifts, etc. The general trends obtained for average conditions appear to mimic the qualitative behavior determined from statistically averaged data for comparable absolute escape flux magnitudes

  5. Experiments with highly charged ions up to bare U92+ on the electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-07-01

    An overview is given of the current experimental effort to investigate the level structure of highly charged ions with the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. The facility allows the production and study of virtually any ionization state of any element up to bare U 92+ . Precision spectroscopic measurements have been performed for a range of Δn = 0 and Δn = 1 transitions. Examples involving 3-4 and 2-3 as well as 3-3 and 2-2 transitions in uranium ions are discussed that illustrated some of the measurement and analysis techniques employed. The measurements have allowed tests of calculations of the the quantum electrodynamical contributions to the transitions energies at the 0.4% level in a regime where (Zα) ∼ 1

  6. PHELIX - Petawatt high-energy laser for heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, H.; Bock, R.; Caird, J.

    1998-12-01

    A high-power laser facility will be installed at the GSI heavy-ion accelerator. It will deliver laser pulses up to one kilojoule (with an option of a later upgrade to several kJ) at a pulse length of 1 - 10 nanoseconds (high-energy mode). In a high-intensity mode, laser pulses with a power of one petawatt (10 15 Watt) will be generated by chirped pulse amplification at a pulse length of typically 500 femtoseconds. Details of the laser system as well as time schedule and costs are given in Section B. In combination with the heavy-ion beams available at GSI - which will be further improved in intensity by the presently on-going upgrade program - a large number of unique experiments will become possible by the high-power laser facility described in this report. As outlined in Section A, novel research opportunities are expected in a wide range of basic-research topics spanning from the study of ion-matter interaction, through challenging new experiments in atomic, nuclear, and astrophysics, into the virgin field of relativistic plasma physics. Foreseeable topics in applied science are the development of new sources for highly charged ions and of X-ray lasers, new concepts for laser-based particle acceleration and the research in the field of inertial confinement fusion. (orig.)

  7. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the 'seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs

  8. Chemical modification of polypropylene induced by high energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-06-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energy using 3 MV Pelletron. The spectral changes owing to ion bombardment were investigated by UV-VIS and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A gradual increase in absorbance was observed around visible and near visible region with increase in fluence of bombarding ions. The difference absorption spectra show formation of chromophoric groups with wavelength maximum near 380 nm at lower fluence, but at high fluence a shift in peak is observed. The chromophoric groups are likely to be the extended conjugated polyene system and the red shift in peak position at high fluence may be attributed to the greater degree of conjugation. The formation of unsaturated linkage is confirmed by the FTIR spectra with observed stretching band around 1650 cm{sup -1} and its intensity was found to increase with increase in ion fluence studied. The gases (in the range 2-80 amu) which were evolved due to interaction of polypropylene with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions were measured with Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). A large number of gaseous components were detected. This shows that polymer chains break into some smaller fragments which concomitantly leads to extended conjugation.

  9. Secondary ions produced from condensed rare gas targets under highly charged MeV/amu heavy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary ions produced from condensed rare gas targets are observed under MeV/amu, highly charged, heavy ion impact. The intensities of the observed cluster ions decrease smoothly as the cluster sizes become large but show some discontinuities at particular sizes of cluster ions. This seems to be closely related to the stabilities of cluster ion structures. It is also noted that very few doubly charged or practically no triply/higher charged ions have been observed, in sharp contrast to that of some condensed molecular targets. (orig.)

  10. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 304 stainless steel. M GHORANNEVISS1, A SHOKOUHY1,∗, M M LARIJANI1,2,. S H HAJI HOSSEINI 1, M YARI1, A ANVARI4, M GHOLIPUR SHAHRAKI1,3,. A H SARI1 and M R HANTEHZADEH1. 1Plasma Physics Research Center, Science ...

  11. High energy structures in heavy ion collisions: a multiphonon description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Frascaria, N.

    1984-01-01

    Energy spectra of fragments from the 36 Ar + 208 Pb reaction at 11 MeV/n exhibit structures at high excitation energies. These structures are interpreted in terms of target multi-phonon excitations built from giant resonances. The importance of such processes for the kinetic energy dissipation in heavy ion collisions is emphasized

  12. High-frequency modulation of ion-acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    A large amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic oscillation is impressed on a nonrelativistic, collisionless plasma from an external source. The frequency is chosen to be far from the plasma frequency (in fact, lower). The resulting electron velocity distribution function strongly modifies the propagation of ion-acoustic waves parallel to the oscillating electric field. The complex frequency is calculated numerically.

  13. Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (SOI...

  14. Determination of Na+ and K+ ions in the high-level liquid waste by ion chromatography (IC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianzhong; Ma Guilan

    1992-01-01

    The determination of Na + and k + ions in the high-level liquid waste is investigated using ion chromatography. In order to protect the low capacity ion exchange resin in single column IC and remove the transition metal as well as other heavy metal ions that are contained in liquid waste, the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin is used. Those impurity metal ions are strongly absorbed by EDTA chelating resin and 100% of Na + and K + ions in the solution are eluted. The ability of the decontamination of EDTA chelating resin is satisfactory. The sample of the high-level liquid waste is diluted appropriately, then an aliquot of the sample is passed through the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin, the eluate is analysed by single column ion chromatography. The precision of this method is better than 5% for the determination of Na + and K + ions (at μg· ml -1 level)

  15. Relative mass resolution technique for optimum design of a gamma nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon

    1995-02-01

    Nondestructive assay(NDA) is a widely used nuclear technology for quantitative elemental and isotopic assay. Nondestructive assay is performed by the detection of an identifying radiation emerging from the sample, which can be unambiguously related to the element or isotope of interest. In every assay we can identify two distinct factors that lead to measurement uncertainty. We refer to these as statistical and spatial uncertainties. If the spatial distribution of the analyte and the matrix material in the sample are known and fairly constant from sample to sample, then the major source of measurement uncertainty is the statistical uncertainty resulting from randomness in the counting process. The spatial uncertainty is independent of the measurement time and therefore sets a lower limit to the measurement uncertainty, which is inherent in the assay system in conjunction with the population of samples to be measured. The only way to minimize the spatial uncertainty is an optimized design of the assay system. Therefore we have to decide on the type and number of detectors to be used, their deployment around the sample, the type of radiation to be measured, the duration of each measurement, the size and shape of the sample drum. The design procedure leading to the optimal assay system should be based on a quantitative(RMR:Relative Mass Resolution) comparison of the performance of each proposed design. For NDA system design of low level radwaste, a specific purpose Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate point-source responses for sources within an assayed radwaste drum and to analyze the effect of scattered gammas from higher energy gammas on the spectrum of a low energy gamma-ray. We could use the well-known Monte Carlo code, such as MCNP for the simulation of NDA in the case of low level radwaste. But, MCNP is a multi-purpose Monte Carlo transport code for several geometries which requires large memory and long CPU time. For some cases in nuclear

  16. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelators for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  17. QED in highly-charged high Z ions - experiments at the storage ring ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    A survey on the fundamental structure aspects of very heavy few -electron ions, in particular H-like systems, is presented. Special emphasis is given to contribution from quantum-electro-dynamics at strong central potentials. The technical possibilities to produce highly-charged heavy ions are reviewed and the ground-state Lamb-shift experiments performed at the heavy ion storage ring ESR are summarized. A short outlook on further developments in this field is added. (author). 23 refs, 9 figs

  18. Surface sputtering in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Microstructures and elemental distributions in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) substrates were implanted at 350 deg. C with 120 keV Fe ions to fluences ranging from 0.1 x 10 17 to 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . Extensive damage induced by ion implantation was observed inside the substrate below 1.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 , while a continuous iron silicide layer was formed at 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . It was found that the spatial distribution of Fe projectiles drastically changes at the fluence between 1.0 x 10 17 and 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 due to surface sputtering during implantation

  19. Highly charged ion impact induced nanodefects in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: thuto.makgato@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Microscopy and Microanalysis Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Schenkel, T. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ritter, R.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien-Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.; Bernitt, S.; Beilmann, C.; Ginzel, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of slow highly charged ion (SHCI) beams with insulating type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces. Bismuth and Xenon SHCI beams produced using an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and an Electron Cyclotron Resonance source (ECR) respectively, are accelerated onto type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces with impact velocities up to ≈0.4 υ{sub Bohr}. SHCIs with charge states corresponding to potential energies between 4.5 keV and 110 keV are produced for this purpose. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis (AFM) of the diamond surfaces following SHCI impact reveals surface morphological modifications characterized as nanoscale craters (nano-craters). To interpret the results from Tapping Mode AFM analysis of the irradiated diamond surfaces we discuss the interplay between kinetic and potential energy in nano-crater formation using empirical data together with Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo Simulations.

  20. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roscoe E.

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  1. Development and application of high power and high intensity ion beam sources at NPI, Tomsk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikov, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High - current ion beams have become a powerful tool for improving the surface properties of different materials. The prospects of wide commercial use of such beams for material treatment is not only due to the possibility of improving their properties, but, also for economic expediency. To achieve a high throughput and reduce the cost on ion beam material treatment, ion beams of high average and pulsed power are necessary. This paper gives an overview of work on generation of pulsed and repetitively pulsed beams of ion beams with currents ranging from fractions of an ampere to several tens of kA and with pulse duration from several tens of nanoseconds to several hundreds of microseconds. A number of different methods of materials surface properties modification using high power and intense ion beam and plasma are considered. (author)

  2. Highly-resolving Rutherford-scattering spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.

    2003-10-01

    in the present thesis for the first time the Browne-Buechner spectrometer for the highly resolving ion-beam analysis in the ion beam center Rossendorf is completely presented. A main topic of this theis lied in the apparative construction and the taking-into-operation of the spectrometer and the scattering chamber including the facilities for the sample treatment and characterization. In the framework of this thesis for the chosen measurement arrangement the experimental conditions were elaborated, which allow the routine-like application of the spectrometer for analyses of thin-film systems. for C and Li ions as incident particles especially the straggling was more precisely determined in a large range of materials. By means of the spectrometer also the interaction of the ion with the solid respectively single atoms on its surface could be studied. For the first time the mean charge-state after the single collision on a gold atom was determined for differently heavy ions in a wide energy range

  3. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  4. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  5. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  6. Study of highly charged ion production by electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Interactions of Argon 17+ ions with metallic surface at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, G.

    1992-04-01

    In this thesis divided in 2 parts, the author first presents the operating of MiniMafios 16/18 GHz ECR ion sources and methods of extracted multicharged ion identification and then, studies the highly charged ion interactions with a metallic surface and the formation of 'hollow atoms'. 556 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Forbidden lines of highly ionized ions for localized plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnov, E.; Fonck, R.; Suckewer, S.

    1980-06-01

    Numerous optically forbidden lines resulting from magnetic dipole transitions in low-lying electron configurations of highly ionized Fe, Ti and Cr atoms have been identified in PLT and PDX tokamak discharges, and applied for localized diagnostics in the high-temperature (0.5 to 3.0 keV) interior of these plasmas. The measurements include determination of local ion densities and their variation in time, and of ion motions (ion temperature, plasma rotations) through Doppler effect of the lines. These forbidden lines are particularly appropriate for such measurements because under typical tokamak conditions their emissivities are quite high (10 11 to 10 14 photons/cm 3 -sec), and their relatively long wavelengths allow the use of intricate optical techniques and instrumentation. The spatial location of the emissivity is directly measurable, and tends to occur near radii where the ionization potential of the ion in question is equal to the local electron temperature. In future larger and presumably higher-temperature tokamaks analogous measurements with somewhat heavier atoms, particularly krypton, and perhaps zirconium appear both feasible and desirable

  8. Discovery of hydrodynamic behavior in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamagaki, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of high energy heavy ion collision experiments is creating high temperature and high density states to investigate hadron matter properties in such extreme conditions. Since the start of heavy ion collision experiments with BEVALAC, knowledge of the space-time evolution of collision has become indispensable for understanding the hadronic matter properties. This problem is reviewed here from the hydrodynamics view point. Although its importance has been generally recognized since the time of BEVALAC, the hydrodynamic description has not been successful because the hydrodynamic model assuming non-viscous or small fluid had not been considered to be enough to properly describe the space-time evolution of hadron-hadron collisions until the RHIC experiments. Items of the following titles are picked up and reviewed here: Development of heavy ion accelerations; Space-time evolution of hadron collision process and hydrodynamic model; Chemical freezing and kinematical freezing, including transverse momentum spectra at proton-proton collisions and particle spectra in heavy ion collisions; Elliptical azimuthal angle anisotropy; Discovery of hydrodynamic flow at BEVALAC; Problems of incident beam dependence of v2; Elliptic azimuthal angle anisotropy at RHIC; What is it that carries the elliptic anisotropy? Discussion of attainment of thermodynamical equilibrium state at RHIC; and finally investigations of fluid properties other than azimuthal anisotropy, such as, Fluid properties probed by heavy quarks and Observing QCD fluid responses. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  10. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  11. Research results for the applications of high power ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Jianfeng; He Xiaoping; Tang Junping; Wang Haiyang; Zhang Jiasheng; Xu Ri; Peng Jianchang; Ren Shuqing; Li Peng; Yang Li; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Guoguang; Ouyang Xiaoping; Li Hongyu

    2003-01-01

    The results obtained in the theoretical and experimental studies for the application of high power ion beams in certain areas of nuclear physics and material science are reported. The preliminary experimental results of generating 6-7 MeV quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays with high power pulsed proton beams striking 19 F target on the Flash II accelerator are presented. By placing the target far enough downstream, the quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays can be discriminated experimentally from the diode Bremsstrahlung. This article also describes the other applications of high power ion beams and the preliminary experimental and theoretical results in simulation of soft X-ray thermal-mechanical effects, generation of high intense pulsed neutrons, equation of state and shock-wave physics experiments, surface modification and so on

  12. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  13. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  14. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  15. Using ion irradiation to make high-Tc Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeal, N.; Lesueur, J.; Sirena, M.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J. P.; Leridon, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe the effect of ion irradiation on high-T c superconductor thin film and its interest for the fabrication of Josephson junctions. In particular, we show that these alternative techniques allow to go beyond most of the limitations encountered in standard junction fabrication methods, both in the case of fundamental and technological purposes. Two different geometries are presented: a planar one using a single high-T c film and a mesa one defined in a trilayer structure

  16. Development of intense high-energy noble gas ion beams from in-terminal ion injector of tandem accelerator using an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakanoya, T.; Hanashima, S.; Takeuchi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-10-21

    An ECRIS-based heavy ion injector was constructed in the high-voltage terminal of JAEA-Tokai Tandem Accelerator to develop new beam species of highly charged noble gas ions. This work was associated with a lot of development to operate the ion source on the 20UR Pelletron high voltage terminal in high pressure SF{sub 6} gas environment. Highly charged ions of N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe have been accelerated satisfactorily. Operating data integrated during many years long beam delivery service are summarized.

  17. High intensity metallic ion beams from an ecr ion source at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leherissier, P.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent years, progress concerning the production of high intensity of metallic ions beams ( 58 Ni, 48 Ca, 76 Ge) at Ganil have been performed. The MIV0C method has been successfully used to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 eμA of 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. The oven method has been first tested with natural metallic calcium on the ECR4 ion source, then used to produce a high power beam (740 W on target i.e. 0.13 pμA accelerated up to 60 MeV/u) of 48 Ca still keeping a low consumption (0.09 mg/h). A germanium beam is now under development, using the oven method with germanium oxide. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared. (authors)

  18. High intensity metallic ion beam from an ecr ion source using the Mivoc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The MIVOC method has been successfully used at GANIL to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 μA 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. Experimental setup, handling and off-line preparation using a residual gas analyzer are described in this report. The ion source behavior, performances and limitations are presented in the case of nickel and iron. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared to the oven method usually used at GANIL. (author)

  19. Electron impact ionization of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.

    1992-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections can provide valuable information about the charge-state and power balance of highly charged ions in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the present work, a novel technique based on x-ray measurements has been used to infer the ionization cross section of highly charged lithiumlike ions on the Livermore electron beam ion trap. In particular, a correspondence is established between an observed x ray and an ionization event. The measurements are made at one energy corresponding to approximately 2.3 times the threshold energy for ionization of lithiumlike ions. The technique is applied to the transition metals between Z=22 (titanium, Ti 19+ ) and Z=26 (iron, Fe 23+ ) and to Z=56 (barium, Ba 53+ ). The results for the transition metals, which have an estimated 17-33% uncertainty, are in good overall agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave calculation. However, less good agreement is found for barium, which has a larger uncertainty. Methods for properly accounting for the polarization in the x-ray intensities and for inferring the charge-state abundances from x-ray observations, which were developed for the ionization measurements, as well as an x-ray model that assists in the proper interpretation of the data are also presented

  20. Reaction mechanism in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao.

    1982-04-01

    The reaction mechanism in high energy heavy-ion collision is discussed. The discussion is mainly based on the experimental data. Empirical equations have been given for the total cross-sections of nucleus-nucleus reactions and the reaction cross-sections. These cross-sections are well described by the geometrical size of the colliding nuclei. The cross-sections are also understood by microscopic calculation. The charged particle multiplicity gives additional information about the geometrical aspect of heavy ion collision. The data suggested that the total energy, independent of projectile size, is most important for determining the multiplicity. The inclusive proton spectrum in a heavy ion collision showed two distinct regions. The one is the fragment region, and the other the participant region. The spectral shapes of inclusive pion spectra are reasonably well explained by the Coulomb interaction of pions with nuclear fragments. The high energy heavy ion reaction occurs in the overlap region of the projectile and target. This has been tested by measuring the number of participants for various reactions. The space and the time structure of the collision are also discussed in this paper as well as the dynamical aspects of the collision. (Kato, T.)

  1. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated in the DOE complex is stored in tanks at several sites, but predominantly it is found at the Hanford reservation. Much of the material has been exposed to high pHs, consequently the waste exists in a complex, poorly understood mixture of solids, gels and solutions. The final waste remediation plan may involve chemical separation of fractions and a suitable, well developed molecular chemistry basis for performing these separations is not available. Indeed, the fundamental chemical behavior of most radioactive nuclides in basic media is not known. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element species in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO3 -, CO3 2-, organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study. The experimental agenda includes: 1. Studies of the speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic solutions wit h and without common counterions; 2. Preparations of new multifunctional ligands that may act as strong, ion-specific chelators for Sr and/or Ln ions in basic media; and 3. Studies of the coordination and dissolution behavior of oxide-hydroxide species, as well as in insoluble sols, gels, and precipitates in combination with new chelating ligands. It is anticipated that this coordination chemistry will facilitate the design of advanced separation schemes required for handling the complex waste matrices found at the Hanford HLW facility

  2. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  3. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  4. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  5. High-frequency heating of plasma with two ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.; Longinov, A.V.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1975-01-01

    The authors consider the penetration of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of the order of the ion cyclotron frequencies and with a fixed longitudinal wave number ksub(long), so that Nsub(long)=ksub(long)c/ω>>1 deep into an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species. The propagation of two kinds of waves (fast and slow) with widely differing polarization and transverse refraction index is possible. For both types of waves there is an evanescence region at the plasma periphery. The evanescence region is narrow for slow waves and they easily penetrate the plasma. In a dense plasma they become electrostatic and can reach the ion-ion hybrid resonance region. However, the damping of these waves due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons in a high-temperature plasma is strong and therefore they are not suitable for heating plasma of large dimensions, as they are absorbed at the plasma periphery. The fast waves have a wider evanescence region and can be excited effectively only if N 2 is not too high. These waves can be completely absorbed in the plasma (due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons) if xi approximately (v 2 sub(Ti)/v 2 sub(A))Zsub(e)(ωsub(pi)a/c)exp(-Zsub(e) 2 ) > 1, where a is the plasma radius and Zsub(e) = ω/(√2 ksub(long)vsub(Te)). Fast waves can also reach the region where they are transformed into slow waves. In this region their damping increases considerably. It is shown that the transformation region in an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species in a non-uniform magnetic field may be at the centre of the plasma. Fast waves can be used effectively for heating plasma of large dimensions. (author)

  6. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  7. Damage of plasmid DNA by high energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelidesova, A.; Pachnerova Brabcova, K.; Davidkova, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of direct DNA damage by high-energy ions, which are one of the components of cosmic rays, and therefore the knowledge of the biological effects of these ions is key to long-term space missions with human crew. The pBR322 plasmid containing 4361 base pairs was used in this study. The aqueous solution of plasmid pBR322 was transferred on ice to Japan to the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, the Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy. Just before the experiment, the droplets of solution of known concentration were applied to the slides and the water was allowed to evaporate to produce dry DNA samples. Half of the slides were irradiated with 290 MeV/u of carbon ions and a dose rate of 20 Gy/min. The other half of the slides were irradiated with helium nuclei of 150 MeV/hr and a dose rate of 12.6 Gy/min. Both sets of slides were irradiated with doses of 0-1,400 Gy with a 200 Gy step. After irradiation, the samples were re-dissolved in distilled water, frozen and transported on ice to the Czech Republic for processing. Samples were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The plasmid was evaluated separately to determine the degree of radiation induced lesions and further to incubation with enzymes recognizing basal damage. (authors)

  8. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  9. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  10. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  11. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  12. A model for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    A model is developed for high-energy heavy-ion collisions that treats the variation across the overlap region of the target and projectile in the amount of energy and momentum that is deposited. The expression for calculating any observable takes the form of a sum over a series of terms, each one of which consists of a geometric, a kinematic, and a statistical factor. The geometrical factors for a number of target projectile systems are tabulated. (Auth.)

  13. Some general scaling rules in high energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Idh, J.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1988-09-01

    We show, using the Fritiof model scenario that the wide variation in the number of participating nucleons tend to drown other dynamical variations in the measurables of high energy ion collisions. We propose a set if general scaling laws for inclusive distributions in which it is the mean multiplicity and the mean transverse energy from each source which are the measurables in the interactions. (authors)

  14. Microscopic descriptions of high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    The essentials of the equation-of-motion (EOM) approach are given and some of its significant and interesting results are described. A framework for the theoretical description of high-energy heavy-ion (HE-HI) collisions is presented; specifically included are a critical assessment of various approaches--EOM calculations, Boltzmann equations/cascade calculations, and hydrodynamics--their relationships and their respective domains of applicability, if any, to HE-HI collisions. 11 figures, 3 tables

  15. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  16. Structure and dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied with the electron beam ion trap in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Hu, Zhimin; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J.; Tong Xiaomin; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the structure and the dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied through dielectronic recombination (DR) observations performed with the Tokyo electron beam ion trap. By measuring the energy dependence of the ion abundance ratio in the trap at equilibrium, we have observed DR processes for open shell systems very clearly. Remarkable relativistic effects due to the generalized Breit interaction have been clearly shown in DR for highly charged heavy ions. We also present the first result for the coincidence measurement of two photons emitted from a single DR event.

  17. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.H., E-mail: zhangxiaohu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yuan, Y.J.; Yin, X.J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, H.; Li, Z.S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-11

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  18. High-resolution X-ray spectra from low-temperature, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1996-09-01

    The electron beam ion traps (EBIT) at Livermore were designed for studying the x-ray emission of highly charged ions produced and excited by a monoenergetic electron beam. The precision with which the x-ray emission can be analyzed has recently been increased markedly when it became possible to decouple the temperature of the ions from the energy of the electron beam by several orders of magnitude. By adjusting the trap parameters, ion temperatures as low as 15.8±4.4 eV for Ti 20+ and 59.4±9.9 eV for Cs 45+ were achieved. These temperatures were more than two orders of magnitude lower than the energy of the multi-keV electron beam used for the production and excitation of the ions. A discussion of the techniques used to produce and study low-temperature highly charged ions is presented in this progress report. The low ion temperatures enabled measurements heretofore impossible. As an example, a direct observation of the natural line width of fast electric dipole allowed x-ray transitions is described. From the observed natural line width and b making use of the time-energy relations of the uncertainty principle we were able to determine a radiative transition rate of 1.65 fs for the 2p-3d resonance transition in neonlike Cs 45+ . A brief discussion of other high-precision measurements enabled by our new technique is also given

  19. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, O. O., E-mail: oscar.versolato@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Schmidt, P. O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Drewsen, M. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Narrow optical transitions in highly charged ions (HCIs) are of particular interest for metrology and fundamental physics, exploiting the high sensitivity of HCIs to new physics. The highest sensitivity for a changing fine structure constant ever predicted for a stable atomic system is found in Ir{sup 17 + }. However, laser spectroscopy of HCIs is hindered by the large ({approx} 10{sup 6} K) temperatures at which they are produced and trapped. An unprecedented improvement in such laser spectroscopy can be obtained when HCIs are cooled down to the mK range in a linear Paul trap. We have developed a cryogenic linear Paul trap in which HCIs will be sympathetically cooled by {sup 9}Be{sup + } ions. Optimized optical access for laser light is provided while maintaining excellent UHV conditions. The Paul trap will be connected to an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) which is able to produce a wide range of HCIs. This EBIT will also provide the first experimental input needed for the determination of the transition energies in Ir{sup 17 + }, enabling further laser-spectroscopic investigations of this promising HCI.

  20. Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches for very rapid calculation of atomic data for high temperature plasma modeling have been developed. The first uses hydrogenic basis states and has been developed and applied in many papers discussed in previous progress reports. Hence, it is only briefly discussed here. The second is a very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic approach that has been developed over the past two or three years. It is described in more detail. Recently it has been applied to large scale production of atomic data. Specifically, it has been used to calculate relativistic distorted wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the following: all transitions from the ground level to the n=3 and 4 excited levels in the 71 Neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 2s 1/2 , 2p 1/2 and 2p 3/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=3,4 and 5 in the 85 Li-like ions with 8 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 3s 1/2 , 3p 3/2 , 3d 3/2 and 3d 5/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=4 and 5 in the 71 Na-like ions with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; and all transitions among 4s 1/2 , 4p 1/2 , 4p 3/2 , 4d 3/2 , 4d 5/2 , 4f 5/2 and 4f 7/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=5 in the 33 Cu-like ions with 60 ≤ Z ≤ 92. Also the program has been extended to give cross-sections for excitation to specific magnetic sublevels of the target ion by an electron beam and very recently it has been extended to give relativistic distorted wave cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

  1. Stability of uranium silicides during high energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C; Wang, L.M.

    1991-11-01

    Changes induced by 1.5 MeV Kr ion irradiation of both U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 have been followed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. When irradiated at sufficiently low temperatures, both alloys transform from the crystalline to the amorphous state. When irradiated at temperatures above the temperature limit for ion beam amorphization, both compounds disorder with the Martensite twin structure in U 3 Si disappearing from view in TEM. Prolonged irradiation of the disordered crystalline phases results in nucleation of small crystallites within the initially large crystal grains. The new crystallites increase in number during continued irradiation until a fine grain structure is formed. Electron diffraction yields a powder-like diffraction pattern that indicates a random alignment of the small crystallites. During a second irradiation at lower temperatures, the small crystallizes retard amorphization. After 2 dpa at high temperatures, the amorphization dose is increased by over twenty times compared to that of initially unirradiated material

  2. Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2001-10-01

    We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

  3. Samarium ion exchanged montmorillonite for high temperature cumene cracking reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nano material Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using TPD of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Bronsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene. (author)

  4. A high resolution ion microscope for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, Markus; Schefzyk, Hannah; Fortágh, József; Günther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We report on an ion-optical system that serves as a microscope for ultracold ground state and Rydberg atoms. The system is designed to achieve a magnification of up to 1000 and a spatial resolution in the 100 nm range, thereby surpassing many standard imaging techniques for cold atoms. The microscope consists of four electrostatic lenses and a microchannel plate in conjunction with a delay line detector in order to achieve single particle sensitivity with high temporal and spatial resolution. We describe the design process of the microscope including ion-optical simulations of the imaging system and characterize aberrations and the resolution limit. Furthermore, we present the experimental realization of the microscope in a cold atom setup and investigate its performance by patterned ionization with a structure size down to 2.7 μ m. The microscope meets the requirements for studying various many-body effects, ranging from correlations in cold quantum gases up to Rydberg molecule formation. (paper)

  5. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  6. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  7. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  8. Ion beam enhancement in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation in non-relativistic mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Z. C.; Lei, M. K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pushkarev, A. I. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Beam and Plasma Technology, High Technologies Physics Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200–300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.

  9. Effect of electrode for producing the highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    We successfully produced the intense beam of highly charged Kr ions using an electrode. Under the pulsed mode operation, we found that the depth of the plasma potential dip strongly depends on the duration of the microwave and takes about 40 ms to reach the equilibrium state. Taking these results into account, we compared the beam intensities of highly charged Kr ions with and without the use of an electrode under the pulsed mode operation. We observed that the density of highly charged Kr ions and ion confinement time increase with increasing mirror magnetic field strength. The plasma potential dip becomes shallower with insertion of the electrode. Consequently, when we increase the mirror magnetic field strength and insert the electrode into the plasma, the beam intensities of highly charged ions increase. (author)

  10. Low preveance ion source bridges low and high intensities in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, F.D.; Mayhall, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Low Perveance Ion Source developed by Accelerators, Inc. offers the Semiconductor Industry the advantage of processing medium to high intensity implants on a system which will also implant 200 to 300 wafers an hour at MOS doses. Stable source beam currents can be varied over three orders of magnitude by variation of a single source parameter. This source uses a new computer designed Low Perveance extraction optics which is completely new to the Ion Implantation Industry. Test data and calculations are shown which define the versatility of this system. Scanned currents from 1 microamp to 400 microamps allow for a variety of production processing. Beam characteristics feature low energy spread (less than 10 eV) and low divergence (less than 3 degrees). Beam control optics consist of a double focusing analyzing magnet and two triplet quadrupoles. The source may be fitted with an oven for feeding of solid materials and analyzed beam currents in the milliamp range for development purposes. The batch processing, hybrid scanning end station is most applicable for high current beams as well as high volume batch processings of MOS Implants. Results of development work toward increased currents using both solid and gas feed material with the Low Perveance source are presented. System improvements including Accel-Decel and a third extraction element are discussed

  11. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  12. Architecture and control of a high current ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, E.H.; Paul, L.F.; Kranik, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an ion implant system for use in production requires that special attention be given to areas of design which normally are not emphasized on research or development type ion implanters. Manually operated, local controls are replaced by remote controls, automatic sequencing, and digital displays. For ease of maintenance and replication the individual components are designed as simply as possible and are contained in modules of separate identities, joined only by the beam line and electrical interconnections. A production environment also imposes requirements for the control of contamination and maintainability of clean room integrity. For that reason the major portion of the hardware is separated from the clean operator area and is housed in a maintenance core area. The controls of a production system should also be such that relatively unskilled technicians are able to operate the system with optimum repeatability and minimum operator intervention. An extensive interlock system is required. Most important, for use in production the ion implant system has to have a relatively high rate of throughput. Since the rate of throughput at a given dose is a function of beam current, pumpdown time and wafer handling capacity, design of components affecting these parameters has been optimized. Details of the system are given. (U.K.)

  13. Ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Dessouki, A.; El-Assay, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of using various types of ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters, by analysis of the decrease in exchange capacity with absorbed dose. The resins studied are Sojuzchim-export-Moscow Cation Exchanger KU-2 and Anion Exchanger AV-17 and Merck Cation Exchanger I, and Merck Anion Exchangers II and III. Over the dose range 1 to 100 kGy, the systems show linearity between log absorbed dose and decrease in resin ion exchange capacity. The slope of this response function differs for the different resins, depending on their ionic form and degree of cross-linking. The radiation sensitivity increases in the order KU-2; Exchanger I; AV-17; Exchanger II; Exchanger III. Merck resins with moisture content of 21% showed considerably higher radiation sensitivity than those with 2 to 3% moisture content. The mechanism of radiation-induced denaturing of the ion exchanger resins involves cleavage and decomposition of functional substituents, with crosslinking playing a stabilizing role, with water and its radiolytic products serving to inhibit radical recombination and interfering with the protection cage effect of crosslinking. (author)

  14. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-01-01

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles

  15. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  16. Highly porous carbon with large electrochemical ion absorption capability for high-performance supercapacitors and ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie; Wang, Rutao; Zhang, Yabin; Zhang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Carbon-based supercapacitors have attracted extensive attention as the complement to batteries, owing to their durable lifespan and superiority in high-power-demand fields. However, their widespread use is limited by the low energy storage density; thus, a high-surface-area porous carbon is urgently needed. Herein, a highly porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area up to 3643 m2 g-1 has been synthesized by chemical activation of papayas for the first time. This sp2-bonded porous carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form narrow mesopores of 2 ˜ 5 nm in width, which can be systematically tailored with varied activation levels. Two-electrode symmetric supercapacitors constructed by this porous carbon achieve energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 in aqueous electrolyte and 65.5 Wh kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, half-cells (versus Li or Na metal) using this porous carbon as ion sorption cathodes yield high specific capacity, e.g., 51.0 and 39.3 mAh g-1 in Li+ and Na+ based organic electrolyte. These results underline the possibility of obtaining the porous carbon for high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors and ion capacitors in a readily scalable and economical way.

  17. Highly porous carbon with large electrochemical ion absorption capability for high-performance supercapacitors and ion capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie; Wang, Rutao; Zhang, Yabin; Zhang, Li

    2017-11-03

    Carbon-based supercapacitors have attracted extensive attention as the complement to batteries, owing to their durable lifespan and superiority in high-power-demand fields. However, their widespread use is limited by the low energy storage density; thus, a high-surface-area porous carbon is urgently needed. Herein, a highly porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area up to 3643 m 2 g -1 has been synthesized by chemical activation of papayas for the first time. This sp 2 -bonded porous carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form narrow mesopores of 2 ∼ 5 nm in width, which can be systematically tailored with varied activation levels. Two-electrode symmetric supercapacitors constructed by this porous carbon achieve energy density of 8.1 Wh kg -1 in aqueous electrolyte and 65.5 Wh kg -1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, half-cells (versus Li or Na metal) using this porous carbon as ion sorption cathodes yield high specific capacity, e.g., 51.0 and 39.3 mAh g -1 in Li + and Na + based organic electrolyte. These results underline the possibility of obtaining the porous carbon for high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors and ion capacitors in a readily scalable and economical way.

  18. Effect of energy selection on quantitative analysis in secondary ion microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, I.M.; Solberg, T.N.; Smith, J.V.; Clayton, R.N.; Hutcheon, I.D.

    1977-01-01

    Systematic change of voltage on the components of the secondary ion (SI) extraction system of our AEI-IM20 ion microprobe produced major changes of relative intensities of secondary ions passing through the mass spectrometer. The repeller, which bends the SI beam through about 60 0 , has the greatest effect, and can be used to plot the energy distribution. The extractor and the deflecting and focusing components have smaller but significant effects. Because low-energy secondary ions have a near-symmetrical distribution, whereas high-energy ones have an assymetric distribution favoring high energies, tuning of the acceptance band to higher energy reduces interference from low-energy ions, which tend to be unwanted molecular ions, at the expense of reduced transmission. Tuning to lower energy increases interference but gives higher transmission. The former condition is desirable for instruments restricted to low mass resolution, whereas both conditions are valuable for instruments adjustable for both high and low mass resolution. Other important factors are (a) sensitivity to surface irregularities which perturb SI energy collection, and (b) change in derived 'temperatures' from thermodynamic sputtering models merely from tuning the energy acceptance band. Careful attention to the above factors yielded reproducible SI ratios for the binary series of plagioclase feldspars. (Auth.)

  19. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  20. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  1. High $p_{T}$ physics in the heavy ion era

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069922

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, this book provides an overview of the basic concepts of large transverse momentum particle physics, with a focus on pQCD phenomena. It examines high $p_{T}$ probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions and will serve as a handbook for those working on RHIC and LHC data analyses. Starting with an introduction and review of the field, the authors look at basic observables and experimental techniques, concentrating on relativistic particle kinematics, before moving onto a discussion about the origins of high $p_{T}$ physics. The main features of high $p_{T}$ physics are placed within a historical context and the authors adopt an experimental outlook, highlighting the most important discoveries leading up to the foundation of modern QCD theory. Advanced methods are described in detail, making this book especially useful for newcomers to the field.

  2. Extreme ultra-violet emission spectroscopy of highly charged gadolinium ions with an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A

    2013-01-01

    We present extreme ultra-violet emission spectra of highly charged gadolinium ions obtained with an electron beam ion trap at electron energies of 0.53–1.51 keV. The electron energy dependence of the spectra in the 5.7–11.3 nm range is compared with calculation with the flexible atomic code. (paper)

  3. Experimental investigations of single-electron detachment processes from H- ions colliding with MeV/u, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Imai, T.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Single electron detachment processes from negative hydrogen ions under collisions with MeV/u highly charged ions have been investigated using the so-called crossed-beams technique. The preliminary results of the single-electron detachment cross sections obtained is found to be in crude agreement with some empirical and theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  4. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line......-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross...

  5. Ion energy characteristics downstream of a high power helicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Roberson, B Race; Quetin, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    The High Power Helicon eXperiment operates at higher powers (37 kW) and lower background neutral pressure than other helicon experiments. The ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) has been measured at multiple locations downstream of the helicon source and a mach 3-6 flowing plasma was observed. The helicon antenna has a direct effect in accelerating the plasma downstream of the source. Also, the IVDF is affected by the cloud of neutrals from the initial gas puff, which keeps the plasma speed low at early times near the source.

  6. Ion energy characteristics downstream of a high power helicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Roberson, B Race; Quetin, Gregory [University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Box 351310, 4000 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail: jprager@u.washington.edu

    2008-05-01

    The High Power Helicon eXperiment operates at higher powers (37 kW) and lower background neutral pressure than other helicon experiments. The ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) has been measured at multiple locations downstream of the helicon source and a mach 3-6 flowing plasma was observed. The helicon antenna has a direct effect in accelerating the plasma downstream of the source. Also, the IVDF is affected by the cloud of neutrals from the initial gas puff, which keeps the plasma speed low at early times near the source.

  7. High-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruo-Jing; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Wan-Shu; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuan-Qi; Guo, Yin-Long

    2017-04-08

    The present work focused on the high-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino compounds (GCs) and ureido compounds (UCs) in human thyroid tissues. The strategy employed benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) for the sample preparation and then detection using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS). A short reversed-phase LC realized an on-line desalting and a measurement cycle of 5.0 min. DTIMS separation enhanced the better specificity and selectivity for the benzil labeled GCs and UCs. The elevated mass resolution of QTOF MS enabled measure of the characteristic ions at accurate mass in MS and tandem MS spectra. Collision cross section (CCS) from DTIMS and accurate mass from QTOF MS were used as two qualifiers for the profiling and identification of GCs and UCs. In addition, an integral abundance arising from 3-D ion features (retention time, drift time, m/z) was applied to quantify the GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. The quantitative validation indicated good linearity (coefficient values ≥ 0.9981), good precision (1.0%-12.3% for intra-day and 0.9%-7.8% for inter-day) and good accuracy (91%-109%). The results demonstrated that the developed BRSIL coupled with LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS can be a powerful analysis platform to investigate GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  9. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons

  10. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  11. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details

  14. Preparation and cooling of magnesium ion crystals for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murboeck, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    important step towards the sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions (HCI) and paves the way to future investigations of HCI, which will enable a stringent test of bound-state quantum electrodynamics. For supply of HCI to the SpecTrap experiment, the HITRAP low-energy beamline - including the pulsed drift tubes for ion deceleration and the electron beam ion source - were commissioned. Ion bunches containing several tens of thousands of argon ions (Ar{sup 13+}) were transported to the SpecTrap Penning trap. These ion numbers are sufficient for future spectroscopy of the fine structure splitting in boron-like Ar{sup 13+}. In future experiments, the HCI shall be delivered by HITRAP and will possess large kinetic energies immediate after capture into the Penning trap, so that initial sympathetic cooling is not very efficient. Therefore, the SpecTrap Penning trap features axial resonators for pre-cooling of the HCI to the kelvin-regime by means of resistive cooling. An analytical model for resistive cooling of highly charged ions was developed in this work, which for the first time explained the measured resistive cooling signals of HCI given in literature. This model allows for a deeper understanding of the interaction between radial and axial degrees of freedom, it predicts the set of experimental parameters for optimum cooling, and it provides the time evolution of the HCI density and temperature during the cooling process.

  15. Extraction of highly charged ions from the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap for interactions with a gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.I.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Fussmann, G.

    2006-01-01

    Highly charged ions are extracted from the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap for investigations of charge exchange with a gas target. The classical over-the-barrier model for slow highly charged ions describes this process, whereby one or more electrons are captured from the target into Rydberg states of the ion. The excited state relaxes via a radiative cascade of the electron to ground energy. The cascade spectra are characteristic of the capture state. We investigate x-ray photons emitted as a result of interactions between Ar 17+ ions at energies ≤5q keV with Ar atoms. Of particular interest is the velocity dependence of the angular momentum capture state l c

  16. STM and transport measurements of highly charged ion modified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A.C.; Gillaspy, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Careful measurements of highly charged ions (HCIs) colliding with gases and surfaces have provided glimpses of intense electronic interactions, but a comprehensive model for the interaction mechanisms, time scales, and resultant nano-features that bridges materials systems is yet to be realized. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, new apparatus is now connected to the HCI beamline to allow preparation of clean, atomically flat surfaces of single crystals, e.g. gold, tungsten and silicon, and deposition and patterning of thin films, e.g. high resistivity oxides, ferromagnetic metals, normal metals and superconductors. Experiments reported here focus on the electronic and morphological structure of HCI induced nano-features. Current activities are focused on using in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on Au(1 1 1) and (separately) ex situ transport measurements to study electronic properties within HCI modified magnetic multilayer systems. Specifically, we are fabricating magnetic multilayers similar to magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) (important in advanced magnetic field sensors and superconducting Josephson junction devices) and using HCIs to adjust critical electronic properties. The electrical response of the tunnel junction to HCIs provides a novel approach to performing HCI-induced nanostructure ensemble measurements

  17. High-spin nuclear structure studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1992-01-01

    Two important developments in the sixties, namely the advent of heavy-ion accelerators and fabrication of Ge detectors, opened the way for the experimental studies of nuclear properties at high angular momentum. Addition of a new degree of freedom, namely spin, made it possible to observe such fascinating phenomena as occurrences and coexistence of a variety of novel shapes, rise, fall and occasionally rebirth of nuclear collectivity, and disappearance of pairing correlations. Today, with the promise of development of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and construction of the third-generation Ge-detection systems (GAMMASPHERE and EUROBALL), nuclear physicists are poised to explore new and equally fascinating phenomena that have been hitherto inaccessible. With the addition of yet another dimension, namely the isospin, they will be able to observe and verify predictions for exotic shapes as varied as rigid triaxiality, hyperdeformation and triaxial-octupole shapes, or to investigate the T=O pairing correlations. In this paper, the author reviews, separately for neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei, these and a few other new high-spin physics opportunities that may be realized with RIB. Following this discussion, a list of the beam species, intensities and energies that are needed to fulfill these goals is presented. The paper concludes with a description of the experimental techniques and instrumentations that are required for these studies

  18. Setup of an ion-beam facility for the nanostructuration of 2D materials with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopster, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces. When an ion approaches a surface, its potential energy is deposited into the surface via a cascade of electronic processes. A strong electronic excitation of the surface results, which is localized in a nanometer sized region. As a consequence of further mechanisms, this excitation may lead to nanostructures being of topographic, structural or chemical modifications of the material. During this work, a setup of a complete ion beamline was constructed. The beamline offers production, focussing and charge separation of ion beams as well as irradiations of surfaces with highly charged ions. Additionally, new methods for beam profile and particle density analysis via Raman microscopy on graphene are presented. Experimental results of highly charged ions impinging on 2D materials provide the second part of this work. Ion induced nanostructures on lamellar materials, i.e. MoS 2 as well as single layers of graphene, could be identified and analyzed. Each of them were triggered by the potential energy of the ions. Processes of the ion surface interaction could be deduced qualitatively from the data. Local regions of enhanced friction on graphene could be detected by Friction Force Microscopy after irradiations. Thresholds for defect creation were established regarding the potential energy, which depend strongly on the kinetic energy of the ions. In terms of the over the barrier model, this dependency could be related to the time of flight the ion spends above the surface. Defects on irradiated graphene as well as on free standing graphene were analyzed via Raman microscopy. Possible dependencies of the defect diameters and nature on the layer number as well as on the presence of a substrate were proved. It was shown, that graphene becomes locally hydrogenated by the impact of highly charged ions. Such a chemical modification leads to an enhanced friction as well as to an appearance of defect modes

  19. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST

  20. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He + and mixed p, H 2+ , H 3+ beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was designed to perform

  1. A compact high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, T; Kirk, A T; Ahrens, A; Raddatz, C-R; Thoben, C; Zimmermann, S

    2016-04-01

    Electrospray is a commonly used ionization method for the analysis of liquids. An electrospray is a dispersed nebular of charged droplets produced under the influence of a strong electrical field. Subsequently, ions are produced in a complex process initiated by evaporation of neutral solvent molecules from these droplets. We coupled an electrospray ionization source to our previously described high resolution ion mobility spectrometer with 75 mm drift tube length and a drift voltage of 5 kV. When using a tritium source for chemical gas phase ionization, a resolving power of R=100 was reported for this setup. We replaced the tritium source and the field switching shutter by an electrospray needle, a desolvation region with variable length and a three-grid shutter for injecting ions into the drift region. Preliminary measurements with tetraalkylammonium halides show that the current configuration with the electrospray ionization source maintains the resolving power of R=100. In this work, we present the characterization of our setup. One major advantage of our setup is that the desolvation region can be heated separately from the drift region so that the temperature in the drift region stays at room temperature even up to desolvation region temperatures of 100 °C. We perform parametric studies for the investigation of the influence of temperature on solvent evaporation with different ratios of water and methanol in the solvent for different analyte substances. Furthermore, the setup is operated in negative mode and spectra of bentazon with different solvents are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  3. High Energy Ion Bombardment Simulation Facility at the University of Pittsburgh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGruer, J.N.; Choyke, W.J.; Doyle, N.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The High Energy Ion Bombardment Simulation (HEIBS) Facility located at the University of Pittsburgh is now operational. The E-22 tandem accelerator of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory, fitted with a UNIS source, provides the heavy high energy ions. An auxiliary Van de Graaff accelerator is used for the simultaneous production of He ions. Special features of the simulation laboratory are reported

  4. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Reheem, A. M., E-mail: amreheem2009@yahoo.com [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.N.13759, Cairo (Egypt); Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.

  5. Measurements of visible forbidden lines and ion distributions of tungsten highly charged ions at the LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2013-01-01

    Visible lines, which are presumably associated with forbidden lines from tungsten highly charged ions, were clearly observed in a spectrum of 370 - 410 nm recorded shortly after a tungsten pellet injection at the LHD. One of the measured lines has been assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W 26+ . Photon emission was observed at 44 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the lines along each line of sight indicates peaked profiles near the plasma center, while visible line emissions of neutral hydrogen and helium recoded in the same sampling time have a maximum located in the peripheral region of the poloidal cross section. (author)

  6. Prototype high current, high duty factor negative hydrogen ion source for LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Hayward, T.D.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Present plans for the high current proton storage ring at LAMPF incorporate charge changing (stripping) injection of H - ions in all modes of operation. Achievable stored current levels in this device will be strongly dependent on the maximum H - beam intensity which can be accelerated by the linac, consistent with acceptable beam spill. This requirement has stimulated a program to develop an H - ion source capable of providing a suitably high peak current (up to 25 mA) at high duty factor (up to 12 percent), with a normalized x,x' or y,y' emittance acceptable to the accelerating system. There are presently two main approaches which could lead to H - ion sources providing this kind of performance. These are (a) the charge exchange method, in which an intense proton beam is fractionally converted to H - beam in a suitable charge adding medium, and (b) the direct extraction method, in which H - ions are obtained by a surface emission process associated with a gas discharge plasma. While both approaches may eventually find optimum application in different situations, it is not obvious, at present, which scheme will turn out to be the most satisfactory for LAMPF. A prototype charge exchange H - ion source has been constructed as a first step in the development program and is presently being evaluated. Work on surface emission direct extraction techniques is in the planning stages. (U.S.)

  7. Characterization and control of wafer charging effects during high-current ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current, M.I.; Lukaszek, W.; Dixon, W.; Vella, M.C.; Messick, C.; Shideler, J.; Reno, S.

    1994-02-01

    EEPROM-based sense and memory devices provide direct measures of the charge flow and potentials occurring on the surface of wafers during ion beam processing. Sensor design and applications for high current ion implantation are discussed

  8. Computer Simulation Studies of Ion Channels at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Deok

    The gramicidin channel is the smallest known biological ion channel, and it exhibits cation selectivity. Recently, Dr. John Cuppoletti's group at the University of Cincinnati showed that the gramicidin channel can function at high temperatures (360 ˜ 380K) with significant currents. This finding may have significant implications for fuel cell technology. In this thesis, we have examined the gramicidin channel at 300K, 330K, and 360K by computer simulation. We have investigated how the temperature affects the current and differences in magnitude of free energy between the two gramicidin forms, the helical dimer (HD) and the double helix (DH). A slight decrease of the free energy barrier inside the gramicidin channel and increased diffusion at high temperatures result in an increase of current. An applied external field of 0.2V/nm along the membrane normal results in directly observable ion transport across the channels at high temperatures for both HD and DH forms. We found that higher temperatures also affect the probability distribution of hydrogen bonds, the bending angle, the distance between dimers, and the size of the pore radius for the helical dimer structure. These findings may be related to the gating of the gramicidin channel. Methanococcus jannaschii (MJ) is a methane-producing thermophile, which was discovered at a depth of 2600m in a Pacific Ocean vent in 1983. It has the ability to thrive at high temperatures and high pressures, which are unfavorable for most life forms. There have been some experiments to study its stability under extreme conditions, but still the origin of the stability of MJ is not exactly known. MJ0305 is the chloride channel protein from the thermophile MJ. After generating a structure of MJ0305 by homology modeling based on the Ecoli ClC templates, we examined the thermal stability, and the network stability from the change of network entropy calculated from the adjacency matrices of the protein. High temperatures increase the

  9. Collision experiment on highly ionized ions using vacuum spark source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Ohtani, S.; Kadota, K.; Fujita, J.

    1982-03-01

    Cross sections for one-electron capture by Fe 6 + in H 2 are measured below 10 keV by using a vacuum spark ion source. It is found that the cross sections show little dependence on the collision energy and this value is about 6 x 10 - 15 cm 2 . This ion source, which has no electrode for ion extraction, can produce ions from several hundreds eV to several tens of keV and the maximum charge state of 16 in Fe at 125J discharge energy. With ion selection system of 2.7 m time-of-flight and an electrostatic analyzer of 1% resolving power, 10 2 - 10 3 ions/pulse are obtained. Because of poor reproducibility of ion beam, charge-transferred ions and unreacted ions are measured simultaneously with a microchannel plate which has two anodes behind. By utilizing the feature of pulsed ion beam and this ion selection system, it is possible to obtain cross sections for various charge states of ions simultaneously. (author)

  10. Radiation therapy using high-energy heavy-ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    1995-01-01

    The clinical trial of the heavy-ion radiotherapy was started at June 1994 after pre-clinical experiments using 290 MeV/u carbon beam. In this paper, an irradiation system for the heavy-ion radiotherapy installed at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) and the physical characteristics of the therapeutic beam were discussed. (author)

  11. Corrosion behaviour of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    primary ions were used and negative secondary ions were detected. A difference in the distribution of the CrN and the alleged N signal was observed and attributed to CrN acting as a diffusion barrier for nitrogen diffusion. It may be noted here that nitrogen does not form stable elemental negative ions [2] and is thus.

  12. Comparison of secondary ion emission induced in silicon oxide by MeV and KeV ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.; Szymczak, W.; Wittmaack, K.

    1993-09-01

    The surface and near-surface composition of SiO 2 layers, has been investigated by negative secondary ion emission mass spectrometry (SIMS) using MeV and KeV ion bombardment in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis. The spectra recorded in the mass range 0-100 u are dominated by surface impurities, notably hydrocarbons and silicon polyanions incorporating H and OH entities. The characteristic (fragmentation) patterns are quite different for light and high-velocity ion impact. In high-velocity TOF-SIMS analysis of P-doped layers, prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), the mass lines at 63 and 79 u are very prominent and appear to correlate with the phosphorus concentration (PO 2 and PO 3 , respectively). It is shown, however, that for unambiguous P analysis one has to use dynamic SIMS or high mass resolution. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs

  13. High-temperature oxidation of ion-implanted tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Musket, R.G.; Truhan, J.J.; Grabowski, K.S.; Singer, I.L.; Gossett, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation of ion-implanted Ta in two different high temperature regimes has been studied. Oxidations were carried out at 500 0 C in Ar/O 2 mixtures, where oxide growth is known to follow a parabolic rate law in initial stages, and at 1000 0 C in pure O 2 , where a linear-rate behavior obtains. Implanted species include Al, Ce, Cr, Li, Si and Zr at fluences of the order of 10 17 /cm 2 . Oxidized samples were studied using Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, Auger spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Significant differences among the specimens were noted after the milder 500 0 C treatment, specifically, in the amount of oxide formed, the degree of oxygen dissolution in the metal beneath the oxide, and in the redistribution behavior of the implanted solutes. Under the severe 1000 0 C treatment, indications of different solute distributions and of different optical features were found, whereas overall oxidation rate appeared to be unaffected by the presence of the solute. 7 figures

  14. Anisotropy in highly charged ion induced molecule fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Fremont, F.; Chesnel, J.Y.; Hajaji, A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Studying fragmentation processes of biologically relevant molecules due to highly charged ion impact is important to understand radiation damage in biological tissues. Energy spectra of the charged molecule fragments may reveal the different fragmentation patterns meanwhile the angular distributions of the fragments characterize the dependence of fragmentation probability on the initial orientation of the molecule. The research to explore the angular distribution of the molecule fragments has only recently been started[1]. In 2006 we performed measurements at ARIBE facility at GANIL, Caen (France), in order to investigate orientation effects in molecule fragmentation. Fragmentation of H 2 O, C 6 H 6 and CH 4 , which represent different level of symmetry, have been studied by 60 keV N 6+ ion impact. Energy spectra of the charged fragments at different observation angles have been taken. As our example spectra show the different protonic peaks can be attributed to different fragmentation processes. Significant anisotropy can be seen in the different processes. The strongest evidence for the anisotropy can be seen in the spectra of C 6 H 6 , where the spectra appear isotropic in almost the whole observed energy range except one peak, which has a strong angular dependence and is maximal around 90 deg. (author)

  15. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand

  16. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP( ) summary.html

  17. Geometric and electronic structures of molecular ions from high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, K.O.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of heavy ion collision and of beam foil spectroscopy. It discusses the kinematic consequences of the high energies and presents results from ''Coulomb explosion'' and structure determination of molecular ions. It demonstrates that studies of molecular ions with accelerators can provide electronic and geometric structure information of molecules or molecular ions and points out that the understanding of the microscopic processes at such high energies is incomplete and needs further experimental and theoretical efforts

  18. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  19. Measurement of negative ion mobility in O2 at high pressures using a point plate gap as an ion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Y; Kimura, T; Suzuki, S; Itoh, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for negative ion mobility in O 2 at 0.5-2.0 atm. The ion mobility is observed using a high-pressure ion drift tube with a positive corona gap (Geiger counter), which is constructed from a point plate gap and acts as a negative ion detector. The variation of waveforms in the burst pulse is observed by varying the voltage applied to the ion detector to find the optimum voltage that must be applied across the ion detector in O 2 . This is investigated carefully to ensure the precise determination of mobility. The distortion of the electric field near the mesh electrode, which operates as the cathode of the ion detector and as the anode of the ion drift gap, is then examined to determine the optimum applied voltage to suppress its effect on the measurement of mobility. The mobility is subsequently measured at a reduced electric field intensity of 2.83 × 10 -3 to 2.83. The observed mobility of 2.31 ± 0.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in O 2 is concluded to be that of O 2 - . This value is also obtained in experiments over a wide range of gas pressures (0.5-2.0 atm) and drift lengths (1.00-9.00 cm). The mobilities of O 3 - and O - are also obtained experimentally. (paper)

  20. High dislocation density structures and hardening produced by high fluency pulsed-ion-beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkeev, Yu.P.; Didenko, A.N.; Kozlov, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a review of experimental data on the ''long-range effect'' (a change in dislocation structure and in physicomechanical properties at distances considerably greater than the ion range value in ion-implanted metallic materials and semiconductors). Our results of electron microscopy studies of high density dislocation structure in ion-implanted metallic materials with different initial states are given. It has been shown that the nature of the dislocation structure and its quantitative characteristics in the implanted metals and alloys depend on the target initial state, the ion type and energy and the retained dose. The data obtained by different workers are in good agreement both with our results and with each other as well as with the results of investigation of macroscopic characteristics (wear resistance and microhardness). It has been established that the ''long-range effect'' occurs in metallic materials with a low yield point or high plasticity level and with little dislocation density in their initial state prior to ion implantation. ((orig.))

  1. Electron transfer and decay processes of highly charged iodine ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Danjo, Atsunori; Hosaka, Kazumoto

    2005-01-01

    In the present experimental work we have investigated multi-electron transfer processes in I q+ (q=10, 15, 20 and 25) + Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe collisions at 1.5q keV energy. The branching ratios between Auger and radiative decay channels have been measured in decay processes of multiply excited states formed by multi-electron transfer collisions. It has been shown that, in all the multi-electron transfer processes investigated, the Auger decays are far dominant over the radiative decay processes and the branching ratios are clearly characterized by the average principal quantum number of the initial excited states of projectile ions. We could express the branching ratios in high Rydberg states formed in multi-electron transfer processes by using the decay probability of one Auger electron emission. (author)

  2. Vacancy supersaturations produced by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezia, V.C.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Jacobson, D.C.; Gossmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for detecting the vacancy clusters produced by high-energy ion implantation into silicon is proposed and tested. This technique takes advantage of the fact that metal impurities, such as Au, are gettered near one-half of the projected range (1/2 R p ) of MeV implants. The vacancy clustered region produced by a 2 MeV Si + implant into silicon has been labeled with Au diffused in from the front surface. The trapped Au was detected by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to profile the vacancy clusters. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analysis shows that the Au in the region of vacancy clusters is in the form of precipitates. By annealing MeV implanted samples prior to introduction of the Au, changes in the defect concentration within the vacancy clustered region were monitored as a function of annealing conditions

  3. Uncharted Frontiers in the Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Crespo, J; Kim, S H; Neill, P; Utter, S; Widmann, K

    2000-01-01

    The development of novel techniques is critical for maintaining a state-of-the-art core competency in atomic physics and readiness for evolving programmatic needs. We have carried out a three-year effort to develop novel spectroscopic instrumentation that added new dimensions to our capabilities for measuring energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and electron-ion excitation processes. The new capabilities created were in areas that heretofore had been inaccessible to scientific scrutiny and included high-resolution spectroscopy of hard x rays, femtosecond lifetime measurements, measurements of transition probabilities of long-lived metastable levels, polarization spectroscopy, ultra-precise determinations of energy levels, and the establishment of absolute wavelength standards in x-ray spectroscopy. Instrumentation developed during the period included a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, a flat-field EUV spectrometer, and the development and deployment of absolutely calibrated monolithic cry...

  4. SIMULATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS. I. HYDRODYNAMICS AND HIGH-VELOCITY HIGH IONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) traveling through the hot, tenuous medium in the Galactic halo. A suite of models was created using the FLASH hydrodynamics code, sampling various cloud sizes, densities, and velocities. In all cases, the cloud-halo interaction ablates material from the clouds. The ablated material falls behind the clouds where it mixes with the ambient medium to produce intermediate-temperature gas, some of which radiatively cools to less than 10,000 K. Using a non-equilibrium ionization algorithm, we track the ionization levels of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the gas throughout the simulation period. We present observation-related predictions, including the expected H I and high ion (C IV, N V, and O VI) column densities on sightlines through the clouds as functions of evolutionary time and off-center distance. The predicted column densities overlap those observed for Complex C. The observations are best matched by clouds that have interacted with the Galactic environment for tens to hundreds of megayears. Given the large distances across which the clouds would travel during such time, our results are consistent with Complex C having an extragalactic origin. The destruction of HVCs is also of interest; the smallest cloud (initial mass ∼ 120 M sun ) lost most of its mass during the simulation period (60 Myr), while the largest cloud (initial mass ∼ 4 x 10 5 M sun ) remained largely intact, although deformed, during its simulation period (240 Myr).

  5. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  6. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  7. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs

  8. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, John, E-mail: john-koo@amat.com; Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  9. Predissociation of high-lying Rydberg states of molecular iodine via ion-pair states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogomolov, Alexandr S. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaya Str. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Grüner, Barbara; Mudrich, Marcel [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kochubei, Sergei A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, ac. Lavrent' yev ave., 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Baklanov, Alexey V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaya Str. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    Velocity map imaging of the photofragments arising from two-photon photoexcitation of molecular iodine in the energy range 73 500–74 500 cm{sup −1} covering the bands of high-lying gerade Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g} has been applied. The ion signal was dominated by the atomic fragment ion I{sup +}. Up to 5 dissociation channels yielding I{sup +} ions with different kinetic energies were observed when the I{sub 2} molecule was excited within discrete peaks of Rydberg states and their satellites in this region. One of these channels gives rise to images of I{sup +} and I{sup −} ions with equal kinetic energy indicating predissociation of I{sub 2} via ion-pair states. The contribution of this channel was up to about 50% of the total I{sup +} signal. The four other channels correspond to predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states giving rise to excited iodine atoms providing I{sup +} ions by subsequent one-photon ionization by the same laser pulse. The ratio of these channels varied from peak to peak in the spectrum but their total ionic signal was always much higher than the signal of (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization of I{sub 2}, which was previously considered to be the origin of ionic signal in this spectral range. The first-tier E0{sub g}{sup +} and D{sup ′}2{sub g} ion-pair states are concluded to be responsible for predissociation of Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g}, respectively. Further predissociation of these ion-pair states via lower lying Rydberg states gives rise to excited I(5s{sup 2}5p{sup 4}6s{sup 1}) atoms responsible for major part of ion signal. The isotropic angular distribution of the photofragment recoil directions observed for all channels indicates that the studied Rydberg states are long-lived compared with the rotational period of the I{sub 2} molecule.

  10. Progress on precision measurements of inner shell transitions in highly charged ions at an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Csilla I.; Indelicato, Paul; LeBigot, Eric-Olivier; Vallette, Alexandre; Amaro, Pedro; Guerra, Mauro; Gumberidze, Alex [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie- Paris 6, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Centro de Fisica Atomica, CFA, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie- Paris 6, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2012-05-25

    Inner shell transitions of highly charged ions produced in the plasma of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) were observed the first time by a Double Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). The DCS is a well-used tool in precision x-ray spectroscopy due to its ability of precision wavelength measurement traced back to a relative angle measurement. Because of its requirement for a bright x-ray source the DCS has not been used before in direct measurements of highly charged ions (HCI). Our new precision measurement of inner shell transitions in HCI is not just going to provide new x-ray standards for quantum metrology but can also give information about the plasma in which the ions reside. Ionic temperatures and with that the electron density can be determined by thorough examination of line widths measured with great accuracy.

  11. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1992-06-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  12. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1993-01-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  13. Ion temperature anisotropy limitation in high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl E.; Keiter, Paul A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Boivin, Robert F.; Kline, John L.; Blackburn, Melanie; Gary, S. Peter

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) space simulation chamber display an inverse correlation between the upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy and the parallel ion beta (β=8πnkT/B 2 ). Fluctuation measurements indicate the presence of low frequency, transverse, electromagnetic waves with wave numbers and frequencies that are consistent with predictions for Alfven Ion Cyclotron instabilities. These observations are also consistent with in situ spacecraft measurements in the Earth's magnetosheath and with a theoretical/computational model that predicts that such an upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy is imposed by scattering from enhanced fluctuations due to growth of the Alfven ion cyclotron instability. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  15. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  16. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  17. High energy argon ion irradiations of polycrystalline iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Boulanger, L.

    1986-09-01

    We present here the results of our recent irradiations of polycrystalline iron targets with very energetic (1.76 GeV) Ar ions. The targets consist of piles of thin iron samples, the total thickness of each target being somewhat greater than the theoretical range (450 μm) of the ions. We can thus separate the phenomena which occur at different average energies of the ions and study during the slowing-down process: the different types of induced nuclear reactions. They allow us to determine the experimental range of the ions, the defect profiles in the targets, the structure of the displacement cascades (electron microscopy) and their stability

  18. Ion optics of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.; Ito, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ion optics for a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers have been investigated. The multiple focusing (triple isochronous focusing and triple spacial focusing) conditions can be achieved by using a symmetrical arrangement of the sectors in a mass spectrometer. Both high mass resolution and high ion transmission can be accomplished simultaneously. The principles of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS analyses using a TOF mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers have been proposed. Product ion spectra can be obtained by measuring the total flight times and the kinetic energy of the products without any additional separation processes, any coincidence techniques or any special timing circuits. In an experiment, MS/MS and MS/MS/MS mass spectra have been obtained. The first generation product ions have been produced by a metastable decay, and the second generation products have been produced by a sequential decay. (orig.)

  19. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission

  20. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  1. Photoconductivity studies of the ferrocyanide ion under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    The photoaquation of the ferrocyanide ion was studied using a high-pressure photoconductivity apparatus and a steady-state high-pressure mercury lamp. The first-order photocurrent rise-time could be related to the relative quantum efficiency of the photoaquation process, while the dark decay of the photocurrent yielded a relative value of the bimolecular rate-constant for the reverse reaction. Kinetic measurements were carried out on dilute solutions of potassium ferrocyanide in pure water, and in 20% ethanol. The photocurrent yield in aqueous solution was dependent upon secondary chemical equilibria which were sensitive to pressure in a predictable way. In ethanolic solution, the dependence of photocurrent yield on pressure followed the variation of the reciprocal solvent vicosity. In both aqueous and alcoholic solution, the photoaquation quantum efficiency decreased exponentially with pressure, as did the biomolecular rate-constant for the dark reaction in aqueous solution. The pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate-constant in the alcoholic solution indicated a diffusion-limited process. The pressure dependence of the photoaquation quantum yield, and of the bimolecular rate-constant in aqueous solution, was interpreted in terms of an activation volume model. The photoaquation data for both the aqueous and the alcoholic solutions agreed with a hypothetical mechanism whereby ligand-to-metal bond-breaking, and solvent-to-metal bond-formation, are effectively simultaneous. The results for the aqueous dark reaction strongly indicated breaking of the solvent-to-metal bond as the rate-limiting step.

  2. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  3. Some high-current ion sources for materials modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1989-01-01

    Ion sources for materials modification have evolved through three distinct generations. The first generation was adopted from research accelerators. These cold-cathode plasma-discharge devices generate beam currents of less than 100 μA. The hot-cathode plasma-discharge ion sources, originally developed for isotope separation, comprise the second generation. They produce between 100 μA and 10 mA of beam current. The third generation ion sources give beam currents in excess of 10 mA. This technology, transferred from industrial accelerators, has already made SIMOX (Separation by IMplanted OXygen) into a commercially viable semiconductor process and promises to do the same for ion implantation of metals and insulators. The author focuses on the third generation technology that will play a key role in the future of ion implantation. 10 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. High fluence effects on ion implantation stopping and range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Tek, Z.; Oeztarhan, A.; Akbas, N.; Brown, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a code STOPPO which can be used to modify the more-widely used ion implantation codes to more accurately predict the mean nuclear and electronic stopping power, preferential sputtering and range of heavy ions in monatomic target materials. In our simulations an effective atomic number and effective atomic mass are introduced into conveniently available analytical stopping cross-sections and a better fitting function for preferential sputtering yield is carefully evaluated for each ion implantation. The accuracy of the code confirmed experimentally by comparison with measured Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) concentration profiles for 130 keV Zr ions implanted into Be to fluences of 1 x 10 17 , 2 x 10 17 and 4 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . We find a steady increase in the mean nuclear and electronic stopping powers of the target; the increase in nuclear stopping power is much greater than the increase in electronic stopping power

  5. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  6. High harmonic ion cyclotron heating in DIII-D: Beam ion absorption and sawtooth stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mau, T.K.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Combined neutral beam injection and fast wave heating at the fourth cyclotron harmonic produce an energetic deuterium beam ion tail in the DIII-D tokamak. When the concentration of thermal hydrogen exceeds ∼ 5%, the beam ion absorption is suppressed in favour of second harmonic hydrogen absorption. As theoretically expected, the beam absorption increases with beam ion gyro-radius; also, central absorption at the fifth harmonic is weaker than central absorption at the fourth harmonic. For central heating at the fourth harmonic, an energetic, perpendicular, beam population forms inside the q = 1 surface. The beam ion tail transiently stabilizes the sawtooth instability but destabilizes toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). Saturation of the central heating correlates with the onset of the TAEs. Continued expansion of the q = 1 radius eventually precipitates a sawtooth crash; complete magnetic reconnection is observed. (author)

  7. Ion-ion coincidence imaging at high event rate using an in-vacuum pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jingming; Furch, Federico J.; Durá, Judith; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John; Schulz, Claus Peter; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-07-01

    A new ion-ion coincidence imaging spectrometer based on a pixelated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector has been developed for the investigation of molecular ionization and fragmentation processes in strong laser fields. Used as a part of a velocity map imaging spectrometer, the detection system is comprised of a set of microchannel plates and a Timepix detector. A fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) is used to enhance the ion time-of-flight resolution by correlating timestamps registered separately by the Timepix detector and the TDC. In addition, sub-pixel spatial resolution (principle experiment on strong field dissociative double ionization of carbon dioxide molecules (CO2), using a 400 kHz repetition rate laser system. The experimental results demonstrate that the spectrometer can detect multiple ions in coincidence, making it a valuable tool for studying the fragmentation dynamics of molecules in strong laser fields.

  8. "Electron/Ion Sponge"-Like V-Based Polyoxometalate: Toward High-Performance Cathode for Rechargeable Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Bowei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Huanhuan; Tian, Bingbing; Chen, Minghua; Fan, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yizhong; Sum, Tze Chien; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2017-07-25

    One key challenge facing room temperature Na-ion batteries lies in identifying earth-abundant, environmentally friendly and safe materials that can provide efficient Na + storage sites in Na-ion batteries. Herein, we report such a material, polyoxometalate Na 2 H 8 [MnV 13 O 38 ] (NMV), with entirely different composition and structure from those cathode compounds reported before. Ex-situ XPS and FTIR analyses reveal that NMV cathode behaves like an "electron/Na-ion sponge", with 11 electrons/Na + acceptability per mole, which has a decisive contribution to the high capacity. The extraordinary structural features, evidenced by X-ray crystallographic analysis, of Na 2 H 8 [MnV 13 O 38 ] with a flexible 2D lamellar network and 1D open channels provide diverse Na ion migration pathways, yielding good rate capability. First-principle calculations demonstrate that a super-reduced state, [MnV 13 O 38 ] 20- , is formed with slightly expanded size (ca. 7.5%) upon Na + insertion compared to the original [MnV 13 O 38 ] 9- . This "ion sponge" feature ensures the good cycling stability. Consequently, benefiting from the combinations of "electron/ion sponge" with diverse Na + diffusion channels, when revealed as the cathode materials for Na-ion batteries, Na 2 H 8 [MnV 13 O 38 ]/G exhibits a high specific capacity (ca. 190 mA h/g at 0.1 C), associates with a good rate capability (130 mA h/g at 1 C), and a good capacity retention (81% at 0.2 C). Our results promote better understanding of the storage mechanism in polyoxometalate host, enrich the existing rechargeable SIBs cathode chemistry, and enlighten an exciting direction for exploring promising cathode materials for Na-ion batteries.

  9. Development of a high brightness ion source for IFMIF and preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iga, Takashi; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Kashiwagi, Mieko

    2001-05-01

    Development of a high brightness ion source for the 40MeV/250mA deuteron beam accelerator, IFMIF, is in progress at JAERI. A prototype ion source using hot filament cathodes has been developed. This ion source consists of a multi-cusp plasma generator and a two-stage accelerator. Beam optics has been investigated at the energy of up to 60keV. Experimental results of the beam optics agreed well with the simulation by assuming that the equivalent ion mass is 2.38. Ion beam of 60keV/100mA H+, which corresponds to ion beam of 100keV/220mA D+, was obtained with optimum perveance (minimum divergence). This result indicates that the current requirement for the IFMIF ion source would be satisfied with this ion source. (author)

  10. Features of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics of plasma ions in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A F; Fomichev, S V

    2003-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence and laser absorption spectroscopies of plasma ions in high magnetic fields have been investigated. Both the high degree of Zeeman splitting of the resonant transitions and the ion rotational movement drastically change the properties of the resonance interaction of the continuous wave laser radiation with ions in highly magnetized plasma. Numerical solution of the density matrix equation for a dissipative two-level system with time-dependent detuning from resonance was used to analyse this interaction. A theoretical simulation was performed and compared with the experimental results obtained from the laser spectroscopy diagnostics of barium plasma ions in high magnetic fields in the several tesla range

  11. Preparation of cold Mg{sup +}ion clouds for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions at SPECTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazan, Radu Mircea

    2012-02-15

    The bound electrons in hydrogen-like or lithium-like heavy ions experience extremely strong electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding of the nucleus. Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in the lead region provides a sensitive tool to test strong-field quantum electro dynamics (QED), especially in the magnetic sector. Previous measurements on hydrogen-like systems performed in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) or at the experimental storage ring (ESR) were experimentally limited in accuracy due to statistics, the large Doppler broadening and the ion energy. The full potential of the QED test can only be exploited if measurements for hydrogen- and lithium-like ions are performed with accuracy improved by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Therefore, the new Penning trap setup SPECTRAP - dedicated for laser spectroscopy on trapped and cooled highly charged ions - is currently commissioned at GSI Darmstadt. Heavy highly charged ions will be delivered to this trap by the HITRAP facility in the future. SPECTRAP is a cylindrical Penning trap with axial access for external ion injection and radial optical access mounted inside a cold-bore superconducting Helmholtz-type split-coil magnet. To reach the targeted accuracy in laser spectroscopy, an efficient and fast cooling process for the highly charged ions must be employed. This can be realized by sympathetic cooling with a cloud of laser-cooled light ions. Within this thesis work, a laser system and an ion source for the production of such a {sup 24}Mg{sup +} ion cloud was developed and commissioned at SPECTRAP. An all-solid-state laser system for the generation of 279.6 nm light was designed and built. It consists of a fiber laser at 1118.5 nm followed by frequency quadrupling using two successive second-harmonic generation stages with actively stabilized ring resonators and nonlinear crystals. The laser system can deliver more than 15 mW of UV laser power under optimal conditions and requires little

  12. Surface modifications of polypropylene by high energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies using 3 MV tandem accelerator. The surface modification was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical changes were monitored by UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopy. At the lowest ion fluence, only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) was observed. Polymer when irradiated at a fluence of 1x10 14 ions/cm 2 exhibited a network structure. A comparative study on dose dependence of surface and bulk modification has been described. (author)

  13. High-intensity light-ion beam research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Colombant, D.G.; Barker, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    High-brightness proton beams (.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm 2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of GT 10 TW/cm 2 rad 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equitorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA-II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about .25 MA/cm 2 . Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>= 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport, plasma-filled, magnetic-focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  14. High performance maleated lignocellulose epicarp fibers for copper ion removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural lignocellulosic fiber epicarp extracted from the babassu coconut (Orbignya speciosa was chemically modified through reaction with molten maleic anhydride without solvent, with incorporation of 189.34 mg g-1 of carboxylic acid groups into the biopolymer structure. The success of this reaction was also confirmed by the presence of carboxylic acid bands at 1741 and 1164 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum. Identically, the same group is observed through 13C NMR CP/MAS in the solid state, via high field signals in the 167 pm region. Both the precursor and the immobilized maleated biopolymers presented nearly the same thermal stability and similar crystallinity to cellulose. However, the pendant carboxylic groups have the ability to remove copper with maximum sorption through a batchwise process at pH 6.0, as expected from the point of zero charge, determined to be 6.45. The sorption kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich-chemisorption and intra-particle diffusion models and the equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich and Tenkim isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function and determination coefficients, the data were fit to the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum sorption capacity of copper ions of 55.09 mg g-1. This value suggests the application of this biopolymer with incorporated carboxylate groups as a favorable agent for copper removal from appropriate systems.

  15. Quantum interference in laser spectroscopy of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Pedro; Loureiro, Ulisses; Safari, Laleh; Fratini, Filippo; Indelicato, Paul; Stöhlker, Thomas; Santos, José Paulo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum interference induced shifts between energetically close states in highly charged ions, with the energy structure being observed by laser spectroscopy. In this work, we focus on hyperfine states of lithiumlike heavy-Z isotopes and quantify how much quantum interference changes the observed transition frequencies. The process of photon excitation and subsequent photon decay for the transition 2 s →2 p →2 s is implemented with fully relativistic and full-multipole frameworks, which are relevant for such relativistic atomic systems. We consider the isotopes 79+207Pb and 80+209Bi due to experimental interest, as well as other examples of isotopes with lower Z , namely 56+141Pr and 64+165Ho. We conclude that quantum interference can induce shifts up to 11% of the linewidth in the measurable resonances of the considered isotopes, if interference between resonances is neglected. The inclusion of relativity decreases the cross section by 35%, mainly due to the complete retardation form of the electric dipole multipole. However, the contribution of the next higher multipoles (e.g., magnetic quadrupole) to the cross section is negligible. This makes the contribution of relativity and higher-order multipoles to the quantum interference induced shifts a minor effect, even for heavy-Z elements.

  16. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Borghesi, M.; Tebartz, A.; Ding, J.; Neumann, N.; Astbury, S.; Carroll, D. C.; Scott, G. G.; Higginson, A.; McKenna, P.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  18. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Tebartz, A.; Ding, J.; Neumann, N. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Astbury, S.; Carroll, D. C.; Scott, G. G. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, A.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Wagner, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  19. High resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer for full spectral capture of multi-species ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Tebartz, A.; Ahmed, H.; Astbury, S.; Carroll, D. C.; Ding, J.; Doria, D.; Higginson, A.; McKenna, P.; Neumann, N.; Scott, G. G.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation of laser-driven ion beams using a Thomson Parabola Spectrometer (TPS) equipped with trapezoidally shaped electric plates, proposed by Gwynne et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 033304 (2014)]. While a pair of extended (30 cm long) electric plates was able to produce a significant increase in the separation between neighbouring ion species at high energies, deploying a trapezoidal design circumvented the spectral clipping at the low energy end of the ion spectra. The shape of the electric plate was chosen carefully considering, for the given spectrometer configuration, the range of detectable ion energies and species. Analytical tracing of the ion parabolas matches closely with the experimental data, which suggests a minimal effect of fringe fields on the escaping ions close to the wedged edge of the electrode. The analytical formulae were derived considering the relativistic correction required for the high energy ions to be characterised using such spectrometer.

  20. Phase stability and microstructures of high entropy alloys ion irradiated to high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Songqin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Gao, Michael C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, 1450 Queen Ave SW, Albany, OR, 97321 (United States); AECOM, P.O. Box 1959, Albany, OR, 97321 (United States); Yang, Tengfei [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996 (United States); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: drzhangy@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The microstructures of Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi (x = 0.1, 0.75 and 1.5 in molar ratio) high entropy alloys (HEAs) irradiated at room temperature with 3 MeV Au ions at the highest fluence of 105, 91, and 81 displacement per atom, respectively, were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analyses show that the initial microstructures and phase composition of all three alloys are retained after ion irradiation and no phase decomposition is observed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) and disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phases show much less defect cluster formation and structural damage than the NiAl-type ordered B2 phase. This effect is explained by higher entropy of mixing, higher defect formation/migration energies, substantially lower thermal conductivity, and higher atomic level stress in the disordered phases.

  1. The interactions of high-energy, highly-charged ions with fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered a new form of carbon, the fullerene, C 60 , which consists of 60 carbon atoms in a closed cage resembling a soccer ball. In 1990, Kritschmer et al. were able to make macroscopic quantities of fullerenes. This has generated intense activity to study the properties of fullerenes. One area of research involves collisions between fullerenes and atoms, ions or electrons. In this paper we describe experiments involving interactions between fullerenes and highly charged ions in which the center-of-mass energies exceed those used in other work by several orders of magnitude. The high values of projectile velocity and charge state result in excitation and decay processes differing significantly from those seen in studies 3 at lower energies. Our results are discussed in terms of theoretical models analogous to those used in nuclear physics and this provides an interesting demonstration of the unity of physics

  2. High-current heavy-ion accelerator system and its application to material modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Lee, C.G.; Umeda, Naoki; Okubo, Nariaki; Iwamoto, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A high-current heavy-ion accelerator system has been developed to realize intense particle fluxes for material modification. The facility of a tandem accelerator attained 1 mA-class ion current both for negative low-energy ions and positive high-energy ions. The negative ion source of the key device is of the plasma-sputter type, equipped with mutli-cusp magnets and Cs supply. The intense negative ions are either directly used for material irradiation at 60 keV or further accelerated up to 6 MeV after charge transformation. Application of negative ions, which alleviates surface charging, enables us to conduct low-energy high-current irradiation on insulating substrates. Since positive ions above the MeV range are irrelevant for Coulomb repulsion, the facility as a whole meets the needs of high-current irradiation onto insulators over a wide energy range. Application of high flux ions provides technological merits not only for efficient implantation but also for essentially different material kinetics, which may become an important tool of material modification. Other advantages of the system are co-irradiation by intense laser and in-situ detection of kinetic processes. For examples of material modifications, we present nanoparticle fabrication in insulators, and synergistic phenomena by co-irradiation due to ions and photons. (author)

  3. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U 90+ beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  4. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  5. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Choudhury, Snehashis; Zachman, Michael J.; Wei, Shuya; Zhang, Kaihang; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode

  6. Electrostatic ion trap and Fourier transform measurements for high-resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K. G.; Gadkari, S. C.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of an electrostatic ion trap for high-resolution mass spectrometry. The trap works on purely electrostatic fields and hence trapping and storing of ions is not mass restrictive, unlike other techniques based on Penning, Paul, or radio frequency quadrupole ion traps. It allows simultaneous trapping and studying of multiple mass species over a large mass range. Mass spectra were recorded in ''dispersive'' and ''self-bunching'' modes of ions. Storage lifetimes of about 100 ms and mass resolving power of about 20 000 could be achieved from the fifth harmonic Fourier transform spectrum of Xe ions recorded in the self-bunching mode

  7. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  8. Hierarchically porous carbon with high-speed ion transport channels for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haoyuan; Li, Qingwei; Guo, Jianhui; Song, Aixin; Gong, Chunhong; Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Jingwei

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically porous carbons (HPC) are considered as promising electrode materials for supercapacitors, due to their outstanding charge/discharge cycling stabilities and high power densities. However, HPC possess a relatively low ion diffusion rate inside the materials, which challenges their application for high performance supercapacitor. Thus tunnel-shaped carbon pores with a size of tens of nanometers were constructed by inducing the self-assembly of lithocholic acid with ammonium chloride, thereby providing high-speed channels for internal ion diffusion. The as-formed one-dimensional pores are beneficial to the activation process by KOH, providing a large specific surface area, and then facilitate rapid transport of electrolyte ions from macropores to the microporous surfaces. Therefore, the HPC achieve an outstanding gravimetric capacitance of 284 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and a remarkable capacity retention of 64.8% when the current density increases by 1000 times to 100 A g-1.

  9. High-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ruo-Jing; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Wan-Shu; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuan-Qi; Guo, Yin-Long

    2017-01-01

    The present work focused on the high-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino compounds (GCs) and ureido compounds (UCs) in human thyroid tissues. The strategy employed benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) for the sample preparation and then detection using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS). A short reversed-phase LC realized an on-line desalting and a measurement cycle of 5.0 min. DTIMS separation enhanced the better specificity and selectivity for the benzil labeled GCs and UCs. The elevated mass resolution of QTOF MS enabled measure of the characteristic ions at accurate mass in MS and tandem MS spectra. Collision cross section (CCS) from DTIMS and accurate mass from QTOF MS were used as two qualifiers for the profiling and identification of GCs and UCs. In addition, an integral abundance arising from 3-D ion features (retention time, drift time, m/z) was applied to quantify the GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. The quantitative validation indicated good linearity (coefficient values ≥ 0.9981), good precision (1.0%–12.3% for intra-day and 0.9%–7.8% for inter-day) and good accuracy (91%–109%). The results demonstrated that the developed BRSIL coupled with LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS can be a powerful analysis platform to investigate GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. - Highlights: • The separation power of DTIMS-MS enhanced peak capacity, spectral clarity, and specificity of benzil labeled GCs and UCs. • Short-column LC for on-line desalting increased the throughput with a measurement cycle of 5.0 min. • CCS and accurate mass as a pair of qualifiers were used for the profiling and identification of GCs and UCs. • An integral abundance arising from 3-D ion features (RT, DT, m/z) was used as a novel quantifier for quantitation. • The developed method was applied to screen and quantify the GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues.

  10. High-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ruo-Jing [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Fang, E-mail: fzhang@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Wan-Shu [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuan-Qi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Guo, Yin-Long, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2017-04-08

    The present work focused on the high-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino compounds (GCs) and ureido compounds (UCs) in human thyroid tissues. The strategy employed benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) for the sample preparation and then detection using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS). A short reversed-phase LC realized an on-line desalting and a measurement cycle of 5.0 min. DTIMS separation enhanced the better specificity and selectivity for the benzil labeled GCs and UCs. The elevated mass resolution of QTOF MS enabled measure of the characteristic ions at accurate mass in MS and tandem MS spectra. Collision cross section (CCS) from DTIMS and accurate mass from QTOF MS were used as two qualifiers for the profiling and identification of GCs and UCs. In addition, an integral abundance arising from 3-D ion features (retention time, drift time, m/z) was applied to quantify the GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. The quantitative validation indicated good linearity (coefficient values ≥ 0.9981), good precision (1.0%–12.3% for intra-day and 0.9%–7.8% for inter-day) and good accuracy (91%–109%). The results demonstrated that the developed BRSIL coupled with LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS can be a powerful analysis platform to investigate GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. - Highlights: • The separation power of DTIMS-MS enhanced peak capacity, spectral clarity, and specificity of benzil labeled GCs and UCs. • Short-column LC for on-line desalting increased the throughput with a measurement cycle of 5.0 min. • CCS and accurate mass as a pair of qualifiers were used for the profiling and identification of GCs and UCs. • An integral abundance arising from 3-D ion features (RT, DT, m/z) was used as a novel quantifier for quantitation. • The developed method was applied to screen and quantify the GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues.

  11. Heavy ion scattering: High energy limits of RBS and ERD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauhala, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 7 Li ions by oxygen and 12 C, 14 N and 16 O ions by aluminum, silicon, titanium and sulfur have been studied below the Coulomb barrier energies 3-30 MeV in the angular range of 78 degrees - 170 degrees. By kinematically reversing the reactions, the recoiling of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen by 40-100 MeV 27 Al, 28 Si, 32S and 48 Ti ions into recoil angles of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees has also been investigated. Excitation functions and angular distributions are presented. Contrary to the case of light H and He ions, the heavy ion scattering cross sections fall off rapidly above the non-Rutherford threshold energy, rendering heavy ion RBS and ERD spectrometry worthless. Both classical and wave mechanical calculations have been attempted for predicting the RBS threshold energies. Simple calculations give moderate accuracy, while the more extensive nuclear potential perturbation approach relies on parameters fitted for the particular experiment. The authors present a general classical semi-empirical model for both direct scattering (RBS) and the kinematically reversed reactions (ERD), accurately reproducing the experimental data. The model is based on parameters fitted from the present scattering experiments and from an extensive literature survey

  12. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of 2s l/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U 82+ through U 89+ have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer -39.21 ± 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 transition energy of lithiumlike U 89+ . A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell

  13. Cluster ion formation during sputtering processes: a complementary investigation by ToF-SIMS and plasma ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, T; Ellmer, K; Mändl, S

    2014-01-01

    Plasma ion mass spectrometry using a plasma process monitor (PPM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have been complementarily employed to investigate the sputtering and ion formation processes of Al-doped zinc oxide. By comparing the mass spectra, insights on ion formation and relative cross-sections have been obtained: positive ions as measured during magnetron sputtering by PPM are originating from the plasma while those in SIMS start at the surface leading to large differences in the mass spectra. In contrast, negative ions originating at the surface will be accelerated through the plasma sheath. They arrive at the PPM after traversing the plasma nearly collisionless as seen from the rather similar spectra. Hence, it is possible to combine the high mass resolution of ToF-SIMS to obtain insight for separating cluster ions, e.g. Zn x and ZnO y , and the energy resolution of PPM to find fragmentation patterns for negative ions. While the ion formation processes during both experiments can be assumed to be similar, differences may arise due to the lower volume probed by SIMS. In the latter case, there is a chance of small target inhomogeneities being able to be enhanced and lower surface temperatures leading to less outgassing and, thus, retention of volatile compounds. (paper)

  14. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  15. Preparation of inorganic ion exchangers with high selectivity for lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Development of ion exchangers that show large lithium isotope effects is hoped for to establish highly efficient chromatographic processes of lithium isotope separation. In this paper, preparation, characterization, ion exchange properties, and lithium isotope selectivity of inorganic materials that have been and still are being studied by my research group at Sophia University are reviewed. They include manganese oxides-based ion exchangers, antimonic acids and titanium/zirconium phosphates-based ion exchangers. As a result, the lithium isotope separation effects that were one order of magnitude larger than those of organic ion exchangers were obtained. Some inorganic ion exchangers were found to show ion exchange rates more than comparable to those of organic ones. (author)

  16. Effects of high-energy (MeV) ion implantation of polyester films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Noshiro, Mitsuru; Satou, Mamoru

    1991-01-01

    The effects of high-energy ion beam irradiation on polyester (PET) films using a 3 MeV tandem-type ion beam accelerator were studied. O, Ni, Pt, and Au as ion species were irradiated at 10 14 -10 15 ions/cm 2 on 50 μm thick PET films. Physical properties and molecular structure changes were studied by the surface resistivity measurements and RBS. The surface resistivity decreases with an increase in irradiation dose. At 10 15 ions/cm 2 irradiation, the surface resistivity is 10 8 Ω/□. According to RBS and XPS analyses, some carbon and oxygen atoms in the PET are replaced by implanted ions and the -C=O bonds are destroyed easily by the ion beam. (orig.)

  17. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Full

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high continuous wave beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and continuous wave beam currents in the range of 1–20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates of the ions while employing bunch gaps, and the sinusoidal shaking frequency necessary for clearing via beam shaking. In all cases, we achieve a maximum ion clearing of at least 70% or higher, and in some cases our data is consistent with full ion clearing.

  18. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  19. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Greubel, C.; Peeper, K. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Hartung, P. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m{sup -2} rad{sup -2} eV{sup -1} directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1}. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H{sup -}-current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 {mu}A because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1} in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  20. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  1. Comparison of biomolecule desorption yields for low and high energy primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamensky, I.; Hakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.; McNeal, C.J.; MacFarlane, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion induced desorption yields of molecular ions from samples of cesium iodide, glycylglycine, ergosterol, bleomycin and a trinucleoside diphosphate have been studied using primary beams of 54 MeV 63 Cu 9+ and 3 keV 133 Cs + . Mass analysis was performed with a time-of-flight technique. Each sample was studied with the same spectrometer for both low and high energy primary ions and without opening of the vacuum chamber in between the measurements. The results show that fast heavy ions give larger yields for all samples studied and that the yield ratios for high to low energy desorption increase with the mass of the sample molecule. (orig.)

  2. The ion mobility spectrometer for high explosive vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.J.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Phemto-Chem /SUP R/ Model 100 Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) operates in air and measures a number of explosive vapors at levels as low as partsper-trillion in seconds. The theory and operation of this instrument is discussed. The IMS inhales the vapor sample in a current of air and generates characteristic ions which are separated by time-of -ion drift in the atmospheric pressure gas. Quantitative results, using a dilution tunnel and standard signal generator with TNT, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, cyclohexanone, methylamine, octafluoronaphthalene and hexafluorobenzene, are given. Rapid sample treatment with sample concentrations, microprocessor signal readout and chemical identification, offer a realistic opportunity of rapid explosive vapor detection at levels down to 10 -14 parts by volume in air

  3. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  4. Mass analyzer ``MASHA'' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenkov, A. G.; Rassadov, D. N.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bystrov, V. A.; Chizov, A. Yu.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Efremov, A. A.; Guljaev, A. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Voskresensky, V. M.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Paschenko, S. V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V. I.

    2004-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10-3. First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency.

  5. Mass analyzer 'MASHA' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, A.G.; Rassadov, D.N.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bystrov, V.A.; Chizov, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Efremov, A.A.; Guljaev, A.V.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Voskresensky, V.M.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Paschenko, S.V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency

  6. High ion temperatures from buried layers irradiated with Vulcan Petawatt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, S.; Schreiber, J.; Willingale, L.; Lancaster, K.; Habara, H.; Nilson, P.; Gopal, A.; Wei, M. S.; Stoeckl, C.; Evans, R.; Clarke, R.; Heathcote, R.; Najmudin, Z.; Krushelnick, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    Deuteron acceleration from CH/CD/CH layer targets irradiated with PW laser pulses has been studied using. Thomson parabola spectrometers and neutron TOF spectroscopy. The measured ion and neutron spectra reveal significant MeV deuteron acceleration from the deeply buried CD layer, which scales with the thickness of the overlying CH layer. While the neutron spectra reveal the scaling of the thermal heating with target thickness, the ion spectra indicate the presence of an efficient nonthermal acceleration mechanism inside. the bulk. Possible explanations will be discussed. (Author)

  7. Characteristics of a high current ion source operated with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay, H.L.; Dullni, E.; Leismann, P.

    1986-05-01

    A low pressure arc ion source has been tested for operation with lithium. Currents up to 120 mA could be extracted through a multiple aperture extraction system at energies of 30 keV. The ion beam was neutralized up to 70% in a charge exchange cell filled with lithium vapour. The beam divergence ranged from 20 to 25 mrad full angle deduced from the spatial distribution of the collision induced Li I resonance line. Current densities from 2 to 3 mA/m 2 at a distance of 1.9 m from the source were measured either by laser induced fluorescence or with a Faraday cup. (orig.)

  8. Formation and termination of High ion temperature mode in Heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Kondo, K.; Nagasaki, K.

    1997-01-01

    Physics of the formation and termination of High ion temperature mode (high T i mode) are studied by controlling density profiles and radial electric field. High ion temperature mode is observed for neutral beam heated plasmas in Heliotron/torsatron plasmas (Heliotron-E). This high T i mode plasma is characterized by a peaked ion temperature profile and is associated with a peaked electron density profile produced by neutral beam fueling with low wall recycling. This high T i mode is terminated by flattening the electron density caused by either gas puffing or second harmonic ECH (core density 'pump-out'). (author)

  9. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N; Evans, P J; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1997-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Plasma ion emission from high intensity picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Norreys, P.A.; Beg, F.N.; Bell, A.R.; Dangor, A.E.; Danson, C.N.; Lee, P.; Rose, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The fast ion emission from high intensity, picosecond laser plasmas has been measured to give the characteristic ion energy and the amount of laser energy transferred to ions with energies ≥100 keV/nucleon as a function of incident intensity. The characteristic ion energy varies from 0.2 to 1.3 MeV over the range 2.0x10 17 --2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Ten percent of the laser energy is transferred into MeV ions at 2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Calculations of stopping power in high density materials are presented that show that fast ions cannot be ignored in modeling fast ignitor schemes

  12. High time resolution characteristics of intermediate ion distributions upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    High time resolution particle data upstream of the bow shock during time intervals that have been identified as having intermediate ion distributions often show high amplitude oscillations in the ion fluxes of energy 2 and 6 keV. These ion oscillations, observed with the particle instruments of the University of California, Berkeley, on the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, are at the same frequency (about 0.04 Hz) as the magnetic field oscillations. Typically, the 6-keV ion flux increases then the 2-keV flux increases followed by a decrease in the 2-keV flux and then the 6-keV flux decreases. This process repeats many times. Although there is no entirely satisfactory explanation, the presence of these ion flux oscillations suggests that distributions often are misidentified as intermediate ion distributions.

  13. High-precision x-ray spectroscopy of highly charged ions with microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S; Andrianov, V; Bleile, A; Echler, A; Egelhof, P; Grabitz, P; Ilieva, S; Kiselev, O; Meier, J; Kilbourne, C; McCammon, D

    2013-01-01

    The precise determination of the energy of the Lyman α1 and α2 lines in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. To improve the experimental precision, the new detector concept of microcalorimeters is now exploited for such measurements. Such detectors consist of compensated-doped silicon thermistors and Pb or Sn absorbers to obtain high quantum efficiency in the energy range of 40–70 keV, where the Doppler-shifted Lyman lines are located. For the first time, a microcalorimeter was applied in an experiment to precisely determine the transition energy of the Lyman lines of lead ions at the experimental storage ring at GSI. The energy of the Ly α1 line E(Ly-α1, 207 Pb 81+ ) = (77937 ± 12 stat ± 25 syst ) eV agrees within error bars with theoretical predictions. To improve the experimental precision, a new detector array with more pixels and better energy resolution was equipped and successfully applied in an experiment to determine the Lyman-α lines of gold ions 197 Au 78+ . (paper)

  14. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  15. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  16. Design philosophy and use of high voltage power systems for multi-megawatt ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, G.C.; Broverman, A.Y.; Hill, R.E.; Loring, C.M.; Ponte, N.S.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for a neutral beam high voltage power system are derived from the characteristics of the ion source. High voltage system component characteristic requirements and choices are described

  17. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  18. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Creissen, Alain V.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-07

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it had many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices one could employ in their studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus Subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  19. Simulation of electron and ion bipolar flow in high current diode with magnetic insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, P.; Engelko, V.I.

    1990-08-01

    Numerical simulation of the formation of the collector ion flow in a magnetically insulated ion diode (MID) with a hollow cylindrical and cone-shaped cathode was studied. Such cathodes are often used for the production of tubular high current microsecond electron beams. The ions, emitted by the collector and born as a result of ionization of the residual gas by the electron beam, are focused into the cathode plasma region. This effect can adversely influence the diode operation

  20. Characterization of high-T/sub c/ Nb--Ge thin films by ion scattering, ion-induced x-rays, and ion resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.W.; Appleton, E.R.; Murphree, Q.C.; Gavaler, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Thin films of high-T/sub c/ (21-22 0 K) Nb--Ge were analyzed using three ion bombardment techniques. The depth dependence of stoichiometry in these superconducting thin films is determined by the deconvolution of a series of Rutherford backscattering spectra using 2.0-3.2 MeV 4 He ions at several incidence and scattering angles. Confirmation of these results is provided by studying the yields of Nb and Ge characteristic X-rays as a function of the angle of beam incidence. The depth dependence of oxygen, or oxides of Nb and Ge, is of particular interest, but more difficult to determine. A very sharp ion scattering resonance 16 O (α,α) at 3.045 MeV was utilized to enhance the backscattered yield and depth sensitivity of oxygen determination. The combined use of these three techniques now provides a nearly complete and nondestructive means for the characterization of such films

  1. Time-of-flight mass spectrographs—From ions to neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    After their introduction to space physics in the mid 1980s time-of-flight (TOF) spectrographs have become a main staple in spaceborne mass spectrometry. They have largely replaced magnetic spectrometers, except when extremely high mass resolution is required to identify complex molecules, for example, in the vicinity of comets or in planetary atmospheres. In combination with electrostatic analyzers and often solid state detectors, TOF spectrographs have become key instruments to diagnose space plasma velocity distributions, mass, and ionic charge composition. With a variety of implementation schemes that also include isochronous electric field configurations, TOF spectrographs can respond to diverse science requirements. This includes a wide range in mass resolution to allow the separation of medium heavy isotopes or to simply provide distributions of the major species, such as H, He, and O, to obtain information on source tracers or mass fluxes. With a top-hat analyzer at the front end, or in combination with deflectors for three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the distribution function of ions can be obtained with good time resolution. Most recently, the reach of TOF ion mass spectrographs has been extended to include energetic neutral atoms. After selecting the arrival direction with mechanical collimation, followed by conversion to ions, adapted TOF sensors form a new branch of the spectrograph family tree. We review the requirements, challenges, and implementation schemes for ion and neutral atom spectrographs, including potential directions for the future, while largely avoiding overlap with complementary contributions in this special issue.

  2. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelkovic, Z.; Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N.; König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T.; Neidherr, D.; Schmidt, S.; Steinmann, J.; Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G.

    2015-01-01

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency

  3. Safe, High Specific Energy & Power Li-ion Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today’s best, safe commercial Li-ion cell designs achieve ~180 Wh/kg, ~500 Wh/L, and 400 W/kg. When accounting for the lightest (1.35) parasitic mass and smallest...

  4. Electrolyte penetration into high energy ion irradiated polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Müller, M.; Asmus, T.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Vacík, Jiří; Červená, Jarmila

    158/159 (2002), s. 228-233 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104; GA ČR GA102/01/1324 Keywords : polymers * ion bombardment * defects * diffusion * nanostructrure Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.267, year: 2002

  5. Generation of Ta ions at high laser-power densities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, Leoš; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. D283-D291 ISSN 0011-4626. [Plasma Physics and Technology. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser produced plasma * multiple charged Ta ions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  6. Pion production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, K.L.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental data for heavy ion pion production reactions are compared with the predictions of a number of versions of cascade models. Pion suppression effects observed in the experimental data are fit by introducing refinements into cascade theory. Impact parameter adjustment, off-shell effects on the potential and perturbations due to nuclear matter are considered

  7. SIS: an accelerator installation for heavy ions of high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two major sections of the report cover the scientific experimental program and the accelerator installation. Topics covered in the first include: heavy ion physics in the medium energy region; nuclear physics at relativistic energies; atomic physics loss and capture cross sections for electrons; spectroscopy of few-electron systems; atomic collision processes; biological experiments; nuclear track techniques in biology; and experiments with protons and secondary radiation. The second includes: concept for the total installation; technical description of the SIS 12; technical description of the SIS 100; status of the UNILAC injector; development options for the SIS installations; properties of the heavy ion beam; and structural work and technical supply provisions. In this SIS project proposal, an accelerator installation based on two synchrotrons is described with which atomic nuclei up to uranium can be accelerated to energies of more than 10 GeV/μ. With the SIS 12, which is the name of the first stage, heavy ion physics at intermediate energies can be pursued up to 500 MeV/μ. The second stage, a larger synchrotron, the SIS 100, has a diameter of 250 m. With this device, it is proposed to open up the domain of relativistic heavy ion physics up to 14 GeV/μ (for intermediate mass particles) and 10 GeV/μ (for uranium)

  8. Approach to equilibrium in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimanyi, J.

    1981-01-01

    With the aim to clarify somewhat the question of equilibration in the following we investigate the approach to equilibrium of particle composition and momentum distribution of the particles within the firecloud formed in the central collision of energetic heavy ions. (orig.)

  9. Development of the High Current Ion Source for Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Ju; Kim, S. H.; Jang, D. H. [Jae Ju University, Jaeju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The scope of the 1st year research is to design an 140keV deuterium ion source which has a beam current of 30-40A. According to the collected data, the model of an ion source for NBI of KSTAR was established. The negative ion source, which has good neutralization effecting in high energy, was selected. To generate a plasma, the thoriated tungsten filament was adopted. To increase the efficiency of plasma, the multi cusp type magnetic field was attached. The magnetic field was calculated by POISSON code. The extraction structure was designed with EGUN code, to extract the high quality ion beam. The design of a high current ion source for NBI was carried out. To develop the high current ion source with the high operational stability and the long lifetime, the parameters including an arc current, gas pressure and extraction voltage should be optimized. If designed ion source would be fabricated, its parameters could be optimized experimentally. Through the optimization of the ion source parameter, the core technology for NBI is established and the experiment of current drive in the fusion device can be performed. This technology also can be applied to the synthesis of new material and semiconductor industry. 18 refs., 11 tabs., 19 figs. (author)

  10. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  11. Ultra-light and flexible pencil-trace anode for high performance potassium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design of battery configurations and new battery system development are alternative approaches to achieve high performance batteries. A novel flexible and ultra-light graphite anode is fabricated by simple friction drawing on filter paper with a commercial 8B pencil. Compared with the traditional anode using copper foil as current collector, this innovative current-collector-free design presents capacity improvement of over 200% by reducing the inert weight of the electrode. The as-prepared pencil-trace electrode exhibits excellent rate performance in potassium-ion batteries (KIBs, significantly better than in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, with capacity retention of 66% for the KIB vs. 28% for the LIB from 0.1 to 0.5 A g−1. It also shows a high reversible capacity of ∼230 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1, 75% capacity retention over 350 cycles at 0.4 A g−1and the highest rate performance (based on the total electrode weight among graphite electrodes for K+ storage reported so far. Keywords: Current-collector-free, Flexible pencil-trace electrode, Potassium-ion battery, Lithium-ion battery, Layer-by-layer interconnected architecture

  12. Silicon-Based Lithium-Ion Capacitor for High Energy and High Power Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Demattia, Brianne; Loyselle, Patricia; Reid, Concha; Kohout, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Si-based Li-ion capacitor has been developed and demonstrated. The results show it is feasible to improve both power density and energy density in this configuration. The applied current density impacts the power and energy density: low current favors energy density while high current favors power density. Active carbon has a better rate capability than Si. Next StepsFuture Directions. Si electrode needs to be further studied and improved. Further optimization of SiAC ratio and evaluation of its impact on energy density and power density.

  13. The interactions of high-energy, highly charged Xe ions with buckyballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.

    1994-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation have been measured for C 60 molecules bombarded by highly charged (up to 35+) xenon ions with energies ranging up to 625 MeV. The observed mass distribution of positively charged fragments is explained in terms of a theoretical model indicating that the total interaction cross section contains roughly equal contributions from (a) excitation of the giant plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. Preliminary results of measurements on VUV photons emitted in these interactions are also presented

  14. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  15. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Lifetime of anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. P.; Dong, Z. H.; Han, X. G.; Xin, J. P.; Lei, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Generation of high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) has been studied experimentally using polyethylene as the anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with an external magnetic field. The HIPIB is extracted from the anode plasma produced during the surface discharging process on polyethylene under the electrical and magnetic fields in MIDs, i.e., high-voltage surface breakdown (flashover) with bombardments by electrons. The surface morphology and the microstructure of the anode polymer are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The surface roughening of the anode polymer results from the explosive release of trapped gases or newly formed gases under the high-voltage discharging, leaving fractured surfaces with bubble formation. The polyethylene in the surface layer degrades into low-molecular-weight polymers such as polyethylene wax and paraffin under the discharging process. Both the surface roughness and the fraction of low molecular polymers apparently increase as the discharging times are prolonged for multipulse HIPIB generation. The changes in the surface morphology and the composition of anode polymer lead to a noticeable decrease in the output of ion beam intensity, i.e., ion current density and diode voltage, accompanied with an increase in instability of the parameters with the prolonged discharge times. The diode voltage (or surface breakdown voltage of polymer) mainly depends on the surface morphology (or roughness) of anode polymers, and the ion current density on the composition of anode polymers, which account for the two stages of anode polymer degradation observed experimentally, i.e., stage I which has a steady decrease of the two parameters and stage II which shows a slow decrease, but with an enhanced fluctuation of the two parameters with increasing pulses of HIPIB generation

  17. Modification of high density polyethylene by gold implantation using different ion energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadović, M.; Potočnik, J. [INS Vinca, Laboratory of Atomic Physics, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12–14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, M. [INS Vinca, Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12–14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Štrbac, S. [ICTM Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Rakočević, Z., E-mail: zlatkora@vinca.rs [INS Vinca, Laboratory of Atomic Physics, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12–14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-11-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were modified by Au{sup +} ion implantation at a dose of 5 × 10{sup 15} ions cm{sup −2}, using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. The existence of implanted gold in the near-surface region of HDPE samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface roughness and Power Spectral Density analyses based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of the surface topography revealed that the mechanism of HDPE modification during gold ion implantation depended on the energy of gold ions. Histograms obtained from phase AFM images indicated a qualitative change in the chemical composition of the surface during implantation with gold ions with different energies. Depth profiles obtained experimentally from cross-sectional Force Modulation Microscopy images and ones obtained from a theoretical simulation are in agreement for gold ions energies lower than 100 keV. The deviation that was observed for higher energies of the gold ions is explained by carbon precipitation in the near surface region of the HDPE, which prevented the penetration of gold ions further into the depth of the sample. - Highlights: • HDPE was implanted by Au{sup +} ions using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. • Surface composition was analyzed from phase AFM images. • FMM depth profiles are in agreement with theoretical ones for energies up to 100 keV. • A deviation is observed for higher gold ion energies.

  18. Modification of high density polyethylene by gold implantation using different ion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadović, M.; Potočnik, J.; Mitrić, M.; Štrbac, S.; Rakočević, Z.

    2013-01-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were modified by Au + ion implantation at a dose of 5 × 10 15 ions cm −2 , using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. The existence of implanted gold in the near-surface region of HDPE samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface roughness and Power Spectral Density analyses based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of the surface topography revealed that the mechanism of HDPE modification during gold ion implantation depended on the energy of gold ions. Histograms obtained from phase AFM images indicated a qualitative change in the chemical composition of the surface during implantation with gold ions with different energies. Depth profiles obtained experimentally from cross-sectional Force Modulation Microscopy images and ones obtained from a theoretical simulation are in agreement for gold ions energies lower than 100 keV. The deviation that was observed for higher energies of the gold ions is explained by carbon precipitation in the near surface region of the HDPE, which prevented the penetration of gold ions further into the depth of the sample. - Highlights: • HDPE was implanted by Au + ions using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. • Surface composition was analyzed from phase AFM images. • FMM depth profiles are in agreement with theoretical ones for energies up to 100 keV. • A deviation is observed for higher gold ion energies

  19. A new high-temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A vigorous program of ion-source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high-temperature plasma ion source in which a 5-g /sup 235/U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of > 1000 h and produces a wide array of elements, including palladium. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionization efficiencies of > 30% for xenon

  20. A new high-temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A vigorous program of ion-source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high-temperature plasma ion source in which a 5-g 235 U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of >1000 h and produces a wide array of elements, including palladium. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionization efficiencies of >30% for xenon. (orig.)

  1. Charge transfer and excitation in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; McDonald, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    Coincidence measurements of charge transfer and simultaneous projectile electron excitation provide insight into correlated two-electron processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Projectile excitation and electron capture can occur simultaneously in a collision of a highly charged ion with a target atom; this process is called resonant transfer and excitation (RTE). The intermediate excited state which is thus formed can subsequently decay by photon emission or by Auger-electron emission. Results are shown for RTE in both the K shell of Ca ions and the L shell of Nb ions, for simultaneous projectile electron loss and excitation, and for the effect of RTE on electron capture

  2. New high temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    A vigorous program of ion source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high temperature plasma ion source in which a 5 gm 235 U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of >1000 hours and produces a wide array of elements, including Pd. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionzation efficiencies of >30% for Xe

  3. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  4. DYNAMICS OF HIGH ENERGY IONS AT A STRUCTURED COLLISIONLESS SHOCK FRONT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y., E-mail: gedalin@bgu.ac.il [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-10

    Ions undergoing first-order Fermi acceleration at a shock are scattered in the upstream and downstream regions by magnetic inhomogeneities. For high energy ions this scattering is efficient at spatial scales substantially larger than the gyroradius of the ions. The transition from one diffusive region to the other occurs via crossing the shock, and the ion dynamics during this crossing is mainly affected by the global magnetic field change between the upstream and downstream region. We study the effects of the fine structure of the shock front, such as the foot-ramp-overshoot profile and the phase-standing upstream and downstream magnetic oscillations. We also consider time dependent features, including reformation and large amplitude coherent waves. We show that the influence of the spatial and temporal structure of the shock front on the dependence of the transition and reflection on the pitch angle of the ions is already weak at ion speeds five times the speed of the upstream flow.

  5. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  6. Secondary-electron yield from Au induced by highly charged Ta ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Stöckli, M. P.; Fry, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2001), s. 281-286 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : highly charged ion-surface interaction * ion-induced electron emission * angle impact effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2001

  7. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    per describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) ... The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon ... through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- ... for use in Bus Management Unit (BMU) and bulk CMOS ... was scheduled.

  8. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  9. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  10. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  11. Present status and prospect of the experimental study of QED in high Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    I summarize in this paper the present status of our experimental knowledge on the Lamb shift of high Z hydrogenlike ions. Some tentative prospect on the future improvements with the new large accelerators and ion sources are discussed and compared with the present accuracy of QED corrections. (orig.)

  12. Brookhaven four-stage accel-decel production of low-energy highly stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The dual MP tandem facility at Brookhaven has been used in a four-stage accel-decel mode to produce highly stripped S ion beams (Q = 10-16 + ). Fully stripped S ions were obtained at energies down to 8 MeV. The low energy limit is presently due to the inclined field configuration of the last acceleration tube

  13. High resolution magnetic force microscopy using focused ion beam modified tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscope tips coated by the thermal evaporation of a magnetic 30 nm thick Co film have been modified by focused ion beam milling with Ga+ ions to produce tips suitable for magnetic force microscopy. Such tips possess a planar magnetic element with high magnetic shape anisotropy, an

  14. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, obtained particularly at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the ...

  15. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  16. Highly confined ions store charge more efficiently in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, C.; Péan, C.; Rotenberg, B.; Madden, P. A.; Daffos, B.; Taberna, P.-L.; Simon, P.; Salanne, M.

    2013-10-01

    Liquids exhibit specific properties when they are adsorbed in nanoporous structures. This is particularly true in the context of supercapacitors, for which an anomalous increase in performance has been observed for nanoporous electrodes. This enhancement has been traditionally attributed in experimental studies to the effect of confinement of the ions from the electrolyte inside sub-nanometre pores, which is accompanied by their partial desolvation. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations of realistic supercapacitors and show that this picture is correct at the microscopic scale. We provide a detailed analysis of the various environments experienced by the ions. We pick out four different adsorption types, and we, respectively, label them as edge, planar, hollow and pocket sites upon increase of the coordination of the molecular species by carbon atoms from the electrode. We show that both the desolvation and the local charge stored on the electrode increase with the degree of confinement.

  17. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Golubeva, A. V.; Mayer, M.; Pisarev, A. A.; Roth, J.

    2009-06-01

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 μm thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D + ion beam with a flux of 10 17-10 18 D/m 2s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 ± 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  18. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, Yu.M., E-mail: yury.gasparyan@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Golubeva, A.V. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Ac. Kurchatov sq., 1/1, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pisarev, A.A. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Roth, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 mum thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D{sup +} ion beam with a flux of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} D/m{sup 2}s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 +- 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  19. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparyan, Yu.M.; Golubeva, A.V.; Mayer, M.; Pisarev, A.A.; Roth, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 μm thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D + ion beam with a flux of 10 17 -10 18 D/m 2 s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 ± 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  20. Analysis of the emission characteristics of ion sources for high-value optical counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beermann, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The production of complex high-quality thin film systems requires a detailed understanding of all partial processes. One of the most relevant partial processes is the condensation of the coating material on the substrate surface. The optical and mechanical material properties can be adjusted by the well-defined impingement of energetic ions during deposition. Thus, in the past, a variety of different ion sources were developed. With respect to the present and future challenges in the production of precisely fabricated high performance optical coatings, the ion emission of the sources has commonly not been characterized sufficiently so far. This question is addressed in the frame of this work which itself is thematically integrated in the field of process-development and -control of ion assisted deposition processes. In a first step, a Faraday cup measurement system was developed which allows the spatially resolved determination of the ion energy distribution as well as the ion current distribution. Subsequently, the ion emission profiles of six ion sources were determined depending on the relevant operating parameters. Consequently, a data pool for process planning and supplementary process analysis is made available. On the basis of the acquired results, the basic correlations between the operating parameters and the ion emission are demonstrated. The specific properties of the individual sources as well as the respective control strategies are pointed out with regard to the thin film properties and production yield. Finally, a synthesis of the results and perspectives for future activities are given. (orig.)

  1. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 and h;eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Change of chemical bond and wettability of polylacticacid implanted with high-flux carbon ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jizhong; Kang Jiachen; Zhang Xiaoji; Zhou Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    Polylacticacid (PLA) was submitted to high-flux carbon ion implantation with energy of 40 keV. It was investigated to the effect of ion fluence (1 x 10 12 -1 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 ) on the properties of the polymer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), wettability, and roughness were employed to study change of structure and properties of the as-implanted PLA samples. Six carbon bonds, that is, C, C-H, C-O-C, C-O, O-C-O, and >C=O, were observed on surfaces of the as-implanted PLA samples. The intensities of various chemical bonds changed with increasing ion fluence. AFM images displayed that there was irradiation damage and that it was related closely with ion fluence. At fluence as high as 1 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 surface-restructuring phenomenum took place on the surface of the PLA. Wettability was also affected by the variation on the fluence. With increasing ion fluence, the water contact angle of the as-implanted PLA samples changed gradually reaching a maximum of 76.5 deg. with 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The experimental results revealed that carbon ion fluence strongly affected surface chemical bond, morphology, wettability, and roughness of the PLA samples

  3. Confinement improvement in high-ion temperature plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2006-10-01

    The increase in the ion temperature due to transport improvement has been observed in plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI, in which electrons are dominantly heated, in Large Helical Device (LHD). When the centrally focused ECRH is superposed on the NBI plasma, the ion temperature is observed to rise, accompanied by formation of the electron-ITB. This is ascribed to the ion transport improvement with the transition to the neoclassical electron root with a positive radial electric field. In high-Z plasmas, the ion temperature is increased with an increase in the ion heating power, and reaches 13.5keV. The central ion temperature increases with an increase in a gradient of the electron temperature in an outer plasma region of ρ=0.8, suggesting the ion transport improvement in the outer plasma region induced by the neoclassical electron root. These results indicate the effectiveness of the electron-root scenario for obtaining high-ion temperature plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  4. Highly focused ion beams in integrated circuit testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, K.M.; Dodd, P.E.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe has proven to be a useful tool in radiation testing of integrated circuits. This paper reviews single event upset (SEU) and ion beam induced charge collection (IBICC) imaging techniques, with special attention to damage-dependent effects. Comparisons of IBICC measurements with three-dimensional charge transport simulations of charge collection are then presented for isolated p-channel field effect transistors under conducting and non-conducting bias conditions

  5. Monocrystalline Diamond for Ions Detection at Low and High Fluxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Cannavo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 8 (2017), s. 3384-3391 ISSN 0018-9383 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : diamond * energy resolution * ion detector * laser-generated plasma * time of flight Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 2.605, year: 2016

  6. Comparison of models of high energy heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the main theoretical developments on heavy ion collisions at energies (0.1 to 2.0) GeV/nuc are reviewed. The fireball, firestreak, hydrodynamic (1-fluid, 2-fluids), ''row on row'', hard sphere and intranuclear cascades, and classical equations of motion models are discussed in detail. Results are compared to each other and to measured Ne + U → p + X reactions

  7. Edge Ion Heating by Launched High Harmonic Fast Waves in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biewer, T.M.; Bell, R.E.; Diem, S.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Ryan, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new spectroscopic diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) measures the velocity distribution of ions in the plasma edge simultaneously along both poloidal and toroidal views. An anisotropic ion temperature is measured during high-power high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) radio-frequency (rf) heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature roughly twice the toroidal ion temperature. Moreover, the measured spectral distribution suggests that two populations of ions are present and have temperatures of typically 500 eV and 50 eV with rotation velocities of -50 km/s and -10 km/s, respectively (predominantly perpendicular to the local magnetic field). This bi-modal distribution is observed in both the toroidal and poloidal views (for both He + and C 2+ ions), and is well correlated with the period of rf power application to the plasma. The temperature of the hot component is observed to increase with the applied rf power, which was scanned between 0 and 4.3 MW . The 30 MHz HHFW launched by the NSTX antenna is expected and observed to heat core electrons, but plasma ions do not resonate with the launched wave, which is typically at >10th harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency in the region of observation. A likely ion heating mechanism is parametric decay of the launched HHFW into an Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW). The presence of the IBW in NSTX plasmas during HHFW application has been directly confirmed with probe measurements. IBW heating occurs in the perpendicular ion distribution, consistent with the toroidal and poloidal observations. Calculations of IBW propagation indicate that multiple waves could be created in the parametric decay process, and that most of the IBW power would be absorbed in the outer 10 to 20 cm of the plasma, predominantly on fully stripped ions. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with the observations, and must be accounted for when calculating the energy budget of the plasma

  8. Towards high-density matter with relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji.

    1990-04-01

    Recent progress in nucleus-nucleus collisions at BNL and CERN suggests a hint that the formation of high-density nuclear matter could be possible with relativistic heavy-ion beams. What is the maximum density that can be achieved by heavy-ion collisions? Are there data which show evidence or hints on the formation of high density matter? Why is the research of high-density interesting? How about the future possibilities on this subject? These points are discussed. (author)

  9. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  10. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  11. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. (topical review)

  12. Lifetimes of relativistic heavy-ion beams in the High Energy Storage Ring of FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelko, V. P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Stöhlker, Th.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    The High Energy Storage Ring, HESR, will be constructed at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR, Darmstadt. For the first time, it will be possible to perform experiments with cooled high-intensity stable and radioactive heavy ions at highly relativistic energies. To design experiments at the HESR, realistic estimations of beam lifetimes are indispensable. Here we report calculated cross sections and lifetimes for typical U88+ , U90+ , U92+ , Sn49+ and Sn50+ ions in the energy range E = 400 MeV/u-5 GeV/u, relevant for the HESR. Interactions with the residual gas and with internal gas-jet targets are also considered.

  13. The use of on-line ion chromatography for high temperature and high pressure reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the use of on-line ion chromatography as a tool for chemistry reaction studies in small volume systems. The technique was used to study chemistry behavior in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave system. A dual analyzer, multi-channel on-line ion chromatograph (IC) was configured to automate the sampling and analysis. Analytical channels were set up for analysis of inorganic anions, monovalent cations, conductivity, and pH. Conductivity and pH were measured using the IC as a flow injection analyzer. Use of the IC system provides significant advantages over conventional sampling and analysis techniques: Reduction in sample volume, a closed sampling system that protects air or light sensitive analytes from breakdown, around-the-clock test performance combined with automatic calibration and quality control checking, and detection and tracking of reaction products or unexpected contaminants. Methods used to correct measured concentrations for the effects of sampling and for calculation of control chemical loss half-lives are presented. A limited evaluation of the flow injection analysis methods for conductivity and pH is provided

  14. Characterization of Lactobacillus brevis L62 strain, highly tolerant to copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrvčić, Jasna; Butorac, Ana; Solić, Ema; Stanzer, Damir; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Cindrić, Mario; Stehlik-Tomas, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture in food industry must be suitable for large-scale industrial production and possess the ability to survive in unfavorable processes and storage conditions. Approaches taken to address these problems include the selection of stress-resistant strains. In food industry, LAB are often exposed to metal ions induced stress. The interactions between LAB and metal ions are very poorly investigated. Because of that, the influence of non-toxic, toxic and antioxidant metal ions (Zn, Cu, and Mn) on growth, acid production, metal ions binding capacity of wild and adapted species of Leuconostoc mesenteroides L3, Lactobacillus brevis L62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L73 were investigated. The proteomic approach was applied to clarify how the LAB cells, especially the adapted ones, protect themselves and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metal ions. Results have shown that Zn and Mn addition into MRS medium in the investigated concentrations did not have effect on the bacterial growth and acid production, while copper ions were highly toxic, especially in static conditions. Leuc. mesenteroides L3 was the most efficient in Zn binding processes among the chosen LAB species, while L. plantarum L73 accumulated the highest concentration of Mn. L. brevis L62 was the most copper resistant species. Adaptation had a positive effect on growth and acid production of all species in the presence of copper. However, the adapted species incorporated less metal ions than the wild species. The exception was adapted L. brevis L62 that accumulated high concentration of copper ions in static conditions. The obtained results showed that L. brevis L62 is highly tolerant to copper ions, which allows its use as starter culture in fermentative processes in media with high concentration of copper ions.

  15. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y., E-mail: y.hirano@aist.go.jp, E-mail: hirano.yoichi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 101-0897 (Japan); Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y.; Sakakita, H. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm{sup 2}) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E{sub ib} ≈ 150–200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E{sub ib} is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  16. Measurement of residual radioactivity in cooper exposed to high energy heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ito, Sachiko; Fukumura, Akifumi

    1999-03-01

    The residual radioactivities produced by high energy heavy ions have been measured using the heavy ion beams of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The spatial distribution of residual radioactivities in 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 10 cm thick copper targets of 10 cm x 10 cm size bombarded by 290 MeV/u, 400 MeV/u-{sup 12}C ion beams and 400 MeV/u-{sup 20}Ne ion beam, respectively, were obtained by measuring the gamma-ray activities of 0.5 mm thick copper foil inserted in the target with a high purity Ge detector after about 1 hour to 6 hours irradiation. (author)

  17. Ge nano-layer fabricated by high-fluence low-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tiecheng; Dun Shaobo; Hu Qiang; Zhang Songbao; An Zhu; Duan Yanmin; Zhu Sha; Wei Qiangmin; Wang Lumin

    2006-01-01

    A Ge nano-layer embedded in the surface layer of an amorphous SiO 2 film was fabricated by high-fluence low-energy ion implantation. The component, phase, nano-structure and luminescence properties of the nano-layer were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering, glancing incident X-ray diffraction, laser Raman scattering, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The relation between nano-particle characteristics and ion fluence was also studied. The results indicate that nano-crystalline Ge and nano-amorphous Ge particles coexist in the nano-layer and the ratio of nano-crystalline Ge to nano-particle Ge increases with increasing ion fluence. The intensity of photoluminescence from the nano-layer increases with increasing ion fluence also. Prepared with certain ion fluences, high-density nano-layers composed of uniform-sized nano-particles can be observed

  18. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers

  19. Structural investigations of amorphised iron and nickel by high-fluence metalloid ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Otto, G.; Hohmuth, K.; Heera, V.

    1987-01-01

    Boron, phosphorus and arsenic ions have been implanted into evaporated iron and nickel thin films at room temperature, and the implantation-induced microstructure has been investigated by high-voltage electron microscopy and transmission high energy electron diffraction. The metal films were implanted with ions to a constant dose of 1 x 10 17 and 5 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 respectively at energy of 50 keV. An amorphous layer was produced by boron and phosphorus ion implantation. Information on the atomic structure of the amorphous layers was obtained from the elastically diffracted electron intensity. On the basis of the correct scattering curves, the total interference function and the pair correlation function were determined. Finally, the atomic arrangement of the implantation-induced amorphous layers is discussed and structure produced by ion irradiation is compared with amorphous structures formed with other techniques. (author)

  20. Developmental activities of the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS, for the high current injector at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Lakshmy, P.S.; Mathur, Y.; Ahuja, R.; Dutt, R.N.; Rao, U.K.; Mandal, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2011-01-01

    Various developmental activities of the 18 GHz High Temperature Superconducting ECR Ion Source, PKDELIS have been carried out as a part of the High Current Injector programme. Emittance measurements using a simple technique has given important inputs for the design of downstream accelerators like RFQ, DTL and low beta cavities. The techniques allows for emittance matching by varying the emittance parameters to match with the acceptance of the accelerators. X-ray Beamstrahlung measurements from ECR plasma has shown that it is a diagnostic tool to optimize the production of highly charged ions. The ion optics through the low energy beam transport section has been benchmarked with various codes and given a handle to optimize the transmission. New techniques to improve the extraction efficiency of highly charged ions has been developed. (author)

  1. High-Energy Electron-Ion and Photon-Ion Collisions: Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Non-LTE plasmas are ubiquitous in objects studied in the UV and X-ray energy bands. Collisional and photoionization cross sections for atoms and ions are fundamental to our ability to model such plasmas. Modeling is key in the X-ray band, where detector properties and limited spectral resolution limit the ability to measure model-independent line strengths, or other spectral features. Much of the motivation for studying such collisions and many of the tools, are not new. However, the motivation for such studies and their applications, have been affected by the advent of X-ray spectroscopy with the gratings on Chandra and XMM-Newton. In this talk I will review this motivation and describe the tools currently in use for such studies. I will also describe some current unresolved problems and the likely future needs for such data.

  2. Approach to equilibrium in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelbaum, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory of the early stages of a heavy ion collision. Just after such a collision, the matter produced - called the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) - has been shown to be far out of thermal equilibrium. One would like to know whether the QGP thermalizes, and what is the typical time scale for this. Proving that the QGP thermalizes would also justify from first principles the hydrodynamical treatment of the subsequent evolution of a heavy ion collision. After having recalled some essential theoretical concepts, the manuscript addresses these questions in two different theories. In a first part, we study a scalar field theory. Starting from an out of equilibrium initial condition, one studies the approach to equilibrium in a fixed volume or in a one-dimensional expanding system. In both cases, clear signs of thermalization are obtained: an equation of state is formed, the pressure tensor becomes isotropic and the occupation number approaches a classical thermal distribution. These results are obtained thanks to the classical statistical approximation (CSA), that includes contributions beyond the Leading Order perturbative calculation. In a second part, the Color Glass Condensate - a quantum chromodynamics (QCD) effective theory well suited to describe the early life of the QGP - is used to treat more realistically the approach to thermalization in heavy ion collisions. After having derived some analytical prerequisites for the application of the CSA, the numerical simulations performed with the Yang-Mills equations show evidences of an early onset of hydrodynamical behavior of the QGP: the system becomes isotropic on short time scales, while the shear viscosity over entropy ratio is very small, which is characteristic of a quasi perfect fluid. (author) [fr

  3. Surface damage on 6H–SiC by highly-charged Xeq+ ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.Q.; Zhang, C.H.; Han, L.H.; Xu, C.L.; Li, J.J.; Yang, Y.T.; Song, Y.; Gou, J.; Li, J.Y.; Ma, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Surface damage on 6H–SiC irradiated by highly-charged Xe q+ (q = 18, 26) ions to different fluences in two geometries was studied by means of AFM, Raman scattering spectroscopy and FTIR spectrometry. The FTIR spectra analysis shows that for Xe 26+ ions irradiation at normal incidence, a deep reflection dip appears at about 930 cm −1 . Moreover, the reflectance on top of reststrahlen band decreases as the ion fluence increases, and the reflectance at tilted incidence is larger than that at normal incidence. The Raman scattering spectra reveal that for Xe 26+ ions at normal incidence, surface reconstruction occurs and amorphous stoichiometric SiC and Si–Si and C–C bonds are generated and original Si–C vibrational mode disappears. And the intensity of scattering peaks decreases with increasing dose. The AFM measurement shows that the surface swells after irradiation. With increasing ion fluence, the step height between the irradiated and the unirradiated region increases for Xe 18+ ions irradiation; while for Xe 26+ ions irradiation, the step height first increases and then decreases with increasing ion fluence. Moreover, the step height at normal incidence is higher than that at tilted incidence by the irradiation with Xe 18+ to the same ion fluence. A good agreement between the results from the three methods is found

  4. Transition from L mode to high ion temperature mode in CHS heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Osakabe, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2001-01-01

    A high ion temperature mode (high T i mode) is observed for neutral beam heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS) Heliotron/torsatron. The high T i mode plasma is characterized by a high central ion temperature, T i (0), and is associated with a peaked electron density profile produced by neutral beam fueling with low wall recycling. Transition from L mode to high T i mode has been studied in CHS. The central ion temperature in the high T i mode discharges reaches to 1 keV which is 2.5 times higher than that in the L mode discharges. The ion thermal diffusivity is significantly reduced by a factor of more than 2-3 in the high T i mode plasma. The ion loss cone is observed in neutral particle flux in the energy range of 1-6 keV with a narrow range of pitch angle (90±10 degree) in the high T i mode. However, the degradation of ion energy confinement due to this loss cone is negligible. (author)

  5. Topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, L G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Berk, H L [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of nonstandard guiding centre orbits is presented, which is relevant to MeV ions in a Tokamak. The orbit equation has been simplified from the start, allowing to present an analytic classification of the possible orbits. The topological transitions of the orbits during collisional slowing down are described. In particular, the characteristic equations reveal the existence of a single fixed point in the relevant phase plane, and the presence of a bifurcation curve corresponding to the locus of the pinch orbits. A significant particle inward pinch has been discovered. (authors). 7 figs.

  6. Heavy-ion transfer to high-spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, C.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer reactions between very heavy ions, in particular about systems in which one or both collision partners are well deformed, are studied. These systems are expected to give rise to new phenomena which are related to the fact that the deformed nucleus has been Coulomb excited to a rotational or vibrational state at the time when the collision partners come into contact. In this paper the authors present results of experiments in which nuclei from the rare earth and the actinide region have been bombarded by various projectiles ranging from 34 S to 208 Pb at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. (Auth.)

  7. Fast ion generation by a picosecond high-power laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Hora, H.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2005), s. 5-22 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 238 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy in Vienna(XE) 11535/RO; State Commitee for Scientific Research (KBN)(PL) 1 PO3B 082 19 and 1 PO3B 043 26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : fast ion * plasma * picosecond laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  8. Project for a high resolution magnetic spectrometer for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birien, P.; Valero, S.

    1981-05-01

    The energy loss spectrometer presented in this report has an energy resolution of 2x10 -4 with the full solid angle of 5 msr. The maximum magnetic rigidity of the particles analysed is 2.88 Tesla-meters on the optical axis and the total acceptance in energy is 14%. Experiments with reaction angles near 0 0 are possible. Kinematic compensation is adapted to heavy ion physics. In this report, we have paid special attention to the simplicity of the construction and of the use of this spectrometer by experimentalists. This report is addressed both to non-specialists and to future users as well [fr

  9. Electrode cooling for long pulse high current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The need for cooling of electrode surface in ion sources for neutral beam line applications is summarized. The properties of possible cooling fluids are discussed and the decision to use water as a cooling fluid of choice is explained. The influence of source geometry on the design of a cooling canal is examined and two possible designs are presented. The need for model testing and the results of the tests on a model cathode are also discussed. Some remarks are also made on a method of predicting burnout failure of a cooled electrode

  10. Internal conversion in highly stripped 83Kr ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copnell, J.; Phillips, W.R.; Barnett, A.R.; Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J.; Glagola, B.G.; Kutschera, W.

    1995-01-01

    The total decay probabilities per unit time of the first excited 9.4-keV state in 83 Kr have been measured in ions of ionicity q from 28 to 32. Using a γ-decay probability per unit time of 0.255(2)x10 6 s -1 gives internal conversion coefficients of 14.6(11), 14.9(10), 14.1(9), 14.6(11), and 15.2(24) for q=28--32, respectively. These values are compared with theoretical predictions

  11. Extreme implanting in Si: A study of ion-induced damage at high temperature and high dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ion-solid interactions near room temperature and below have been well studied in single-crystal Si. While this has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for nucleation and growth of lattice damage during irradiation, these studies have not, in general, been extended to high temperatures (e.g., >200 degrees C). This is the case despite the commercialization of ion beam technologies which utilize high-temperature processing, such as separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX). In this process, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material is produced by implanting a high dose of oxygen ions into a Si wafer to form a buried, stoichiometric oxide layer. Results will be presented of a study of damage accumulation during high-dose implantation of Si at elevated temperatures. In particular, O + -ions were used because of the potential impact of the results on the SIMOX technology. It will be shown that the nature of the damage accumulation at elevated temperatures is quite distinctive and portends the presence of a new mechanism, one which is only dominant under the extreme conditions encountered during ion beam synthesis (i.e., high temperature and high dose). This mechanism is discussed and shown to be quite general and not dependent on the chemical identity of the ions. Also, techniques for suppressing this mechanism by open-quotes defect engineeringclose quotes are discussed. Such techniques are technologically relevant because they offer the possibility of reducing the defect density of the SOI produced by SIMOX

  12. Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de; Bergmaier, A. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Hauptner, A. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dietzel, S. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Drexler, G.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hable, V. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cremer, T. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (Supraleitendes Nanoskop fuer Angewandte Kernphysikalische Experimente) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, i.e. 4-28 MeV protons or up to 250 MeV gold ions. Due to these ion beams, SNAKE is particularly attractive for ion beam analyses in various fields. Here we describe two main applications of SNAKE. One is the unique possibility to perform three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy by elastic proton-proton scattering utilizing high energy proton beams. The high proton energies allow the analysis of samples with a thickness in the 100 {mu}m range with micrometer resolution and a sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In a second application, SNAKE is used to analyse protein dynamics in cells by irradiating live cells with single focussed ions. Fluorescence from immunostained protein 53BP1 is used as biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells. It is used to examine the irradiated region in comparison with the targeted region. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agree reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating an overall targeting accuracy of about 2 {mu}m while the beam spot size is less than 0.5 {mu}m in diameter. This performance shows successful adaptation of SNAKE for biological experiments where cells are targeted on a sub-cellular level by energetic ions.

  13. Martensitic transformation of type 304 stainless steel by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayahara, A.; Satou, M.; Nakashima, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Sasaki, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Kiyama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of high-energy ion implantation on the structural changes of type 304 stainless steel were investigated. Gold, copper and silicon ions with an energy of 1.5 MeV was implanted into stainless steel. The fluences were in the range from 5x10 15 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . It was found that the structure of stainless steel was transformed form the austenitic to the martensitic structure by these ion implantations. This structural change was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The depth profile of the irradiated ions was also analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS). The degree of martensitic transformation was found to be strongly dependent on the surface pretreatment, either mechanical or electrolytic polishing. When the surface damages or strains by mechanical polishing were present, the martensitic transformation was greatly accelerated presumably due to the combined action of ion irradiation and strain-enhanced transformation. Heavier ions exhibit a high efficiency for the transformation. (orig.)

  14. Nucleation mechanisms in high energy ion beam induced dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Michael; Garmatter, Daniel; Ferhati, Redi; Amirthapandian, Sankarakumar; Bolse, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Solid coatings, when heated above their melting points, often break up by forming small round holes, which then grow, coalesce and finally turn the initially contiguous film into a pattern of isolated droplets. Such dewetting has been intensively studied using thin polymer films on Si. Three different hole nucleation mechanisms were discovered: homogeneous (spontaneous) nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation at defects, and spinodal dewetting by self-amplifying capillary waves. We have recently found that swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of thin oxide films on Si results in similar dewetting patterns, even though the films were kept far below their melting points. Using our new in-situ SEM at the UNILAC accelerator of GSI, we were now able to identify the mechanisms behind this SHI induced dewetting phenomenon. By varying the film thickness and introducing defects at the interface, we can directly address the hole nucleation processes. Besides homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, we also found a process, which very much resembles the spinodal mechanism found for liquid polymers, although in the present case the instable wavy surface is not generated by capillary waves, but by ion beam induced stresses.

  15. Coherent production of high-energy photons and π mesons in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkin, I.S.; Kopytin, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    A microscopic model of high-energy photon and pion production processes in collision of multicharged ions with kinetic energy of relative motion from 40 to 100 MeV per nucleon was constructed not using fitting parameters

  16. Radiative recombination of highly charged ions: Enhanced rates at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.; Mueller, A.; Haselbauer, J.; Schennach, S.; Spies, W.; Uwira, O.; Wagner, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a single-pass merged-beams experiment employing a dense cold electron target recombination of highly charged ions is studied. Unexpected high recombination rates are observed at low energies E cm in the electron-ion center-of-mass frame. In particular, theoretical estimates for radiative recombination are dramatically exceeded by the experimental recombination rates at E cm =0 eV for U 28+ and for Au 25+ ions. Considerable rate enhancement is also observed for Ar 15+ . This points to a general phenomenon which has to be interpreted as a consequence of high electron densities, low electron beam temperatures, high ion charge states and presence of strong magnetic fields. (orig.)

  17. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Photons; dileptons; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider; Large Hadron Collider; quark ... the collisions produces relatively high pT photons, often referred to ..... energy have been found for identified charged hadrons at RHIC [25].

  18. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  19. Advanced Nanostructured Cathode for Ultra High Specific Energy Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode materials for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining a high level of...

  20. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  1. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  2. Transport and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in magneto-isolated gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas', V.I.; Kornilov, E.A.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Fedorovskaya, O.V.; Tarakanov, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transportation and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in the magneto-isolated gap has been demonstrated. Found the parameters of the system and beams (the magnetic field produced by the coils with opposing currents, the size of the system, and the parameters of the beams), under which the uniform acceleration of the high-current ion beam all along the gap length is realized. It is shown that the quality of the ion beam, during transport and acceleration, at the exit of the gap is acceptable for many technological applications.

  3. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  4. Possibility of resonant capture of antiprotons by highly charged hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genkin, M.; Lindroth, E.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, an experimental setup was proposed by Lapierre et al. which would allow antiprotons and highly charged ions to collide repeatedly in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) due to a nested trap configuration. As mentioned by the authors, such a setup may open the possibility to study antiproton capture into well-defined states through a resonant process which involves simultaneous electron excitation. In the present work, we give some theoretical estimations of the feasibility of that process. It appears that the exotic dielectronic-like process of resonant anti-proton capture in highly charged ions does not seem to be completely out of reach

  5. The role of high Rydberg states in the generation of negative ions in negative-ion discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of substantial yields of H - ions in a laser excited H 2 gas has been reported by Pinnaduwage and Christoforu. These H - yields have been attributed to (2 + 1) REMP photoexcitation processes leading to dissociative attachment of doubly-excited or superexcited states (SES), or dissociative attachment of high Rydberg product states. The new feature of these experiments is the implied large dissociative attachment rates, of order 10 -6 cm 3 sec -1 , values that are orders-of-magnitude larger than the dissociative attachment of the vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state. While these laser excitations are not directly applicable to a hydrogen negative-ion discharge, the implication of large dissociative attachment rates to the high Rydberg states may affect both the total negative-ion density and the interpretation of discharge performance. Within the discharge energetic electrons will collisionally excite the higher Rydberg states, and the relative contribution of the dissociative attachment of these states when compared with the dissociative attachment to the ground state vibrational levels, is the topic of this paper

  6. Metallic Sn-Based Anode Materials: Application in High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hangjun; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    With the fast-growing demand for green and safe energy sources, rechargeable ion batteries have gradually occupied the major current market of energy storage devices due to their advantages of high capacities, long cycling life, superior rate ability, and so on. Metallic Sn-based anodes are perceived as one of the most promising alternatives to the conventional graphite anode and have attracted great attention due to the high theoretical capacities of Sn in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (994 mA h g -1 ) and sodium-ion batteries (847 mA h g -1 ). Though Sony has used Sn-Co-C nanocomposites as its commercial LIB anodes, to develop even better batteries using metallic Sn-based anodes there are still two main obstacles that must be overcome: poor cycling stability and low coulombic efficiency. In this review, the latest and most outstanding developments in metallic Sn-based anodes for LIBs and SIBs are summarized. And it covers the modification strategies including size control, alloying, and structure design to effectually improve the electrochemical properties. The superiorities and limitations are analyzed and discussed, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical works and practical developments of metallic Sn-based anode materials.

  7. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  8. Study of high energy ion loss during hydrogen minority heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    High energy ion loss during hydrogen minority ICRF heating is measured and compared with the loss of the D-D fusion products. During H minority heating a relatively large loss of high energy ions is observed at 45 degrees below the outer midplane, with or without simultaneous NBI heating. This increase is most likely due to a loss of the minority tail protons, a possible model for this process is described

  9. A Quasi-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Capacitor with High Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zheng; Wu, Xiongwei; Liu, Xiang; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    A quasi-solid-state sodium-ion capacitor is demonstrated with nanoporous disordered carbon and macroporous graphene as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, using a sodium-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. It can operate at a cell voltage as high as 4.2 V with an energy density of record high 168 W h kg(-1). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  11. Separation of seven arsenic species by ion-pair and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Sven Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion were subjected to ion-exchange and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. The ion exchange method was superior in selectivity and time of analysis for the arsenic anions. The ammonium ions...... used for the ion-pair method only resulted in separation of some of the anionic arsenic compounds. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for on-line arsenic-specific detection....

  12. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  13. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  14. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  15. Expanding the linear dynamic range for quantitative liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry utilizing natural isotopologue signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hanghui; Lam, Lily; Yan, Lin; Chi, Bert; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Less abundant isotopologue ions were utilized to decrease detector saturation. • A 25–50 fold increase in the upper limit of dynamic range was demonstrated. • Linear dynamic range was expanded without compromising mass resolution. - Abstract: The linear dynamic range (LDR) for quantitative liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry can be extended until ionization saturation is reached by using a number of target isotopologue ions in addition to the normally used target ion that provides the highest sensitivity. Less abundant isotopologue ions extend the LDR: the lower ion abundance decreases the probability of ion detector saturation. Effectively the sensitivity decreases and the upper limit of the LDR increases. We show in this paper that the technique is particularly powerful with a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer because the data for all ions are automatically acquired, and we demonstrated this for four small organic molecules; the upper limits of LDRs increased by 25–50 times

  16. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-charged ions in a storage ring. Invited lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of the present lectures is to carry through the methods and procedures necessary for a meaningful spectroscopy of the heaviest few-electron ions in relation to present theories. Results achieved so far in accelerator-based X-ray experiments are highlighted with emphasis on recent developments on heavy-ion storage rings. Starting with a brief account of the basics of one-electron ions, the motivation for doing X-ray spectroscopy of the simplest atomic systems with a high nuclear charge is given. In section 2 X-ray instrumentation and techniques are discussed including the precautions necessary when dealing with fast-beam sources. Peculiarities of heavy-ion storage rings are investigated in section 3 with regard to their use for spectroscopy. In section 4 are discussed results obtained so far on the measurement of the Lamb shift in very heavy ions. Section 5 gives some perspectives for the near future. (orig.)

  17. High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E; Moritz, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that separates gas-phase ions by their behavior in strong and weak electric fields. FAIMS is easily interfaced with electrospray ionization and has been implemented as an additional separation mode between liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) in proteomic studies. FAIMS separation is orthogonal to both LC and MS and is used as a means of on-line fractionation to improve the detection of peptides in complex samples. FAIMS improves dynamic range and concomitantly the detection limits of ions by filtering out chemical noise. FAIMS can also be used to remove interfering ion species and to select peptide charge states optimal for identification by tandem MS. Here, the authors review recent developments in LC-FAIMS-MS and its application to MS-based proteomics.

  18. High Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that separates gas-phase ions by their behavior in strong and weak electric fields. FAIMS is easily interfaced with electrospray ionization and has been implemented as an additional separation mode between liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) in proteomic studies. FAIMS separation is orthogonal to both LC and MS and is used as a means of on-line fractionation to improve detection of peptides in complex samples. FAIMS improves dynamic range and concomitantly the detection limits of ions by filtering out chemical noise. FAIMS can also be used to remove interfering ion species and to select peptide charge states optimal for identification by tandem MS. Here, we review recent developments in LC-FAIMS-MS and its application to MS-based proteomics. PMID:23194268

  19. High-energy xenon ion irradiation effects on the electrical properties of yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, J.M.; Flament, J.L.; Sinopoli, L.; Trochon, J.; Uzureau, J.L.; Groult, D.; Studer, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    1989-01-01

    Thin monocristalline samples of yttrium iron garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) were irradiated at room temperature with 27 MeV/A 132 Xe ions at varying fluences up to 3.5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . Sample thickness (100 μm) was smaller than the mean projected range of ions (170 μm) so that we were able to study the effects of irradiation damage solely. At such a high ion energy the nuclear energy loss is negligible and damage is mainly due to electronic excitation energy loss. YIG d.c conductivity is found to rise by a factor 40 for the highest dose while the permittivity increases only slightly after irradiation (40% max.). The dielectric losses are also enhanced as the ion fluence increases especially at lower frequencies (by a factor 6 at 10 KHz). No dielectric relaxation peak is observed in the frequency range explored here (10 KHz - 10 MHz)

  20. Ionization of highly charged iodine ions near the Bohr velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xianming; Cheng, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Yuanbo; Ren, Jieru; Liu, Shidong; Deng, Jiachuan; Zhao, Yongtao; Xiao, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the L-shell X-rays of iodine from the collisions of 3 MeV I q+(q=15,20,22,25,26) ions with an iron target. It is found that the X-ray yield decreases with the increasing initial charge state. The energy of the subshell X-ray has a blue shift, which is independent of the projectile charge state. In addition, the relative intensity ratios of Lβ 1,3,4 and Lβ 2,15 to Lα 1,2 X-ray are obtained and compared with the theoretical calculations. That they are larger than for a singly ionized atom can be understood by the multiple ionization effect of the outer-shell electrons