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Sample records for high manufacturing cost

  1. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  2. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  3. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting

    Scott, David; Hamer, John

    2017-06-30

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the innovative high-performance deposition technology required to deliver dramatic reductions in the cost of manufacturing OLED lighting in production equipment. The current high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is the most urgent barrier to its market acceptance. The new deposition technology delivers solutions to the two largest parts of the manufacturing cost problem – the expense per area of good product for organic materials and for the capital cost and depreciation of the equipment. Organic materials cost is the largest expense item in the bill of materials and is predicted to remain so through 2020. The high-performance deposition technology developed in this project, also known as the next generation source (NGS), increases material usage efficiency from 25% found in current Gen2 deposition technology to 60%. This improvement alone results in a reduction of approximately $25/m2 of good product in organic materials costs, independent of production volumes. Additionally, this innovative deposition technology reduces the total depreciation cost from the estimated value of approximately $780/m2 of good product for state-of-the-art G2 lines (at capacity, 5-year straight line depreciation) to $170/m2 of good product from the OLEDWorks production line.

  4. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  5. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  6. A high performance, high precision, low cost rapid prototyping and manufacturing technology

    Viacheslav R. Shulunov

    2014-01-01

    A novel roll powder sintering (RPS) technology is proposed for processing real plastic, ceramic, metal and other 3-D objects 1m³ (or more) in volume directly from a CAD model within several hours. The breakthrough advantages of the technology are compared to the dominant rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP&M) processes that are currently on the market.

  7. Innovative manufacturing technologies for low-cost, high efficiency PERC-based PV modules

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The goal this project was to accelerate the deployment of innovative solar cell and module technologies that reduce the cost of PERC-based modules to best-in-class. New module integration technology was to be used to reduce the cost and reliance on conventional silver bus bar pastes and enhance cell efficiency. On the cell manufacturing front, the cost of PERC solar cells was to be reduced by introducing advanced metallization approaches to increase cell efficiency. These advancements will be combined with process optimization to target cell efficiencies in the range of 21 to 21.5%. This project will also explore the viability of a bifacial PERC solar cell design to enable cost savings through the use of thin silicon wafers. This project was terminated on 4/30/17 after four months of activity due financial challenges facing the recipient.

  8. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  9. Design-Based Innovation for Manufacturing Firm Success in High-Cost Operating Environments

    Göran Roos

    The paper concludes that the design-based innovation paradigm is increasingly important within the manufacturing industry, but that its benefit can only be maximized if it is integrated with the other three value-creating approaches to innovation.

  10. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  11. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Nelson, Kim [American Process Inc.

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  12. Rapid Manufacturing of Durable, Cost-Effective Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Structures, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hypersonic vehicles require durable and cost-effective hot structures that do not impose weight penalties such as those associated with the use of non-structural...

  13. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  14. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    1988-06-01

    1 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL M terey, California 0 DTIC II ELECTE R AD%$° NO 0,19880 -- THESIS COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) E COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...GROUP ’" Cost Accounting ; Product Costing ; Automated Manufacturing; CAD/CAM- CIM 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blo

  15. Evaluation of cost reduction method for manufacturing ODS ferritic claddings

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-04-01

    For evaluating the fast reactor system technology, it is important to evaluate the practical feasibility of ODS ferritic claddings, which is the most promising materials to attain the goal of high coolant temperature and more than 150 GWd/t. Based on the results of their technology development, mass production process with highly economically benefit as well as manufacturing cost estimation of ODS ferritic claddings were preliminarily conducted. From the view point of future utility scale, the cost for manufacturing mother tubes has a dominant factor in the total manufacturing cost. The method to reduce the cost of mother tube manufacturing was also preliminarily investigated. (author)

  16. Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, >...

  17. Low-cost solar module manufacturing

    Little, Roger G.; Nowlan, Michael J.; Matthei, Keith W.; Darkazalli, Ghazi

    1997-01-01

    As the market for terrestrial photovoltaic modules expands beyond the 80 MW per year level, module manufacturers are adopting a number of cost-reduction strategies, including the use of higher throughput equipment, increased process automation, and the fabrication of larger area cells and modules. This paper reviews recent activities at Spire Corporation in the development of advanced module manufacturing and testing equipment

  18. Photovoltaic technology, performance, manufacturing cost and markets

    Maycock, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of key aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion systems will provide the basis for forecasting PV module shipments from 1999 to 2010. Principal areas covered include: (1) Technology and Performance Status: The module efficiency and performance are described for commercial cell technologies including single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, ribbon silicon, film silicon on low cost substrate, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride; (2) Manufacturing cost: 1999 costs for PV technologies in production (single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, and amorphous silicon) are developed. Manufacturing costs for 10--25 MW plants and 100 MW plants will be estimated; (3) The world PV market is summarized by region, top ten companies, and technology; and (4) Forecast of the World Market (seven market sectors) to 2010 will be presented. Key assumptions, price of modules, incentive programs, price of competing electricity generation will be detailed

  19. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  20. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  1. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  2. The complexity and cost of vaccine manufacturing - An overview.

    Plotkin, Stanley; Robinson, James M; Cunningham, Gerard; Iqbal, Robyn; Larsen, Shannon

    2017-07-24

    As companies, countries, and governments consider investments in vaccine production for routine immunization and outbreak response, understanding the complexity and cost drivers associated with vaccine production will help to inform business decisions. Leading multinational corporations have good understanding of the complex manufacturing processes, high technological and R&D barriers to entry, and the costs associated with vaccine production. However, decision makers in developing countries, donors and investors may not be aware of the factors that continue to limit the number of new manufacturers and have caused attrition and consolidation among existing manufacturers. This paper describes the processes and cost drivers in acquiring and maintaining licensure of childhood vaccines. In addition, when export is the goal, we describe the requirements to supply those vaccines at affordable prices to low-resource markets, including the process of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification and supporting policy recommendation. By providing a generalized and consolidated view of these requirements we seek to build awareness in the global community of the benefits and costs associated with vaccine manufacturing and the challenges associated with maintaining consistent supply. We show that while vaccine manufacture may prima facie seem an economic growth opportunity, the complexity and high fixed costs of vaccine manufacturing limit potential profit. Further, for most lower and middle income countries a large majority of the equipment, personnel and consumables will need to be imported for years, further limiting benefits to the local economy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  5. Dramatically improve the Safety Performance of Li ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using Ultraviolet Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objective of this project was to improve the safety of operation of Lithium ion batteries (LIB)and at the same time significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of LIB separators. The project was very successful in demonstrating the improved performance and reduced cost attributed to using UV curable binder and high speed printing technology to place a very thin and precisely controlled ceramic layer on the surface of base separators made of polyolefins such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and combinations of the two as well as cellulosic base separators. The underlying need for this new technology is the recently identified potential of fire in large format Lithium ion batteries used in hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The primary potential cause of battery fire is thermal runaway caused by several different electrical or mechanical mechanisms; such as, overcharge, puncture, overheating, compaction, and internal short circuit. During thermal runaway, the ideal separator prevents ion flow and continues to physically separate the anode from the cathode. If the temperature of the battery gets higher, the separator may melt and partially clog the pores and help prevent ion flows but it also can shrink which can result in physical contact of the electrodes and accelerate thermal run-away even further. Ceramic coated separators eliminate many of the problems related to the usage of traditional separators. The ceramic coating provides an electrically insulating layer that retains its physical integrity at high temperature, allows for more efficient thermal heat transfer, helps reduce thermal shrinkage, and inhibits dendrite growth that could create a potential short circuit. The use of Ultraviolet (UV) chemistry to bind fine ceramic particles on separators is a unique and innovative approach primarily because of the instant curing of the UV curable binder upon exposure to UV light. This significant reduction in drying/curing time significantly reduces the

  6. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  7. Lean Manufacturing Implementation: an Approach to Reduce Production Cost

    Iraswari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Lean Manufacturing Implementation: An Approach To Reduce Production Cost. Opportunities to improve production processes and reduce production cost through the implementation of lean manufacturing in small medium garment manufacturing are presented in this research. This research shows that there is a possibility of decrease in production cost and increase in return on sales. Lean manufacturing implementation can eliminate waste in the production process. This is a set of techniques for identification and elimination of waste gathered from The Ford Production, Statistical Process Control and other techniques. Improvement of quality could be carried out while time and cost of production are being reduced.

  8. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  9. Peranan Metode Activity Based Costing Dalam Menentukan Cost of Goods Manufactured

    Martusa, Riki; Darma, Stephanus Ryan; Carolina, Verani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know production process of a textile company in Bandung and to analyze the comparison between cost of goods manufactured calculation methods, that applied in the company (traditional costing method) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) method. The obatained data was performed monthly during the year 2009. Based on analysis result, Cost Of Goods Manufactured calculation for unpattern material using ABC method resulted the Cost Of Goods Manufactured that is lower ...

  10. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  11. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC) approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost ...

  12. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah Josephine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  13. Using Additive Manufacturing to Reduce the Cost of Instrument Development

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Additive Manufacturing (AM), commonly known as 3D printing, is widely used in the commercial sector for the manufacture of consumer goods, high performance parts for...

  14. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  15. Reduction of cost of poor quality in nuclear fuel manufacturing

    Holmqvist, B.

    2000-01-01

    Within ABB reduction of Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) has become an important process to focus quality improvement initiatives on bottom-line results. The process leads to improved bottom-line results, through cost savings, but it also leads to quality improvements in our processes, products and services. The traditional way of measuring and controlling COPQ in the production workshops is not enough. It is of vital importance to include other non-value creating costs as well, both internally, e.g. in the engineering work, and externally, in delivered products and purchased goods. ABB Atom has since a number of years used the COPQ process in the various steps of nuclear fuel manufacturing. The definition has been expanded to cover, for instance: Scrap, rework and deviations; Margin slippage; Warranty costs; Lack of supplier performance; Excess and obsolete inventory. Each of the COPQ elements has a responsible 'owner' within the management of the Nuclear Fuel Division. The owners form a COPQ task force, which is responsible for analyzing results, setting goals and initiating improvement actions. The COPQ result is updated each month and is presented to all employees in several ways, such as Intranet. For the various COPQ elements improvement initiatives have been implemented. The presentation will describe some of them, such as reduction of: Scrap, rework and deviations through a process with zero defect meetings, high level of process automation, statistical methods; Margin slippage through business process re-engineering; Warranty costs through an improved design review process and expanded testing of new products; Costs for lack in supplier performance through a new concept for supplier QA/QC. It is our strong belief that both ABB Atom and our Customers will benefit from the COPQ process since it leads to a higher quality for nuclear fuel and control rods and facilitates lower product prices. (author)

  16. Operating Costs Reducing in MDF Manufacturing Industries

    José Augusto Coeve Florino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustained efforts by electric motors when subjected to cutting, trimming or finishing are directly related to the material being machined and the angle of attack of the tool. Choosing the right tool for this operation depends on an expected result. So the engines behave differently to each operation. The optimization between strength, speed, power, material and type of operation, can be found to reduce operational costs of production, besides determining the exact time to make the set-up of worn tool. The reduction in operating costs is an item of sustainability that outlines the strategic positioning on companies to become competitive in the global marketplace. With the great technological development present today, this issue goes away with the very latest products on the market for professionals who productivity will be dealt with in these modern maintenance equipment such as power quality analyzer, Imager, profile projector and microscope for research. The result of this work is the optimization of the cutting operation and energy consumption thereby demonstrating an optimum point of operation in a case study presented in this work.

  17. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  18. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  19. Cost estimates to guide manufacturing of composite waved beam

    Ye Jinrui; Zhang Boming; Qi Haiming

    2009-01-01

    A cost estimation model on the basis of manufacturing process has been presented. In the model, the effects of the material, labor, tool and equipment were discussed, and the corresponding formulas were provided. A method of selecting estimation variables has been provided based on a case study of composite waved beam using autoclave cure. The model parameters related to the process time estimation of the lay-up procedure were analyzed and modified for different part configurations. The result shows that there is little error while comparing the estimated process time with the practical one. The model is verified to be applicable to guide the design and manufacturing of the composite material

  20. Cost and Management Accounting Practices: A Survey of Manufacturing Companies

    Ali UYAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore cost and management accounting practices utilized by manufacturing companies operating in Istanbul, Turkey. The sample of the study consists of 61 companies, containing both small and medium-sized enterprises, and large companies. The data collection methodology of the study is questionnaire survey. The content of the questionnaire survey is based on several previous studies. The major findings of the study are as follows: the most widely used product costing method is job costing; the complexity in production poses as the highest ranking difficulty in product costing; the most widely used three overhead allocation bases are prime costs, units produced, and direct labor cost; pricing decisions is the most important area where costing information is used; overall mean of the ratio of overhead to total cost is 34.48 percent for all industries; and the most important three management accounting practices are budgeting, planning and control, and cost-volume-profit analysis. Furthermore, decreasing profitability, increasing costs and competition, and economic crises are the factors, which increase the perceived importance of cost accounting. The findings indicate that companies perceive traditional management accounting tools still important. However, new management accounting practices such as strategic planning, and transfer pricing are perceived less important than traditional ones. Therefore, companies need to improve themselves in this aspect.

  1. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment

  2. Transaction Costs in Global Supply Chains of Manufacturing Companies

    Philipp Bremen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing has advanced to an important measure that is applied broadly in operations management. Nowadays, suppliers of manufacturing companies do not only provide direct material like raw material and operational supplements but offer components and advanced modules incurring many value-adding stages. Whereas in the past companies built up local supplier networks, they recently tend to search for global sources. However, not all companies reach their expectations towards the success of global sourcing projects. Important reasons for relocating manufacturing capacities back to local suppliers or in- house manufacturing are costs for unexpected coordination activities, limited flexibility and declined or fluctuating quality. The theory of Transaction Cost Economics postulates that transaction costs of the types information, communication and coordination determine the governance structure of a supply chain, i.e. market, hybrid or firm. The objective of this paper is to analyze the cause-and-effect chain of inter-firm transaction costs concerning global sourcing. The resulting qualitative model is based on explorative multiple-case study.

  3. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  4. COST OF QUALITY MODELS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    N.M. Vaxevanidis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve quality, an organization must take into account the costs associated with achieving quality since the objective of continuous improvement programs is not only to meet customer requirements, but also to do it at the lowest, possible, cost. This can only obtained by reducing the costs needed to achieve quality, and the reduction of these costs is only possible if they are identified and measured. Therefore, measuring and reporting the cost of quality (CoQ should be considered an important issue for achieving quality excellence. To collect quality costs an organization needs to adopt a framework to classify costs; however, there is no general agreement on a single broad definition of quality costs. CoQ is usually understood as the sum of conformance plus non-conformance costs, where cost of conformance is the price paid for prevention of poor quality (for example, inspection and quality appraisal and cost of non-conformance is the cost of poor quality caused by product and service failure (for example, rework and returns. The objective of this paper is to give a survey of research articles on the topic of CoQ; it opens with a literature review focused on existing CoQ models; then, it briefly presents the most common CoQ parameters and the metrics (indices used for monitoring CoQ. Finally, the use of CoQ models in practice, i.e., the implementation of a quality costing system and cost of quality reporting in companies is discussed, with emphasis in cases concerning manufacturing firms.

  5. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    the electrode materials. For the existing electrode materials, the material analysis and cell characterization data from ADP dried electrodes showed equivalent (or slightly better) performance. However, for high loading and thicker electrode materials (for high energy densities) the ADP advantages are more prominent. There was less binder migration, the resistance was lower hence the current capacities and retention of the battery cells were higher. The success of the project has enabled credible communications with commercial end users as well as battery coating line integrators. Goal is to scale ADP up for high volume manufacturing of Li-ion battery electrodes. The implementation of ADP in high volume manufacturing will reduce a high cost production step to bring the overall price of Li-ion batteries down. This will ultimately have a positive impact on the public by making electric and hybrid vehicles more affordable.

  6. Identification of complexity cost factors in manufacturing companies

    Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Complexity tends to be arguably the biggest challenge of manufacturing companies. As the demand from the customers increases in volume and diversity, the number of finished products and components increases as well. This increasing product complexity has a direct effect on the production processes....... This research focuses on the relation between product and process complexity. Complexity cost factors are identified and categorized under the industrial standard APQC for process classification. Then, this categorization is used as a tool for identification of complexity cost factors in seven companies...

  7. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  8. Cost estimation of a specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) additive manufacturing machine for precision printing

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    creating new opportunities for manufacturers in a variety of industrial sectors. AM is an essentialprototyping technique for product design and development that is used in many different fields. However, the suitability of AMapplications in actual production in an industrial context needs to be determined......Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a portfolio of novel manufacturing technologies based on a layer-by-layer fabrication method.The market and industrial application of additive manufacturing technologies as an established manufacturing process have increasedexponentially in the last years....... This study, presents a cost estimation model forprecision printing with a specifically designed Digital Light Processing (DLP) AM machine built and validated at the Technical Universityof Denmark. The model presented in this study can be easily adapted and applied to estimate within a high level...

  9. Additive Manufacturing for Highly Efficient Window Inserts CRADA Report

    Roschli, Alex C. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    ORNL partnered with the Mackinac Technology Company to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to create highly energy efficient window inserts for retrofit in pre-existing buildings. Many early iterations of the window inserts were fabricated using carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics and polycarbonate films as a stand in for the low-e coated films produced by the Mackinac Technology Company. After demonstration of the proof of concept, i.e. custom window inserts with tensioned film, the materials used for the manufacture of the frames was more closely examined. Hollow particle-filled syntactic foam and low-density polymer composites formed by expandable microspheres were explored as the materials used to additively manufacture the frames of the inserts. It was concluded that low-cost retrofit window inserts in custom sizes could be easily fabricated using large scale additive manufacturing. Furthermore, the syntactic and expanded foams developed and tested satisfy the mechanical performance requirements for the application.

  10. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  11. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    Paul Savory; Robert Williams

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detai...

  12. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    Savory, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Ac...

  13. Development of Manufacturing Technology to Accelerate Cost Reduction of Low Concentration and

    Detrick, Adam [The Solaria Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this project was to accelerate deployment of cost-effective US-based manufacturing of Solaria’s unique c-Si module technology. This effort successfully resulted in the development of US-based manufacturing technology to support two highly-differentiated, market leading product platforms. The project was initially predicated on developing Solaria’s low-concentration PV (LCPV) module technology which at the time of the award was uniquely positioned to exceed the SunShot price goal of $0.50/Wp for standard c-Si modules. The Solaria LCPV module is a 2.5x concentrator that leverages proven, high-reliability PV module materials and low silicon cell usage into a technology package that already had the lowest direct material cost and leading Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). With over 25 MW commercially deployed globally, the Solaria module was well positioned to continue to lead in PV module cost reduction. Throughout the term of the contract, market conditions changed dramatically and so to did Solaria’s product offerings to support this. However, the manufacturing technology developed for the LCPV module was successfully leveraged and optimized to support two new and different product platforms. BIPV “PowerVision” and High-efficiency “PowerXT” modules. The primary barrier to enabling high-volume PV module manufacturing in the US is the high manual labor component in certain unique aspects of our manufacturing process. The funding was used to develop unique manufacturing automation which makes the manual labor components of these key processes more efficient and increase throughput. At the core of Solaria’s product offerings are its unique and proprietary techniques for dicing and re-arranging solar cells into modules with highly-differentiated characteristics that address key gaps in the c-Si market. It is these techniques that were successfully evolved and deployed into US-based manufacturing site with SunShot funding. Today, Solaria

  14. A KBE genetic-causal cost modelling methodology for manufacturing cost contingency management

    Curran, R.; Gilmour, M.; McAlleean, C.; Kelly, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides validated evidence of a robust methodology for the management of lean manufacturing cost contingency, with a particular focus on contingency regarding recurring work content. A truly concurrent engineering process is established by capturing a range of knowledge from the design,

  15. Systematic review of drug administration costs and implications for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Tetteh, Ebenezer; Morris, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition costs of biologic drugs are often considered to be relatively high compared with those of nonbiologics. However, the total costs of delivering these drugs also depend on the cost of administration. Ignoring drug administration costs may distort resource allocation decisions because these affect cost effectiveness. The objectives of this systematic review were to develop a framework of drug administration costs that considers both the costs of physical administration and the associated proximal costs; and, as a case example, to use this framework to evaluate administration costs for biologics within the UK National Health Service (NHS). We reviewed literature that reported estimates of administration costs for biologics within the UK NHS to identify how these costs were quantified and to examine how differences in dosage forms and regimens influenced administration costs. The literature reviewed were identified by searching the Centre for Review and Dissemination Databases (DARE, NHS EED and HTA); EMBASE (The Excerpta Medica Database); MEDLINE (using the OVID interface); Econlit (EBSCO); Tufts Medical Center Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry; and Google Scholar. We identified 4,344 potentially relevant studies, of which 43 studies were selected for this systematic review. We extracted estimates of the administration costs of biologics from these studies. We found evidence of variation in the way that administration costs were measured, and that this affected the magnitude of costs reported, which could then influence cost effectiveness. Our findings suggested that manufacturers of biologic medicines should pay attention to formulation issues and their impact on administration costs, because these affect the total costs of healthcare delivery and cost effectiveness.

  16. Towards the next generation 23% efficient n-type cells with low cost manufacturing

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Suniva, Inc., in collaboration with the University Center for Excellence in Photovoltaics (UCEP) at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) proposed this comprehensive three year program to enable the development of an advanced high performance product that will help the US regain its competitive edge in PV. This project was designed to overcome cost and efficiency barriers through advances in PV science, technology innovation, low-cost manufacturing and full production of ~22.5% efficient n-type Si cells in Norcross, GA. At the heart of the project is the desire to complement the technology being developed concurrently under the Solarmat and ARPAe initiatives to develop a differentiated product superior in both performance and cost effectiveness to the competing alternatives available on the market, and push towards achieving SunShot objectives while ensuring a sustainable business model based on US manufacturing. A significant reduction of the costs in modules produced today will need to combine reductions in wafer costs, cell processing costs as well as module fabrication costs while delivering a product that is not only more efficient under test conditions but also increases the energy yield in outdoor operations. This project will result in a differentiated high performance product and technology that is consistent with sustaining PV manufacturing in the US for a longer term and further highlights the need for continued support for developing the next generation concepts that can keep US manufacturing thriving to support the growing demand for PV in the US and consistent with the US government’s mandates for energy independence.

  17. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  18. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  19. INTEGRATION OF COST MODELS AND PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR OPTIMUM COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Pack, Seongchan [General Motors; Wilson, Daniel [General Motors; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors; Kia, Hamid [General Motors; Yu, Hang [ESI, Group.; Doroudian, Mark [ESI Group

    2017-09-05

    Manufacturing cost of resin transfer molded composite parts is significantly influenced by the cycle time, which is strongly related to the time for both filling and curing of the resin in the mold. The time for filling can be optimized by various injection strategies, and by suitably reducing the length of the resin flow distance during the injection. The curing time can be reduced by the usage of faster curing resins, but it requires a high pressure injection equipment, which is capital intensive. Predictive manufacturing simulation tools that are being developed recently for composite materials are able to provide various scenarios of processing conditions virtually well in advance of manufacturing the parts. In the present study, we integrate the cost models with process simulation tools to study the influence of various parameters such as injection strategies, injection pressure, compression control to minimize high pressure injection, resin curing rate, and demold time on the manufacturing cost as affected by the annual part volume. A representative automotive component was selected for the study and the results are presented in this paper

  20. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost can be optimized. The search method that was used in this experiment is Simulated Annealling, a variant form Hill Climbing Search method. An ideal operation time to proses a part was used as the annealling schedule. From the empirical test, it could be proved that the use of ABC approach and Simulated Annealing to search the route (routing process can optimize the Total Production Cost. In the other hand, the use of ideal operation time to process a part as annealing schedule can control the processing time well. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin-mesin Numerical Control (NC yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin-mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian rute operasi pada mesin yang tepat, untuk lebih mengoptimasi biaya produksi secara keseluruhan. Adapun metode Searching yang digunakan adalah Simulated Annealing yang merupakan varian dari metode searching Hill Climbing. Waktu operasi ideal untuk memproses sebuah part digunakan sebagai Annealing Schedulenya. Dari hasil pengujian empiris dapat dibuktikan bahwa penggunaan pendekatan ABC dan Simulated Annealing untuk proses pencarian rute (routing dapat lebih

  1. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information

  2. Controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2013-09-01

    Interest in nano-scale manufacturing research and development is growing. The reason is to accelerate the translation of discoveries and inventions of nanoscience and nanotechnology into products that would benefit industry, economy and society. Ongoing research in nanomanufacturing is focused primarily on developing novel nanofabrication techniques for a variety of applications—materials, energy, electronics, photonics, biomedical, etc. Our goal is to foster the development of high-throughput methods of fabricating nano-enabled products. Large-area parallel processing and highspeed continuous processing are high-throughput means for mass production. An example of large-area processing is step-and-repeat nanoimprinting, by which nanostructures are reproduced again and again over a large area, such as a 12 in wafer. Roll-to-roll processing is an example of continuous processing, by which it is possible to print and imprint multi-level nanostructures and nanodevices on a moving flexible substrate. The big pay-off is high-volume production and low unit cost. However, the anticipated cost benefits can only be realized if the increased production rate is accompanied by high yields of high quality products. To ensure product quality, we need to design and construct manufacturing systems such that the processes can be closely monitored and controlled. One approach is to bring cyber-physical systems (CPS) concepts to nanomanufacturing. CPS involves the control of a physical system such as manufacturing through modeling, computation, communication and control. Such a closely coupled system will involve in-situ metrology and closed-loop control of the physical processes guided by physics-based models and driven by appropriate instrumentation, sensing and actuation. This paper will discuss these ideas in the context of controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale.

  3. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  4. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  5. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products: a novel tailored model for optimizing performance and estimating costs.

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Römhild, Andy; Kaiser, Daniel; Beier, Carola; Bauer, Gerhard; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reinke, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) have gained considerable attention in academia due to their therapeutic potential. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles ensure the quality and sterility of manufacturing these products. We developed a model for estimating the manufacturing costs of cell therapy products and optimizing the performance of academic GMP-facilities. The "Clean-Room Technology Assessment Technique" (CTAT) was tested prospectively in the GMP facility of BCRT, Berlin, Germany, then retrospectively in the GMP facility of the University of California-Davis, California, USA. CTAT is a two-level model: level one identifies operational (core) processes and measures their fixed costs; level two identifies production (supporting) processes and measures their variable costs. The model comprises several tools to measure and optimize performance of these processes. Manufacturing costs were itemized using adjusted micro-costing system. CTAT identified GMP activities with strong correlation to the manufacturing process of cell-based products. Building best practice standards allowed for performance improvement and elimination of human errors. The model also demonstrated the unidirectional dependencies that may exist among the core GMP activities. When compared to traditional business models, the CTAT assessment resulted in a more accurate allocation of annual expenses. The estimated expenses were used to set a fee structure for both GMP facilities. A mathematical equation was also developed to provide the final product cost. CTAT can be a useful tool in estimating accurate costs for the ATMPs manufactured in an optimized GMP process. These estimates are useful when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these novel interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  7. Cost, resources, and energy efficiency of additive manufacturing

    Dudek Piotr; Zagórski Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make objects from Computer Aided Design (CAD) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to using subtractive manufacturing methods. The use of rapid prototyping technologies has increased significantly in recent years. These new techniques, while still evolving, are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. They can reduce energy use and time to market and offer industry new design flexibility. We include a...

  8. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Cooled Axisymmetric Scramjets, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing...

  9. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chick, Lawrence A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  10. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for High Performance Combustion Chambers, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to dramatically reduce the cost and lead-time of...

  11. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, and Shriram Santhanagopalan

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  12. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    ...) technology demonstrator and Crusader self-propelled howitzer platforms. Present integral armor manufacturing processes involve adhesive bonding of a composite structure with ballistic armor tiles, spall shield, and nuisance cover...

  13. Effects of Cost Factors on National Manufacturing Based on Global Perspectives

    Fangtao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the real economy is the important basis for the development of a country, especially after the global financial crisis in 2008. Given that the manufacturing industry is the main part of the national real economy, many developed and developing countries have paid considerable attention to its significance. This study focused on cost factors given that they influence national manufacturing development. Initially, this study proposed two elements, namely, manufacturing development scale and manufacturing development level, to evaluate national manufacturing development from two aspects: quantity and quality. Subsequently, we extracted a series of cost factors on the bass of the theoretical framework and literature, including labor costs, financing costs, tax and rental costs, energy and raw materials, foreign trade exports and business environments. On the basis of the data of 13 main manufacturing countries around the world from 2000 to 2015, we tested the influence degree of each cost element index on the scale and level of national manufacturing industry development through a two-way fixed effects model and incorporated it with the development of China’s manufacturing industry as a case study. Finally, we deduced the future development trend of the manufacturing industry by specifically analyzing the cost factors affecting the development of this industry and provided policy suggestions. The main innovation and contribution of this study including: to comprehensively evaluate the national manufacturing development from two aspects, namely, “quantity” and “quality”; to identify the impact of national cost of the six elements; to demonstrate and determine the extent of its impact on the development trend of manufacturing sector and carry out pre-judgment through empirical research on each indicator; to provide policy recommendations targeted for each of the indicators.

  14. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  15. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  16. Vertical Cost-Information Sharing in a Food Supply Chain with Multiple Unreliable Suppliers and Two Manufacturers

    Junjian Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a food supply chain where multiple suppliers provide completely substitutable food products to two manufacturers. Meanwhile, the suppliers face yield uncertainty and the manufacturers face uncertain production costs that are private information. While the suppliers compete on price, the manufacturers compete on quantity. We build a stylized multistage game theoretic model to analyze the issue of vertical cost-information sharing (VCIS within the supply chain by considering key parameters, including the level of yield uncertainty, two manufacturers’ cost correlation, the correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes, and the number of suppliers. We study the suppliers’ optimal wholesale price and the manufacturers’ optimal order quantities under different VCIS strategies. Finally, through numerical analyses, we examine how key parameters affect the value of VCIS to each supplier and each manufacturer, respectively. We found that the manufacturers are willing to share cost information with suppliers only when the two manufacturers’ cost correlation is less than a threshold. While a high correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes and a large number of suppliers promote complete information sharing, a high level of yield uncertainty hinders complete information sharing. All these findings have important implications to industry practices.

  17. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  18. Automotive Manufacturers' Cost/Revenue, Financial and Risk Analysis : Projected Impact of Automobile Manufacturing on the Plastics Industry

    1979-08-01

    The report is part of a study to update the historical and projected cost/revenue analysis of the U.S. domestic automobile manufacturers. It includes the evaluation of the historical and projected financial data to assess the corporate financial posi...

  19. Manufacturing cost study on the ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    A study of the cost of manufacturing 48 ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is described. The estimate is built up from individual part costs and assembly operation times for the 80 kV prototype source constructed by LLL and described by LLL drawings furnished during December 1978. Recommendations for cost reduction are made

  20. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  1. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    Shulman, Holly [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States); Ross, Nicole [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  2. VIABILITY OF SOME APPLIED COST SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: EGYPT'S CASE

    Karim Mamdouh ABBAS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze viability of some applied cost systems. The population of the study is some Egyptian manufacturing firms. The number of received questionnaires was 385. The results indicated that , according to the application extent indicator, the currently cost systems in Egyptian manufacturing firms may be descendingly arranged as follows: Activity Based Costing (ABC system, Target Costing (TC system , Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA system, Activity Based Management (ABM ,Other systems, Theory of Constraints (TOC and Value Chain (VC analysis.

  3. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  4. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  5. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  6. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R and D and manufacturing cost

    Shen, A W; Guo, J L; Wang, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research and Development (R and D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R and D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable. (paper)

  7. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  8. Cost Savings for Manufacturing Lithium Batteries in a Flexible Plant

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produces types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles of the types hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 per year (30,000 EV batteries and 100,000 HEV batteries). The unit cost savings as calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 8% for the EV battery packs to 23% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach $710 per unit and that of the EV batteries $228 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries and including the BMS. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is $20-24 per m2 of cell area including the cost of the BMS, averaging $21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  9. Intelligent technologies in process of highly-precise products manufacturing

    Vakhidova, K. L.; Khakimov, Z. L.; Isaeva, M. R.; Shukhin, V. V.; Labazanov, M. A.; Ignatiev, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main control methods of the surface layer of bearing parts is the eddy current testing method. Surface layer defects of bearing parts, like burns, cracks and some others, are reflected in the results of the rolling surfaces scan. The previously developed method for detecting defects from the image of the raceway was quite effective, but the processing algorithm is complicated and lasts for about 12 ... 16 s. The real non-stationary signals from an eddy current transducer (ECT) consist of short-time high-frequency and long-time low-frequency components, therefore a transformation is used for their analysis, which provides different windows for different frequencies. The wavelet transform meets these conditions. Based on aforesaid, a methodology for automatically detecting and recognizing local defects in bearing parts surface layer has been developed on the basis of wavelet analysis using integral estimates. Some of the defects are recognized by the amplitude component, otherwise an automatic transition to recognition by the phase component of information signals (IS) is carried out. The use of intelligent technologies in the manufacture of bearing parts will, firstly, significantly improve the quality of bearings, and secondly, significantly improve production efficiency by reducing (eliminating) rejections in the manufacture of products, increasing the period of normal operation of the technological equipment (inter-adjustment period), the implementation of the system of Flexible facilities maintenance, as well as reducing production costs.

  10. Establishment of reference costs for occupational health services and implementation of cost management in Japanese manufacturing companies.

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji; Aratake, Yutaka; Ide, Hiroshi; Nobori, Junichiro; Kojima, Reiko; Odagami, Kiminori; Kato, Anna; Hiraoka, Mika; Shiota, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Ito, Masato; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Matsuda, Shinya

    2016-07-22

    We developed a standardized cost estimation method for occupational health (OH) services. The purpose of this study was to set reference OH services costs and to conduct OH services cost management assessments in two workplaces by comparing actual OH services costs with the reference costs. Data were obtained from retrospective analyses of OH services costs regarding 15 OH activities over a 1-year period in three manufacturing workplaces. We set the reference OH services costs in one of the three locations and compared OH services costs of each of the two other workplaces with the reference costs. The total reference OH services cost was 176,654 Japanese yen (JPY) per employee. The personnel cost for OH staff to conduct OH services was JPY 47,993, and the personnel cost for non-OH staff was JPY 38,699. The personnel cost for receipt of OH services-opportunity cost-was JPY 19,747, expense was JPY 25,512, depreciation expense was 34,849, and outsourcing cost was JPY 9,854. We compared actual OH services costs from two workplaces (the total OH services costs were JPY 182,151 and JPY 238,023) with the reference costs according to OH activity. The actual costs were different from the reference costs, especially in the case of personnel cost for non-OH staff, expense, and depreciation expense. Using our cost estimation tool, it is helpful to compare actual OH services cost data with reference cost data. The outcomes help employers make informed decisions regarding investment in OH services.

  11. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  12. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  13. Activity-Based Costing for Agile Manufacturing Control

    1998-08-01

    to maintain a complex accounting system to meet your decision-making needs and the requirements of GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). An...including hourly and salary employees Fringe benefits Fixed costs such as depreciation , property taxes, leases, and other budgeted expenses Variable...3.5 Model Design Issues An ABC model is a stand alone management tool that does not have to adhere to GAAP regulations, therefore it can open up a wide

  14. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  15. Low cost method for manufacturing a data acquisition system with USB connectivity

    Niculescu, V.; Dobre, R. A.; Popovici, E.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of designing and manufacturing an electronic system the digital oscilloscope plays an essential role but it also represents one of the most expensive equipment present on the typical workbench. In order to make electronic design more accessible to students and hobbyists, an affordable data acquisition system was imagined. The paper extensively presents the development and testing of a low cost, medium speed, data acquisition system which can be used in a wide range of electronic measurement and debugging applications, assuring also great portability due to the small physical dimensions. Each hardware functional block and is thoroughly described, highlighting the challenges that occurred as well as the solutions to overcome them. The entire system was successfully manufactured using high quality components to assure increased reliability, and high frequency PCB materials and techniques were preferred. The measured values determined based on test signals were compared to the ones obtained using a digital oscilloscope available on the market and differences less than 1% were observed.

  16. Strategies for Implementing Activity-Based Costing in the UK Manufacturing Industry

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Tan, Kian; Tan, Swee; Sutton, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings with a case study on why activity based costing lacks impact in the UK manufacturing industry. Activity based costing was performed on selected MT range subsystems of an electrical power generator to compare with the current UNN UK’s conven-tional costing system. The results have found that the current costing system works well for the MT products and thus change of costing system is not necessary for these products. The activity based costi...

  17. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  18. HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing

    Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in the clean room environment of biotechnology and drug development and manufacturing, are extremely energy and water intensive and represent a significant operating cost for these facilities [1]. HVAC systems are also the primary source of environmental emissions for the majority of companies operating within the biotechnology and drugs sector. While the processes used in drug manufacture have negligible environmental impact...

  19. User Cost of Debt-Financed Capital in Irish Manufacturing Industry: 1985 2011

    KEARNEY, IDE; ZNUDERL, NUSA

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper provides estimates of the cost of debt-financed capital to Irish manufacturing industry over the period 1985 to 2011. The estimates are provided for two types of capital assets, machinery and equipment and industrial buildings. They also incorporate policy interventions aimed at influencing investment behaviour of manufacturing firms in Ireland. The results show that large capital gains recorded during the Celtic Tiger period created a downward distortion in the user c...

  20. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  1. Simple, cost effective & result oriented framework for supplier performance measurement in sports goods manufacturing industry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.

  2. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  3. Redesign of an in-market food processor for manufacturing cost reduction using DFMA methodology

    Akshay Harlalka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the time and cost involved in the product development is very important to stay competitive in the market. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA is a cost-reduction framework for designers to evaluate manufacturing aspects of a product design. A case study on an in-market food processor, this paper aims to demonstrate the significance of DFMA implementation on an Indian consumer product. Even though many DFMA case studies have been published till date, very few have dealt with the Indian consumer durables category. In this paper, various cost-reduction opportunities are identified in the design of a food processor manufactured by a reputed company in India. Using the DFMA study, design ideas are developed with an objective of reducing the overall manufacturing cost of the product. As a result of DFMA implementation, significant improvement in terms of the product’s architecture, assembly time and design efficiency is identified. Overall cost reduction of 0.25 USD (United States Dollar was achieved and an improvement in the Design for Assembly (DFA index from 15.99 to 19.93 is reported. This procedure utilized in this paper can be adopted for any consumer durable products of similar type and design improvements and cost reduction can be achieved.

  4. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  5. Die casting copper motor rotors: mold materials and processing for cost-effective manufacturing

    Peters, D.T.; Cowie, J.G.; Brush, E.F. Jr.

    2000-07-01

    This project seeks to demonstrate mold materials for copper pressure die-casting that are cost-effective and practical for production use in die-casting copper motor rotors. The incorporation of die-cast copper for conductor bars and end rings of the induction motor in place of aluminum would result in attractive improvements in motor energy efficiency through reductions in motor losses ranging from 15% to 20%. Die-cast motor rotors are produced in aluminum today because rotor fabrication by pressure die-casting is an established practice. Lack of a durable and cost-effective mold material has been the technical barrier preventing manufacture of the die-cast copper rotor. This project tested H-13 steel die inserts that establish the baseline. Nickel-, tungsten-, and molybdenum-based high temperature alloys were extensively tested. Results indicate that substantially extended die life is possible using high temperature die materials, pre-heated and operated at elevated temperatures. Pre-heating and high operating temperatures were shown to be critical in extending the die life by decreasing the cyclic stresses associated with thermal expansion. Extended die life provides the opportunity for economically viable copper motor rotor die-casting. (orig.)

  6. Using Electromagnetic Algorithm for Total Costs of Sub-contractor Optimization in the Cellular Manufacturing Problem

    Mohammad Reza Shahriari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a non-linear binary programing for optimizing a specific cost in cellular manufacturing system in a controlled production condition. The system parameters are determined by the continuous distribution functions. The aim of the presented model is to optimize the total cost of imposed sub-contractors to the manufacturing system by determining how to allocate the machines and parts to each seller. In this system, DM could control the occupation level of each machine in the system. For solving the presented model, we used the electromagnetic meta-heuristic algorithm and Taguchi method for determining the optimal algorithm parameters.

  7. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, Georgia Tech's School of Aerospace Engineering was awarded a NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) to address 'Integrated Design and Manufacturing for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)' in its graduate aerospace systems design courses. This report summarizes the results of the five courses incorporated into the Georgia Tech's USRA ADP program. It covers AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering, AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD, AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost, AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One, and AE6352: Aerospace Systems Design Two. AE8113: Introduction to Concurrent Engineering was an introductory course addressing the basic principles of concurrent engineering (CE) or integrated product development (IPD). The design of a total system was not the objective of this course. The goal was to understand and define the 'up-front' customer requirements, their decomposition, and determine the value objectives for a complex product, such as the high speed civil transport (HSCT). A generic CE methodology developed at Georgia Tech was used for this purpose. AE4353: Design for Life Cycle Cost addressed the basic economic issues for an HSCT using a robust design technique, Taguchi's parameter design optimization method (PDOM). An HSCT economic sensitivity assessment was conducted using a Taguchi PDOM approach to address the robustness of the basic HSCT design. AE4360: Introduction to CAE/CAD permitted students to develop and utilize CAE/CAD/CAM knowledge and skills using CATIA and CADAM as the basic geometric tools. AE6351: Aerospace Systems Design One focused on the conceptual design refinement of a baseline HSCT configuration as defined by Boeing, Douglas, and NASA in their system studies. It required the use of NASA's synthesis codes FLOPS and ACSYNT. A criterion called the productivity index (P.I.) was used to evaluate disciplinary sensitivities and provide refinements of the baseline HSCT

  8. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  9. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to predict the cost structure of a newly developed manufacturing process if it is to be considered by manufacturing enterprises for development to substitute a process that is in use. The costs of the new SSM technologies was established by technical cost...

  10. Determining the total cost of reverse supply chain operations for original equipment manufacturers

    Larsen, Samuel Brüning; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    When original equipment manufacturers (OEM) examine whether or not to invest in a reverse supply chain (RSC), managers need insight into not only the cost savings and new revenue streams the RSC enables, but also the total cost of the RSC itself. Using case study research the study examines what...... cost parameters constitute the total cost (TC) of the RSC. The specific RSC that the study seeks the TC for consists of 1) end-product refurbishing, 2) component refurbishing, and 3) sales of used materials back to original suppliers or independent recyclers for materials recycling....

  11. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Prillia Ayudia; Rachmat Haris; Mulyana Tatang

    2017-01-01

    PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement are...

  12. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  13. Application of laser additive manufacturing to produce dies for aluminium high pressure die casting

    Pereira, MFVT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available through immersion in liquid aluminium. The dipping cycle closely resembles the heating and cooling cycle of a typical aluminium die under casting conditions. The suitability of any LAM technology, that can produce fully dense metallic components... cost vs wrought manufactured 5.2 1,7 2. 2 Average cost Very High Medium High Table 3: Processing and finishing costs of test coupons 3.1 Cyclic Immersion in Molten Aluminium Figure 3 below shows the testing apparatus developed to simulate...

  14. Coordinating a Supply Chain When Manufacturer Makes Cost Reduction Investment in Supplier

    Shilei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a supply chain consisting of an upstream supplier and a downstream manufacturer, in which the supplier provides a component to the manufacturer, facing a price-sensitive and uncertain demand. The manufacturer makes cost reduction investment in the supplier to improve the supplier’s production efficiency, which benefits the entire supply chain. We derive the optimal investment and operating decisions. Both the centralized and decentralized supply chains are studied. We show that the optimal investment and operating decisions in the decentralized setting may deviate from that in the centralized setting. To avoid the profit loss caused by such a deviation, we develop a coordination mechanism by introducing a combined policy of revenue-sharing policy and investment cost-sharing policy. We also show that the developed coordination mechanism can achieve Pareto improvement for the two players.

  15. Design and manufacture of high performance hollow engine valves by Additive Layer Manufacturing

    Cooper, D.; Thornby, J.; Blundell, N.; Henrys, R.; Williams, M.A.; Gibbons, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High performance engine valve has been redesigned and optimised for and using ALM. • FEA was utilised to optimise and select a design for manufacture and testing. • Micro computed tomography was used in design and validation as an NDT technique. • Real world test of components was conducted to evaluate their performance. • Has demonstrated the potential for ALM in a high performance engineering context. - Abstract: Additive Layer Manufacture (ALM) of metallic components provides significant opportunities for the reduction of component weight, in order to realise improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency or performance. This paper examines the potential benefits of ALM with regard to reducing the weight of Internal Combustion Engine inlet or exhaust valves. A case study component is presented, for which an improved ALM design has been created, manufactured and evaluated. Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT) scanning was utilised to reverse engineer an original component, and to assess the ALM component’s internal geometry and material integrity. The case study valve was re-designed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to select a light weighted design which provides a conservative 9.4 g, (20%) weight saving on the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) component. An engine test of over 175,000 cycles at between 2000 and 9500 rpm was conducted, after which μ-CT scanning confirmed no evidence of internal cracking, failure or significant deformation

  16. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to

  17. Internal Fiber Structure of a High-Performing, Additively Manufactured Injection Molding Insert

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Baier, Sina; Trinderup, Camilla H.

    A standard mold is equipped with additively manufactured inserts in a rectangular shape produced with vat photo polymerization. While the lifetime compared to conventional materials such as brass, steel, and aluminum is reduced, the prototyping and design phase can be shortened significantly...... by using flexible and cost-effective additive manufacturing technologies. Higher production volumes still exceed the capability of additively manufactured inserts, which are overruled by the stronger performance of less-flexible but mechanically advanced materials. In this contribution, the internal...... structure of a high-performing, fiber-reinforced injection molding insert has been analyzed. The insert reached a statistically proven and reproducible lifetime of 4,500 shots, which significantly outperforms any other previously published additively manufactured inserts. Computer tomography, tensile tests...

  18. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  19. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    Ocelik, V.; Janssen, Niels; Smith, Stefan; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with

  20. Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility

    Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.; Ye, Jianchao; Calta, Nicholas P.; Li, Zan; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Wen; Roehling, Tien Tran; Ott, Ryan T.; Santala, Melissa K.; Depond, Philip J.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Hamza, Alex V.; Zhu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  2. Estimating Drug Costs: How do Manufacturer Net Prices Compare with Other Common US Price References?

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Levy, Joseph F; Slejko, Julia F; Onwudiwe, Nneka C; Perfetto, Eleanor M

    2018-05-12

    Drug costs are frequently estimated in economic analyses using wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), but what is the best approach to develop these estimates? Pharmaceutical manufacturers recently released transparency reports disclosing net price increases after accounting for rebates and other discounts. Our objective was to determine whether manufacturer net prices (MNPs) could approximate the discounted prices observed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). We compared the annual, average price discounts voluntarily reported by three pharmaceutical manufacturers with the VA price for specific products from each company. The top 10 drugs by total sales reported from company tax filings for 2016 were included. The discount observed by the VA was determined from each drug's list price, reported as WAC, in 2016. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the VA discount observed and a weighted price index was calculated using the lowest price to the VA (Weighted VA Index), which was compared with the manufacturer index. The discounted price as a percentage of the WAC ranged from 9 to 74%. All three indexes estimated by the average discount to the VA were at or below the manufacturer indexes (42 vs. 50% for Eli Lilly, 56 vs. 65% for Johnson & Johnson, and 59 vs. 59% for Merck). Manufacturer-reported average net prices may provide a close approximation of the average discounted price granted to the VA, suggesting they may be a useful proxy for the true pharmacy benefits manager (PBM) or payer cost. However, individual discounts for products have wide variation, making a standard discount adjustment across multiple products less acceptable.

  3. Strategic research on the sustainable development cost of manufacturing industry under the background of carbon allowance and trade policy

    Ma, Zhongmin; Cheng, Mengting; Wang, Mei

    2017-08-01

    The important subjects of energy consumption and carbon emission are manufacturing enterprises, with the deepening of international cooperation, and the implementation of carbon limit and trade policy, costs of manufacturing industry will rise sharply. How can the manufacturing industry survive in this reform, and it has to be a problem that the managers of the manufacturing industry need to solve. This paper analyses sustainable development cost connotation and value basis on the basis of sustainable development concept, discusses the influence of carbon allowance and trade policy for cost strategy of manufacturing industry, thinks that manufacturing industry should highlight social responsibility and realize maximization of social value, implement cost strategy the sustainable development, and pointed out the implementation way.

  4. Rheology of High-Melt-Strength Polypropylene for Additive Manufacturing

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Kamleitner, Florian; Jagenteufel, Ralf

    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a widely used material for additive manufacturing (AM) fused deposition modeling (FDM). The rheological properties of high-melt-strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) were compared to commercially available ABS 250 filament to study the possibility of using...

  5. Manufacturing Advantage: Why High-Performance Work Systems Pay Off.

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Bailey, Thomas; Berg, Peter; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    A study examined the relationship between high-performance workplace practices and the performance of plants in the following manufacturing industries: steel, apparel, and medical electronic instruments and imaging. The multilevel research methodology combined the following data collection activities: (1) site visits; (2) collection of plant…

  6. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of high-reliability CdS/CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Cost reduction for the above-named solar cells is the aim of this effort. On the basis of the results of past studies, a technology is established of fabricating a thin CdS film by subjecting a CdS film to organometal pyrolysis, and this brings about a decrease in photoabsorption loss in the range of waves shorter than 500nm and a decrease in in-film reflection loss for an increase in short-circuit current density. A proximity sublimation method is used for CdTe film fabrication, which improves on film quality and film adhesion. These efforts result in the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 16.0% which is the highest in the world. Studies are promoted in a process nearer to the ultimate form, and a 30cm times 60cm large CdTe solar cell is fabricated on the basis of a patterning technique, and the product attains a conversion efficiency of 9.8%. In fiscal 1998, studies center about the establishment of a film fabrication process for a medium-are substrate and about the enhancement of its conversion efficiency, and facilities capable of dealing with large-area substrates are introduced and operated. In a typical achievement, a CdTe solar cell is experimentally fabricated in a process which is wholly under normal pressure, and the product with an aperture area of 1376cm{sup 2} exhibits a conversion efficiency of 10.5% according to JQA (Japan Quality Assurance Organization). (NEDO)

  7. (Dysfunctionality of accounting cost systems in manufacturing companies of Tuzla canton

    Sado Puškarević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the conducted primary survey on functionality of cost systems in manufacturing companies of Tuzla Canton (hereinafter “TC”. This paper assesses their adequacy to the needs of these companies: the present needs, and the ones that will be brought by the changes in the environment. These systems have to be up-to-date, as they influence the process of cost management, which is the key factor of companies’ adaptation to the conditions of a modern market. Cost management, which is based on the information of a cost system, enables the company to take the adequate stand towards customers on markets and toward their competition. Also, the quality cost information is a precondition for effective and efficient allocation of limited resources in a transitional period of society development. Therefore, only quality designed cost system in transitional economy will enable recovery, and then, growth and development of a company. This emphasizes the importance of research of the stated issues for transitional countries. The research results should also help to persuade the management about the need to modernize the operation organization, primarily the accounting function, mainly in the part of cost system organization. The determined defects, as well as deviances in relation to current needs for information about costs, are guidelines for an adequate process of redesigning cost systems in companies of transitional economy.

  8. Activity-based Costing dan Simulated Annealing untuk Pencarian Rute pada Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    Budhi, Gregorius Satia

    2003-01-01

    In Bahasa Indonesia : Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin-mesin Numerical Control (NC) yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin-mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC) digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian ru...

  9. ANALISIS ACTIVITY BASED COST1NG DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Rialdy, Novien

    2017-01-01

    AbstrakFlexible Manufacturing System (FMS) adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin -mesin Numerical Control (NC) yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin -mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC) digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian rute operasi pada mesin...

  10. A cost-effective compressed air generation for manufacturing using modified microturbines

    Eret, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cost-effective way of compressed air generation for manufacturing in SME is proposed. • The approach is based on a modified microturbine configuration. • Thermodynamic and life cycle analyses are presented and economic benefit is demonstrated. - Abstract: Compressed air is an irreplaceable energy source for some manufacturing processes, and is also common in applications even when there are alternatives. As a result, compressed air is a key utility in manufacturing industry, but unfortunately the cost of compressed air production is one of the most expensive processes in a manufacturing facility. In order to reduce the compressed air generation cost an unconventional way using a microturbine configuration is proposed. The concept is based on an extraction of a certain amount of compressed air from/after the compressor with the residual air flowing to the turbine to produce sufficient back power to drive the compressor. A thermodynamic and life cycle analysis are presented for several system variations, including a simple cycle without a recuperator and a complex configuration with an intercooler, recuperator and reheating. The study is based on the typical requirements (i.e. quantity, pressure) for a small to medium sized industrial compressed air system. The analysis is focused on the North American market due to the low price of natural gas. The lowest life cycle cost alternative is represented by a microturbine concept with a recuperator, air extraction after partial compression, intercooler and aftercooler. A comparison of an electric motor and conventional microturbine prime movers demonstrates the economic benefit of the proposed compressed air generation method, for the design parameters and utility prices considered.

  11. The Price-Marginal Cost Markup and its Determinants in U.S. Manufacturing

    Mazumder, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the price-marginal cost markup for US manufacturing using a new methodology. Most existing techniques of estimating the markup are a variant on Hall's (1988) framework involving the manipulation of the Solow Residual. However this paper argues that this notion is based on the unreasonable assumption that labor can be costlessly adjusted at a fixed wage rate. By relaxing this assumption, we are able to derive a generalized markup index, which when estimated using manufactu...

  12. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (technical development for production of high purity silicon); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (taiyo denchiyo silicon seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of manufacturing technologies of Si for solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) P in Si could be successfully reduced to 0.1ppmw by EB melting method. The condition possible to reduce P in Si while continuously supplying metal Si was found. The 20kg class EB melting equipment was also designed and manufactured which can be connected with solidifying rough refining process. (2) Use of a water-cooling copper mold was studied using a small melting equipment for cost reduction in solidifying rough refining process. As a result, the prospect of crucible-free technology for removal of P and solidifying rough refining was obtained. (3) B in Si could be successfully reduced to the target of 0.1ppmw by vapor addition method using a plasma melting equipment. (4) The prototype SOG-Si achieved a conversion efficiency of 14.1% as solar cell. In addition, the advanced solar cell prepared by efficiency enhancement process achieved a conversion efficiency of 15.9%. 3 figs.

  13. Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model for Manufacturing Costs Estimation of Piping Elements

    Nibaldo Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an estimation model of manufacturing costs of piping elements through the application of a Reduced Multivariate Polynomial (RMP. The model allows obtaining accurate estimations, even when enough and adequate information is not available. This situation typically occurs in the early stages of the design process of industrial products. The experimental evaluations show that the approach is capable, with a low complexity, of reducing uncertainties and to predict costs with significant precision. Comparisons with a neural network showed also that the RMP performs better considering a set of classical performance measures with the corresponding lower complexity and higher accuracy.

  14. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  15. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENT FOR DECISION-MAKING

    Ioana D. BUFAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian manufacturing company. The study shows that the ABC/ABM system helps managers to properly manage indirect costs (by activities and understand the profitability of products, distribution channels and customers. Therefore, it offers a powerful instrument for decision-making. Although ABC is a new system of cost calculation that is absolutely necessary, in most cases the ABC method must be implemented in addition to the traditional costing systems, which are essential for the purposes of management accounting.

  16. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  17. The DARPA manufacturing initiative in high temperature superconductivity

    Adams, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a very aggressive Technology Base program in high temperature superconductivity. This program is expected to provide the basis for a specialized set of military products - passive microwave and millimeter wave devices - within the next three years. In order to get these high leverage products into military systems, a manufacturing base must be developed for HTSC components. A plan for DARPA in HTSC manufacturing is directly coupled with the ongoing DARPA materials and device oriented R and D program. In essence, this plan recommends a three phased effort: 1. Phase I (two years); Fund companies through R and D contracts for specialized HTSC components; prepare a detailed plan and develop an HTSC consortium. 2. Phase II (six years): Establish an HTSC Sematech initiative for electronic applications, including active devices. 3. Phase III (optional): Continue the HTSC Sematech with emphasis on high power applications

  18. Mining manufacturing data for discovery of high productivity process characteristics.

    Charaniya, Salim; Le, Huong; Rangwala, Huzefa; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2010-06-01

    Modern manufacturing facilities for bioproducts are highly automated with advanced process monitoring and data archiving systems. The time dynamics of hundreds of process parameters and outcome variables over a large number of production runs are archived in the data warehouse. This vast amount of data is a vital resource to comprehend the complex characteristics of bioprocesses and enhance production robustness. Cell culture process data from 108 'trains' comprising production as well as inoculum bioreactors from Genentech's manufacturing facility were investigated. Each run constitutes over one-hundred on-line and off-line temporal parameters. A kernel-based approach combined with a maximum margin-based support vector regression algorithm was used to integrate all the process parameters and develop predictive models for a key cell culture performance parameter. The model was also used to identify and rank process parameters according to their relevance in predicting process outcome. Evaluation of cell culture stage-specific models indicates that production performance can be reliably predicted days prior to harvest. Strong associations between several temporal parameters at various manufacturing stages and final process outcome were uncovered. This model-based data mining represents an important step forward in establishing a process data-driven knowledge discovery in bioprocesses. Implementation of this methodology on the manufacturing floor can facilitate a real-time decision making process and thereby improve the robustness of large scale bioprocesses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 1366 Project Automate: Enabling Automation for <$0.10/W High-Efficiency Kerfless Wafers Manufactured in the US

    Lorenz, Adam [1366 Technologies, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    For photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing to thrive in the U.S., there must be an innovative core to the technology. Project Automate builds on 1366’s proprietary Direct Wafer® kerfless wafer technology and aims to unlock the cost and efficiency advantages of thin kerfless wafers. Direct Wafer is an innovative, U.S.-friendly (efficient, low-labor content) manufacturing process that addresses the main cost barrier limiting silicon PV cost-reductions – the 35-year-old grand challenge of manufacturing quality wafers (40% of the cost of modules) without the cost and waste of sawing. This simple, scalable process will allow 1366 to manufacture “drop-in” replacement wafers for the $10 billion silicon PV wafer market at 50% of the cost, 60% of the capital, and 30% of the electricity of conventional casting and sawing manufacturing processes. This SolarMat project developed the Direct Wafer processes’ unique capability to tailor the shape of wafers to simultaneously make thinner AND stronger wafers (with lower silicon usage) that enable high-efficiency cell architectures. By producing wafers with a unique target geometry including a thick border (which determines handling characteristics) and thin interior regions (which control light capture and electron transport and therefore determine efficiency), 1366 can simultaneously improve quality and lower cost (using less silicon).

  20. Rapid Manufacture of Combustion Chambers Using Ductile, High Strength MMCs (1000-803), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Triton Systems, Inc. (Triton) proposes to develop a cost-effective manufacturing approach to fabricate combustion chambers for a rocket technology demonstrator...

  1. Additive Manufacturing and Casting Technology Comparison: Mechanical Properties, Productivity and Cost Benchmark

    Vevers, A.; Kromanis, A.; Gerins, E.; Ozolins, J.

    2018-04-01

    The casting technology is one of the oldest production technologies in the world but in the recent years metal additive manufacturing also known as metal 3D printing has been evolving with huge steps. Both technologies have capabilities to produce parts with internal holes and at first glance surface roughness is similar for both technologies, which means that for precise dimensions parts have to be machined in places where precise fit is necessary. Benchmark tests have been made to find out if parts which are produced with metal additive manufacturing can be used to replace parts which are produced with casting technology. Most of the comparative tests have been made with GJS-400-15 grade which is one of the most popular cast iron grades. To compare mechanical properties samples have been produced using additive manufacturing and tested for tensile strength, hardness, surface roughness and microstructure and then the results have been compared with the samples produced with casting technology. In addition, both technologies have been compared in terms of the production time and production costs to see if additive manufacturing is competitive with the casting technology. The original paper has been written in the Latvian language as part of the Master Thesis within the framework of the production technology study programme at Riga Technical University.

  2. New high-precision deep concave optical surface manufacturing capability

    Piché, François; Maloney, Chris; VanKerkhove, Steve; Supranowicz, Chris; Dumas, Paul; Donohue, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing steps necessary to manufacture hemispherical concave aspheric mirrors for high- NA systems. The process chain is considered from generation to final figuring and includes metrology testing during the various manufacturing steps. Corning Incorporated has developed this process by taking advantage of recent advances in commercially available Satisloh and QED Technologies equipment. Results are presented on a 100 mm concave radius nearly hemispherical (NA = 0.94) fused silica sphere with a better than 5 nm RMS figure. Part interferometric metrology was obtained on a QED stitching interferometer. Final figure was made possible by the implementation of a high-NA rotational MRF mode recently developed by QED Technologies which is used at Corning Incorporated for production. We also present results from a 75 mm concave radius (NA = 0.88) Corning ULE sphere that was produced using sub-aperture tools from generation to final figuring. This part demonstrates the production chain from blank to finished optics for high-NA concave asphere.

  3. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  4. Cost benefit of investment on quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing: WHO GMP pre- and post-certification of a Nigerian pharmaceutical manufacturer.

    Anyakora, Chimezie; Ekwunife, Obinna; Alozie, Faith; Esuga, Mopa; Ukwuru, Jonathan; Onya, Steve; Nwokike, Jude

    2017-09-18

    Pharmaceutical companies in Africa need to invest in both facilities and quality management systems to achieve good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliance. Compliance to international GMP standards is important to the attainment of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification. However, most of the local pharmaceutical manufacturing companies may be deterred from investing in quality because of many reasons, ranging from financial constraints to technical capacity. This paper primarily evaluates benefits against the cost of investing in GMP, using a Nigerian pharmaceutical company, Chi Pharmaceuticals Limited, as a case study. This paper also discusses how to drive more local manufacturers to invest in quality to attain GMP compliance; and proffers practical recommendations for local manufacturers who would want to invest in quality to meet ethical and regulatory obligations. The cost benefit of improving the quality of Chi Pharmaceuticals Limited's facilities and system to attain WHO GMP certification for the production of zinc sulfate 20-mg dispersible tablets was calculated by dividing the annual benefits derived from quality improvement interventions by the annual costs of implementing quality improvement interventions, referred to as a benefit-cost ratio (BCR). Cost benefit of obtaining WHO GMP certification for the production of zinc sulfate 20-mg dispersible tablets was 5.3 (95% confidence interval of 5.0-5.5). Investment in quality improvement intervention is cost-beneficial for local manufacturing companies. Governments and regulators in African countries should support pharmaceutical companies striving to invest in quality. Collaboration of local manufacturing companies with global companies will further improve quality. Local pharmaceutical companies should be encouraged to key into development opportunities available for pharmaceutical companies in Africa.

  5. The development of manufacturing techniques and philosophies for the cost effective production of modern nuclear transport flasks

    Balmer, S.L.; Ward, S.

    1997-01-01

    Design changes to enhance the characteristics of a new generation of large transport flasks have created new challenges to manufacturers. New fabrication, manufacturing and handling techniques have been developed but often at significant costs. The paper examines these developments covering two main areas, welding and the application of neutron absorbing material. Whilst designers have looked at enhancing flask performance, they often fail to appreciate that ultimately whatever has been designed, has to be firstly sold' and then manufactured. Optimisation of design must therefore include due consideration of the ultimate clients cost structure and the manufacturing route. The paper suggests that the only way this can be achieved is to adopt a teaming approach between designers and manufacturers. The ultimate choice of manufacturer however is left to the designers who must consider competencies, track record and commitment to assistance prior to entering into an agreement. (Author)

  6. Electricity demand of manufacturing sector in Turkey. A translog cost approach

    Boeluek, Guelden; Koc, A. Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper models factor demand for manufacturing sector in Turkey. We estimated a translog cost function with four factor consist of capital, labor, intermediate input and electricity over the 1980-2001. Our objective, taking in the consideration electricity as production input, was twofold: on the one hand, to estimate the price elasticity of electricity demand in manufacturing sector, and on the other hand to use cross-price and Morishima Elasticities of Substitution results for structural analysis regarding effects of electricity liberalization which initiated in 2001. Empirical result shows that electricity demand is relatively price sensitive (- 0.85). Our result in terms of electricity price is consistent with the previous studies. While electricity-labor and electricity-capital inputs are complementary, results indicate the existence of substitution possibilities between electricity and intermediate input. This means that changes in electricity prices have impact on labor demand and investment demand. These results have important implications for public policy. (author)

  7. Electricity demand of manufacturing sector in Turkey. A translog cost approach

    Boeluek, Guelden; Koc, A. Ali [Akdeniz University, Department of Economics, Antalya, 07058 (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper models factor demand for manufacturing sector in Turkey. We estimated a translog cost function with four factor consist of capital, labor, intermediate input and electricity over the 1980-2001. Our objective, taking in the consideration electricity as production input, was twofold: on the one hand, to estimate the price elasticity of electricity demand in manufacturing sector, and on the other hand to use cross-price and Morishima Elasticities of Substitution results for structural analysis regarding effects of electricity liberalization which initiated in 2001. Empirical result shows that electricity demand is relatively price sensitive (- 0.85). Our result in terms of electricity price is consistent with the previous studies. While electricity-labor and electricity-capital inputs are complementary, results indicate the existence of substitution possibilities between electricity and intermediate input. This means that changes in electricity prices have impact on labor demand and investment demand. These results have important implications for public policy. (author)

  8. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    Pointud, R.; Rispal, Ch.; Le Garec, M.

    1959-01-01

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm 2 . The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm 2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author) [fr

  9. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  10. Yalın Üretim Ortamına Uygun Maliyet Sistemi Seçimi(Selection of Costing System Appropriate for Lean Manufacturing Environment

    Funda ÖZÇELİK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To be successful in global competition, the number of firms adopted lean manufacturing systems are increasing every day. Traditional cost management systems is insufficient to produce the information needed for businesses adopting lean manufacturing system. Value stream costing system, appropriate for lean manufacturing enterprises’s value stream organization, better serves the purpose of lean enterprises. In this study value stream costing introduced and selection of costing system for lean manufacturing environments will be done.

  11. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. 36.4251 Section 36.4251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured...

  12. Credit Constraints and Determinants of the Cost of Capital in Vietnamese Manufacturing

    Rand, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which borrowing constraints restrict firm access to credit and identifies individual, firm, and loan characteristics, which determine the cost of capital in Vietnamese manufacturing. Using direct information from a Vietnamese enterprise survey the paper shows...... to have the necessary time to go through the many administrative difficulties in the formal credit system if they want to "seize the day". Finally, collateralized loans face larger interest rates, explained by the significant influence of "policy lending" in Vietnamese credit markets...

  13. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 by using the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 for the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  14. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  15. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  16. Reconfigurable manufacturing system for agile mass customization manufacturing

    Xing, B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies are facing three challenges: low cost production of product, high quality standard and rapid responsiveness to customer requirements. These three goals are equally important for the manufacturing companies who want...

  17. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    Chun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics cost control can better reflect the relationship of factors in the system. And the case firm can optimize the logistics costs by implement joint distribution. Research limitations/implications: This study still lacks comprehensive consideration about the variables quantities and quantitative of the control factors. In the future, we should strengthen the collection of data and information about the engineering manufacturing firms and improve the logistics operational cost model. Practical implications: This study puts forward some optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. And it is of great significance for enterprise’s supply chain management optimization and logistics cost control. Originality/value: Differing from the existing literatures, this paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics.

  18. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Prillia Ayudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement area to be optimized and analyzed. Improvement plan at this stage that is focusing on energy area and technology. Thirdly is process applies by modifying the technology through implementing automation system on the punching machine so that there is an increase of green level on the process machine. The result obtained after implement the method can save cost on electrical energy consumption in the amount of Rp 1.068.159/day.

  19. PEM fuel cell cost minimization using ``Design For Manufacture and Assembly`` techniques

    Lomax, F.D. Jr.; James, B.D. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Mooradian, R.P. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells fueled with direct hydrogen have demonstrated substantial technical potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines (ICE`s) in light duty vehicles. Such a transition to a hydrogen economy offers the potential of substantial benefits from reduced criteria and greenhouse emissions as well as reduced foreign fuel dependence. Research conducted for the Ford Motor Co. under a US Department of Energy contract suggests that hydrogen fuel, when used in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), can achieve a cost per vehicle mile less than or equal to the gasoline cost per mile when used in an ICE vehicle. However, fuel cost parity is not sufficient to ensure overall economic success: the PEM fuel cell power system itself must be of comparable cost to the ICE. To ascertain if low cost production of PEM fuel cells is feasible, a powerful set of mechanical engineering tools collectively referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) has been applied to several representative PEM fuel cell designs. The preliminary results of this work are encouraging, as presented.

  20. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  1. Low-cost small scale parabolic trough collector design for manufacturing and deployment in Africa

    Orosz, Matthew; Mathaha, Paul; Tsiu, Anadola; Taele, B. M.; Mabea, Lengeta; Ntee, Marcel; Khakanyo, Makoanyane; Teker, Tamer; Stephens, Jordan; Mueller, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power is expanding its deployment on the African subcontinent, highlighting the importance of efforts to indigenize manufacturing of this technology to increase local content and therefore local economic benefits of these projects. In this study a design for manufacturing (DFM) exercise was conducted to create a locally produced parabolic trough collector (the G4 PTC). All parts were sourced or fabricated at a production facility in Lesotho, and several examples of the design were prototyped and tested with collaborators in the Government of Lesotho's Appropriate Technology Services division and the National University of Lesotho. Optical and thermal performance was simulated and experimentally validated, and pedagogical pre-commercial versions of the PTC have been distributed to higher education partners in Lesotho and Europe. The cost to produce the PTC is 180 USD/m2 for a locally manufactured heat collection element (HCE) capable of sustaining 250C operation at ~65% efficiency. A version with an imported evacuated HCE can operate at 300°C with 70% efficiency. Economically relevant applications for this locally produced PTC include industrial process heat and distributed generation scenarios where cogeneration is required.

  2. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  3. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  4. High cost for drilling ships

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  5. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Horowitz, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Lee, H.; Smestad, G.

    2015-04-13

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.65/Wp(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today’s capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the promising pathways for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via an increase in manufacturing scale, substrate reuse, and improved manufacturing yields. We also identify several other significant drivers of HCPV module costs, including the Fresnel lens primary optic, module housing, thermal management, and the receiver board. These costs could potentially be lowered by employing innovative module designs.

  6. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  7. Analysis for the high-level waste disposal cost object

    Kim, S. K.; Lee, J. R.; Choi, J. W.; Han, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the ratio of cost object in terms of the disposal cost estimation. According to the result, the ratio of operating cost is the most significant object in total cost. There are a lot of differences between the disposal costs and product costs in view of their constituents. While the product costs may be classified by the direct materials cost, direct manufacturing labor cost, and factory overhead the disposal cost factors should be constituted by the technical factors and the non-technical factors

  8. High strength fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser

    Bellouard, Yves; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Bado, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Flexures are mechanical elements used in micro- and precision-engineering to precisely guide the motion of micro-parts. They consist of slender bodies that deform elastically upon the application of a force. Although counter-intuitive at first, fused silica is an attractive material for flexure. Pending that the machining process does not introduce surface flaws that would lead to catastrophic failure, the material has a theoretically high ultimate tensile strength of several GPa. We report on high-aspect ratio fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser combined with chemical etching. Notch-hinges with thickness as small as twenty microns and aspect ratios comparable to aspect ratios obtained by Deep- Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) were fabricated and tested under different loading conditions. Multiple fracture tests were performed for various loading conditions and the cracks morphologies were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The manufactured elements show outstanding mechanical properties with flexural strengths largely exceeding those obtained with other technologies and materials. Fused silica flexures offer a mean to combine integrated optics with micro-mechanics in a single monolithic substrate. Waveguides and mechanical elements can be combined in a monolithic devices opening new opportunities for integrated opto-mechatronics devices.

  9. High-cost users of medical care

    Garfinkel, Steven A.; Riley, Gerald F.; Iannacchione, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, the 10 percent of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population that incurred the highest medical care charges was responsible for 75 percent of all incurred charges. Health status was the strongest predictor of high-cost use, followed by economic factors. Persons 65 years of age or over incurred far higher costs than younger persons and had higher out-of-pocket costs, absolutely and as a percentage of income, althoug...

  10. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . It has been well established that over 70% of the total development cost of a product and its manufacturing process is decided during the design phase, although this phase accounts for less than 7% of the total costs. It is thus important to be able...

  11. The high cost of conflict.

    Forté, P S

    1997-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner. Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.

  12. Low-cost high purity production

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  13. The Effects of Property, Plant and Equipment (TAS 16 Standard on Cost of Sales of Manufacturing Companies

    İlker KIYMETLİ ŞEN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Turkish Commercial Code that came into force in July 2012, the all capital companies that meet the criteria described by the Council of Ministers are required to be in compliance with accounting and financial reporting standards published by the Public Oversight, Accounting and Auditing Board. There are several differences between the local accounting regulations and the standards in terms of valuation, computation and presentation. These differences also affect the cost of sales of the companies that result in differences in the calculation of costs of goods manufactured. The purpose of this study is to examine and demonstrate the potential effects of the TAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment on calculations of manufacturing costs and the cost of sales of manufacturing companies.

  14. Cost-effective method of manufacturing a 3D MEMS optical switch

    Carr, Emily; Zhang, Ping; Keebaugh, Doug; Chau, Kelvin

    2009-02-01

    growth of data and video transport networks. All-optical switching eliminates the need for optical-electrical conversion offering the ability to switch optical signals transparently: independent of data rates, formats and wavelength. It also provides network operators much needed automation capabilities to create, monitor and protect optical light paths. To further accelerate the market penetration, it is necessary to identify a path to reduce the manufacturing cost significantly as well as enhance the overall system performance, uniformity and reliability. Currently, most MEMS optical switches are assembled through die level flip-chip bonding with either epoxies or solder bumps. This is due to the alignment accuracy requirements of the switch assembly, defect matching of individual die, and cost of the individual components. In this paper, a wafer level assembly approach is reported based on silicon fusion bonding which aims to reduce the packaging time, defect count and cost through volume production. This approach is successfully demonstrated by the integration of two 6-inch wafers: a mirror array wafer and a "snap-guard" wafer, which provides a mechanical structure on top of the micromirror to prevent electrostatic snap-down. The direct silicon-to-silicon bond eliminates the CTEmismatch and stress issues caused by non-silicon bonding agents. Results from a completed integrated switch assembly will be presented, which demonstrates the reliability and uniformity of some key parameters of this MEMS optical switch.

  15. Japanese manufacturers' cost-performance marketing strategy for the delivery of solar photovoltaic homes

    Noguchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    Japanese manufacturers have been gaining a global reputation for their design approaches to industrialized housing, which is often equipped with PV systems. Homes are produced on a cost performance marketing strategy. In 2004, 13.7 per cent of the 1,160,083 houses built in Japan were pre-fabricated. The pre-fabricated housing industry has been given considerable government support. In response to growing demands for sustainable housing, the government has implemented promotional programs aiming to support the installations of photovoltaic systems. Details of various programs were presented, including: value-added production; housing sustainability; PV rooftop systems; and a mass custom design approach. It was concluded that the cost performance marketing strategy has a significant impact on production and design approaches. However, quality-oriented production may also result in successful commercialization of innovative housing. The Japanese marketing approach allows consumers to understand the added value of packaged innovations rather than the cost. It was suggested that this marketing strategy should be examined further, when considering approaches to innovative housing in other countries. 38 refs., 3 figs

  16. Japanese manufacturers' cost-performance marketing strategy for the delivery of solar photovoltaic homes

    Noguchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    Japanese manufacturers have been gaining a global reputation for their design approaches to industrialized housing, which is often equipped with PV systems. Homes are produced on a cost performance marketing strategy. In 2004, 13.7 per cent of the 1,160,083 houses built in Japan were pre-fabricated. The pre-fabricated housing industry has been given considerable government support. In response to growing demands for sustainable housing, the government has implemented promotional programs aiming to support the installations of photovoltaic systems. Details of various programs were presented, including: value-added production; housing sustainability; PV rooftop systems; and a mass custom design approach. It was concluded that the cost performance marketing strategy has a significant impact on production and design approaches. However, quality-oriented production may also result in successful commercialization of innovative housing. The Japanese marketing approach allows consumers to understand the added value of packaged innovations rather than the cost. It was suggested that this marketing strategy should be examined further, when considering approaches to innovative housing in other countries. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Low-cost indigenous radiopharmaceutical kits manufacturing capability: a successful work accomplished in Ethiopia

    Jorge, Y.; Noronha, O.P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Unit at Black Lion Hospital is the only Nuclear Medicine service giving center in the country. We have been importing Radiopharmaceutical-kits for 10 subsequent years costly, with frequent irregularities, only limited Numbers of kits mainly for Liver, Brain, Thyroid and Kidney imagings. Most of the Nuclear Medicine (NM) diagnostic procedures were not undertaken at our unit, because of unavailability of vital Radiopharmaceutical-kits (Rp-kits) in the country since they were not manufactured in the country. In order to solve this long stranding problem of the country persistent efforts were made. The success in Rp-kits manufacturing indigenously has the advantage of disseminating the NM Technology with in the country also. With the continuous efforts made 7 Aqueous-Rp-kits were manufactured successfully in our unit viza-viz: 1) 99m Tc-s-colloid-for Liver imaging. 2) 99m Tc-DTPA-for Brain + Renal imaging. 3) 99m Tc-MDP-for Bone imaging, 4) 99m Tc-Tin (11) pyrophosphate for in-vivo R,B,C, labelling: (For the study of Blood-Pool and Myocardial Infarction), 5) 99m Tc-Tin(11) Gluconate for Brain + Kidney Static imaging. 6) 99m Tc-Tin(11) Phytate for Liver imaging. 7) 99m Tc-TBI for Myocardial perfusion study. Their physico-chemical behaving patterns were studied and the chemical and biological quality control procedures were conducted upon the indigenously produced kits at the National Drug Quality Control center and they were found to be sterile, apyrogenic and non-toxic. The efficiency of the kits was tested in many patients in our unit and found to be effective and reliable. Aqueous kits produced were observed to be as effective and reliable as their lyophilized counterparts with respect to their physico-chemical properties and biospecificity (organ specificity) but possessing short shelf lives unlike lyophilized kits. (author)

  18. DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT AND ORGANISATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING BASED ON ABC-COSTING METHOD APPLIED IN MOLDOVAN MANUFACTURING ENTITIES

    Svetlana MIHAILA

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and present the main features of ABC-costing method, as well as the key elements, such as activities, resources and cost drivers. The article enlarges upon the stages of application of such method in the Moldovan manufacturing businesses and brings forth some examples of internal reports used both for a simple analysis and for management decision-making purposes. The article also focuses on a comparison between the traditional costing methods and ABC...

  19. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  20. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  1. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  2. Assessing the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance

    Maiga, Adam S; Nilsson, Anders; Jacobs, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The interface between management control and information technology is an under-developed research area with a knowledge gap concerning its implications for financial performance. This study contributes to bridging this gap by investigates the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance. We surveyed a sample of 518 managers of U.S. manufacturing plants, approximately evenly distributed between those using activ...

  3. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    Julijana Krajnc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-based accounting of logistics costs in a production company, and to test its efficiency in the disclosure of logistics costs compared with traditional cost accounting. The application of the model in a production company shows that an activity-based approach discloses as much as 108% more logistics costs at the level of a group of products than the traditional cost-accounting approach. Further, detailed information on logistics costs obtained in this way enables their more efficient management. Key words: logistics costs; activity-based costing; cost allocation; cost visibility; cost management

  4. Micro Manufacturing

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  5. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  6. Modeling the Downstream Processing of Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Cost Advantages for Continuous Methods for a Broad Range of Manufacturing Scales.

    Hummel, Jonathan; Pagkaliwangan, Mark; Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Davidovits, Terence; Stock, Rick; Ransohoff, Thomas; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2018-01-17

    The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use (SU) technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing (ICB) platform is modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and SU batch formats. All three models include costs associated with downstream processing only. Evaluation of the models across a broad range of clinical and commercial scenarios reveal that the cost savings gained by switching from stainless-steel to SU batch processing are often amplified by continuous operation. The continuous platform exhibits the lowest cost of goods across 78% of all scenarios modeled here, with the SU batch process having the lowest costs in the rest of the cases. The relative savings demonstrated by the continuous process are greatest at the highest feed titers and volumes. These findings indicate that existing and imminent continuous technologies and equipment can become key enablers for more cost effective manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Using 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) to Produce Low-Cost Simulation Models for Medical Training.

    Lichtenberger, John P; Tatum, Peter S; Gada, Satyen; Wyn, Mark; Ho, Vincent B; Liacouras, Peter

    2018-03-01

    This work describes customized, task-specific simulation models derived from 3D printing in clinical settings and medical professional training programs. Simulation models/task trainers have an array of purposes and desired achievements for the trainee, defining that these are the first step in the production process. After this purpose is defined, computer-aided design and 3D printing (additive manufacturing) are used to create a customized anatomical model. Simulation models then undergo initial in-house testing by medical specialists followed by a larger scale beta testing. Feedback is acquired, via surveys, to validate effectiveness and to guide or determine if any future modifications and/or improvements are necessary. Numerous custom simulation models have been successfully completed with resulting task trainers designed for procedures, including removal of ocular foreign bodies, ultrasound-guided joint injections, nerve block injections, and various suturing and reconstruction procedures. These task trainers have been frequently utilized in the delivery of simulation-based training with increasing demand. 3D printing has been integral to the production of limited-quantity, low-cost simulation models across a variety of medical specialties. In general, production cost is a small fraction of a commercial, generic simulation model, if available. These simulation and training models are customized to the educational need and serve an integral role in the education of our military health professionals.

  8. Cost optimisation studies of high power accelerators

    McAdams, R.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Godden, D. [AEA Technology, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cost optimisation studies are carried out for an accelerator based neutron source consisting of a series of linear accelerators. The characteristics of the lowest cost design for a given beam current and energy machine such as power and length are found to depend on the lifetime envisaged for it. For a fixed neutron yield it is preferable to have a low current, high energy machine. The benefits of superconducting technology are also investigated. A Separated Orbit Cyclotron (SOC) has the potential to reduce capital and operating costs and intial estimates for the transverse and longitudinal current limits of such machines are made.

  9. An Integrated Model for Supplier Selection for a High-Tech Manufacturer

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lin, Chun-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Global competitiveness has become the biggest concern of manufacturing companies, especially in high-tech industries. Improving competitive edges in an environment with rapidly changing technological innovations and dynamic customer needs is essential for a firm to survive and to acquire a decent profit. Thus, the introduction of successful new products is a source of new sales and profits and is a necessity in the intense competitive international market. After a product is developed, a firm needs the cooperation of upstream suppliers to provide satisfactory components and parts for manufacturing final products. Therefore, the selection of suitable suppliers has also become a very important decision. In this study, an analytical approach is proposed to select the most appropriate critical-part suppliers in order to maintain a high reliability of the supply chain. A fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) model, which incorporates the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) concept, is constructed to evaluate various aspects of suppliers. The proposed model is adopted in a TFT-LCD manufacturer in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of suppliers with respect to each important factor, and an overall ranking of the suppliers can be generated as a result.

  10. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    Julijana Krajnc; Klavdij Logožar; Bojana Korošec

    2012-01-01

    Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect) costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-...

  11. Warranty optimisation based on the prediction of costs to the manufacturer using neural network model and Monte Carlo simulation

    Stamenkovic, Dragan D.; Popovic, Vladimir M.

    2015-02-01

    Warranty is a powerful marketing tool, but it always involves additional costs to the manufacturer. In order to reduce these costs and make use of warranty's marketing potential, the manufacturer needs to master the techniques for warranty cost prediction according to the reliability characteristics of the product. In this paper a combination free replacement and pro rata warranty policy is analysed as warranty model for one type of light bulbs. Since operating conditions have a great impact on product reliability, they need to be considered in such analysis. A neural network model is used to predict light bulb reliability characteristics based on the data from the tests of light bulbs in various operating conditions. Compared with a linear regression model used in the literature for similar tasks, the neural network model proved to be a more accurate method for such prediction. Reliability parameters obtained in this way are later used in Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of times to failure needed for warranty cost calculation. The results of the analysis make possible for the manufacturer to choose the optimal warranty policy based on expected product operating conditions. In such a way, the manufacturer can lower the costs and increase the profit.

  12. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  13. The costs and benefits of getting the ISO 9000 certification in the manufacturing sector in Saudi Arabia.

    Mezher, T; Ramadan, H

    1998-01-01

    Many Saudi companies, in their journey to improve quality, efficiency and competitiveness, are pursuing and obtaining the ISO 9000 certificate. Many studies have evaluated how to implement ISO 9000 in different sectors, but none have analyzed the effectiveness of ISO 9000 certification (costs and benefits) on improving the overall quality and on meeting expectations. This study addressed these issues by investigating manufacturing organizations in Saudi Arabia that have the ISO 9000 certification. A survey questionnaire was distributed to firms throughout the kingdom. Thirty-two firms participated in the study. Results indicate that increased consistency of operations, improved service, and product quality are among the top motivators for pursuing the ISO certificate. The benefits most often experienced were improved awareness of procedural problems, better management control, keeping existing customers, increased customer satisfaction, and improved customer service. Difficulties experienced during the certification process involved time and cost, but these were not considered to be major problems. A high volume of paperwork was the main problem experienced following initial certification. Respondents in general said that the ISO 9000 certification met their expectations and that their level of satisfaction regarding the impact of ISO 9000 was high. Most recommended that other organizations pursue the certificate.

  14. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  15. EUV source development for high-volume chip manufacturing tools

    Stamm, Uwe; Yoshioka, Masaki; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Ziener, Christian; Schriever, Guido; Schürmann, Max C.; Hergenhan, Guido; Borisov, Vladimir M.

    2007-03-01

    Xenon-fueled gas discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources were integrated into Micro Exposure Tools already in 2004. Operation of these tools in a research environment gave early learning for the development of EUV sources for Alpha and Beta-Tools. Further experiments with these sources were performed for basic understanding on EUV source technology and limits, especially the achievable power and reliability. The intermediate focus power of Alpha-Tool sources under development is measured to values above 10 W. Debris mitigation schemes were successfully integrated into the sources leading to reasonable collector mirror lifetimes with target of 10 billion pulses due to the effective debris flux reduction. Source collector mirrors, which withstand the radiation and temperature load of Xenon-fueled sources, have been developed in cooperation with MediaLario Technologies to support intermediate focus power well above 10 W. To fulfill the requirements for High Volume chip Manufacturing (HVM) applications, a new concept for HVM EUV sources with higher efficiency has been developed at XTREME technologies. The discharge produced plasma (DPP) source concept combines the use of rotating disk electrodes (RDE) with laser exited droplet targets. The source concept is called laser assisted droplet RDE source. The fuel of these sources has been selected to be Tin. The conversion efficiency achieved with the laser assisted droplet RDE source is 2-3x higher compared to Xenon. Very high pulse energies well above 200 mJ / 2π sr have been measured with first prototypes of the laser assisted droplet RDE source. If it is possible to maintain these high pulse energies at higher repetition rates a 10 kHz EUV source could deliver 2000 W / 2π sr. According to the first experimental data the new concept is expected to be scalable to an intermediate focus power on the 300 W level.

  16. High aspect ratio micro tool manufacturing for polymer replication using mu EDM of silicon, selective etching and electroforming

    Tosello, Guido; Bissacco, Giuliano; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    Mass fabrication of polymer micro components with high aspect ratio micro-structures requires high performance micro tools allowing the use of low cost replication processes such as micro injection moulding. In this regard an innovative process chain, based on a combination of micro electrical di...... discharge machining (mu EDM) of a silicon substrate, electroforming and selective etching was used for the manufacturing of a micro tool. The micro tool was employed for polymer replication by means of the injection moulding process....

  17. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--April 1991

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. [Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (US)

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  18. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    Nagarathnam, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  19. Critical operations capabilities in a high cost environment: a multiple case study

    Sansone, C.; Hilletofth, P.; Eriksson, D.

    2018-04-01

    Operations capabilities have been a popular research area for many years and several frameworks have been proposed in the literature. The current frameworks do not take specific contexts into consideration, for instance a high cost environment. This research gap is of particular interest since a manufacturing relocation process has been ongoing the last decades, leading to a huge amount of manufacturing being moved from high to low cost environments. The purpose of this study is to identify critical operations capabilities in a high cost environment. The two research questions were: What are the critical operations capabilities dimensions in a high cost environment? What are the critical operations capabilities in a high cost environment? A multiple case study was conducted and three Swedish manufacturing firms were selected. The study was based on the investigation of an existing framework of operations capabilities. The main dimensions of operations capabilities included in the framework were: cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, service, innovation and environment. Each of the dimensions included two or more operations capabilities. The findings confirmed the validity of the framework and its usefulness in a high cost environment and a new operations capability was revealed (employee flexibility).

  20. Nanoimprint system development and status for high volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Hiura, Hiromi; Takabayashi, Yukio; Takashima, Tsuneo; Emoto, Keiji; Choi, Jin; Schumaker, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography* (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. There are many criteria that determine whether a particular technology is ready for wafer manufacturing. For imprint lithography, recent attention has been given to the areas of overlay, throughput, defectivity, and mask replication. This paper reviews progress in these critical areas. Recent demonstrations have proven that mix and match overlay of less than 5nm can achieved. Further reductions require a higher order correction system. Modeling and experimental data are presented which provide a path towards reducing the overlay errors to less than 3nm. Throughput is mainly impacted by the fill time of the relief images on the mask. Improvement in resist materials provides a solution that allows 15 wafers per hour per station, or a tool throughput of 60 wafers per hour. Defectivity and mask life play a significant role relative to meeting the cost of ownership (CoO) requirements in the production of semiconductor devices. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of inducing a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, the lifetime of both the master mask and the replica mask can be extended. In this work, we report results that demonstrate a path towards achieving mask lifetimes of better than 1000 wafers. Finally, on the mask side, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100NR2 is

  1. SU-F-T-171: Manufacturing Cost Effective Heterogeneous Phantoms for Use in Proton Therapy

    Pruett, J; Chen, Y; Ahmad, S; Johnson, D [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of 3D printing cost effective heterogeneous phantoms for use in proton therapy treatment planning quality assurance. Methods: A desktop 3D printer was utilized to create a series of 2 cm × 2 cm × 4 cm PLA plastic blocks of varying fill materials and hexagonal fill pattern. The blocks were than tested when filled with air, polyurethane foam, paraffin, silicone, and caulk of calcium carbonate – acrylic polymer blend. The blocks were evaluated with a “GE Lightspeed” 16 slice CT scanner and average CT# of the materials’ centers evaluated. Blocks were then placed into a custom aperture fitted to a Mevion Proton system to determine the relative stopping power of each. Scans were performed in water tank with Marcus type parallel plate chamber under a beam with a range of 15 cm and modulation of 2 cm. Shifts in range occurring relative to the 80% distal edge of the open SOBP were evaluated. Results: The CT#s of the blocks were plotted against their measured relative stopping power. This curve was compared to that which is in clinical use. While the trend agrees generally, specific differences between the relative stopping powers were as great as 10%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that it is possible to utilize different cost effective materials in the manufacturing of phantoms for use in proton therapy. While different materials may provide better agreement to established calibration curves, a custom curve specific to the materials used may be utilized to accurately predict proton treatment dose distributions.

  2. Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high...

  3. Potentials for Improvement of Resource Efficiency in Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing: A Case Study Based on Material Flow Cost Accounting

    Yi-Xuan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable resource use by manufacturing companies is driven by resource scarcity, environmental awareness, and cost savings potentials. To address these issues, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA has been developed and applied as an effective environmental management tool. Within MFCA’s general allocation, the accounts of products and losses are overrated by weight or volume. However, such a method is incompatible with Printed Circuit Board (PCB manufacturing because of industry characteristics in which primary inputs and products are measured by area. Based on MFCA, this case study systematically established several linear cost calculation models along the production process for capturing the actual waste flows as well as performing cost-benefit analysis. The recognition of previously ignored losses offered the incentive to find appropriate indicators to conduct cost-benefit analysis on hotspots for losses. Loss identification and analysis indicated that machining and wiring are the necessities and priorities of process optimization for resource efficiency improvement measures. Therefore, this research could not only advance the achievement of a profitable and sustainable production while improving resource efficiency at the source but could also provide support for decision making in PCB manufacturing.

  4. A Manufacturing Cost and Supply Chain Analysis of SiC Power Electronics Applicable to Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Samantha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices are increasingly being considered for use in certain power electronics applications, where they can improve efficiency, performance, footprint, and, potentially, total system cost compared to systems using traditional silicon (Si) devices. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices in particular -- which are currently more mature than other WBG devices -- are poised for growth in the coming years. Today, the manufacturing of SiC wafers is concentrated in the United States, and chip production is split roughly equally between the United States, Japan, and Europe. Established contract manufacturers located throughout Asia typically carry out manufacturing of WBG power modules. We seek to understand how global manufacturing of SiC components may evolve over time by illustrating the regional cost drivers along the supply chain and providing an overview of other factors that influence where manufacturing is sited. We conduct this analysis for a particular case study where SiC devices are used in a medium-voltage motor drive.

  5. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  6. Manufacturing of ultra high vacuum compatible accelerator and laser components

    Mundra, G.; Sharma, S.D.; Bhatnagar, V.

    2015-01-01

    For carrying out advanced basic research, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, (RRCAT) had set up 450 MeV and 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Many beamlines are being utilized by researchers from various universities and institutions of the country. Centre has also developed various lasers that find application in various front line areas like medicine, industry and research. To cater the need of manufacturing for these programs, an advanced and versatile manufacturing development center was established, called Accelerator Components Design and Fabrication Section (ACDFS),

  7. Rheology of high melt strength polypropylene for additive manufacturing

    Jagenteufel, Ralf; Hofstätter, Thomas; Kamleitner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    stability, whereas HMS-PP showed a more stable behavior at the investigated temperatures. Hereafter, the material was used in a fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing process, focusing on the investigation of possible improvements of HMS-PP over ABS. Based on the extrusion parameters for ABS...

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Manufacture of high-reliability CdTe solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The target is a low-cost CdS/CdTe solar cell of a large area (60cm times 90cm), the establishment of mass-production technologies for the cell, and the enhancement of production efficiency. A thin film formation technology of subjecting CdS film organic metal to pyrolysis is established, which reduces photoabsorption loss in the shortwave domain of wavelength of not longer than 500nm, reduces reflection loss in the film, and improves on short-circuit current density. Improvement is also achieved on CdTe film quality and junction quality by use of a proximity sublimation method in a vacuum, when a conversion rate of 16.0% (1cm{sup 2}) is attained which is the highest in the world. Based on the results of the above-said efforts, a 3.3mm-thick glass substrate is employed for CdTe film to develop into a 30cm times 60cm-large size, with the film thereon uniformly thick over a large area thanks to a normal pressure proximity sublimation method. Studies are made toward a process nearer to the ultimate product and, using the patterning technique, a 30cm times 60cm-large CdTe solar cell is tentatively built realizing a conversion rate of 9.8%. (NEDO)

  9. Management Accounting in the Manufacturing Sector: Managing Costs at the Design and Production Stages

    Davila, Tony; Wouters, Marc; Chapman, Christopher S.; Hopwood, Anthony G.; Shields, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the empirical research literature on management accounting in the manufacturing sector including the development as well and manufacturing phases of the product lifecycle. As managing product development has gained terrain in companies over the last 15 years, management

  10. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  11. Benchmarking the expected stack manufacturing cost of next generation, intermediate-temperature protonic ceramic fuel cells with solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Dubois, Alexis; Ricote, Sandrine; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent progress in the performance of intermediate temperature (500-600 °C) protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) has demonstrated both fuel flexibility and increasing power density that approach commercial application requirements. These developments may eventually position the technology as a viable alternative to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The PCFCs investigated in this work are based on a BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) thin electrolyte supported by BZY20/Ni porous anodes, and a triple conducting cathode material comprised of BaCo0.4Fe0.4Zr0.1Y0.1O3-δ (BCFZY0.1). These cells are prepared using a low-cost solid-state reactive sintering (SSRS) process, and are capable of power densities of 0.156 W cm-2 at 500 °C operating directly from methane fuel. We develop a manufacturing cost model to estimate the Nth generation production costs of PCFC stack technology using high volume manufacturing processes and compare them to the state-of-the-art in SOFC technology. The low-cost cell manufacturing enabled by the SSRS technique compensates for the lower PCFC power density and the trade-off between operating temperature and efficiency enables the use of lower-cost stainless steel materials. PCFC stack production cost estimates are found to be as much as 27-37% lower at 550 °C than SOFCs operating at 800 °C.

  12. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  13. The influence of cellular structures on flow stress of high strength components manufactured using SLM

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has shown significant improvement in material and machines for high-quality solid freeform fabrication processes such as selective laser melting (SLM). In particular, manufacturing lattice structures using the SLM procedure is of interest. This research examines the effect...... of cellular materials on compression strength. The specimens are manufactured additively using industrial 3D printing systems from high-strength alloy. The material has the right mechanical properties for manufacturing tool components. This includes samples with solid and lattice structures. The Compression...

  14. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  15. Manufacturing polymer light emitting diode with high luminance efficiency by solution process

    Kim, Miyoung; Jo, SongJin; Yang, Ho Chang; Yoon, Dang Mo; Kwon, Jae-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Ju Hwan; Lee, Bum-Joo; Shin, Jin-Koog

    2012-06-01

    While investigating polymer light emitting diodes (polymer-LEDs) fabricated by solution process, surface roughness influences electro-optical (E-O) characteristics. We expect that E-O characteristics such as luminance and power efficiency related to surface roughness and layer thickness of emitting layer with poly-9-Vinylcarbazole. In this study, we fabricated polymer organic light emitting diodes by solution process which guarantees easy, eco-friendly and low cost manufacturing for flexible display applications. In order to obtain high luminescence efficiency, E-O characteristics of these devices by varying parameters for printing process have been investigated. Therefore, we optimized process condition for polymer-LEDs by adjusting annealing temperatures of emission, thickness of emission layer showing efficiency (10.8 cd/A) at 10 mA/cm2. We also checked wavelength dependent electroluminescence spectrum in order to find the correlation between the variation of efficiency and the thickness of the layer.

  16. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. SmartFactory: The challenges of open and low cost ICT in the small manufacturing industry

    Bosscha, PA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available planning (ERP) and customer relation- ship management (CRM) levels, are employed with varying degrees of success in complex plants and large corporations. The high costs associated with such systems, however, put them beyond the reach of small... ICT’ is defined as: ? open source software, such as Linux, FreeBSD,5 Mobile Mesh,6 PostgreSQL,7 Apache web server,8 and Compiere ERP+CRM;9 ? communications and computing equipment that comply with open standards such as 802.11b,10 Internet Protocol...

  18. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  19. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    2001-01-01

    .... Largely in response to these measures, U.S. defense firms have in recent years begun to embrace lean manufacturing, a broad collection of principles and practices whose aim is to refashion the production process in a manner that includes...

  20. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2018-01-02

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  1. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  2. Production of porous sintered materials using wastes of manufacturing engineering in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Y. S. Povstyana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of wastes produced by the manufacturing engineering, as well as their physical and mechanical properties and restorability provide a search for sphere of their application. The actual problem of modern science is the utilization of wastes and using them in further production that will minimize their harmful impact on the environment and reduce the cost of expensive raw materials. Wastes are ideally suitable for the manufacture of porous permeable materials (filters. Powder metallurgy allows obtaining products with controlled filtration, physical and mechanical properties. Such materials are good filters for regeneration of technical liquids, oils, cooling fluids, sewage etc. The article analyzes the methods and technologies for the manufacture of porous ceramic materials and a new technology for their manufacture, which is based on use of mill scale and natural mineral – saponite as the main components. Compression technology provides products at low pressures and sintering by passing high-temperature synthesis. The proposed technology is characterized by low cost and good physical and mechanical properties of the product that gives a reason to use them for filtering and regeneration of technical liquids.

  3. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  4. The practice of quality-associated costing: application to transfusion manufacturing processes.

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    This article applies the new method of quality-associated costing (QAC) to the mixture of processes that create red cell and plasma products from whole blood donations. The article compares QAC with two commonly encountered but arbitrary models and illustrates the invalidity of clinical cost-benefit analysis based on these models. The first, an "isolated" cost model, seeks to allocate each whole process cost to only one product class. The other is a "shared" cost model, and it seeks to allocate an approximately equal share of all process costs to all associated products.

  5. Status and opportunities associated with product costing strategies in wood component manufacturing

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Product costing systems are critically important for businesses because they help reduce costs, price products at competitive prices, and enable strategic decisionmaking. This article reports the results of a survey designed to collect information about practices used by the North American hardwood dimension and components industry to calculate the cost of their...

  6. Manufacturing technology of high-quality pressure castings

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents manufacturing technology of pressure castings made of Al-Si alloy without porosity or with low microporosity of castings. It has been shown that the greatest impact on the porosity of the castings and the concentration of hydrogen has had the charge to the melting furnace. Liquidation or occurrence of a small microporosity of castings provides refining with solid refiners, nitrogen and modification of liquid alloy after various operations of preparing process. The liquid alloy stored in holding furnace should be refined once every 2 h with nitrogen. Authors developed a computer program of Al-Si alloys inspection with using of TDA method. The developed technology was verified under production conditions.

  7. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akers, Ronald R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  8. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    Bekas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost which quickly becomes intractable with the current explosion of data sizes. In this work we reduce this complexity to quadratic with the synergy of two algorithms that gracefully complement each other and lead to a radically different approach. First, we turned to stochastic estimation of the diagonal. This allowed us to cast the problem as a linear system with a relatively small number of multiple right hand sides. Second, for this linear system we developed a novel, mixed precision, iterative refinement scheme, which uses iterative solvers instead of matrix factorizations. We demonstrate that the new framework not only achieves the much needed quadratic cost but in addition offers excellent opportunities for scaling at massively parallel environments. We based our implementation on BLAS 3 kernels that ensure very high processor performance. We achieved a peak performance of 730 TFlops on 72 BG/P racks, with a sustained performance 73% of theoretical peak. We stress that the techniques presented in this work are quite general and applicable to several other important applications. Copyright © 2009 ACM.

  10. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible

  11. Materials Testing and Cost Modeling for Composite Parts Through Additive Manufacturing

    2016-04-30

    FDM include plastic jet printing (PJP), fused filament modeling ( FFM ), and fused filament fabrication (FFF). FFF was coined by the RepRap project to...additive manufacturing processes? • Fused deposition modeling (FDM) trademarked by Stratasys • Fused filament modeling ( FFM ) and fused filament

  12. GCP 1.0: A Tool for Cost Management in Micro and Small Textile Manufacturing Companies in Bucaramanga

    Ofelia Gómez Niño

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a diagnostic study in which 52 textile manufacturing companies were observed in Bucaramanga to characterize the needs of these productive units. Based on the results, three strategic options were formulated to improve performance: a To consolidate the productive system by tools that facilitate production processes, b to strengthen cost structure by designing systems and tools; and c to share technological initiatives, knowledge and experience to improve resource management. From this perspective, the second phase of the research was oriented to develop the software GCP 1.0 for micro and small companies of children’s confection in Bucaramanga, a production cost information system that would facilitate cost management and the fixation of sale prices.

  13. Manufacturing Methods for High Speed Machining of Aluminum

    1978-02-01

    results• obt.ained with t~his o,’-,ination are presented in Figur 85. There, it; can be seen that .’ the selected end mll, which had a runout of 0.001 inch...Cw - Cost of grinding wheel for resharpening tool or cutter ($/cutter). Sa Time to preset tools away from maohine (In tool room) (min.).t I Time to

  14. High-kinetic inductance additive manufactured superconducting microwave cavity

    Holland, Eric T.; Rosen, Yaniv J.; Materise, Nicholas; Woollett, Nathan; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Y. Morris; Torres, Sharon G.; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; DuBois, Jonathan L.

    2017-11-01

    Investigations into the microwave surface impedance of superconducting resonators have led to the development of single photon counters that rely on kinetic inductance for their operation, while concurrent progress in additive manufacturing, "3D printing," opens up a previously inaccessible design space for waveguide resonators. In this manuscript, we present results from the synthesis of these two technologies in a titanium, aluminum, vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) superconducting radio frequency resonator which exploits a design unattainable through conventional fabrication means. We find that Ti-6Al-4V has two distinct superconducting transition temperatures observable in heat capacity measurements. The higher transition temperature is in agreement with DC resistance measurements, while the lower transition temperature, not previously known in the literature, is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the superconducting microwave surface impedance. From the surface reactance, we extract a London penetration depth of 8 ± 3 μm—roughly an order of magnitude larger than other titanium alloys and several orders of magnitude larger than other conventional elemental superconductors.

  15. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  16. Development of a virtual metrology for high-mix TFT-LCD manufacturing processes

    Chen Shan; Pan Tianhong; Jang Shishang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, TFT-LCD manufacturing has become a very complex process, in which many different products being manufactured with many different tools. The ability to predict the quality of product in such a high-mix system is critical to developing and maintaining a high yield. In this paper, a statistical method is proposed for building a virtual metrology model from a number of products using a high-mix manufacturing process. Stepwise regression is used to select 'key variables' that really affect the quality of the products. Multivariate analysis of covariance is also proposed for simultaneously applying the selected variables and product effect. This framework provides a systematic method of building a processing quality prediction system for a high-mix manufacturing process. The experimental results show that the proposed quality prognostic system can not only estimate the critical dimension accurately but also detect potentially faulty glasses.

  17. Prediction of high frequency core loss for electrical steel using the data provided by manufacturer

    Roy, Rakesh [National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, Shillong (India); Dalal, Ankit; Kumar, Praveen [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes a technique to determine the core loss data, at high frequencies, using the loss data provided by the lamination manufacturer. Steinmetz equation is used in this proposed method to determine core loss at high frequency. This Steinmetz equation consists of static hysteresis and eddy current loss. The presented technique considers the coefficients of Steinmetz equation as variable with frequency and peak magnetic flux density. The high frequency core loss data, predicted using this model is compared with the catalogue data given by manufacturer and very good accuracy has been obtained for a wide range of frequency. - Highlights: • A curve fitting algorithm is proposed to predict core loss at high frequency. • The loss data given by the steel manufacturers are used in curve fitting algorithm. • The algorithm is tested on nine different material’s data set given by the manufacturer.

  18. Prediction of high frequency core loss for electrical steel using the data provided by manufacturer

    Roy, Rakesh; Dalal, Ankit; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine the core loss data, at high frequencies, using the loss data provided by the lamination manufacturer. Steinmetz equation is used in this proposed method to determine core loss at high frequency. This Steinmetz equation consists of static hysteresis and eddy current loss. The presented technique considers the coefficients of Steinmetz equation as variable with frequency and peak magnetic flux density. The high frequency core loss data, predicted using this model is compared with the catalogue data given by manufacturer and very good accuracy has been obtained for a wide range of frequency. - Highlights: • A curve fitting algorithm is proposed to predict core loss at high frequency. • The loss data given by the steel manufacturers are used in curve fitting algorithm. • The algorithm is tested on nine different material’s data set given by the manufacturer.

  19. APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN BANGLADESH: A SURVEY BASED STUDY

    Nikhil Chandra SHIL; Alok Kumar PRAMANIK

    2012-01-01

    The widespread environmental change has forced many organizations to change and re-think their business and competitive strategies, particularly cost management system, in order to achieve the competitive edge in the marketplace. Successful organizations are those that are able to improve quality, lower costs and efficiency of operations and eliminate products and services that incur losses. This explains why some organizations are successful while others fail. An organization costing system ...

  20. Scanning the horizon for high value-add manufacturing science: Accelerating manufacturing readiness for the next generation of disruptive, high-value curative cell therapeutics.

    Hourd, Paul; Williams, David J

    2018-05-01

    Since the regenerative medicine sector entered the second phase of its development (RegenMed 2.0) more than a decade ago, there is increasing recognition that current technology innovation trajectories will drive the next translational phase toward the production of disruptive, high-value curative cell and gene-based regenerative medicines. To identify the manufacturing science problems that must be addressed to permit translation of these next generation therapeutics. In this short report, a long lens look within the pluripotent stem cell therapeutic space, both embryonic and induced, is used to gain early insights on where critical technology and manufacturing challenges may emerge. This report offers a future perspective on the development and innovation that will be needed within manufacturing science to add value in the production and commercialization of the next generation of advanced cell therapies and precision medicines. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Components of Net Working Capital on Costs of Companies Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment in the Czech Republic

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach to working capital management significantly affects the performance of companies. Nevertheless, this effect varies depending on the observed industry and company’s size and it may be assumed that it is also dependent on territory differences. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify particular links between net working capital and costs of the company. The outcomes indicate a relatively strong positive correlation between the variables, especially in case of inventory. Furthermore he ratio of financial costs to ordinary costs is low, as well as the impact of net working capital components on financial costs. It follows that a focus on collection period would not lead to significant savings. The findings appropriately complement Czech and foreign literature focused more on impact of net working capital or working capital on profitability indicators. Further studies concerning a more detailed analysis of the influence of net working capital on corporate costs are difficult to be found. The present research has been conducted on medium-sized companies located in the Czech Republic and manufacturing machinery and equipment. The obtained results suggest the most suitable area of focus for optimization of working capital in relation to costs for the types of companies defined above.

  2. EUV mask defect inspection and defect review strategies for EUV pilot line and high volume manufacturing

    Chan, Y. David; Rastegar, Abbas; Yun, Henry; Putna, E. Steve; Wurm, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Reducing mask blank and patterned mask defects is the number one challenge for extreme ultraviolet lithography. If the industry succeeds in reducing mask blank defects at the required rate of 10X every year for the next 2-3 years to meet high volume manufacturing defect requirements, new inspection and review tool capabilities will soon be needed to support this goal. This paper outlines the defect inspection and review tool technical requirements and suggests development plans to achieve pilot line readiness in 2011/12 and high volume manufacturing readiness in 2013. The technical specifications, tooling scenarios, and development plans were produced by a SEMATECH-led technical working group with broad industry participation from material suppliers, tool suppliers, mask houses, integrated device manufacturers, and consortia. The paper summarizes this technical working group's assessment of existing blank and mask inspection/review infrastructure capabilities to support pilot line introduction and outlines infrastructure development requirements and tooling strategies to support high volume manufacturing.

  3. Winding Design for Minimum Power Loss and Low-Cost Manufacture in Application to Fixed-Speed PM Generator

    Wrobel, Rafal; Staton, David; Lock, Richard J; Booker, Julian D; Drury, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a coupled thermal and power loss analysis of an open-slot permanent-magnet (PM) generator. The research focus has been placed on the winding design providing minimum power loss at an ac operation, together with low-cost manufacture. The analyzed PM generator is intended to operate at a fixed speed, allowing for the winding design to be finely tuned for a single operating point. Such a design approach has not been widely reported in literature, and the exis...

  4. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  5. Qualification of high-density fuel manufacturing for research reactors at CNEA

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; De La Fuente, M.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H. [CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    CNEA, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina, is at the present a qualified supplier of uranium oxide fuel for research reactors. A new objective in this field is to develop and qualify the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuel for this type of reactors. According with the international trend Silicide fuel and U-xMo fuel are included in our program as the most suitable options. The facilities to complete the qualification of high-density MTR fuels, like the manufacturing plant installations, the reactor, the pool side fuel examination station and the hot cells are fully operational and equipped to perform all the activities required within the program. The programs for both type of fuels include similar activities: development and set up of the fuel material manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of miniplates, fabrication and irradiation of full scale fuel elements, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. For silicide fuels most of these steps have already been completed. For U-xMo fuel the activities also include the development of alternative ways to obtain U-xMo powder, feasibility studies for large-scale manufacturing and the economical assessment. Set up of U-xMo fuel plate manufacturing is also well advanced and the fabrication of the first full scale prototype is foreseen during this year. (author)

  6. Advances in second generation high temperature superconducting wire manufacturing and R and D at American Superconductor Corporation

    Rupich, Martin W; Li Xiaoping; Thieme, Cees; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Tucker, David; Thompson, Elliot; Schreiber, Jeff; Lynch, Joseph; Buczek, David; DeMoranville, Ken; Inch, James; Cedrone, Paul; Slack, James, E-mail: mrupich@amsc.co [American Superconductor Corporation, 64 Jackson Road, Devens, MA 01434-4020 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The RABiTS(TM)/MOD-YBCO (rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate/metal-organic deposition of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) route has been established as a low-cost manufacturing process for producing high performance second generation (2G) wire. American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has used this approach to establish a production scale manufacturing line based on a wide-web manufacturing process. This initial production line is currently capable of producing 2G wire in lengths to 500 m with critical currents exceeding 250 A cm{sub width}{sup -1} at 77 K, in the self-field. The wide-web process, combined with slitting and lamination processes, allows customization of the 2G wire width and stabilizer composition to meet application specific wire requirements. The production line is currently supplying 2G wire for multiple cable, fault current limiter and coil applications. Ongoing R and D is focused on the development of thicker YBCO layers and improved flux pinning centers. This paper reviews the history of 2G wire development at AMSC, summarizes the current capability of the 2G wire manufacturing at AMSC, and describes future R and D improvements.

  7. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the Department of Defense (DoD) has launched a number of initiatives whose common objective has been to reduce the costs of weapon systems that are planned, under development, or in production...

  8. Estimating Engineering and Manufacturing Development Cost Risk Using Logistic and Multiple Regression

    Bielecki, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Previous research has demonstrated the use of a two-step logistic and multiple regression methodology to predicting cost growth produces desirable results versus traditional single-step regression...

  9. Financialization across the Pacific: Manufacturing cost ratios, supply chains and power

    Froud, Julie; Johal, Sukhdev; Leaver, Adam; Williams, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that thirty years ago favourable cost conditions helped build productive power in Asia, whereas now US financial power drives and benefits from low labour costs in China, using the very different supply chain positions of Apple Inc. and Foxconn International Holdings (FIH) as examples. In the first section, the authors bring together the literatures on financialization and global supply chains to contextualise the pressures and outcomes discussed. A temporal dimension is a...

  10. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  11. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  12. Are PES connection costs too high?

    Scott, N.

    1998-01-01

    Windfarm developers often have good reason to question the costs they are quoted by their local distribution company for connection to the system, and these costs can now be challenged under the 'Competition in Connection' initiative. Econnect Ltd specialise in electrical connections for renewable generation throughout the UK and Europe, and have worked on many projects where alternative connections have been designed at more competitive prices. This paper provides some examples which illustrate the importance of acquiring a thorough understanding of all power system issues and PES concerns if the most cost-effective connection is to be realised. (Author)

  13. High temperature structural ceramic materials manufactured by the CNTD process

    Stiglich, J.J. Jr.; Bhat, D.G.; Holzl, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Controlled Nucleation Thermochemical Deposition (CNTD) has emerged from classical chemical deposition (CVD) technology. This paper describes the techniques of thermochemical grain refinement. The effects of such refinement on mechanical properties of materials at room temperature and at elevated temperatures are outlined. Emphasis is given to high temperature structural ceramic materials such as SiC, Si 3 N 4 , AlN, and TiB 2 and ZrB 2 . An example of grain refinement accompanied by improvements in mechanical properties is SiC. Grain sizes of 500 to 1000 A have been observed in CNTD SiC with room temperature MOR of 1380 to 2070 MPa (4 pt bending) and MOR of 3450 to 4140 MPa (4 pt bending) at 1350 0 C. Various applications of these materials to the solution of high temperature structural problems are described. (author)

  14. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    Bekas, C.; Curioni, A.; Fedulova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost

  15. High energy laser optics manufacturing: a preliminary study

    Baird, E.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents concepts and methods, major conclusions, and major recommendations concerning the fabrication of high energy laser optics (HELO) that are to be machined by the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of concepts and methods proposed for metrological operations, polishing of reflective surfaces, mounting of optical components, construction of mirror substrates, and applications of coatings are included

  16. High cost of nuclear power plants

    Bassett, C.

    1978-01-01

    Retroactive safety standards were found to account for over half the costs of a nuclear power plant and point up the need for an effective cost-benefit analysis of changes made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission after construction has started. The author compared the Davis-Besse Unit No. 1 construction-cost estimates with the final-cost increases during a rate-case investigation in Ohio. He presents data furnished for ten of the largest construction contracts to illustrate the cost increases involving fixed hardware and intensive labor. The situation was found to repeat with other utilities across the country even though safeguards against irresponsible low bidding were introduced. Low bidding was found to continue, encouraged by the need for retrofitting to meet regulation changes. The average cost per kilowatt of major light-water reactors is shown to have increased from $171 in 1970 to $555 in 1977, while construction duration increased from 43.4 to 95.6 months during the same period

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Assessment of Ergonomic Interventions Effects: Case Study Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company

    Iraj Mohammad faam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: In Economic and competitive world today,cost-benefit analysis is one of the most important parameters for any intervention.The purpose of thisstudy was cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions effects in Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company. Methods:At first all workstations of the company assessed using QEC. Thenthose earned more than 70% in QEC assessed by OWAS. By analyzing the results of these two methods, the “Haarp welding” workstation selected as the critical one. After presentation of possible solutions in specialized committee, the final solution selected and cost-benefit analysis done by CyberManS tool. Finally after implementing the intervention workstation reassessed. Findings:The results of the survey showed that the final score of assessment using QEC, OWAS and NASA-TLX before the intervention was 84.7%, 3 and 75.4, respectively and after the intervention was 47.5%, 1 and 42.7 that witnesses a significant reduction in all three methods of assessment. Also the result of cost-benefit analysis by CyberManS showed that by spending 110 million rials after 1.5 years the investment returned and profitability initiated. Conclusion:In addition to reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic interventions have financial benefits by increasing the productivity and production, reducing the compensation and the lost work days can also cause financial benefits.

  18. PENDEKATAN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN METODE PENCARIAN HEURISTIC UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN PROBLEM PEMILIHAN PERALATAN PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (FMS

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Activity Based Costing (ABC approach to select the set-machine that is used in the production of Flexible Manufacture System (FMS based on technical and economical criteria can be useful for producers to design FMS by considering the minimum production cost. In the other hand, Heuristic Search is known to have a short searching time. Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC approach as the weight in finding the solution to shorten the equipment selection time during the design / redesign process of the FMS in less than exponential time was designed in this research. The increasing speed is useful because with the faster time in design / redesign process, therefore the flexibility level of part variety that can be processed will become better. Theoretical and empirical analysis in Algorithm Heuristic shows that time searching to get appropriate set of equipment is not too long, so that we can assume that the designed Algorithm Heuristic can be implemented in the real world. By comparing the empirical result of Algorithm Heuristic to the Algorithm Exhaustive, we can also assume that Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC method as the weight for finding solution can optimise the equipment selection problem of FMS based on economical criteria too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penggunaan pendekatan Activity Based Costing (ABC untuk memilih set mesin yang digunakan dalam produksi pada Flexible Manufacture Systems (FMS berdasar atas kriteria teknis dan ekonomis, dapat membantu pelaku produksi untuk mendisain FMS dengan pertimbangan minimalisasi biaya produksi. Sementara itu, Heuristic Search dikenal memiliki waktu pencarian yang singkat. Pada riset ini didisain sebuah Algoritma Heuristic yang menggunakan pendekatan ABC sebagai bobot dalam pencarian solusi, untuk mempersingkat waktu pemilihan peralatan saat desain/redisain FMS dalam waktu kurang dari waktu Eksponensial. Peningkatan kecepatan ini bermanfaat, karena dengan cepatnya waktu

  19. Articles for high temperature service and methods for their manufacture

    Sarrafi-Nour, Reza; Meschter, Peter Joel; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Luthra, Krishan Lal; Rosenzweig, Larry Steven

    2016-06-14

    An article for use in aggressive environments is presented. In one embodiment, the article comprises a substrate and a self-sealing and substantially hermetic sealing layer comprising an alkaline-earth aluminosilicate disposed over the bondcoat. The substrate may be any high-temperature material, including, for instance, silicon-bearing ceramics and ceramic matrix composites. A method for making such articles is also presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; disposing a self-sealing alkaline-earth aluminosilicate layer over the substrate; and heating the sealing layer to a sealing temperature at which at least a portion of the sealing layer will flow.

  20. Trial manufacture of liquid nitrogen cooling High Temperature Superconductivity Motor

    Sugimoto, H; Nishikawa, T; Tsuda, T; Hondou, Y; Akita, Y; Takeda, T; Okazaki, T; Ohashi, S; Yoshida, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present a new high temperature superconductivity (HTS) synchronous motor using the liquid nitrogen as the refrigerant in this paper. This motor is designed to be used as the propulsion motor in ship. Because we use the liquid nitrogen as the refrigerant, it is possible to simplify the cooling equipments in the motor. And in our design, we apply the axial flux type of motor to simplify the cryostat of the HTS wires used to make the field coils. Here, the fields using the bismuth HTS wire for the HTS coils are fixed. Moreover, the cores used in the fields are separated from cryostat, and the armature applies the core-less structure. According to various the electromagnetic field analysis results, the new motor was designed and produced. The diameter of the motor is 650mm, and the width of the motor is 360mm. The motor's rated output is 8.8kW at 100rpm, while the overload output is 44kW, and the maximum efficiency is 97.7%. Also, in order to further miniaturize the motor, other magnetic field analysis have been done when the high-current-density type HTS wire was used and the permendur was used instead of magnetic steel plates. In this case, the motor's rated output is 12kW, and the overload output is 60kW

  1. Cost reduction in PV manufacturing. Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets

    Maycock, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    In the past three years there have been several key events or changes that can lead to fully economic, massive deployment to the grid-connected and central PV markets. The factors discussed in this report include: (1) significant cost reduction in single crystal and polycrystal silicon so that modules profitably priced at $3.10-$3.30 per peak watt and installed grid-connected systems with installed cost of $5.50 per watt are being offered; (2) several new thin film plants - amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are being built for 1996, 1997 production with greatly reduced costs; (3) government subsidized volume orders for PV in grid-connected houses (Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States) provide volume (2000+ units per year) that lead to reduced costs; (4) environmental benefits for PV are being applied in Europe and Japan permitting 'early adopters' to enter the market; and (5) government and commercial acceptance of PV building integrated products, especially in Europe, are expanding PV markets. The combination of these forces lead to the prediction that an 'accelerated' market mode could start in the year 2000

  2. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    Pereira, MFV

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available .csir.co.za Models of assembled Die Slide 12 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za 3. Die manufacture, assembly and data capturing 21.521.521.525.5total 4electrode 3Fitting3Fitting3Fitting3Fitting 2Polish2Polish2Polish2Polish 7SER 3F grind3F grind...3F grind4F grind Heat trHeat trHeat tr1Heat tr Jig boreJig boreJig boreJig bore GrindingGrindingGrinding2Grinding 13.5DMLS13.5DMLS13.5DMLS2.5Milling HrsCostProcessHrsCostProcessHrsCostProcessHrsCostProcess Core 4Core 3Core 2Core 1 NB. Times...

  3. High-volume manufacturing device overlay process control

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Woo, Jaeson; Lee, DongYoung; Song, ChangRock; Heo, Hoyoung; Brinster, Irina; Choi, DongSub; Robinson, John C.

    2017-03-01

    Overlay control based on DI metrology of optical targets has been the primary basis for run-to-run process control for many years. In previous work we described a scenario where optical overlay metrology is performed on metrology targets on a high frequency basis including every lot (or most lots) at DI. SEM based FI metrology is performed ondevice in-die as-etched on an infrequent basis. Hybrid control schemes of this type have been in use for many process nodes. What is new is the relative size of the NZO as compared to the overlay spec, and the need to find more comprehensive solutions to characterize and control the size and variability of NZO at the 1x nm node: sampling, modeling, temporal frequency and control aspects, as well as trade-offs between SEM throughput and accuracy.

  4. Advances and highlights of the CNEA qualification program as high density fuel manufacturer for research reactors

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H. [Unidad de Actividad Combustibles Nucleares Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNE4), Avda. del Libertador, 8250 C1429BNO Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    One of the main objectives of CNEA regarding the fuel for research reactors is the development and qualification of the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuels. The qualification programs for both types of fuels, Silicide fuel and U- x Mo fuel, are similar. They include the following activities: development and set up of the fissile compound manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of mini plates and plates, design and fabrication of fuel assembly prototypes for irradiation, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. This paper describes the different activities performed within each program during the last year and the main advances and achievements of the programs within this period. The main achievements may be summarized in the following activities: Continuation of the irradiation of the first silicide fuel element in the R A3. Completion of the manufacturing of the second silicide fuel element, licensing and beginning of its irradiation in the R A3. Development of the HMD Process to manufacture U-Mo powder (pUMA project). Set up of fuel plates manufacturing at industrial level using U-Mo powder. Preliminary studies and the design for the irradiation of mini plates, plates and full scale fuel elements with U-Mo and 7 g U/cm{sup 3}. PIE destructive studies for the P-04 silicide fuel prototype (accurate burnup determination through chemical analysis, metallography and SEM of samples from the irradiated fuel plates). Improvement and development of new characterization techniques for high density fuel plates quality control including US testing and densitometric analysis of X-ray examinations. The results obtained in this period are encouraging and also allow to foresee a wider participation of CNEA in the international effort to qualify U-Mo as a new material for the manufacturing of research reactor fuels. (author)

  5. Advances and highlights of the CNEA qualification program as high density fuel manufacturer for research reactors

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main objectives of CNEA regarding the fuel for research reactors is the development and qualification of the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuels. The qualification programs for both types of fuels, Silicide fuel and U- x Mo fuel, are similar. They include the following activities: development and set up of the fissile compound manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of mini plates and plates, design and fabrication of fuel assembly prototypes for irradiation, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. This paper describes the different activities performed within each program during the last year and the main advances and achievements of the programs within this period. The main achievements may be summarized in the following activities: Continuation of the irradiation of the first silicide fuel element in the R A3. Completion of the manufacturing of the second silicide fuel element, licensing and beginning of its irradiation in the R A3. Development of the HMD Process to manufacture U-Mo powder (pUMA project). Set up of fuel plates manufacturing at industrial level using U-Mo powder. Preliminary studies and the design for the irradiation of mini plates, plates and full scale fuel elements with U-Mo and 7 g U/cm 3 . PIE destructive studies for the P-04 silicide fuel prototype (accurate burnup determination through chemical analysis, metallography and SEM of samples from the irradiated fuel plates). Improvement and development of new characterization techniques for high density fuel plates quality control including US testing and densitometric analysis of X-ray examinations. The results obtained in this period are encouraging and also allow to foresee a wider participation of CNEA in the international effort to qualify U-Mo as a new material for the manufacturing of research reactor fuels. (author)

  6. Prediction of high frequency core loss for electrical steel using the data provided by manufacturer

    Roy, Rakesh; Dalal, Ankit; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine the core loss data, at high frequencies, using the loss data provided by the lamination manufacturer. Steinmetz equation is used in this proposed method to determine core loss at high frequency. This Steinmetz equation consists of static hysteresis and eddy current loss. The presented technique considers the coefficients of Steinmetz equation as variable with frequency and peak magnetic flux density. The high frequency core loss data, predicted using this model is compared with the catalogue data given by manufacturer and very good accuracy has been obtained for a wide range of frequency.

  7. Low Cost Automated Manufacture of PV Array Technology (P-NASA12-007-1), Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft for NASA, DoD and commercial missions need higher power than ever before, with lower mass, compact stowage, and lower cost. While high efficiency,...

  8. High and rising health care costs.

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  9. The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context

    M. Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

  10. Design for Six Sigma: Approach for reliability and low-cost manufacturing.

    Jesus Gerardo Cruz Alvarez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss new product development based on a traditional stage-gate process and to examine how new product development [NPD] tools, such as lean design for Six Sigma, can accelerate the achievement of the main goals of NPD: reliable product quality, cost-effective implementation, and desired time-to-market. These new tools must be incorporated into a new approach to NPD based on the Advanced Product and Quality Planning methodology.

  11. Conference on raw materials and jobs cost variation - Impact on wind turbine manufacturers and operators

    Chabot, Bernard; Falk, Thorsten; Braeuninger, Michael; Rehfeldt, Knud; Brand, Ruth; Buhr, Ingo de; Jenne, Markus

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the 2007 Husum Wind exhibition, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side event on In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on raw materials and jobs cost variations in the wind power industry in both countries. Its aim was to compare and analyse the French and German respective support systems to renewable energy sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Protecting wind energy tariffs against inflation effects: analysis and suggestions from the French experience (Bernard Chabot); 2 - Wind energy in Germany - Tariff structure in the EEG renewable energy law (Thorsten Falk); 3 - Wind energy competitiveness (Michael Braeuninge, Knud Rehfeldt); 4 - Influence of raw materials price rise on the production costs of ENERCON wind turbines maker (Ruth Brand); 5 - Presentation of the overall costs of an offshore wind energy project (Ingo de Buhr); 6 - Comparison between French and German tariffs profitability using a model wind farm: presentation of the pros and cons of both systems (Markus Jenne)

  12. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  13. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    | NREL Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development NREL's fuel cell manufacturing R&D focuses on improving quality-inspection practices for high costs. A researcher monitoring web-line equipment in the Manufacturing Laboratory Many fuel cell

  14. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  16. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  17. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and

  18. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  19. The source of investment cash flow sensitivity in manufacturing firms: Is it asymmetric information or agency costs?

    Daniel Makina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, positive investment cash flow sensitivity is attributed to either asymmetric information induced financing constraints or the agency costs of free cash flow. Using data from a sample of 68 manufacturing firms listed on the South African JSE, this paper contributes to the literature by investigating the source of investment cash flow sensitivity. We have found that asymmetric information explains the positive investment cash flow sensitivity better than agency costs. Furthermore, asymmetric information has been observed to be more pronounced in low-dividend-paying firms and small firms. Despite South Africa’s having a developed financial system by international standards, small firms are seen to be financially constrained. We attribute the absence of investment cash flow sensitivity due to agency costs to good corporate governance of South African listed firms. Thus the paper provides further evidence in support of the proposition in the literature that the source of investment cash flow sensitivity may depend on the institutional setting of a country, such as its corporate governance.

  20. Make or buy analysis model based on tolerance allocation to minimize manufacturing cost and fuzzy quality loss

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Puspitoingrum, W.; Jauhari, W. A.; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    The specification of tolerances has a significant impact on the quality of product and final production cost. The company should carefully pay attention to the component or product tolerance so they can produce a good quality product at the lowest cost. Tolerance allocation has been widely used to solve problem in selecting particular process or supplier. But before merely getting into the selection process, the company must first make a plan to analyse whether the component must be made in house (make), to be purchased from a supplier (buy), or used the combination of both. This paper discusses an optimization model of process and supplier selection in order to minimize the manufacturing costs and the fuzzy quality loss. This model can also be used to determine the allocation of components to the selected processes or suppliers. Tolerance, process capability and production capacity are three important constraints that affect the decision. Fuzzy quality loss function is used in this paper to describe the semantic of the quality, in which the product quality level is divided into several grades. The implementation of the proposed model has been demonstrated by solving a numerical example problem that used a simple assembly product which consists of three components. The metaheuristic approach were implemented to OptQuest software from Oracle Crystal Ball in order to obtain the optimal solution of the numerical example.

  1. Process for the manufacture of a stabilized filament superconductor with a high proportion of stabilising material

    Both, R.; Hillmann, H.; Breuer, W.

    1987-01-01

    In order to manufacture superconductors with a high proportion of stabilising material, a compound body is first formed and is formed by extrusion and drawing to reduce its crossection. This compound body is then introduced into a sheath tube to increase the proportion of stabilising material and is formed to its final dimensions by further drawing processes. Tearing of the superconducting filaments is prevented by sufficient stabilising material (e.g. copper here) being introduced in the central area of the compound body. The filament superconductors can be manufactured at a reasonable price with a high proportion of stabilising material. (orig.) [de

  2. A novel and fully scalable Agrobacterium spray-based process for manufacturing cellulases and other cost-sensitive proteins in plants.

    Hahn, Simone; Giritch, Anatoli; Bartels, Doreen; Bortesi, Luisa; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    Transient transfection of plants by vacuum infiltration of Agrobacterium vectors represents the state of the art in plant-based protein manufacturing; however, the complexity and cost of this approach restrict it to pharmaceutical proteins. We demonstrated that simple spraying of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacterium vectors in the presence of a surfactant can substitute for vacuum inoculation. When the T-DNA of Agrobacterium encodes viral replicons capable of cell-to-cell movement, up to 90% of the leaf cells can be transfected and express a recombinant protein at levels up to 50% of total soluble protein. This simple, fast and indefinitely scalable process was successfully applied to produce cellulases, one of the most volume- and cost-sensitive biotechnology products. We demonstrate here for the first time that representatives of all hydrolase classes necessary for cellulosic biomass decomposition can be expressed at high levels, stored as silage without significant loss of activity and then used directly as enzyme additives. This process enables production of cellulases, and other potential high-volume products such as noncaloric sweetener thaumatin and antiviral protein griffithsin, at commodity agricultural prices and could find broad applicability in the large-scale production of many other cost-sensitive proteins. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  4. Low-Cost Manufacturing of Bioresorbable Conductors by Evaporation-Condensation-Mediated Laser Printing and Sintering of Zn Nanoparticles.

    Shou, Wan; Mahajan, Bikram K; Ludwig, Brandon; Yu, Xiaowei; Staggs, Joshua; Huang, Xian; Pan, Heng

    2017-07-01

    Currently, bioresorbable electronic devices are predominantly fabricated by complex and expensive vacuum-based integrated circuit (IC) processes. Here, a low-cost manufacturing approach for bioresorbable conductors on bioresorbable polymer substrates by evaporation-condensation-mediated laser printing and sintering of Zn nanoparticle is reported. Laser sintering of Zn nanoparticles has been technically difficult due to the surface oxide on nanoparticles. To circumvent the surface oxide, a novel approach is discovered to print and sinter Zn nanoparticle facilitated by evaporation-condensation in confined domains. The printing process can be performed on low-temperature substrates in ambient environment allowing easy integration on a roll-to-roll platform for economical manufacturing of bioresorbable electronics. The fabricated Zn conductors show excellent electrical conductivity (≈1.124 × 10 6 S m -1 ), mechanical durability, and water dissolvability. Successful demonstration of strain gauges confirms the potential application in various environmentally friendly sensors and circuits. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the

  6. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are

  7. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  8. Precision manufacturing

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  9. Climate policy and energy-intensive manufacturing: A comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of cost mitigation provisions in the American Energy and Security Act of 2009

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the ongoing climate policy debates, this study examines the cost impacts of carbon-pricing legislation on selected US energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Specifically, it evaluates output-based rebate measures and the border adjustment provision specified in the bill, and tests the effectiveness of cost containment features of the policy, such as the international offsets, under various market assumptions. Results of the examination confirm that in all policy cases or industries, the output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the manufacturers' carbon-pricing costs in the short-to-medium term. However as the rebates decline after 2020, especially in a case where low-carbon electricity generation or international offsets are not readily available or implemented, these industries would suffer greater declines in profitability. At the same time, the study's findings were mixed concerning the effectiveness of the border adjustment measure in reducing cost impacts after 2020. While border adjustments could reduce costs to US manufacturing sectors, at least temporarily, they could create problems for domestic downstream producers and exports, under cost pass-along conditions. However at best, the output-based rebates, international offset, and border adjustment and measures primarily buy time for manufacturers. The only long-term solution is for EITE industries to invest in energy-saving and next-generation low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: → The output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the costs of carbon-pricing for EITE industries. → After 2021 economic impacts on the EITE industries would escalate. → The BA measure would support US firms passing through their emissions costs to their US customers. → The BA measure would not alleviate the higher production costs of US. EITE exports. → In the medium term the only true solution is for US. EITE manufacturers to invest in energy-saving technologies.

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  11. A modified genetic algorithm for time and cost optimization of an additive manufacturing single-machine scheduling

    M. Fera

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer by layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. Selective Laser Melting, commercially known as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS®, is the most diffused additive process in today’s manufacturing industry. Introduction of a DMLS® machine in a production department has remarkable effects not only on industrial design but also on production planning, for example, on machine scheduling. Scheduling for a traditional single machine can employ consolidated models. Scheduling of an AM machine presents new issues because it must consider the capability of producing different geometries, simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to provide a mathematical model for an AM/SLM machine scheduling. The complexity of the model is NP-HARD, so possible solutions must be found by metaheuristic algorithms, e.g., Genetic Algorithms. Genetic Algorithms solve sequential optimization problems by handling vectors; in the present paper, we must modify them to handle a matrix. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms will be tested on a test case formed by a 30 Part Number production plan with a high variability in complexity, distinct due dates and low production volumes.

  12. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below$1.00/W

  14. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    Sandwisch, D. W. (Solar Cells, Inc.)

    1999-09-02

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below $1.00/W.

  15. Life cycle costs measurement of complex systems manufactured by an engineer-to-order company

    Öner, K.B.; Franssen, R.; Kiesmüller, G.P.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Qui, R.G.; Russell, D.W.; Sullivan, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Complex technical systems such as packaging lines, computer networks, material handling systems, are crucial for the operations at the companies (or institutions) where they are installed. Companies require high availability because their primary processes may halt when these systems are down. High

  16. Low-cost access to development and manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits

    Smit, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Generic photonic integration technology is rapidly gaining popularity. It applies the methodology that is so successful in microelectronics (CMOS technology) to the domain of photonics: providing lowcost access to highly standardized high-performance processes that support integration in a single

  17. Testing of high heat flux components manufactured by ENEA for ITER divertor

    Visca, Eliseo; Escourbiac, F.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Mazzone, G.; Merola, M.; Pizzuto, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENEA is involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities and in particular in the manufacturing of high heat flux plasma-facing components, such as the divertor targets. During the last years ENEA has manufactured actively cooled mock-ups by using different technologies, namely brazing, diffusion bonding and HIPping. A new manufacturing process that combines two main techniques PBC (Pre-Brazed Casting) and the HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) has been set up and widely tested. A full monoblock medium scale vertical target, having a straight CFC armoured part and a curved W armoured part, was manufactured using this process. The ultrasonic method was used for the non-destructive examinations performed during the manufacturing of the component, from the monoblock preparation up to the final mock-up assembling. The component was also examined by thermography on SATIR facility (CEA, France), afterwards it was thermal fatigue tested at FE200 (200 kW electron beam facility, CEA/AREVA France). The successful results of the thermal fatigue testing performed according the ITER requirements (10 MW/m 2 , 3000 cycles of 10 s on both CFC and W part, then 20/15 MW/m 2 , 2000 cycles of 10 s on CFC/W part, respectively) have confirmed that the developed process can be considerate a candidate for the manufacturing of monoblock divertor components. Furthermore, a 35-MW/m 2 Critical Heat Flux was measured at relevant thermal-hydraulics conditions at the end of the testing campaign. This paper reports the manufacturing route, the thermal fatigue testing results, the pre and post non-destructive examination and the destructive examination performed on the ITER vertical target medium scale mock-up. These activities were performed in the frame of EFDA contracts (04-1218 with CEA, 93-851 JN with AREVA and 03-1054 with ENEA).

  18. Adoption of High Performance Computational (HPC) Modeling Software for Widespread Use in the Manufacture of Welded Structures

    Brust, Frederick W. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH (United States); Punch, Edward F. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH (United States); Twombly, Elizabeth Kurth [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH (United States); Kalyanam, Suresh [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH (United States); Kennedy, James [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH (United States); Hattery, Garty R. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH (United States); Dodds, Robert H. [Professional Consulting Services, Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Mach, Justin C [Caterpillar, Peoria, IL (United States); Chalker, Alan [Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC), Columbus, OH (United States); Nicklas, Jeremy [Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC), Columbus, OH (United States); Gohar, Basil M [Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC), Columbus, OH (United States); Hudak, David [Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC), Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This report summarizes the final product developed for the US DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II grant made to Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2) between April 16, 2014 and August 31, 2016 titled ‘Adoption of High Performance Computational (HPC) Modeling Software for Widespread Use in the Manufacture of Welded Structures’. Many US companies have moved fabrication and production facilities off shore because of cheaper labor costs. A key aspect in bringing these jobs back to the US is the use of technology to render US-made fabrications more cost-efficient overall with higher quality. One significant advantage that has emerged in the US over the last two decades is the use of virtual design for fabrication of small and large structures in weld fabrication industries. Industries that use virtual design and analysis tools have reduced material part size, developed environmentally-friendly fabrication processes, improved product quality and performance, and reduced manufacturing costs. Indeed, Caterpillar Inc. (CAT), one of the partners in this effort, continues to have a large fabrication presence in the US because of the use of weld fabrication modeling to optimize fabrications by controlling weld residual stresses and distortions and improving fatigue, corrosion, and fracture performance. This report describes Emc2’s DOE SBIR Phase II final results to extend an existing, state-of-the-art software code, Virtual Fabrication Technology (VFT®), currently used to design and model large welded structures prior to fabrication - to a broader range of products with widespread applications for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). VFT® helps control distortion, can minimize and/or control residual stresses, control welding microstructure, and pre-determine welding parameters such as weld-sequencing, pre-bending, thermal-tensioning, etc. VFT® uses material properties, consumable properties, etc. as inputs

  19. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics.

    Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-02-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.

  1. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  2. Strategic project selection based on evidential reasoning approach for high-end equipment manufacturing industry

    Lu Guangyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, emerging information technologies have significantly changed the daily life of people. In such context, strategic project selection for high-end equipment manufacturing industries faces more and more complexities and uncertainties with the consideration of several complex criteria. For example, a group of experts rather than a single expert should be invited to select strategic project for high-end equipment manufacturing industries and the experts may feel difficulty to express their preferences towards different strategic projects due to their limited cognitive capabilities. In order to handle these complexities and uncertainties, the criteria framework of strategic project selection is firstly constructed based on the characteristics of high-end equipment manufacturing industries and then evidential reasoning (ER approach is introduced in this paper to help experts express their uncertain preferences and aggregate these preferences to generate an appropriate strategic project. A real case of strategic project selection in a high-speed train manufacturing enterprise is investigated to demonstrate the validity of the ER approach in solving strategic project selection problem.

  3. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  4. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  5. The high integrity design and manufacture of the Heysham II/Torness gas baffle

    Armor, J.; Day, B.V.; White, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The AGR design used on the Heysham II and Torness power stations requires a gas baffle which is essentially a steel pressure vessel for which one can demonstrate a high degree of integrity. The design, analytical, manufacturing, erection and testing processes which were undertaken to achieve the standard required of the completed assembly are discussed. To this end the vessels were manufactured in purpose-made shops and transported to site, leaving a minimum amount of work to be undertaken at site. Subsequent evaluation has shown a very low probability of failure compared with conventional steel pressure vessels. (author)

  6. The design of reconfigurable assembly stations for high variety and mass customisation manufacturing

    Padayachee, Jared

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical production of mass customised and high variety goods is a challenge facing modern manufacturers. This challenge is being addressed, in part, by the on-going development of technologies that facilitate the manufacturing of these goods. Existing technologies require either excessive inbuilt flexibility or frequent changes to the machine set up to provide the manufacturing functions required for the customisation process. This paper presents design principles for automated assembly stations within the scope of mass customisation. Design principles are presented that minimise the hardware and operating complexities of assembly stations, allowing stations to be easily automated for concurrent mixed model assembly with a First In First Out (FIFO scheduling policy. A reconfigurable assembly station is developed to demonstrate how the proposed design methods simplify the creation and operation of an assembly station for a product family of flashlights.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance 316L Stainless Steel Nanocomposites via Selective Laser Melting

    AlMangour, Bandar Abdulaziz

    Austenitic 316L stainless steel alloy is an attractive industrial material combining outstanding corrosion resistance, ductility, and biocompatibility, with promising structural applications and biomedical uses. However, 316L has low strength and wear resistance, limiting its high-performance applicability. Adding secondary hard nanoscale reinforcements to steel matrices, thereby forming steel-matrix nanocomposites (SMCs), can overcome these problems, improving the performance and thereby the applicability of 316L. However, SMC parts with complex-geometry cannot be easily achieved limiting its application. This can be avoided through additive manufacturing (AM) by generating layer-by-layer deposition using computer-aided design data. Expanding the range of AM-applicable materials is necessary to fulfill industrial demand. This dissertation presents the characteristics of new AM-processed high-performance 316L-matrix nanocomposites with nanoscale TiC or TiB2 reinforcements, addressing specific aspects of material design, process control and optimization, and physical metallurgy theory. The nanocomposites were prepared by high-energy ball-milling and consolidated by AM selective laser melting (SLM). Continuous and refined ring-like network structures were obtained with homogenously distributed reinforcements. Additional grain refinement occurred with reinforcement addition, attributed to nanoparticles acting as nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation. The influence of reinforcement content was first investigated; mechanical and tribological behaviors improved with increased reinforcement contents. The compressive yield strengths of composites with TiB2 or TiC reinforcements were approximately five or two times those of 316L respectively. Hot isostatic pressing post-treatment effectively eliminated major cracks and pores in SLM-fabricated components. The effects of the SLM processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical performance were also investigated. Laser

  8. Firm-size distribution and price-cost margins in Dutch manufacturing

    Y.M. Prince (Yvonne); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIndustrial economists surmise a relation between the size distribution of firms and performance. Usually, attention is focused on the high end of the size distribution. The widely used 4-firm seller concentration, C4, ignores what happens at the low end of the size distribution. An

  9. Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications

    Kenan Isik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA, a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware.

  10. Low cost highly available digital control computer

    Silvers, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    When designing digital controllers for critical plant control it is important to provide several features. Among these are reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental protection, and low cost. An examination of several applications has lead to a design that can be produced for approximately $20,000 (1000 control points). This design is compatible with modern concepts in distributed and hierarchical control. The canonical controller element is a dual-redundant self-checking computer that communicates with a cross-strapped, electrically isolated input/output system. The input/output subsystem comprises multiple intelligent input/output cards. These cards accept commands from the primary processor which are validated, executed, and acknowledged. Each card may be hot replaced to facilitate sparing. The implementation of the dual-redundant computer architecture is discussed. Called the FS-86, this computer can be used for a variety of applications. It has most recently found application in the upgrade of San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train control currently in progress and has been proposed for feedwater control in a boiling water reactor

  11. Manufacturing Growth with Social Deficits. Environmental and Labour Issues in the High Tech Industry of Penang, Malaysia

    Wangel, Arne

    2001-01-01

    The economic downturn in 1997 was less severe in Malaysia compared to other countries in the region. However, as the manufacturing sector, in particular the high tech industries, lacks a strong national technological base and depends on exports, structural problems remain. The first part of the p......The economic downturn in 1997 was less severe in Malaysia compared to other countries in the region. However, as the manufacturing sector, in particular the high tech industries, lacks a strong national technological base and depends on exports, structural problems remain. The first part...... of the paper briefly provides key indicators of the economic recession. The second part describes the origin and structure of the high tech sector in Malaysia. Impressive growth has been achieved only as accompanied by a deepening dependency on trends in the global computer industry. The absence of innovative...... capacity makes it difficult to escape production segments, in which labour cost remains a key parameter. Thus, the competitive position of Malaysia is unstable and may erode. In the third part, the pattern of interests of the major stakeholders: authorities, corporate managers, workers, trade unions...

  12. Development and manufacture of a Nb3Sn superconductor for the high-field test facility

    Scanlan, R.M.; Cornish, D.N.; Spencer, C.R.; Gregory, E.; Adam, E.

    1981-01-01

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) project has two primary goals. The first is to establish manufacturing capability for a Nb 3 Sn conductor suitable for use in a mirror fusion coil. The second is to provide a test facility for evaluating other fusion conductor designs at high fields. This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the solutions devised in working toward the first goal. Construction of the test facility coils will be described in a subsequent paper

  13. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to use selective laser melting (SLM, an additive manufacturing technique) to manufacture a hot fire-capable, water-cooled spool...

  14. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM, an emerging manufacturing technique) to manufacture a subscale...

  15. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  16. Design of a high power TM01 mode launcher optimized for manufacturing by milling

    Dal Forno, Massimo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Recent research on high-gradient rf acceleration found that hard metals, such as hard copper and hard copper-silver, have lower breakdown rate than soft metals. Traditional high-gradient accelerating structures are manufactured with parts joined by high-temperature brazing. The high temperature used in brazing makes the metal soft; therefore, this process cannot be used to manufacture structures out of hard metal alloys. In order to build the structure with hard metals, the components must be designed for joining without high-temperature brazing. One method is to build the accelerating structures out of two halves, and join them by using a low-temperature technique, at the symmetry plane along the beam axis. The structure has input and output rf power couplers. We use a TM01 mode launcher as a rf power coupler, which was introduced during the Next Linear Collider (NLC) work. The part of the mode launcher will be built in each half of the structure. This paper presents a novel geometry of a mode launcher, optimized for manufacturing by milling. The coupler was designed for the CERN CLIC working frequency f = 11.9942 GHz; the same geometry can be scaled to any other frequency.

  17. Combined Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing in the Eco-Care-Matrix: A case study on the performance of a modernized manufacturing system for glass containers

    Auer, Johannes; Bey, Niki; Schäfer, Johannes-Marius

    2017-01-01

    Cycle Assessment, as well as Life Cycle Costing (LCC). The results were then to be displayed in an Eco-Care-Matrix (ECM) in order to quantitatively visualize the improvements when comparing the updated manufacturing system to the previous one and they were to be discussed in terms of (i) ecodesign...

  18. Cost analysis of roll-to-roll fabricated ITO free single and tandem organic solar modules based on data from manufacture

    Machui, Florian; Hösel, Markus; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    We present a cost analysis based on state of the art printing and coating processes to fully encapsulated, flexible ITO- and vacuum-free polymer solar cell modules. Manufacturing data for both single junctions and tandem junctions are presented and analyzed. Within this calculation the most...

  19. Study of Potential Cost Reductions Resulting from Super-Large-Scale Manufacturing of PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 7 August 2003--30 September 2004

    Keshner, M. S.; Arya, R.

    2004-10-01

    Hewlett Packard has created a design for a ''Solar City'' factory that will process 30 million sq. meters of glass panels per year and produce 2.1-3.6 GW of solar panels per year-100x the volume of a typical, thin-film, solar panel manufacturer in 2004. We have shown that with a reasonable selection of materials, and conservative assumptions, this ''Solar City'' can produce solar panels and hit the price target of $1.00 per peak watt (6.5x-8.5x lower than prices in 2004) as the total price for a complete and installed rooftop (or ground mounted) solar energy system. This breakthrough in the price of solar energy comes without the need for any significant new invention. It comes entirely from the manufacturing scale of a large plant and the cost savings inherent in operating at such a large manufacturing scale. We expect that further optimizations from these simple designs will lead to further improvements in cost. The manufacturing process and cost depend on the choice for the active layer that converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency by which sunlight is converted into electricity can range from 7% to 15%. This parameter has a large effect on the overall price per watt. There are other impacts, as well, and we have attempted to capture them without creating undue distractions. Our primary purpose is to demonstrate the impact of large-scale manufacturing. This impact is largely independent of the choice of active layer. It is not our purpose to compare the pro's and con's for various types of active layers. Significant improvements in cost per watt can also come from scientific advances in active layers that lead to higher efficiency. But, again, our focus is on manufacturing gains and not on the potential advances in the basic technology.

  20. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report

    Child Care Aware of America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report" presents 2011 data reflecting what parents pay for full-time child care in America. It includes average fees for both child care centers and family child care homes. Information was collected through a survey conducted in January 2012 that asked for the average costs charged for…

  1. New strategy for the optimal design and manufacture of high performance milling heads

    Bustillo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-performance mechanical-transmission heads are one of the most complex, costly and problematic parts of a milling machine, owing to the large amount of piping required for transporting fluids and to the high level of mechanical performance that is required from them. This study proposes a strategy for optimising the design and manufacture of head bodies by using aluminium alloys and by integrating tubular stainless steel inserts in the casting of the head. These tubular inserts that are integrated into the aluminium mass are an alternative to cooling conduits currently made by machine drilling. As demonstrated in the experimental validation of the first prototype, the new method has created a design that retains the same mechanical performance, increases its reliability and reduces the weight of the milling machine’s moving parts.

    Los cabezales de transmisión mecánica de altas prestaciones son una de las partes más complejas, costosas y problemáticas de una maquina fresadora. Esto es debido a la gran cantidad de canalizaciones para la transmisión de fluidos que deben de contener y a las altas prestaciones mecánicas que se les exigen. En este trabajo se presenta una estrategia para optimizar el diseño y la fabricación de los cuerpos de estos cabezales basada en la incorporación de aleaciones de aluminio y la inclusión de insertos tubulares de acero en la propia fundición que conforma el cabezal. Los insertos tubulares sustituyen a los canales de refrigeración realizados actualmente por taladros de mecanizado y quedan integrados en la masa de aluminio. La nueva metodología ha permitido realizar un diseño que mantiene las prestaciones mecánicas, aumenta la fiabilidad y reduce la masa de estos elementos móviles de fresadoras como ha demostrado la validación experimental de un primer prototipo.

  2. High-shear granulation as a manufacturing method for cocrystal granules

    Rehder, Sönke; Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    and the respective excipients). The drug release was slightly decreased by cocrystal formation, most likely due to the lower solubility of the cocrystal. In the presence of calcium hydrogenphosphate however, no influence of cocrystal formation on either compactability or on drug release were observed, compared...... with the reference tablets. It was concluded that high-shear wet granulation is a valuable, however complex, manufacturing method for cocrystals. Cocrystal formation may influence compactability and drug release and thus affect drug performance and should be investigated during pre-formulation.......Cocrystal formation allows the tailoring of physicochemical as well as of mechanical properties of an API. However, there is a lack of large-scale manufacturing methods of cocrystals. Therefore, the objective of this work was to examine the suitability of high-shear wet granulation...

  3. Manufacturing of highly integrated mechatronic modules by using the technology of embedding stereolithography

    Rechtenwald, Thomas; Frick, Thomas; Schmidt, Michael

    The embedding stereolithography is an additive, hybrid process, which allows the construction of highly integrated 3D assemblies for the use in automotive applications. The flexible process of stereolithography is combined with the embedding of functional components and supplemented by the additive manufacturing of electrical or optical conductive structures. This combination of sub-processes implies a high potential regarding the obtainable integration density of mechatronical modules. This work considers basic restrictions, which limit the mechanical stability of the manufactured modules by calculating the superposition of residual and external stress using a thermo-mechanical finite element model and develops a procedure to qualify stereolithography matrix materials for the process of the embedding stereolithography.

  4. Creating Value for Customer in Business Networks of High-Tech Goods Manufacturers

    Joanna Wiechoczek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main paper goal is to recognize the category of value for customer with respect to high-tech products, and to propose a model of creation of this value in business networks established by manufacturers. The research methods include critical analysis of the literature, documentation method, as well as the case research method and observation method. The results of the research proved that the value offered to buyers is characterized by growing multidimensionality which results in increasing complexity of the creation process of this value by their manufacturers. Due to the fact that they do not have complex skills and resources to create the value independently, they form business networks. These networks include increasingly larger group of entities, in which the importance of individual cooperants is highly diversified.

  5. Segmentation of low‐cost high efficiency oxide‐based thermoelectric materials

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) oxide materials have attracted great interest in advanced renewable energy research owing to the fact that they consist of abundant elements, can be manufactured by low-cost processing, sustain high temperatures, be robust and provide long lifetime. However, the low conversion...... efficiency of TE oxides has been a major drawback limiting these materials to broaden applications. In this work, theoretical calculations are used to predict how segmentation of oxide and semimetal materials, utilizing the benefits of both types of materials, can provide high efficiency, high temperature...... oxide-based segmented legs. The materials for segmentation are selected by their compatibility factors and their conversion efficiency versus material cost, i.e., “efficiency ratio”. Numerical modelling results showed that conversion efficiency could reach values of more than 10% for unicouples using...

  6. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  7. Manufacture of high-strength composite materials from prepregs prepared by radiation processing

    Laricheva, V.P.; Korotkij, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific principles of the manufacture of high-strength heat-resistant polymer composite materials with the successive ionizing-radiation and heat treatment (via the step of long-lived prepregs) were developed. Methods for the selection of components for the preparation of long-lived prepregs, as well as for the determination of the optimal curing conditions, were proposed. The mechanical properties of the materials were studied [ru

  8. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to improve cell efficiency, experiments were conducted for enhancing bottom a-SiGe cell efficiency for the embodiment of an enhanced-efficiency multi-junction cell, for improving crystallinity in microcrystalline silicon through the application of VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), for texturizing metal electrodes on a film substrate, and so forth. In the effort to increase the film fabrication rate, a VHF plasma CVD device was used for studying the effect of the discharge frequency on film deposition and quality, Vpp between the electrodes, and so forth. Studies about the high-throughput production technology centered on the film substrate solar cell process technology and the designing of an optimum geometrical pattern for SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) cells. Production cost was estimated for the SCAF structure film substrate solar cell manufacturing process, and a production cost of 147.1 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was obtained as achievable under the currently available conditions. (NEDO)

  9. The manufacturers' viewpoint

    Davis, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the approach by six separate manufacturers to the problem of availability from their particular view point. This presentation demonstrates basic strategy: attention to high reliability at the design phase, based on positive and detailed feedback from existing plant; quality assurance at the production stage which has been planned into the production process in the form of a Q.A. manual in design; sophisticated test procedures and facilities; simplicity of design with high accuracy in production; provision of a clear operational maintenance manual, etc. The manufacturers agreed on the need to make a conscious commitment to design for high availability, taking into account both initial and ongoing operating costs in life cycle cost assessment. Predictability, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, market acceptability and maintenance support based on high quality feedback between operator and supplier were all stressed on the grounds that prevention is always better than cure

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  11. A new approach for high performance fiber manufacturing via simultaneous fiber spinning and UV initiated polymerization

    Ellison, Chris

    Synthetic fibers have been manufactured for decades using solvents or heat to reduce the viscosity of pre-formed polymers and promote drawing. However, nature has engineered spiders and silkworms with benign ways of making silk fibers with high strength and toughness. Conceptually, their approach of chemically linking small functional units (i.e., proteins) into long chain molecules and solid fibrillar structures ``on-demand'' is fundamentally different from current synthetic fiber manufacturing methods. Drawing inspiration from nature, a method will be described that uses light to trigger a thiol-ene photopolymerization to rapidly transform reactive liquid mixtures into solid thread-like structures as they are forced out of a capillary at high speeds. Besides being manufactured without using solvents/volatile components or heat, these fibers are mechanically robust and have excellent chemical and thermal stability due to their crosslinked nature. During processing, the balance between curing kinetics, fiber flight time, and monomer mixture viscoelasticity is essential for the formation of defect free fibers. This work focuses on developing a universal operating diagram to show how the intricate interplay of gel time, flight time, and fluid relaxation time leads to the formation of uniform fibers and other undesirable fiber morphologies such as beads-on-string, fused fibers, non-uniform fibers, and droplets. This predictive capability enables adaptation of this spinning concept to all existing fiber spinning platforms, and customization of monomer formulations to target desired properties.

  12. The comparison of properties and cost of material use of natural rubber and sand in manufacturing cement mortar for construction sub-base layer

    Rahman, R.; Nemmang, M. S.; Hazurina, Nor; Shahidan, S.; Khairul Tajuddin Jemain, Raden; Abdullah, M. E.; Hassan, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    The main issue related to this research was to examine the feasibility of natural rubber SMR 20 in the manufacturing of cement mortar for sub-base layer construction. Subbase layers have certain functions that need to be fulfilled in order to assure strong and adequate permeability of pavement performance. In a pavement structure, sub-base is below the base and serves as the foundation for the overall pavement structure, transmitting traffic loads to the sub-grade and providing drainage. Based on this research, the natural rubber, SMR 20 was with the percentages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% to mix with sand in the manufacture of the cement mortar. This research describes some of the properties and cost of the materials for the natural rubber and sand in cement mortar manufacturing by laboratory testing. Effects of the natural rubber replacement on mechanical properties of mortar were investigated by laboratory testing such as compressive strength test and density. This study obtained the 5% of natural rubber replaced in sand can achieved the strength of normal mortar after 7 days and 28 days. The strength of cement mortar depends on the density of cement mortar. According to the cost of both materials, sand shows the lower cost in material for the cement mortar manufacturing than the uses of natural rubber. Thus, the convectional cement mortar which used sand need lower cost than the modified rubber cement mortar and the most economical to apply in industrial. As conclusion, the percentage of 5% natural rubber in the cement mortar would have the same with normal cement mortar in terms of the strength. However, in terms of the cost of the construction, it will increase higher than cost of normal cement mortar production. So that, this modified cement mortar is not economical for the road sub-base construction.

  13. Manufacturing and material properties of forgings for reactor pressure vessel of high temperature engineering test reactor

    Sato, I.; Suzuki, K.

    1994-01-01

    For the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) which has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel is used first in the world. Material confirmation test has been carried out to demonstrate good applicability of forged low Si 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to the RPV of HTTR. Recently, JSW has succeeded in the manufacturing of large size ring forgings and large size forged cover dome integrated with nozzles for stand pipe for the RPV. This paper describes the results of the material confirmation test as well as the manufacturing and material properties of the large forged cover dome integrated with nozzles for stand pipe. (orig.)

  14. Advanced technologies for manufacturing high strength sour grade UOE line pipe

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Omura, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Minato, Izuru; Yamamoto, Akio [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A new kind of high strength pipeline has been manufactured for sour service in offshore pipelines. This paper first presents a review of developments in manufacturing technology to improve sour resistance. This was particularly the case with Grade UOE line pipe. The improvement was achieved by optimizing the continuous casting process, monitoring the shape of inclusions (such as MnS, CaS, Al2O3, CaO-Al2O3) and decreasing coarse precipitates (Nb(C,N), TiN). The study then used the HIC evaluation method to determine hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of the material and HAZ test for sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance. The evaluation of the NACE TM0284 solution A showed that these pipelines are able to resist severe sour conditions because of good HIC and SSC resistance. Optimizing others components like alloying elements and the ACC process would improve sour resistance in future applications.

  15. Improvement of microstructure and mechanical properties of high dense SiC ceramics manufactured by high-speed hot pressing

    Voyevodin, V.; Sayenko, S.; Lobach, K.; Tarasov, R.; Zykova, A.; Svitlychnyi, Ye.; Surkov, A.; Abelentsev, V.; Ghaemi, H.; Szkodo, M.; Gajowiec, G.; Kmiec, M.; Antoszkiewicz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics possess high physical-mechanical properties, corrosion and radiation resistance, which can be used as a protective materials for radioactive wastes disposal. The aim of the present study was the manufacturing of high density SiC ceramics with advanced physical and mechanical parameters. The high performance on the properties of produced ceramics was determined by the dense and monolithic structure. The densified silicon carbide samples possessed good mechanical strength, with a high Vickers micro hardness up to 28.5 GPa.

  16. On the development of high quality NiTi shape memory and pseudoelastic parts by additive manufacturing

    Haberland, Christoph; Elahinia, Mohammad; Walker, Jason M; Meier, Horst; Frenzel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing provides an attractive processing method for nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory and pseudoelastic parts. In this paper, we show how the additive manufacturing process affects structural and functional properties of additively manufactured NiTi and how the process parameter set-up can be optimized to produce high quality NiTi parts and components. Comparisons of shape recovery due to shape memory and pseudoelasticity in additively manufactured and commercial NiTi exhibit promising potential for this innovative processing method. (paper)

  17. The effect of statistical analytical measurement variations on the plant control parameters and production costs in cement manufacturing – a case study

    A. D. Love

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used in cement manufacturing normally have varying chemical compositions and require regular analyses for plant control purposes. This is achieved by using several analytical instruments, such as XRF and ICP. The values obtained for the major elements Ca, Si, Fe and Al, are used to calculate the plant control parameters Lime Saturation Factor (LSF, Silica Ratio (SR and Alumina Modulus (AM. These plant control parameters are used to regulate the mixing and blending of various raw meal components and to operate the plant optimally. Any errors and large fluctuations in these plant parameters not only influence the quality of the cement produced, but also have a major effect on the cost of production of cement clinker through their influence on the energy consumption and residence time in the kiln. This paper looks at the role that statistical variances in the analytical measurements of the major elements Ca, Si, Fe and Al can have on the ultimate LSF, SR and AM values calculated from these measurements. The influence of too high and too low values of the LSF, SR and AM on clinker quality and energy consumption is discussed, and acceptable variances in these three parameters, based on plant experiences, are established. The effect of variances in the LSF, SR and AM parameters on the production costs is then analysed, and it is shown that variations of as large as 30% and as little as 5% can potentially occur. The LSF calculation incorporates most chemical elements and therefore is prone to the largest number of variations due to statistical variances in the analytical determinations of the chemical elements. Despite all these variations in LSF values they actually produced the smallest influence on the production cost of the clinker. It is therefore concluded that the LSF value is the most practical parameter for plant control purposes.

  18. WHAT DRIVES HIGH COST OF FINANCE IN MOLDOVA?

    Alexandru Stratan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Why there are high costs to finance in Republic of Moldova? Is it a problem for business environment?These are the questions discussed in this paper. Following the well know Growth Diagnostics approach byHausmann, Rodrik and Velasco, authors assess the barriers and impediments to access to finance in Republic ofMoldova. Guided by international and national statistics we found evidence of poor intermediation, poorinstitutions, high level of inflation, and high collateral as major causes of high cost of financial resources inRepublic of Moldova. At the end of the study authors give policy recommendations identifying other related fieldsto be addressed.

  19. Design for manufacturing and assembly key performance indicators to support high-speed product development

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Juel Jespersen, Ida Kirstine; Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) has great potential for minimizing late engineering changes (ECs) that impede high-speed product development and delay time-to-profit. However, our understanding of DfMA and its implementation in industry is still incomplete. This paper presents...... an industrial case study on late ECs in high-speed product development and compares the results to other examples from the literature. It then proposes a framework with sets of key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure and improve producability and product quality throughout the product development process....

  20. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    Vallauri, D.; Cola, P.L. de; Piscone, F.; Amato, I.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-TiB 2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO 2 , B 4 C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  1. Smart Manufacturing.

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  2. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  3. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in open-quotes Institute of Berylliumclose quotes for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round open-quotes hypervapotron typeclose quotes test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of open-quotes swirl tape inside of tubeclose quotes have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces open-quotes swirl tape inside of tubeclose quotes type are given in this report

  4. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  5. Appraising manufacturing location

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  6. Model of investment appraisal of high-rise construction with account of cost of land resources

    Okolelova, Ella; Shibaeva, Marina; Trukhina, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    The article considers problems and potential of high-rise construction as a global urbanization. The results of theoretical and practical studies on the appraisal of investments in high-rise construction are provided. High-rise construction has a number of apparent upsides in modern terms of development of megapolises and primarily it is economically efficient. Amid serious lack of construction sites, skyscrapers successfully deal with the need of manufacturing, office and living premises. Nevertheless, there are plenty issues, which are related with high-rise construction, and only thorough scrutiny of them allow to estimate the real economic efficiency of this branch. The article focuses on the question of economic efficiency of high-rise construction. The suggested model allows adjusting the parameters of a facility under construction, setting the tone for market value as well as the coefficient for appreciation of the construction net cost, that depends on the number of storey's, in the form of function or discrete values.

  7. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Multi-Phase High-Entropy Alloys for Nuclear Component

    Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs), composed of four or more metallic elements mixed in equal or near equal atomic percent, have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. They show significant promise as candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However, the conventional synthesis methods are unlikely to present an industrially suitable route for the production and use of HEAs. Recognizing rapidly evolving additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, the goal of this proposal is to optimize the AM process to fabricate HEAs with predesigned chemical compositions and phase morphologies for nuclear components. For this project, two HEAs FeCrNiMn and FeCrNiMnAl have been successfully synthesized. Correlated mechanical response has been systematically characterized under a variety of laser processing and ion irradiations. Both high entropy alloys are found to present comparable swelling and extraordinary irradiation tolerance (limited voids and stabilized phase structure under high irradiation dose). In addition, the microstructure and radiation-induced hardening can be tailored by laser processing under additive manufacturing. And we have assembled at LANL a unique database of HEAs containing a total of 674 compositions with Phase Stability information. Based on this, the machine learning and Artificial Intelligence capability now are established to predict the microstructure of casted HEAs by given chemical compositions. This unique integration will lead to an optimal AM recipe for fabricating radiation tolerant HEAs. The development of both modeling models and experimental capability will also benefit other programs at LANL.

  9. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  10. Homogenization-based topology optimization for high-resolution manufacturable micro-structures

    Groen, Jeroen Peter; Sigmund, Ole

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a projection method to obtain high-resolution, manufacturable structures from efficient and coarse-scale, homogenization-based topology optimization results. The presented approach bridges coarse and fine scale, such that the complex periodic micro-structures can be represented...... by a smooth and continuous lattice on the fine mesh. A heuristic methodology allows control of the projected topology, such that a minimum length-scale on both solid and void features is ensured in the final result. Numerical examples show excellent behavior of the method, where performances of the projected...

  11. [INVITED] Laser-induced forward transfer: A high resolution additive manufacturing technology

    Delaporte, Philippe; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Among the additive manufacturing techniques, laser-induced forward transfer addresses the challenges of printing thin films in solid phase or small volume droplets in liquid phase with very high resolution. This paper reviews the physics of this process and explores the pros and cons of this technology versus other digital printing technologies. The main field of applications are printed electronics, organic electronics and tissue engineering, and the most promising short terms ones concern digital laser printing of sensors and conductive tracks. Future directions and emerging areas of interest are discussed such as printing solid from a liquid phase and 3D digital nanomanufacturing.

  12. Determination of pollutants in foundry during the manufacture of metal constructions for high buildings

    Ivanova, Irina; Sushko, Elena; Lyshnikova, Anna; Prykina, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Current developments are devoted to the environmental safety of the foundry. There is a significant amount of pollutants, according to dust, which is released in the working area, during the manufacture of metal structures for high buildings. From the point of dust extraction, the most unfavorable areas are shot blasting, sand-blasting chambers and knockout grills. The weight fraction of dust composition with diameters up to 20 μm reaches 43,8% by mass, according to experimental analysis. This kind of dust is the most dangerous to employees and also it creates problems for dust-cleaning in the air.

  13. Thin film solar modules: the low cost, high throughput and versatile alternative to Si wafers

    Hegedus, S. [Delaware Univ., Inst. of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) have passed adolescence and are ready to make a substantial contribution to the world's electricity generation. They can have advantages over c-Si solar modules in ease of large area, lower cost manufacturing and in several types of applications. Factors which limit TFSC module performance relative to champion cell performance are discussed along with the importance of increased throughput and yield. The consensus of several studies is that all TFSC can achieve costs below 1 $/W if manufactured at sufficiently large scale >100 MW using parallel lines of cloned equipment with high material utilization and spray-on encapsulants. There is significant new commercial interest in TFSC from small investors and large corporations, validating the thin film approach. Unique characteristics are discussed which give TFSC an advantage over c-Si in two specific markets: small rural solar home systems and building integrated photovoltaic installations. TFSC have outperformed c-Si in annual energy production (kWhrs/kW), have demonstrated outdoor durability comparable to c-Si and are being used in MW scale installations worldwide. The merits of the thin film approach cannot be judged on the basis of efficiency alone but must also account for module performance and potential for low cost. TFSC advocates should promote their unique virtues compared to c-Si: lower cost, higher kWhr/kW output, higher battery charging current, attractive visual appearance, flexible substrates, long-term stability comparable to c-Si, and multiple pathways for deposition with room for innovation and evolutionary improvement. There is a huge market for TFSC even at today's efficiency if costs can be reduced. A brief window of opportunity exists for TFSC over the next few years due the Si shortage. The demonstrated capabilities and advantages of TFSC must be proclaimed more persistently to funding decision-makers and customers without minimizing the remaining

  14. Locating operations in high labor cost countries – Evidence from Spain

    Angel Diaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The location of operations in high labor cost countries is increasingly discussed in the media, in part for recent declarations and actions from the president of USA, Donald Trump. While this particular instance can be labeled as populist or protectionist, the factors underlying the debate are extremely important: advances in systematic increases in productivity, low population growth, and the transfer of jobs to countries with lower labor costs are creating unemployment and underemployment in developed countries that could eventually result in protectionism and restrictions to free trade. This phenomenon has enormous social and economic implications, and has attracted considerable interest from researchers. In particular, this study provides empirical evidence of the location of manufacturing and services in the context of a European country (Spain, exploring the drivers, social implications and organizational theories that can explain it.

  15. A state of the Art report on Manufacturing technology of high burn-up fuel cladding

    Kim, Kyeong Ho; Nam, Cheol; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Byung Kwon; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Myung Ho; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    1999-09-01

    In order to manufacturing the prototype fuel cladding, overall manufacturing processes and technologies should be thoroughly understood on the manufacturing processes and technologies of foreign cladding tubes. Generally, the important technology related to fuel cladding tube manufacturing processes for PWRs/PHWRs is divided into three stages. The first stage is to produce the zirconium sponge from zirconium sand, the second stage is to produce the zircaloy shell or TREX from zirconium sponge ingot and finally, cladding is produced from TREX or zircaloy shell. Therefore, the manufacturing processes including the first and second stages are described in brief in this technology report in order to understand the whole fuel cladding manufacturing processes. (author)

  16. Experimental investigation on high performance RC column with manufactured sand and silica fume

    Shanmuga Priya, T.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the use High Performance Concrete (HPC) has increased in construction industry. The ingredients of HPC depend on the availability and characteristics of suitable alternative materials. Those alternative materials are silica fume and manufactured sand, a by products from ferro silicon and quarry industries respectively. HPC made with silica fume as partial replacement of cement and manufactured sand as replacement of natural sand is considered as sustainable high performance concrete. In this present study the concrete was designed to get target strength of 60 MPa as per guide lines given by ACI 211- 4R (2008). The laboratory study was carried out experimentally to analyse the axial behavior of reinforced cement HPC column of size 100×100×1000mm and square in cross section. 10% of silica fume was preferred over ordinary portland cement. The natural sand was replaced by 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% with Manufactured Sand (M-Sand). In this investigation, totally 6 column specimens were cast for mixes M1 to M6 and were tested in 1000kN loading frame at 28 days. From this, Load-Mid height deflection curves were drawn and compared. Maximum ultimate load carrying capacity and the least deflection is obtained for the mix prepared by partial replacement of cement with 10% silica fume & natural sand by 100% M-Sand. The fine, amorphous and pozzalonic nature of silica fume and fine mineral particles in M- Sand increased the stiffness of HPC column. The test results revealed that HPC can be produced by using M-Sand with silica fume.

  17. Cost/benefit of high technology in diagnostic radiology

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-08-01

    High technology is frequently blamed as a main cause for the last decade's disproportionate rise in health expenditure. Total costs for all large diagnostic and therapeutic appliances are typically less than 1% of annual expenditure on health care. CT, DSA, MRI, interventional radiology, ESWL, US, mammography, computers in radiology and PACS may save 10-80% of total cost for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Expenditure on high technology is in general vastly overestimated. Because of its medical utility, a slower deployment cannot be desirable. (orig.)

  18. Cost/benefit of high technology in diagnostic radiology

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    High technology is frequently blamed as a main cause for the last decade's disproportionate rise in health expenditure. Total costs for all large diagnostic and therapeutic appliances are typically less than 1% of annual expenditure on health care. CT, DSA, MRI, interventional radiology, ESWL, US, mammography, computers in radiology and PACS may save 10-80% of total cost for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Expenditure on high technology is in general vastly overestimated. Because of its medical utility, a slower deployment cannot be desirable. (orig.)

  19. An evaluation of the electric arc spray and (HPPS) processes for the manufacturing of high power plasma spraying MCrAIY coatings

    Sacriste, D.; Goubot, N.; Dhers, J.; Ducos, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2001-06-01

    The high power plasma torch (PlazJet) can be used to spray refractory ceramics with high spray rates and deposition efficiency. It can provide dense and hard coating with high bond strengths. When manufacturing thermal barrier coatings, the PlazJet gun is well adapted to spraying the ceramic top coat but not the MCrAIY materials that are used as bond coat. Arc spraying can compete with plasma spraying for metallic coatings since cored wires can be used to spray alloys and composites. In addition, the high production rate of arc spraying enables a significant decrease in coating cost. This paper discusses the performances of the PlazJet gun, and a twin-wire are spray system, and compares the properties and cost of MCrAIY coatings made with these two processes. For arc spraying, the use of air or nitrogen as atomizing gas is also investigated.

  20. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  1. Final Report for Project titled High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat Exchangers

    Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Alahyari, Abbas [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Heat exchangers (HXs) are critical components in a wide range of heat transfer applications, from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Cooling) to automobiles to manufacturing plants. They require materials capable of transferring heat at high rates while also minimizing thermal expansion over the usage temperature range. Conventionally, metals are used for applications where effective and efficient heat exchange is required, since many metals exhibit thermal conductivity over 100 W/m K. While metal HXs are constantly being improved, they still have some inherent drawbacks due to their metal construction, in particular corrosion. Polymeric material can offer solution to such durability issues and allow designs that cannot be afforded by metal construction either due to complexity or cost. A major drawback of polymeric material is their low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5? W/mK) that would lead to large system size. Recent improvements in the area of filled polymers have highlighted the possibility to greatly improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials while retaining their inherent manufacturing advantage, and have been applied to heat sink applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a robust review of materials for the manufacturing of industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. This review consisted of material identification, literature evaluation, as well as empirical and model characterization, resulting in a database of relevant material properties and characteristics to provide guidance for future heat exchanger development.

  2. Additive manufacturing of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy by selective electron beam melting

    Tang, H.P.; Yang, G.Y.; Jia, W.P.; He, W.W.; Lu, S.L.; Qian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a radical net-shape manufacturing approach for titanium aluminide alloys but significant challenges still remain. A study has been made of the AM of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy (Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W, in at% throughout the paper) using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The formation of various types of microstructural defects, including banded structures caused by the vaporization of aluminum, was investigated with respect to different processing parameters. To avoid both micro- and macro-cracks, the use of higher preheating temperatures and an intermediate reheating process (to reheat each solidified layer during SEBM) was assessed in detail. These measures enabled effective release of the thermal stress that developed during SEBM and therefore the avoidance of cracks. In addition, the processing conditions for the production of a fine full lamellar microstructure were identified. As a result, the Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W alloy fabricated showed outstanding properties (compression strength: 2750 MPa; strain-to-fracture: 37%). SEBM can be used to fabricate high performance titanium aluminide alloys with appropriate processing parameters and pathways

  3. Additive manufacturing of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy by selective electron beam melting

    Tang, H.P., E-mail: thpfys@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Yang, G.Y.; Jia, W.P.; He, W.W.; Lu, S.L. [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); Qian, M., E-mail: ma.qian@rmit.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China); RMIT University, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2015-06-11

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a radical net-shape manufacturing approach for titanium aluminide alloys but significant challenges still remain. A study has been made of the AM of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy (Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W, in at% throughout the paper) using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The formation of various types of microstructural defects, including banded structures caused by the vaporization of aluminum, was investigated with respect to different processing parameters. To avoid both micro- and macro-cracks, the use of higher preheating temperatures and an intermediate reheating process (to reheat each solidified layer during SEBM) was assessed in detail. These measures enabled effective release of the thermal stress that developed during SEBM and therefore the avoidance of cracks. In addition, the processing conditions for the production of a fine full lamellar microstructure were identified. As a result, the Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W alloy fabricated showed outstanding properties (compression strength: 2750 MPa; strain-to-fracture: 37%). SEBM can be used to fabricate high performance titanium aluminide alloys with appropriate processing parameters and pathways.

  4. Operation of microstrip gas chambers manufactured on glass coated with high resistivity diamond-like layers

    Boimska, B; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements realized with micro-strip gas chambers (MSGCs) manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated with a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a surface resistivity around 4.10$^{16}\\Omega/\\Box$. The role of the back-pla electrode configuration and potential in the detector performance has been studied. Even for this very high resistivity of the coatings, MSGCs operate differently from those manufactured on bare boro-silicate glass; the charge gain increases with the radiation flux for counting rates above 103 Hz/mm2, reaching a value 60% higher for 105 Hz/mm2. This behavior does not depend on the presence and potential of the back plane electrode; however, both maximum gain and rate capability are influenced by the drift field. From this study, compared with measurements realized previously with other detectors, we deduce that for stable high rate operation of MSGCs the resistivity of the coating should not exceed ~10$^{15}\\Omega/\\Box$.

  5. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Li, L; Tirado, A.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Rios, O.; Post, B.; Kunc, V.; Lowden, R.R.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Fredette, R.; Ormerod, J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing

  6. Low-Cost Wireless Temperature Measurement: Design, Manufacture, and Testing of a PCB-Based Wireless Passive Temperature Sensor.

    Yan, Dan; Yang, Yong; Hong, Yingping; Liang, Ting; Yao, Zong; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-02-10

    Low-cost wireless temperature measurement has significant value in the food industry, logistics, agriculture, portable medical equipment, intelligent wireless health monitoring, and many areas in everyday life. A wireless passive temperature sensor based on PCB (Printed Circuit Board) materials is reported in this paper. The advantages of the sensor include simple mechanical structure, convenient processing, low-cost, and easiness in integration. The temperature-sensitive structure of the sensor is a dielectric-loaded resonant cavity, consisting of the PCB substrate. The sensitive structure also integrates a patch antenna for the transmission of temperature signals. The temperature sensing mechanism of the sensor is the dielectric constant of the PCB substrate changes with temperature, which causes the resonant frequency variation of the resonator. Then the temperature can be measured by detecting the changes in the sensor's working frequency. The PCB-based wireless passive temperature sensor prototype is prepared through theoretical design, parameter analysis, software simulation, and experimental testing. The high- and low-temperature sensing performance of the sensor is tested, respectively. The resonant frequency decreases from 2.434 GHz to 2.379 GHz as the temperature increases from -40 °C to 125 °C. The fitting curve proves that the experimental data have good linearity. Three repetitive tests proved that the sensor possess well repeatability. The average sensitivity is 347.45 KHz / ℃ from repetitive measurements conducted three times. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the PCB-based wireless passive sensor, which provides a low-cost temperature sensing solution for everyday life, modern agriculture, thriving intelligent health devices, and so on, and also enriches PCB product lines and applications.

  7. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si substrates); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usugata takessho kigan seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing technologies for low-cost high-quality Si substrates in fiscal 1994. (1) On the 220mm square type electromagnetic casting technology, development of fast stable casting technology was studied using the previously installed 220mm square type electromagnetic casting furnace. As a result, continuous stable casting was achieved at high casting speed up to 3.0mm/min. Any degradation of crystalline quality due to high speed casting was not found. (2) On the 350mm square type electromagnetic casting furnace, oscillation circuit constants were analyzed for design of the power source for No.4 electromagnetic casting furnace. In graphite heating experiment using the 350mm square type water-cooling copper crucible heated by 1000kW high-frequency power source, sufficient heat quantity was obtained for initial melting of Si. Any problems in Si melting were not found through Al block melting test. 6 figs.

  8. Microstructural evolution in additive manufacturing with high power lasers : Deposition, characterization and performance

    Nenadl, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    High power lasers provide time and cost effective method for metallic surface modification. In this work these modifications are explored as: 1) a simple melting and subsequent rapid solidification of a metallic surface – resulting in superior properties post-treatment; 2) deposition of an

  9. The high cost of low-acuity ICU outliers.

    Dahl, Deborah; Wojtal, Greg G; Breslow, Michael J; Holl, Randy; Huguez, Debra; Stone, David; Korpi, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Direct variable costs were determined on each hospital day for all patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) stay in four Phoenix-area hospital ICUs. Average daily direct variable cost in the four ICUs ranged from $1,436 to $1,759 and represented 69.4 percent and 45.7 percent of total hospital stay cost for medical and surgical patients, respectively. Daily ICU cost and length of stay (LOS) were higher in patients with higher ICU admission acuity of illness as measured by the APACHE risk prediction methodology; 16.2 percent of patients had an ICU stay in excess of six days, and these LOS outliers accounted for 56.7 percent of total ICU cost. While higher-acuity patients were more likely to be ICU LOS outliers, 11.1 percent of low-risk patients were outliers. The low-risk group included 69.4 percent of the ICU population and accounted for 47 percent of all LOS outliers. Low-risk LOS outliers accounted for 25.3 percent of ICU cost and incurred fivefold higher hospital stay costs and mortality rates. These data suggest that severity of illness is an important determinant of daily resource consumption and LOS, regardless of whether the patient arrives in the ICU with high acuity or develops complications that increase acuity. The finding that a substantial number of long-stay patients come into the ICU with low acuity and deteriorate after ICU admission is not widely recognized and represents an important opportunity to improve patient outcomes and lower costs. ICUs should consider adding low-risk LOS data to their quality and financial performance reports.

  10. End-to-end process of hollow spacecraft structures with high frequency and low mass obtained with in-house structural optimization tool and additive manufacturing

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the space sector the most decisive elements are: mass reduction, cost saving and minimum lead time; here, structural optimization and additive layer manufacturing (ALM fit best. The design must be driven by stiffness, because an important requirement for spacecraft (S/C structures is to reduce the dynamic coupling between the S/C and the launch vehicle. The objective is to create an end-to-end process, from the input given by the customer to the manufacturing of an aluminum part as light as possible but at the same time considerably stiffer while taking the full advantage of the design flexibility given by ALM. To design and optimize the parts, a specialized in-house tool was used, guaranteeing a load-sufficient material distribution. Using topological optimization, the iterations between the design and the stress departments were diminished, thus greatly reducing the lead time. In order to improve and lighten the obtained structure a design with internal cavities and hollow beams was considered. This implied developing of a procedure for powder evacuation through iterations with the manufacturer while optimizing the design for ALM. The resulted part can be then manufactured via ALM with no need of further design adjustments. To achieve a high-quality part with maximum efficiency, it is essential to have a loop between the design team and the manufacturer. Topological optimization and ALM work hand in hand if used properly. The team achieved a more efficient structure using topology optimization and ALM, than using conventional design and manufacturing methods.

  11. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Abstract. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discrim- inators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a ...

  12. Precision ring rolling technique and application in high-performance bearing manufacturing

    Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance bearing has significant application in many important industry fields, like automobile, precision machine tool, wind power, etc. Precision ring rolling is an advanced rotary forming technique to manufacture high-performance seamless bearing ring thus can improve the working life of bearing. In this paper, three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques adapt to different dimensional ranges of bearings are introduced, which are cold ring rolling for small-scale bearing, hot radial ring rolling for medium-scale bearing and hot radial-axial ring rolling for large-scale bearing. The forming principles, technological features and forming equipments for three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques are summarized, the technological development and industrial application in China are introduced, and the main technological development trend is described.

  13. Command vector memory systems: high performance at low cost

    Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...

  14. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  15. Improvements in quality of as-manufactured fuels for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Minato, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Tobita, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Yoshimuta, Shigeharu; Tomimoto, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of coating failure of the fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors during coating and compaction processes of the fuel fabrication were studied to determine a way to reduce the defective particle fraction of the as-manufactured fuels. Through the observation of the defective particles, it was found that the coating failure during the coating process was mainly caused by the strong mechanical shocks to the particles given by violent particle fluidization in the coater and by unloading and loading of the particles. The coating failure during the compaction process was probably related to the direct contact with neighboring particles in the fuel compacts. The coating process was improved by optimizing the mode of the particle fluidization and by developing the process without unloading and loading of the particles at intermediate coating process. The compaction process was improved by optimizing the combination of the pressing temperature and the pressing speed of the overcoated particles. Through these modifications of the fabrication process, the quality of the as-manufactured fuel compacts was improved outstandingly. (author)

  16. Filter effectiveness in the manufacture of high-chromium steel castings

    M. Garbiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the application of ceramic filters in the manufacture of cast hearth plates at the WestPomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. Castings were poured from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 cast steel in greensand moulds. The development of casting manufacturing technology included the following studies: analysis of the causes of nonmetallicinclusions in high-chromium alloys, computer simulation of mould filling with liquid metal using standard gating systems without filters and new systems with the built-in filter, making pilot castings, quantitative determination of the content of non-metallicinclusions, determination of the oxygen and nitrogen content, and evaluation of the extent of occurrence of the raw casting s urfacedefects. As a result of the conducted studies and analyses, the quality of produced castings was improved, mainly through the reducedcontent of non-metallic inclusions and better raw casting surface quality.

  17. Execution techniques for high level radioactive waste disposal. 4. Design and manufacturing procedure of engineered barriers

    Ogata, Nobuhide; Kosaki, Akio; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Ensuring the physical integrity of engineered barriers for an extremely long time period is necessary for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. This report describes the design process and the designed configurations of both overpack and buffer as engineered barriers. Manufacturing procedure, quality control and inspection methods are also summarized. Carbon steel was selected as a structural material of the overpack and the specification of the overpack was determined assuming disposal in the depths of 1000 m below surface of crystalline rock site. The mixture of bentonite and sand (80% sodium bentonite and 20% silica sand by mass) was selected as material for a buffer from mainly its permeability and characteristics of self-sealing of a gap occurred in construction work. Welding method of a lid onto the main body of the overpack, uniting method of a corrosion-resistance layer and the structural component in the case of a composite overpack and manufacturing procedures of both blocks-type and monolithic-type buffers are also investigated. (author)

  18. Fully printed and integrated electrolyzer cells with additive manufacturing for high-efficiency water splitting

    Yang, Gaoqiang; Mo, Jingke; Kang, Zhenye; Dohrmann, Yeshi; List, Frederick A.; Green, Johney B.; Babu, Sudarsanam S.; Zhang, Feng-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Using additive manufacturing (AM) technology, a fundamental material and structure innovation was proposed to significantly increase the energy efficiency, and to reduce the weight, volume and component quantity of proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). Four conventional parts (liquid/gas diffusion layer, bipolar plate, gasket, and current distributor) in a PEMEC were integrated into one multifunctional AM plate without committing to tools or molds for the first time. In addition, since the interfacial contact resistances between those parts were eliminated, the comprehensive in-situ characterizations of AM cells showed that an excellent energy efficiency of up to 86.48% was achieved at 2 A/cm2 and 80 degrees C, and the hydrogen generation rate was increased by 61.81% compared to the conventional cell. More importantly, the highly complex inner structures of the AM integrated multifunctional plates also exhibit the potential to break limitations of conventional manufacture methods for hydrogen generation and to open a door for the development of other energy conversion devices, including fuel cells, solar cells and batteries.

  19. Design of novel materials for additive manufacturing - Isotropic microstructure and high defect tolerance.

    Günther, J; Brenne, F; Droste, M; Wendler, M; Volkova, O; Biermann, H; Niendorf, T

    2018-01-22

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a powder-bed additive manufacturing technology enabling the production of complex metallic parts with generally good mechanical properties. However, the performance of powder-bed based additively manufactured materials is governed by multiple factors that are difficult to control. Alloys that solidify in cubic crystal structures are usually affected by strong anisotropy due to the formation of columnar grains of preferred orientation. Moreover, processing induced defects and porosity detrimentally influence static and cyclic mechanical properties. The current study presents results on processing of a metastable austenitic CrMnNi steel by EBM. Due to multiple phase transformations induced by intrinsic heat-treatment in the layer-wise EBM process the material develops a fine-grained microstructure almost without a preferred crystallographic grain orientation. The deformation-induced phase transformation yields high damage tolerance and, thus, excellent mechanical properties less sensitive to process-induced inhomogeneities. Various scan strategies were applied to evaluate the width of an appropriate process window in terms of microstructure evolution, porosity and change of chemical composition.

  20. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    Quintana, Sarah V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  1. High costs of female choice in a lekking lizard.

    Maren N Vitousek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of mate choice is an essential component of the evolution and maintenance of sexual selection, the energetic cost of female choice has not previously been assessed directly. Here we report that females can incur high energetic costs as a result of discriminating among potential mates. We used heart rate biologging to quantify energetic expenditure in lek-mating female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Receptive females spent 78.9+/-23.2 kJ of energy on mate choice over a 30-day period, which is equivalent to approximately (3/4 of one day's energy budget. Females that spent more time on the territories of high-quality, high-activity males displayed greater energetic expenditure on mate choice, lost more mass, and showed a trend towards producing smaller follicles. Choosy females also appear to face a reduced probability of survival if El Niño conditions occur in the year following breeding. These findings indicate that female choice can carry significant costs, and suggest that the benefits that lek-mating females gain through mating with a preferred male may be higher than previously predicted.

  2. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    Hegedus, Steven S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  3. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. Integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    Hegedus, Steven S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  4. High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003

    Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

  5. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  6. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a ''Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit approx-gt 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant

  7. Additive Manufacturing of NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    Benafan, Othmane; Bigelow, Glen S.; Elahinia, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Narges Shayesteh; Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Saedi, Soheil; Toker, Guher Pelin; Karaca, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of a NiTi-20Hf high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) was investigated. A selective laser melting (SLM) process by Phenix3D Systems was used to develop components from NiTiHf powder (of approximately 25-75 m particle fractions), and the thermomechanical response was compared to the conventionally vacuum induction skull melted counterpart. Transformation temperatures of the SLM material were found to be slightly lower due to the additional oxygen pick up from the gas atomization and melting process. The shape memory response in compression was measured for stresses up to 500 MPa, and transformation strains were found to be very comparable (Up to 1.26 for the as-extruded; up to 1.52 for SLM).

  8. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2015-09-15

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH), which is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual percent savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  10. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  11. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    Lagov, P B; Drenin, A S; Zinoviev, M A

    2017-01-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding. (paper)

  12. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    Lagov, P. B.; Drenin, A. S.; Zinoviev, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding.

  13. Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the creation and development of an automated robotic manufacturing infrastructure...

  14. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  15. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  16. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    2017-08-01

    objective of this project is to provide the DoD and its remediation contractors with the HT technology for delineating the spatial distribution of...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hydraulic Tomography ( HT ) is a high-resolution...performance of subsurface remedial actions at environmental sites. The good technical performance and cost-effectiveness of HT have been demonstrated in

  17. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent...

  18. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    Puech, M; Thevenoud, J M; Launay, N; Arnal, N; Godinat, P; Andrieu, B; Gruffat, J M

    2006-01-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones

  19. An Investigation into the Comparative Costs of Additive Manufacture vs. Machine from Solid for Aero Engine Parts

    2006-05-01

    welding power sources are not totally efficient at converting power drawn from the wall into heat energy used for the welding process . TIG sources are...Powder bed + Laser • Wire + Laser • Wire + Electron Beam • Wire + TIG Each system has its own unique attributes in terms of process variables...relative economics of producing a near net shape by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes compared with traditional machine from solid processes (MFS

  20. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    Koo, John, E-mail: john-koo@amat.com; Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  1. Explosive mixture of high power and high total energy content, and process for its manufacture

    Cook, M.A.; Udy, L.L.

    1973-05-10

    This explosive consists of a viscous suspension of an inorganic oxidizer, finely divided aluminum, water, and a liquid organic material miscible with water; a thickener may also be added. The mixture contains 45 to 55% of a strong inorganic oxidizer, of which at least two-thirds is ammonium nitrate; 32 to 43% aluminum powder; 11 to 18% or liquid, mostly water with an organic water-soluble liquid such as ethylene glycol; and a high temperature resistant, gel-forming thickener made of crosslinked guar gum and not crosslinked xanthane gum made from a polysaccharide through bacterial action.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  3. Cost of production. Maximize profitability in the manufacture of solar modules; Maximizar la rentabilidad en la fabricacion de modulos solares

    King, G. R.

    2011-07-01

    Plus the cost of photovoltaic energy production, parity with the network also consider the total investment made to generate a certain amount of energy. Some factors to consider include production, labor, initial cost of system components, installation, operation and maintenance. (Author)

  4. Norplant's high cost may prohibit use in Title 10 clinics.

    1991-04-01

    The article discusses the prohibitive cost of Norplant for the Title 10 low-income population served in public family planning clinics in the U.S. It is argued that it's unfair for U.S. users to pay $350 to Wyeth- Ayerst when another pharmaceutical company provides developing countries with Norplant at a cost of $14 - 23. Although the public sector and private foundations funded the development, it was explained that the company needs to recoup the investment in training and education. Medicaid and third party payers such as insurance companies will reimburse for the higher price, but if the public sector price is lowered, then the company would not make a profit and everyone would have argued for the reimbursement at the lower cost. It was suggested that a boycott of American Home Products, Wyeth-Ayerst's parent company, be made. Public family planning providers who are particularly low in funding reflect that their budget of $30,000 would only provide 85 users, and identified in this circumstance by drug abusers and multiple pregnancy women, and the need for teenagers remains unfulfilled. Another remarked that the client population served is 4700 with $54,000 in funding, which is already accounted for. The general trend of comments was that for low income women the cost is to high.

  5. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project intends to improve on large-area amorphous silicon solar cell performance and to develop high-throughput manufacturing technologies for a reduction in the cost of modules. A film substrate type amorphous solar cell structure of the serial connection type named SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) is contrived. Under this method, film formation using a stepping roll system newly developed for glass substrates may be applied, and the number of manhours required is allowed to be less than under conventional serial connection forming processes. The new technique is characterized in that serial connections are established via through-holes provided in plastic substrates. Making use of the technology, progress is attained in the development of high-throughput process technology for film substrate type amorphous solar cells and of efficiency enhancement technology. In fiscal 1997, an electron beam unit for plasma generation aiming at the elucidation of reaction processes in plasma was introduced, and technologies based on the equilibrium discharge technique were developed enabling high-speed a-Si film formation without degradation in film quality. The effect of trace boron addition to the tandem cell bottom I layer was investigated, and a stabilization rate of 8.05% was achieved using a 40cm times 80cm large SCAF cell. In fiscal 1998, endeavors were exerted for similar developments. (NEDO)

  6. Design, performance and cost of energy from high concentration and flat-plate utility-scale PV systems

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent study to assess the near-term cost of power in central station applications. Three PV technologies were evaluated: Fresnel-lens high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV), central receiver HCPV, and flat-plate PV using thin-film copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. Baseline assumptions included PV cell designs and performances projected for the 1995 timeframe, 25 and 100 MW/year cell manufacturing rates, 50 MW power plant size, and mature technology cost and performance estimates. The plant design characteristics are highlighted. Potential sites were evaluated and selected for the PV power plants (Carrisa Plains, CA and Apalachicola, FL) and cell manufacturing plants (Dallas-Fort Worth, TX). Conceptual designs and cost estimates were developed for the plants and their components. Plant performance was modeled and the designs were optimized to minimize levelized energy costs. Overall, the flat plate design exhibited the lowest energy costs among the designs evaluated. Its levelized energy costs at the Carrisa Plains site were estimated to be 11.8 and 10.8 cents/kWh (1990 $) for 25 and 100 MW/year module production rates, respectively. This meets the 12 cents/kWh DOE near-term goal. The energy cost of the Fresnel lens plant (at Carrisa Plains and a 100 MW/year cell production rate) was estimated to be 12.4 cents/kWh and the corresponding central receiver energy cost was estimated to be 13.1 cents/kWh, both of which are very close to the DOE goal. Further design optimization efforts are still warranted and can be expected to reduce plant capital costs

  7. Application of advanced diffraction based optical metrology overlay capabilities for high-volume manufacturing

    Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Ni, Wei-Feng; Chuang, S. M.; Chuang, T. K.; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky; Rao, Shiuan-An; Cumurcu Gysen, Aysegul; d'Alfonso, Maxime; Yueh, Jenny; Izikson, Pavel; Soco, Aileen; Wu, Jon; Nooitgedagt, Tjitte; Ottens, Jeroen; Kim, Yong Ho; Ebert, Martin

    2017-03-01

    On-product overlay requirements are becoming more challenging with every next technology node due to the continued decrease of the device dimensions and process tolerances. Therefore, current and future technology nodes require demanding metrology capabilities such as target designs that are robust towards process variations and high overlay measurement density (e.g. for higher order process corrections) to enable advanced process control solutions. The impact of advanced control solutions based on YieldStar overlay data is being presented in this paper. Multi patterning techniques are applied for critical layers and leading to additional overlay measurement demands. The use of 1D process steps results in the need of overlay measurements relative to more than one layer. Dealing with the increased number of overlay measurements while keeping the high measurement density and metrology accuracy at the same time presents a challenge for high volume manufacturing (HVM). These challenges are addressed by the capability to measure multi-layer targets with the recently introduced YieldStar metrology tool, YS350. On-product overlay results of such multi-layers and standard targets are presented including measurement stability performance.

  8. High Strength and Ductility of Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel Explained

    Shamsujjoha, Md.; Agnew, Sean R.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.; Moore, William R.; Newman, Tabitha A.

    2018-04-01

    Structure-property relationships of an additively manufactured 316L stainless steel were explored. A scanning electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis revealed a fine cellular-dendritic (0.5 to 2 μm) substructure inside large irregularly shaped grains ( 100 μm). The cellular structure grows along the crystallographic directions. However, texture analysis revealed that the main texture component is inclined by 15 deg from the building direction. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis indicated a high dislocation density of 1 × 1015 m-2 in the as-built material, which correlates well with the observed EBSD microstructure and high-yield strength, via the traditional Taylor hardening equation. Significant variations in strain hardening behavior and ductility were observed for the horizontal (HB) and vertical (VB) built samples. Ductility of HB and VB samples measured 49 and 77 pct, respectively. The initial growth texture and subsequent texture evolution during tensile deformation are held responsible for the observed anisotropy. Notably, EBSD analysis of deformed samples showed deformation twins, which predominately form in the grains with aligned parallel to the loading direction. The VB samples showed higher twinning activity, higher strain hardening rates at high strain, and therefore, higher ductility. Analysis of annealed samples revealed that the observed microstructures and properties are thermally stable, with only a moderate decrease in strength and very similar levels of ductility and anisotropy, compared with the as-built condition.

  9. The ManuFuture road: towards competitive and sustainable high-adding-value manufacturing

    Jovane, Francesco; Westkämper, E; Williams, D. J

    2009-01-01

    ... is still leading the global trade market. Key issues, from globalization to climate change, are challenging manufacturing in advanced as well as emerging countries. Hence, manufacturing is getting back to the political agendas and the awareness of stakeholders is rising. In Europe key issues may lead to disruptive changes in the socio-economic syst...

  10. Nanoimprint wafer and mask tool progress and status for high volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Matsuoka, Yoichi; Seki, Junichi; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kazuki; Azuma, Hisanobu; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Sato, Chiaki; Sakai, Fumio; Takabayashi, Yukio; Aghili, Ali; Mizuno, Makoto; Choi, Jin; Jones, Chris E.

    2016-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. There are many criteria that determine whether a particular technology is ready for wafer manufacturing. Defectivity and mask life play a significant role relative to meeting the cost of ownership (CoO) requirements in the production of semiconductor devices. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of inducing a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, the lifetime of both the master mask and the replica mask can be extended. In this work, we report results that demonstrate a path towards achieving mask lifetimes of better than 1000 wafers. On the mask side, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask replication is required for nanoimprint lithography (NIL), and criteria that are crucial to the success of a replication platform include both particle control, resolution and image placement accuracy. In this paper we discuss the progress made in both feature resolution and in meeting the image placement specification for replica masks.

  11. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Development of silicon substrate manufacturing technology for high-quality solar cell); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Kohinshitsu taiyodenchiyou silicon kiban seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for enhancing productivity and energy conservation by rendering continuous and automatic the electromagnetic casting process for manufacturing polycrystalline silicon substrates for solar cells. In the manufacture of ingots for substrates by continuous electromagnetic casting, the chuck type system for feeding power to the melt plasma was replaced by a roller type system, and the power feeding position was moved to the high temperature region. Also, an on-line ingot slicing technique was established. In the manufacture of substrates at a slicing rate of 300 {mu}m/minute, productivity of 115,000 wafers/month, yield of 98%, and thickness tolerance of 30 {mu}m were achieved. A high-speed cleaning technique was developed using a jet stream, by which the cleaning time was reduced to 5 minutes and the slurry recovery rate was elevated to 95%. Based on these, substrate-related costs in the case of 100 MW/year production was calculated, which resulted in a cost of 98.8 yen/wafer (target: 103.3 yen/wafer) for manufacturing 15 cm square substrates from ingots and in a 15 cm square substrate slicing and cleaning cost of 135.1 yen/wafer (target: 135.4 yen/wafer). (NEDO)

  12. Cheap imports next ordeal for Europe's high-cost producers

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-01-01

    About one-third of Europe's 34 cracker and downstream units lost money in the final quarter of 1992, says Chem Systems (London). Average return on capital employed is negative - at the same level as in the gloomy days of the early 1980s - yet average operating rates are 80% now, compared with 65% a decade ago. Margins at what Chem Systems calls leader cracks (naphtha-based units that use good modern practices) are DM42/m.t. ethylene, DM100/m.t. less than they were in 1991. The consultant firm's recent report, European Petrochemical Strategy in the 1990s, suggests closure of 5%-10% of high-cost production. But, Chem Systems director Roger Longley states: We are not advocating wholesale closure. There are a small number (of plants) where additional investment would not payback that would be economical to shut. Cost reduction through mergers and acquisitions and operational changes is much more important, especially from an international aspect, Longley says. One thing people do not fully appreciate is that Europe is a high-cost region for petrochemical production, he adds. Traditionally, Europe exports 5% of its ethylene output, now it needs to tolerate cheap imports

  13. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  14. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Christie, Andrew F; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  15. Impacts of Academic R&D on High-Tech Manufacturing Products: Tentative Evidence from Supercomputer Data

    Le, Thanh; Tang, Kam Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of academic research on high-tech manufacturing growth of 28 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and emerging countries over the 1991-2005 period. A standard research and development (R&D) expenditure based measure is found to be too general to capture the input in high-tech…

  16. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  17. Characteristic features of determining the labor input and estimated cost of the development and manufacture of equipment

    Kurmanaliyev, T. I.; Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining exact calculation data for the labor input and estimated cost are noted. The method of calculating the labor cost of the design work using the provisional normative indexes with respect to individual forms of operations is proposed. Values of certain coefficients recommended for use in the practical calculations of the labor input for the development of new scientific equipment for space research are presented.

  18. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  19. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires.

    Gelfi, Marcello; Solazzi, Luigi; Poli, Sandro

    2017-03-06

    This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved.

  20. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires

    Marcello Gelfi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved.

  1. Direct Numerical Simulations of Microstructure Effects During High-Rate Loading of Additively Manufactured Metals

    Battaile, Corbett; Owen, Steven; Moore, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    The properties of most engineering materials depend on the characteristics of internal microstructures and defects. In additively manufactured (AM) metals, these can include polycrystalline grains, impurities, phases, and significant porosity that qualitatively differ from conventional engineering materials. The microscopic details of the interactions between these internal defects, and the propagation of applied loads through the body, act in concert to dictate macro-observable properties like strength and compressibility. In this work, we used Sandia's ALEGRA finite element software to simulate the high-strain-rate loading of AM metals from laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and thermal spraying. The microstructural details of the material were represented explicitly, such that internal features like second phases and pores are captured and meshed as individual entities in the computational domain. We will discuss the dependence of the high-strain-rate mechanical properties on microstructural characteristics such as the shapes, sizes, and volume fractions of second phases and pores. In addition, we will examine how the details of the microstructural representation affect the microscopic material response to dynamic loads, and the effects of using ``stair-step'' versus conformal interfaces smoothed via the SCULPT tool in Sandia's CUBIT software. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Implementation of machine learning for high-volume manufacturing metrology challenges (Conference Presentation)

    Timoney, Padraig; Kagalwala, Taher; Reis, Edward; Lazkani, Houssam; Hurley, Jonathan; Liu, Haibo; Kang, Charles; Isbester, Paul; Yellai, Naren; Shifrin, Michael; Etzioni, Yoav

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the combination of device scaling, complex 3D device architecture and tightening process tolerances have strained the capabilities of optical metrology tools to meet process needs. Two main categories of approaches have been taken to address the evolving process needs. In the first category, new hardware configurations are developed to provide more spectral sensitivity. Most of this category of work will enable next generation optical metrology tools to try to maintain pace with next generation process needs. In the second category, new innovative algorithms have been pursued to increase the value of the existing measurement signal. These algorithms aim to boost sensitivity to the measurement parameter of interest, while reducing the impact of other factors that contribute to signal variability but are not influenced by the process of interest. This paper will evaluate the suitability of machine learning to address high volume manufacturing metrology requirements in both front end of line (FEOL) and back end of line (BEOL) sectors from advanced technology nodes. In the FEOL sector, initial feasibility has been demonstrated to predict the fin CD values from an inline measurement using machine learning. In this study, OCD spectra were acquired after an etch process that occurs earlier in the process flow than where the inline CD is measured. The fin hard mask etch process is known to impact the downstream inline CD value. Figure 1 shows the correlation of predicted CD vs downstream inline CD measurement obtained after the training of the machine learning algorithm. For BEOL, machine learning is shown to provide an additional source of information in prediction of electrical resistance from structures that are not compatible for direct copper height measurement. Figure 2 compares the trench height correlation to electrical resistance (Rs) and the correlation of predicted Rs to the e-test Rs value for a far back end of line (FBEOL) metallization level

  3. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  4. Modular high power diode lasers with flexible 3D multiplexing arrangement optimized for automated manufacturing

    Könning, Tobias; Bayer, Andreas; Plappert, Nora; Faßbender, Wilhelm; Dürsch, Sascha; Küster, Matthias; Hubrich, Ralf; Wolf, Paul; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2018-02-01

    A novel 3-dimensional arrangement of mirrors is used to re-arrange beams from 1-D and 2-D high power diode laser arrays. The approach allows for a variety of stacking geometries, depending on individual requirements. While basic building blocks, including collimating optics, always remain the same, most adaptations can be realized by simple rearrangement of a few optical components. Due to fully automated alignment processes, the required changes can be realized in software by changing coordinates, rather than requiring customized mechanical components. This approach minimizes development costs due to its flexibility, while reducing overall product cost by using similar building blocks for a variety of products and utilizing a high grade of automation. The modules can be operated with industrial grade water, lowering overall system and maintenance cost. Stackable macro coolers are used as the smallest building block of the system. Each cooler can hold up to five diode laser bars. Micro optical components, collimating the beam, are mounted directly to the cooler. All optical assembly steps are fully automated. Initially, the beams from all laser bars propagate in the same direction. Key to the concept is an arrangement of deflectors, which re-arrange the beams into a 2-D array of the desired shape and high fill factor. Standard multiplexing techniques like polarization- or wavelengths-multiplexing have been implemented as well. A variety of fiber coupled modules ranging from a few hundred watts of optical output power to multiple kilowatts of power, as well as customized laser spot geometries like uniform line sources, have been realized.

  5. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa, E-mail: jcft@cdtn.b, E-mail: masl@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Protecao Radiologica; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SECPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Secao de Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of {sup 18}FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  6. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of 18 FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  7. A cost of sexual attractiveness to high-fitness females.

    Tristan A F Long

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mate choice by females is an important component of sexual selection in many species. The evolutionary consequences of male mate preferences, however, have received relatively little study, especially in the context of sexual conflict, where males often harm their mates. Here, we describe a new and counterintuitive cost of sexual selection in species with both male mate preference and sexual conflict via antagonistic male persistence: male mate choice for high-fecundity females leads to a diminished rate of adaptive evolution by reducing the advantage to females of expressing beneficial genetic variation. We then use a Drosophila melanogaster model system to experimentally test the key prediction of this theoretical cost: that antagonistic male persistence is directed toward, and harms, intrinsically higher-fitness females more than it does intrinsically lower-fitness females. This asymmetry in male persistence causes the tails of the population's fitness distribution to regress towards the mean, thereby reducing the efficacy of natural selection. We conclude that adaptive male mate choice can lead to an important, yet unappreciated, cost of sex and sexual selection.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Ixekizumab vs Etanercept and Their Manufacturer-Recommended Dosing Regimens in Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-10-01

    Biologic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis; however, their use is limited by costs. Ixekizumab was more effective than etanercept in the UNCOVER trials, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ixekizumab for treating psoriasis. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of these therapies is crucial for medical decision making and our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of various ixekizumab dosing frequencies compared with etanercept. We utilized published data from the UNCOVER comparative efficacy trials, including transitional probabilities and treatment response rates, to create a Markov model simulating the clinical course and cost-effectiveness of three treatment algorithms for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis over 60-weeks: (1) ixekizumab every 2 weeks for 12 weeks then every 4 weeks, (2) ixekizumab every 4 weeks throughout the treatment period, (3) biweekly etanercept for 12 weeks then once weekly. We utilized a standard willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $150,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and Medicaid drug acquisition costs for our calculations. Ixekizumab every 4 weeks was $28,681 (USD) less expensive than biweekly etanercept, and $21,375 less expensive, and 0.006 QALY less effective, than ixekizumab every 2 weeks-- a savings of $28.7 and $21.4 million, respectively, per 1,000 patients. A 95.6% cost reduction to $197.83 per dose is required for ixekizumab every 2 weeks to be more cost-effective than every 4 weeks. Biweekly etanercept requires a 29.5% cost reduction ($743.82 per dose) to be competitive with ixekizumab every 4 weeks. This cost-effectiveness model utilizes strong input data but is a limited approximation of real-life scenarios. Treatment with ixekizumab every 2 weeks is unlikely to be cost-effective compared with ixekizumab every 4 weeks at current U.S. market prices. Yet, the U.S. FDA approval and manufacturer's recommendation are for ixekizumab every 2 weeks

  9. Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown.

  10. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  11. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Dissolution/deposition method); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to manufacture the above at low cost by a dissolution/deposition method. Under this method, a film is fabricated containing crystals high in quality and large in size though the film area is very small. In fiscal 1998, an effort to fabricate a film to cover a 10cm square substrate failed. The failure is explained by that the heater was too small for the substrate area and that the failure to uniformly heat the substrate resulted in an inplane temperature distribution greater than expected. The furnace was modified in a minor way to narrow substrate temperature distribution as much as possible. Another attempt was made to fabricate a larger-area film on a 5cm square substrate, and then crystals grew to cover approximately the whole surface of the 5cm square substrate. Efforts will continue to achieve the goal. As for the mechanism of film fabrication on substrates of different kinds, self-coating is now described by difference in heat conductivity between a carbon substrate and silicon substrate. Thanks to individual control in a small film fabricating unit, a film thickness of approximately 100 micrometers was achieved. The distance of diffusion was 30 micrometers or more in the case of a small area, and the efficiency of a solar cell using this film was found at 10.2%. (NEDO)

  12. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds.

    Dean, David; Jonathan, Wallace; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2012-03-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP(®) (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX) chip. One such additive manufacturing device is the envisionTEC (Ferndale, MI) Perfactory(®). To use cDLP we integrate a photo-crosslinkable polymer, a photo-initiator, and a biocompatible dye. The dye attenuates light, thereby limiting the depth of polymerization. In this study we fabricated scaffolds using the well-studied resorbable polymer, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) as a dye, Irgacure(®) 819 (BASF [Ciba], Florham Park, NJ) as an initiator, and diethyl fumarate as a solvent to control viscosity.

  13. Development of manufacturing method of thermal-resisting concrete with highly synthesizing xonotolite

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2006-01-01

    Xonotolite is one of the most stable Ca-Si hydration compounds in the cementitious material. The authors have been developing anti-drying shrinkage concrete with focusing on the stable compounds, i.e. Tobermorite and Xonotolite. In this study, we proposed the manufacturing method of anti-drying shrinkage concrete with using low calcium/silica ratio cementitious material and applying autoclave curing. The compressive strength of proposed concrete was about 40N/mm 2 , and drying shrinkage under 110degC for 1 year was ranged from 0.04 to 0.06%. There was no amount released of combined water from the proposed concrete during exposure, so the stability of main synthesized compound in the proposed concrete was clarified. On the other hand, the conventional cementitious mortar showed from 0.1 to 0.13% of drying shrinkage and high amount release of combined water from the surface area of C-S-H colloid with resulting to widen the volume of pore among the colloid particle of C-S-H. (author)

  14. Experience feedback from high heat flux component manufacturing for Tore Supra

    Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.; Huber, T.; Garin, P.; Schedler, B.; Agarici, G.

    2001-01-01

    Tore Supra is involved in flat tile carbon armoured plasma facing components (PFCs) since 1985. In 1997, a third generation of components, based on the original concept developed with Plansee Company, called active metal casting (AMC[reg]), has been launched. Since 1998, 660 elementary components for the toroidal pump limiter (TPL) are in production. The route of the manufacture is rather complex and many controls were requested all along the fabrication to insure a high reliability of the elements. One of the main controls is the final infrared (IR) test allowing to determine the quality of the bonding between the carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles and the heat sink made of copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr). Although results for the first batch of elements were as expected (less than 5% rejected at the final test), unexpected defects appeared with the followings batches. Investigations on the fabrication processes underlined the importance of having a better heat treatment of the pieces in copper alloy (CuCrZr), however this was not sufficient to completely explain the observed defects

  15. Manufacture research of the test equipment to measure the dose rate in high radiation medium

    Phan Luong Tuan; Nguyen Van Sy; Nguyen Xuan Vinh; Dang Quang Bao; Nguyen Thanh Hung; Pham Minh Duc; Nguyen Xuan Truong

    2017-01-01

    Photodiode BPW34 is operated as a low voltage counter tubes. When the radiation rays go into the BPW34,they will create a pairs of electron and hole. If setting the reverse bias in to the BPW34, a pulse is achieved and it can be amplified and processed. The STM32 is the microcontroller family which is developed base on ARM processors. The STM32 incorporated many new features such as ADC, I2C, etc. With the connectional ability to other devices, the STM32 is proving its advantages in the development of equipment.The application of irradiation technology in the economy-society increases widespread as food irradiation, mutant irradiation, etc. Until now the calculation the high dose rate at Hanoi Irradiation Center is identified by the Fricke, ECB dosimeters. The dosimeters must be destroyed in order to serve for dose rate determination. Manufacture research the equipment for dose rate calculation support to determine dose rate directly through the equipment’s signal and this equipment can be used multiple. This equipment can be connected to other devices to control the irradiation process better via signals. (author)

  16. Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR Phase 2 program on the development and demonstration of an automated robotic manufacturing...

  17. The high cost of cheap clothes | IDRC - International Development ...

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... The collapse of a garment factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on April 24, 2013, ... the Rana Plaza garment factory killed more than 1,000 people in Bangladesh, ... Does labour-intensive manufacturing promote economic mobility?

  18. Prepreg effects on honeycomb composite manufacturing

    Martin, Cary Joseph

    Fiber reinforced composites offer many advantages over traditional materials and are widely utilized in aerospace applications. Advantages include a high stiffness to weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance. However, the pace of new implementation is slow. The manufacturing processes used to transform composite intermediates into final products are poorly understood and are a source of much variability. This limits new implementation and increases the manufacturing costs of existing designs. One such problem is honeycomb core crush, in which a core-stiffened structure collapses during autoclave manufacture, making the structure unusable and increasing the overall manufacturing cost through increased scrap rates. Consequently, the major goal of this research was to investigate the scaling of core crush from prepreg process-structure-property relations to commercial composite manufacture. The material dependent nature of this defect was of particular interest. A methodology and apparatus were developed to measure the frictional resistance of prepreg materials under typical processing conditions. Through a characterization of commercial and experimental prepregs, it was found that core crush behavior was the result of differences in prepreg frictional resistance. This frictional resistance was related to prepreg morphology and matrix rheology and elasticity. Resin composition and prepreg manufacturing conditions were also found to affect manufacturing behavior. Mechanical and dimensional models were developed and demonstrated utility for predicting this crushing behavior. Collectively, this work explored and identified the process-structure-property relations as they relate to the manufacture of composite materials and suggested several avenues by which manufacturing-robust materials may be developed.

  19. Recent advance in high manufacturing readiness level and high temperature CMOS mixed-signal integrated circuits on silicon carbide

    Weng, M. H.; Clark, D. T.; Wright, S. N.; Gordon, D. L.; Duncan, M. A.; Kirkham, S. J.; Idris, M. I.; Chan, H. K.; Young, R. A. R.; Ramsay, E. P.; Wright, N. G.; Horsfall, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    A high manufacturing readiness level silicon carbide (SiC) CMOS technology is presented. The unique process flow enables the monolithic integration of pMOS and nMOS transistors with passive circuit elements capable of operation at temperatures of 300 °C and beyond. Critical to this functionality is the behaviour of the gate dielectric and data for high temperature capacitance-voltage measurements are reported for SiO2/4H-SiC (n and p type) MOS structures. In addition, a summary of the long term reliability for a range of structures including contact chains to both n-type and p-type SiC, as well as simple logic circuits is presented, showing function after 2000 h at 300 °C. Circuit data is also presented for the performance of digital logic devices, a 4 to 1 analogue multiplexer and a configurable timer operating over a wide temperature range. A high temperature micro-oven system has been utilised to enable the high temperature testing and stressing of units assembled in ceramic dual in line packages, including a high temperature small form-factor SiC based bridge leg power module prototype, operated for over 1000 h at 300 °C. The data presented show that SiC CMOS is a key enabling technology in high temperature integrated circuit design. In particular it provides the ability to realise sensor interface circuits capable of operating above 300 °C, accommodate shifts in key parameters enabling deployment in applications including automotive, aerospace and deep well drilling.

  20. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies.

    Jenkins, Michael J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discussed. Step efficiencies particularly for differentiation, media requirements and technology choice are amongst the key process economic drivers identified for hPSCs. Progress made to address these cost drivers in hPSC bioprocessing strategies is discussed. These include improving expansion and differentiation yields in planar and bioreactor technologies, the development of xeno-free media and microcarrier coatings, identification of optimal bioprocess operating conditions to control cell fate and the development of directed differentiation protocols that reduce reliance on expensive morphogens such as growth factors and small molecules. These approaches offer methods to further optimise hPSC bioprocessing in terms of its commercial feasibility. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Creative Shenzhen? A critical view on Shenzhen's transformation from a low-cost manufacturing hub to a creative megacity

    Bontje, M.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1980, Shenzhen has grown in a record-breaking pace to the megacity it is today. Initially, Shenzhen’s growth was based on low-cost mass industrial production. In recent years, however, the Shenzhen city government is trying to modernize and diversify its economy. Shenzhen has embraced the

  2. Low Cost DIY Lenses kit For High School Teaching

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn

    2017-09-01

    A set of lenses was fabricated from a low cost materials in a DIY (Do it yourself) process. The purpose was to demonstrate to teachers and students in high schools how to construct lenses by themselves with the local available materials. The lenses could be applied in teaching Physics, about the nature of a lens such as focal length and light rays passing through lenses in either direction, employing a set of simple laser pointers. This instrumental kit was made from a transparent 2 mm thick of acrylic Perspex. It was cut into rectangular pieces with dimensions of 2x15 cm2 and bent into curved shape by a hot air blower on a cylindrical wooden rod with curvature radii of about 3-4.5 cm. Then a pair of these Perspex were formed into a hollow thick lenses with a base supporting platform, so that any appropriate liquids could be filled in. The focal length of the lens was measured from laser beam drawing on a paper. The refractive index, n (n) of a filling liquid could be calculated from the measured focal length (f). The kit was low cost and DIY but was greatly applicable for optics teaching in high school laboratory.

  3. CAD/CAM Helps Build Better Bots: High-Tech Design and Manufacture Draws Engineering-Oriented Students

    Van Name, Barry

    2012-01-01

    There is a battlefield where no quarter is given, no mercy shown, but not a single drop of blood is spilled. It is an arena that witnesses the bringing together of high-tech design and manufacture with the outpouring of brute force, under the remotely accessed command of some of today's brightest students. This is the world of battling robots, or…

  4. Manufacturing and use of spiral welded pipes for high pressure service : state of the art

    Knoop, F.M.; Sommer, B. [Salzgitter GroBrohre GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of an improved helical seam 2-step (HTS) manufacturing process used to produce spiral welded large diameter pipes for high pressure transmission pipelines. During the process, pipe forming is combined with continuous tack welding and internal and external submerged arc welding at separate welding stations. The pipe forming unit consists of a 3 roll bending system with an outside roller cage used to guarantee the roundness of the pipe. The converging strip edges of the pipe are joined using a continuous shielded arc tack weld. Tack welding is done automatically with a laser-guided weld head. Run-out angles are adjusted by an automatic gap control system. The formed and tack-welded pipes are then fed to computer-controlled welding stations for final welding, where each pipe is rotated with a precise screw-like motion. The same welding materials used for the helical seam are used for the skelp end welding. The process offers more precise root gap control, as well as improved pipe geometry. Use of the process has also increased production rates and improved weld stability. The dimensions of the spiral-weld pipes are adjustable so that any diameter can be produced from a base material of the same width. The pipes can also be coated externally with fusion-bonded epoxy or 3-layer polyethylene/polypropylene. It was concluded that the process is being further refined to support the use of HTS pipes in high-pressure pipelines. New nondestructive testing techniques used to assess the performance of the line pipes were presented, as well as the results from hot and cold bending tests, field weldability trials, and tests related to the safety of spiral pipes. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. Design and manufacture of ceramic heat pipes for high temperature applications

    Meisel, Peter; Jobst, Matthias; Lippmann, Wolfgang; Hurtado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchangers based on ceramic heat pipes were designed for use under highly abrasive and corrosive atmospheres at temperatures in the range of 800–1200 °C for high-temperature power-engineering applications. The presented heat pipes are gravity assisted and based on a multi-layer concept comprising a ceramic cladding and an inner metal tube that contains sodium as the working fluid. Hermetical encapsulation of the working fluid was achieved by electron-beam welding of the inner metal tube. Subsequently, closure of the surrounding ceramic tube was performed by laser brazing technology using a glass solder. Temperature resistance and functionality of the manufactured ceramic thermosyphons could be confirmed experimentally in a hot combustion gas atmosphere at temperatures up to 1100 °C. The ceramic tubes used had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a total length of 770 mm. The measured axial heat transfer of the ceramic gravity assisted heat pipes at the stationary operating point with cold/hot gas temperature of 100 °C/900 °C was 400 W. The result of the calculation using the created mathematical model amounted to 459 W. - Highlights: • Heat-pipe design consists of a ceramic shell and an inner metallic tube. • Laser brazing technology is suitable to seal ceramic heat-pipes. • Thermal characteristic of double wall thermosyphon was modelled using FEM code. • Experimental investigations demonstrated functionality of double wall thermosyphons

  6. Determination of Process Parameters for High-Density, Ti-6Al-4V Parts Using Additive Manufacturing

    Kamath, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    In our earlier work, we described an approach for determining the process parameters that re- sult in high-density parts manufactured using the additive-manufacturing process of selective laser melting (SLM). Our approach, which combines simple simulations and experiments, was demon- strated using 316L stainless steel. We have also used the approach successfully for several other materials. This short note summarizes the results of our work in determining process parameters for Ti-6Al-4V using a Concept Laser M2 system.

  7. Distress and worry as mediators in the relationship between psychosocial risks and upper body musculoskeletal complaints in highly automated manufacturing.

    Wixted, Fiona; Shevlin, Mark; O'Sullivan, Leonard W

    2018-03-15

    As a result of changes in manufacturing including an upward trend in automation and the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, the requirement for supervisory monitoring and consequently, cognitive demand has increased in automated manufacturing. The incidence of musculoskeletal disorders has also increased in the manufacturing sector. A model was developed based on survey data to test if distress and worry mediate the relationship between psychosocial factors (job control, cognitive demand, social isolation and skill discretion), stress states and symptoms of upper body musculoskeletal disorders in highly automated manufacturing companies (n = 235). These constructs facilitated the development of a statistically significant model (RMSEA 0.057, TLI 0.924, CFI 0.935). Cognitive demand was shown to be related to higher distress in employees, and distress to a higher incidence of self-reported shoulder and lower back symptoms. The mediation model incorporating stress states (distress, worry) as mediators is a novel approach in linking psychosocial risks to musculoskeletal disorders. Practitioners' Summary With little requirement for physical work in many modern automated manufacturing workplaces, there is often minimal management focus on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) as important occupational health problems. Our model provides evidence that psychosocial factors are important risk factors in symptoms of WRMSD and should be managed.

  8. Progress of High Heat Flux Component Manufacture and Heat Load Experiments in China

    Liu, X.; Lian, Y.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, Q.; Duan, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengu (China); Luo, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yan, Q. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: High heat flux components for first wall and divertor are the key subassembly of the present fusion experiment apparatus and fusion reactors in the future. It is requested the metallurgical bonding among the plasma facing materials (PFMs), heat sink and support materials. As to PFMs, ITER grade vacuum hot pressed beryllium CN-G01 was developed in China and has been accepted as the reference material of ITER first wall. Additionally pure tungsten and tungsten alloys, as well as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) W coating are being developed for the aims of ITER divertor application and the demand of domestic fusion devices, and significant progress has been achieved. For plasma facing components (PFCs), high heat flux components used for divertor chamber are being studied according to the development program of the fusion experiment reactor of China. Two reference joining techniques of W/Cu mockups for ITER divertor chamber are being developed, one is mono-block structure by pure copper casting of tungsten surface following by hot iso-static press (HIP), and another is flat structure by brazing. The critical acceptance criteria of high heat flux components are their high heat load performance. A 60 kW Electron-beam Material testing Scenario (EMS-60) has been constructed at Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP),which adopts an electron beam welding gun with maximum energy of 150 keV and 150 x 150 mm{sup 2} scanning area by maximum frame rate of 30 kHz. Furthermore, an Engineering Mockup testing Scenario (EMS-400) facility with 400 kW electron-beam melting gun is under construction and will be available by the end of this year. After that, China will have the comprehensive capability of high heat load evaluation from PFMs and small-scale mockups to engineering full scale PFCs. A brazed W/CuCrZr mockup with 25 x 25 x 40 mm{sup 3} in dimension was tested at EMS-60. The heating and cooling time are 10 seconds and 15 seconds, respectively. The experiment

  9. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  10. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect total care costs among people with chronic disease?

    Xin, Haichang; Harman, Jeffrey S; Yang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether high cost-sharing in physician care is associated with a differential impact on total care costs by health status. Total care includes physician care, emergency room (ER) visits and inpatient care. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients. This study used the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data with a cross-sectional study design. Difference in difference (DID), instrumental variable technique, two-part model, and bootstrap technique were employed to analyze cost data. Chronically ill individuals' probability of reducing any overall care costs was significantly less than healthier individuals (beta = 2.18, p = 0.04), while the integrated DID estimator from split results indicated that going from low cost-sharing to high cost-sharing significantly reduced costs by $12,853.23 more for sick people than for healthy people (95% CI: -$17,582.86, -$8,123.60). This greater cost reduction in total care among sick people likely resulted from greater cost reduction in physician care, and may have come at the expense of jeopardizing health outcomes by depriving patients of needed care. Thus, these policies would be inappropriate in the short run, and unlikely in the long run to control health plans costs among chronically ill individuals. A generous benefit design with low cost-sharing policies in physician care or primary care is recommended for both health plans and chronically ill individuals, to save costs and protect these enrollees' health status.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, US$1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964

  12. Cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Motasim Badri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices.Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, USD 1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964 for the HAART group for scenario 1

  13. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets.

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultra-High-Performance Concrete And Advanced Manufacturing Methods For Modular Construction

    Sawab, Jamshaid [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Lim, Ing [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Mo, Yi-Lung [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Li, Mo [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guimaraes, Maria [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Small modular reactors (SMR) allow for less onsite construction, increase nuclear material security, and provide a flexible and cost-effective energy alternative. SMR can be factory-built as modular components, and shipped to desired locations for fast assembly. This project successfully developed a new class of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), which features a compressive strength greater than 22 ksi (150 MPa) without special treatment and self-consolidating characteristics desired for SMR modular construction. With an ultra-high strength and dense microstructure, it will facilitate rapid construction of steel plate-concrete (SC) beams and walls with thinner and lighter modules, and can withstand harsh environments and mechanical loads anticipated during the service life of nuclear power plants. In addition, the self-consolidating characteristics are crucial for the fast construction and assembly of SC modules with reduced labor costs and improved quality. Following the UHPC material development, the capacity of producing self-consolidating UHPC in mass quantities was investigated and compared to accepted self-consolidating concrete standards. With slightly adjusted mixing procedure using large-scale gravity-based mixers (compared with small-scale force-based mixer), the self-consolidating UHPC has been successfully processed at six cubic yards; the product met both minimum compressive strength requirements and self-consolidating concrete standards. Steel plate-UHPC beams (15 ft. long, 12 in. wide and 16 in. deep) and wall panels (40 in. X 40 in. X 3 in.) were then constructed using the self-consolidating UHPC without any external vibration. Quality control guidelines for producing UHPC in large scale were developed. When the concrete is replaced by UHPC in a steel plate concrete (SC) beam, it is critical to evaluate its structural behavior with both flexure and shear-governed failure modes. In recent years, SC has been widely used for buildings and nuclear

  15. Design and Manufacturing of a High-Precision Sun Tracking System Based on Image Processing

    Kianoosh Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration solar arrays require greater solar tracking precision than conventional photovoltaic arrays. This paper presents a high precision low cost dual axis sun tracking system based on image processing for concentration photovoltaic applications. An imaging device is designed according to the principle of pinhole imaging, making sun rays to be received on a screen through pinhole and to be a sun spot. The location of the spot is used to adjust the orientation of the solar panel. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to achieve this goal. A prototype was built, and experimental results have proven the good performance of the proposed system and low error of tracking. The operation of this system is independent of geographical location, initial calibration, and periodical regulations.

  16. Fuel cycle cost, reactor physics and fuel manufacturing considerations for Erbia-bearing PWR fuel with > 5 wt% U-235 content

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N. [Westinghouse Electric Co. LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The efforts to reduce fuel cycle cost have driven LWR fuel close to the licensed limit in fuel fissile content, 5.0 wt% U-235 enrichment, and the acceptable duty on current Zr-based cladding. An increase in the fuel enrichment beyond the 5 wt% limit, while certainly possible, entails costly investment in infrastructure and licensing. As a possible way to offset some of these costs, the addition of small amounts of Erbia to the UO{sub 2} powder with >5 wt% U-235 has been proposed, so that its initial reactivity is reduced to that of licensed fuel and most modifications to the existing facilities and equipment could be avoided. This paper discusses the potentialities of such a fuel on the US market from a vendor's perspective. An analysis of the in-core behavior and fuel cycle performance of a typical 4-loop PWR with 18 and 24-month operating cycles has been conducted, with the aim of quantifying the potential economic advantage and other operational benefits of this concept. Subsequently, the implications on fuel manufacturing and storage are discussed. While this concept has certainly good potential, a compelling case for its short-term introduction as PWR fuel for the US market could not be determined. (authors)

  17. Life‐cycle and cost of goods assessment of fed‐batch and perfusion‐based manufacturing processes for mAbs

    Bunnak, Phumthep; Allmendinger, Richard; Ramasamy, Sri V.; Lettieri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Life‐cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment tool that quantifies the environmental impact associated with a product or a process (e.g., water consumption, energy requirements, and solid waste generation). While LCA is a standard approach in many commercial industries, its application has not been exploited widely in the bioprocessing sector. To contribute toward the design of more cost‐efficient, robust and environmentally‐friendly manufacturing process for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a framework consisting of an LCA and economic analysis combined with a sensitivity analysis of manufacturing process parameters and a production scale‐up study is presented. The efficiency of the framework is demonstrated using a comparative study of the two most commonly used upstream configurations for mAb manufacture, namely fed‐batch (FB) and perfusion‐based processes. Results obtained by the framework are presented using a range of visualization tools, and indicate that a standard perfusion process (with a pooling duration of 4 days) has similar cost of goods than a FB process but a larger environmental footprint because it consumed 35% more water, demanded 17% more energy, and emitted 17% more CO2 than the FB process. Water consumption was the most important impact category, especially when scaling‐up the processes, as energy was required to produce process water and water‐for‐injection, while CO2 was emitted from energy generation. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the perfusion process can be made more environmentally‐friendly than the FB process if the pooling duration is extended to 8 days. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1324–1335, 2016 PMID:27390260

  18. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    Easterling, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Initiatives Dept.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  19. Offshore compression system design for low cost high and reliability

    Castro, Carlos J. Rocha de O.; Carrijo Neto, Antonio Dias; Cordeiro, Alexandre Franca [Chemtech Engineering Services and Software Ltd., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Special Projects Div.], Emails: antonio.carrijo@chemtech.com.br, carlos.rocha@chemtech.com.br, alexandre.cordeiro@chemtech.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the offshore oil fields, the oil streams coming from the wells usually have significant amounts of gas. This gas is separated at low pressure and has to be compressed to the export pipeline pressure, usually at high pressure to reduce the needed diameter of the pipelines. In the past, this gases where flared, but nowadays there are a increasing pressure for the energy efficiency improvement of the oil rigs and the use of this gaseous fraction. The most expensive equipment of this kind of plant are the compression and power generation systems, being the second a strong function of the first, because the most power consuming equipment are the compressors. For this reason, the optimization of the compression system in terms of efficiency and cost are determinant to the plant profit. The availability of the plants also have a strong influence in the plant profit, specially in gas fields where the products have a relatively low aggregated value, compared to oil. Due this, the third design variable of the compression system becomes the reliability. As high the reliability, larger will be the plant production. The main ways to improve the reliability of compression system are the use of multiple compression trains in parallel, in a 2x50% or 3x50% configuration, with one in stand-by. Such configurations are possible and have some advantages and disadvantages, but the main side effect is the increase of the cost. This is the offshore common practice, but that does not always significantly improve the plant availability, depending of the previous process system. A series arrangement and a critical evaluation of the overall system in some cases can provide a cheaper system with equal or better performance. This paper shows a case study of the procedure to evaluate a compression system design to improve the reliability but without extreme cost increase, balancing the number of equipment, the series or parallel arrangement, and the driver selection. Two cases studies will be

  20. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  1. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  2. All fiber cladding mode stripper with uniform heat distribution and high cladding light loss manufactured by CO2 laser ablation

    Jebali, M. A.; Basso, E. T.

    2018-02-01

    Cladding mode strippers are primarily used at the end of a fiber laser cavity to remove high-power excess cladding light without inducing core loss and beam quality degradation. Conventional manufacturing methods of cladding mode strippers include acid etching, abrasive blasting or laser ablation. Manufacturing of cladding mode strippers using laser ablation consist of removing parts of the cladding by fused silica ablation with a controlled penetration and shape. We present and characterize an optimized cladding mode stripper design that increases the cladding light loss with a minimal device length and manufacturing time. This design reduces the localized heat generation by improving the heat distribution along the device. We demonstrate a cladding mode stripper written on a 400um fiber with cladding light loss of 20dB, with less than 0.02dB loss in the core and minimal heating of the fiber and coating. The manufacturing process of the designed component is fully automated and takes less than 3 minutes with a very high throughput yield.

  3. Feasibility of using Big Area Additive Manufacturing to Directly Manufacture Boat Molds

    Post, Brian K. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Lind, Randall F. [ORNL; Sallas, Matthew R. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project was to explore the feasibility of using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) to directly manufacture a boat mold without the need for coatings. All prior tooling projects with BAAM required the use to thick coatings to overcome the surface finish limitations of the BAAM process. While the BAAM process significantly lowers the cost of building the mold, the high cost element rapidly became the coatings (cost of the material, labor on coating, and finishing). As an example, the time and cost to manufacture the molds for the Wind Turbine project with TPI Composites Inc. and the molds for the submarine project with Carderock Naval Warfare Systems was a fraction of the time and cost of the coatings. For this project, a catamaran boat hull mold was designed, manufactured, and assembled with an additional 0.15” thickness of material on all mold surfaces. After printing, the mold was immediately machined and assembled. Alliance MG, LLC (AMG), the industry partner of this project, experimented with mold release agents on the carbon-fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (CF ABS) to verify that the material can be directly used as a mold (rather than needing a coating). In addition, for large molds (such as the wind turbine mold with TPI Composites Inc.), the mold only provided the target surface. A steel subframe had to be manufactured to provide structural integrity. If successful, this will significantly reduce the time and cost necessary for manufacturing large resin infusion molds using the BAAM process.

  4. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  5. The costs and cost-efficiency of providing food through schools in areas of high food insecurity.

    Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality

  6. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  7. SBIR PHASE I FINAL REPORT: Adoption of High Performance Computational (HPC) Modeling Software for Widespread Use in the Manufacture of Welded Structures

    Brust, Frederick W. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Punch, Edward F. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Kurth, Elizabeth A. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Kennedy, James C. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-02

    fabrication costs. VFT currently is tied to a commercial solver which makes it prohibitively expensive for use by SMEs, as there is a significant licensing cost for the solver - over and above for the relatively minimal cost for VFT. Emc2 developed this software code over a number of years in close cooperation with CAT (Peoria, IL), who currently uses this code exclusively for worldwide fabrication, product design and development activities. The use of VFT has allowed CAT to move directly from design to product fabrication and helped eliminate (to a large extent) new product prototyping and subsequent testing. Additionally, CAT has been able to eliminate/reduce costly one-of-a-kind appliances used to reduce distortion effects due to fabrication. In this context, SMEs can realize the same kind of improved product quality and reduced cost through adoption of the adapted version of VFT for design and subsequent manufacture of new products. Emc2's DOE SBIR Phase I effort successfully adapted VFT so that SMEs have access to this sophisticated and proven methodology that is quick, accurate and cost effective and available on-demand to address weld-simulation and fabrication problems prior to manufacture. The open source code, WARP3D, a high performance finite element code mainly used in fracture and damage assessment of structures, was modified so that computational weld problems can be solved efficiently on multiple processors and threads with VFT. The thermal solver for VFT, based on a series of closed form solution approximations, was enhanced for solution on multiple processors greatly increasing overall speed. In addition, the graphical user interface (GUI) has been tailored to integrate these solutions with WARP3D. The GUI is used to define all the weld pass descriptions, number of passes, material properties, consumable properties, weld speed, etc. for the structure to be modeled. The GUI was improved to make it user-friendly for engineers that are not experts in finite

  8. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing

  9. Additive manufacturing of magnetic shielding and ultra-high vacuum flange for cold atom sensors.

    Vovrosh, Jamie; Voulazeris, Georgios; Petrov, Plamen G; Zou, Ji; Gaber, Youssef; Benn, Laura; Woolger, David; Attallah, Moataz M; Boyer, Vincent; Bongs, Kai; Holynski, Michael

    2018-01-31

    Recent advances in the understanding and control of quantum technologies, such as those based on cold atoms, have resulted in devices with extraordinary metrological performance. To realise this potential outside of a lab environment the size, weight and power consumption need to be reduced. Here we demonstrate the use of laser powder bed fusion, an additive manufacturing technique, as a production technique relevant to the manufacture of quantum sensors. As a demonstration we have constructed two key components using additive manufacturing, namely magnetic shielding and vacuum chambers. The initial prototypes for magnetic shields show shielding factors within a factor of 3 of conventional approaches. The vacuum demonstrator device shows that 3D-printed titanium structures are suitable for use as vacuum chambers, with the test system reaching base pressures of 5 ± 0.5 × 10 -10 mbar. These demonstrations show considerable promise for the use of additive manufacturing for cold atom based quantum technologies, in future enabling improved integrated structures, allowing for the reduction in size, weight and assembly complexity.

  10. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  11. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low Cost Heat Exchangers

    None

    2017-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that identified and evaluated commercially available and state-of-the-art polymer-based material options for manufacturing industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. A heat exchanger concept was also developed and its performance evaluated with heat transfer modeling tools.

  12. Cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of strategies to control tuberculosis in countries with high HIV prevalence

    Williams Brian G

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic has caused a dramatic increase in tuberculosis (TB in East and southern Africa. Several strategies have the potential to reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, and cost and cost-effectiveness analyses can help to prioritize them when budget constraints exist. However, published cost and cost-effectiveness studies are limited. Methods Our objective was to compare the cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of seven strategies for reducing the burden of TB in countries with high HIV prevalence. A compartmental difference equation model of TB and HIV and recent cost data were used to assess the costs (year 2003 US$ prices and effects (TB cases averted, deaths averted, DALYs gained of these strategies in Kenya during the period 2004–2023. Results The three lowest cost and most cost-effective strategies were improving TB cure rates, improving TB case detection rates, and improving both together. The incremental cost of combined improvements to case detection and cure was below US$15 million per year (7.5% of year 2000 government health expenditure; the mean cost per DALY gained of these three strategies ranged from US$18 to US$34. Antiretroviral therapy (ART had the highest incremental costs, which by 2007 could be as large as total government health expenditures in year 2000. ART could also gain more DALYs than the other strategies, at a cost per DALY gained of around US$260 to US$530. Both the costs and effects of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (TLTI for HIV+ individuals were low; the cost per DALY gained ranged from about US$85 to US$370. Averting one HIV infection for less than US$250 would be as cost-effective as improving TB case detection and cure rates to WHO target levels. Conclusion To reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, the immediate goal should be to increase TB case detection rates and, to the extent possible, improve TB cure rates, preferably

  13. Predicting Future High-Cost Schizophrenia Patients Using High-Dimensional Administrative Data

    Yajuan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe burden of serious and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia is substantial and requires health-care organizations to have adequate risk adjustment models to effectively allocate their resources to managing patients who are at the greatest risk. Currently available models underestimate health-care costs for those with mental or behavioral health conditions.ObjectivesThe study aimed to develop and evaluate predictive models for identification of future high-cost schizophrenia patients using advanced supervised machine learning methods.MethodsThis was a retrospective study using a payer administrative database. The study cohort consisted of 97,862 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (ICD9 code 295.* from January 2009 to June 2014. Training (n = 34,510 and study evaluation (n = 30,077 cohorts were derived based on 12-month observation and prediction windows (PWs. The target was average total cost/patient/month in the PW. Three models (baseline, intermediate, final were developed to assess the value of different variable categories for cost prediction (demographics, coverage, cost, health-care utilization, antipsychotic medication usage, and clinical conditions. Scalable orthogonal regression, significant attribute selection in high dimensions method, and random forests regression were used to develop the models. The trained models were assessed in the evaluation cohort using the regression R2, patient classification accuracy (PCA, and cost accuracy (CA. The model performance was compared to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hierarchical Condition Categories (CMS-HCC model.ResultsAt top 10% cost cutoff, the final model achieved 0.23 R2, 43% PCA, and 63% CA; in contrast, the CMS-HCC model achieved 0.09 R2, 27% PCA with 45% CA. The final model and the CMS-HCC model identified 33 and 22%, respectively, of total cost at the top 10% cost cutoff.ConclusionUsing advanced feature selection leveraging detailed

  14. 42 CFR 412.84 - Payment for extraordinarily high-cost cases (cost outliers).

    2010-10-01

    ... obtains accurate data with which to calculate either an operating or capital cost-to-charge ratio (or both... outlier payments will be based on operating and capital cost-to-charge ratios calculated based on a ratio... outliers). 412.84 Section 412.84 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. A Study on the Cost-Effectiveness of a SemiAutomated Cutting Process at a Garment Manufacturing Company

    Castro, Mark Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study, Company X, has been experiencing variations in the quantity report from the cutting department and the transmittal reports. The management found that these processes are hugely affected by manual labor. To reduce the system's proneness to human error, the management decided to explore the possibility of adapting a semi-automated spreading and cutting process in the system. This research aims to evaluate the pre-sewing processes of Company X and whether introducing automation can be beneficial to the company and the garments industry. The researchers used process mapping tools, descriptive research, and process flowchart to assess the current and proposed systems, and engineering economics to evaluate the cost and benefits of implementing the semi-automated system. The results showed that with the implementation of the semi- automated system; the company will incur 66.61% more savings per year than the current system. In terms of cycle time, the semi-automated system eliminated the relaxation of fabric before the cutting process, thereby greatly reducing cycle time. In addition, the researchers found that as long as the company produce more than 4,140 pieces per day for the system will be economically feasible. Unquantifiable benefits are also identified on introducing the semi- automated system to the company. The company can have a cleaner work environment that will lead to more productivity and greater quality of goods. This will lead to a better company image that will encourage more customers to place job orders.

  16. STUDY ON THE USAGE OF SPECIAL MATERIALS FOR HIGH-STRENGTH PARTS USED IN THE MACHINES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    BIBU Marius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whereas formerly metallic materials were used extensively and for various purposes in the machines manufacturing industry, nowadays new materials are sought that can replace the "conventional" machines manufacturing materials with new ones. This is especially challenging in areas where parts need to be able to withstand very tough conditions, such as high temperatures or large forces applied to them. The current paper intends to analyze some of the most widely used materials for high-strength applications. A special focus in this regard is on the one hand in fiber-reinforced composite materials with the polymer matrix and on the other hand on basalt. The most important properties, processing technologies and applications of these materials are analyzed and discussed and conclusions are drawn regarding their compatibility with the intended purpose.

  17. Production of solidified high level wastes: a cost comparison of solidification processes

    1977-06-01

    Differential cost estimates of the annual operating and maintenance costs and the capital costs for five HLW Waste Solidification Alternates were developed. The annual operating and maintenance cost estimates included the cost of labor, consumables, utilities, shipping casks, shipping and disposal at a federal repository. The capital cost included the cost of the component, installation and building. The differential cost estimates do not include equipment and facilities which are either shared with the reprocessing facility or are common between all of the alternates. Total annual cost differential between the five waste form alternates is summarized in tabular form. The Borosilicate Glass Alternate has the lowest total annual cost. The other alternates have higher costs which range from $6.6 M to $7.4 M per year higher than the Glass alternate with the Supercalcine being the highest cost at $7.4 M per year differential. The major items in the cost estimates are then disposal costs in the operating cost estimates and the HLW Storage Tanks in the capital cost estimates. The Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate ships 180 canisters per year more than the other alternates and consequently has a significantly higher operating cost. However, off-setting this the Supercalcine Multibarrier Alternate does not require HLW Storage Tanks for decay because of the high heat conductivity of this product and correspondingly the capital cost for this alternate is significantly lower than the other alternates. The radiological risk values are correlated with the cost evaluation normalized to cost ($)/MWe-yr

  18. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U 3 O 8 powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated

  19. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  20. Design and Manufacture of a Highly Reliable, Miniaturized and Low Mass Shutter Mechanism

    Manhart, M.; Zeh, T.; Preibler, G.; Hurni, A.; Walter, I.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development, manufacturing and testing of a lightweight shutter mechanism made of titanium for the MERTIS Instrument. MERTIS is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard ESA's future BepiColombo mission to Mercury. The mechanism is built as a parallelogram arrangement of flexible hinges, actuated by a voice coil. In a first test run, it was shown that the selected EDM processing led to the generation of titanium oxides and an oxygen-enriched surface layer on the substrate (so called alpha-case layer). In the revised version of the shutter, it was possible to manufacture the complex geometry by micro-milling and an adjacent pickling procedure. The adequacy of this approach was verified by lifetime and vibration testing.

  1. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-01-01

    and thus reduce three temperature losses in the system associated with (1) heat transfer from the fuel to the reactor coolant, (2) temperature rise across the reactor core, and (3) heat transfer across the heat exchangers between the reactor and H2 production plant. Lowering the peak reactor temperatures and thus reducing the high-temperature materials requirements may make the AHTR the enabling technology for low-cost nuclear hydrogen production

  2. Silicon photonics integrated circuits: a manufacturing platform for high density, low power optical I/O's.

    Absil, Philippe P; Verheyen, Peter; De Heyn, Peter; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Lepage, Guy; De Coster, Jeroen; Van Campenhout, Joris

    2015-04-06

    Silicon photonics integrated circuits are considered to enable future computing systems with optical input-outputs co-packaged with CMOS chips to circumvent the limitations of electrical interfaces. In this paper we present the recent progress made to enable dense multiplexing by exploiting the integration advantage of silicon photonics integrated circuits. We also discuss the manufacturability of such circuits, a key factor for a wide adoption of this technology.

  3. Sectorial and regional determinants of firm dynamics in developing countries: evidence for low, medium and high tech manufacturing in Argentina

    Calá, Carla Daniela

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of firm dynamics in developing countries using Argentina as an illustrative case. We explain firm entry and exit at the regional level, distinguishing three groups of manufacturing activities: low, medium and high tech. We find that both region -and sector- specific determinants explain firm dynamics, but the impact is not homogeneous across sectors. In particular, for low tech industries, there is a need for explanatory variables that proxy for the specificities o...

  4. Manufacturing Initiative

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  5. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  6. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non

  7. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  8. Method for the manufacture of a superconductive Nb3Sn layer on a niobium surface for high frequency applications

    Martens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A manufacturing method for depositing an Nb 3 Sn layer on a niobium surface for high frequency applications comprising developing a tin vapor atmosphere which also contains a highly volatile tin compound in the gaseous state, and holding the portions of the surface which are to be provided with the Nb 3 Sn layer at a temperature of between 900 0 and 1500 0 C for a predetermined period of time to form the Nb 3 Sn layer permitting niobium surfaces of any shape to be provided with Nb 3 Sn layers of high uniformity and quality

  9. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  10. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si sheets by continuous casting method); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (renzoku cast ho ni yoru tei cost Si kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing of low-cost Si substrates by continuous casting method in fiscal 1994. (1) On manufacturing of ingots of 16 piece size, the ingot of nearly 170kg was manufactured by batch process using the Si melt injection unit prepared in last year. (2) On oxygen and carbon contents in wafers, the contents were measured by FT-IR after slicing of the ingot. As a result, the oxygen and carbon contents could be successfully reduced to the targets of 10ppma and 5ppma or less, respectively. (3) The resistivity distribution of the ingot ranged over the target of 1-2ohm-cm. (4) Cells of 100 {times} 100mm{sup 2} wide and 350{mu}m thick were verified by in-house evaluation process. Although lower cell conversion efficiency was found at the center top of the ingot, a vertical efficiency stability was nearly sufficient as a whole. (5) On the crystal growth unit prepared in fiscal 1994, any problems were not found on automatic driving and vibration during moving. 8 figs.

  11. A low cost, high performance, 1.2m off-axis telescope built with NG-Xinetics silicon carbide

    Rey, Justin J.; Wellman, John A.; Egan, Richard G.; Wollensak, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    The search for extrasolar habitable planets is one of three major astrophysics priorities identified for the next decade. These missions demand very high performance visible-wavelength optical imaging systems. Such high performance space telescopes are typically extremely expensive and can be difficult for government agencies to afford in today's economic climate, and most lower cost systems offer little benefit because they fall short on at least one of the following three key performance parameters: imaging wavelength, total system-level wavefront error and aperture diameter. Northrop Grumman Xinetics has developed a simple, lightweight, low-cost telescope design that will address the near-term science objectives of this astrophysics theme with the required optical performance, while reducing the telescope cost by an order of magnitude. Breakthroughs in SiC mirror manufacturing, integrated wavefront sensing, and high TRL deformable mirror technology have finally been combined within the same organization to offer a complete end-to-end telescope system in the lower end of the Class D cost range. This paper presents the latest results of real OAP polishing and metrology data, an optimized optical design, and finite element derived WFE

  12. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  13. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon/thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to manufacture the above for the development of low-cost high-efficiency practical cells. Technologies were developed to homogeneously fabricate films with an average efficiency of 10% or more in a 100mm times 85mm area in a STAR (naturally surface texture and enhanced absorption with a back reflector) structure thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell. The texture shape was improved for a higher light trapping effect and a STAR structure cell highly sensitive to long wavelengths and fit for use for a hybrid cell bottom layer was obtained. Various cells were examined for temperature characteristics, and it was found that thin-film poly-Si cells present a temperature coefficient equal to or less than that of bulk single-crystal silicon systems, and hybrid cells a temperature coefficient similar to that of a-Si systems. The technology was applied to a hybrid solar cell in which an a-Si cell was placed on STAR structure thin film poly-Si cells, and a resultant 3-layer a-Si/poly-Si/poly-Si cell exhibited a stabilization factor of 12.0% after 550 hours of optical irradiation. (NEDO)

  14. Association of prescription abandonment with cost share for high-cost specialty pharmacy medications.

    Gleason, Patrick P; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Sarran, H Scott

    2009-10-01

    In 2008, specialty medications accounted for 15.1% of total pharmacy benefit medication spending, and per member expenditures have increased by 11.1% annually from 2004 to 2008 within a commercially insured population of 8 million members. Insurers face increasing pressure to control specialty medication expenditures and to rely on increasing member cost share through creation of a fourth copayment tier within the incentive-based formulary pharmacy benefit system. Data are needed on the influence that member out-of-pocket (OOP) expense may have on prescription abandonment (defined as the patient never actually taking possession of the medication despite evidence of a written prescription generated by a prescriber). To explore the relationship between prescription abandonment and OOP expense among individuals newly initiating high-cost medication therapy with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker or multiple sclerosis (MS) biologic agent. This observational cross-sectional study queried a midwestern and southern U.S. database of 13,172,480 commercially insured individuals to find members with a pharmacy benefit-adjudicated claim for a TNF blocker or MS specialty medication during the period from July 2006 through June 2008. Prescription abandonment was assessed among continuously enrolled members newly initiating TNF blocker or MS therapy. Prescription abandonment was defined as reversal of the adjudicated claim with no evidence of a subsequent additional adjudicated paid claim in the ensuing 90 days. Separate analyses for MS and TNF blocker therapy were performed to assess the association between member OOP expense and abandonment rate using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariate logistic regression. Members were placed into 1 of the 7 following OOP expense groups per claim: $0-$100, $101-$150, $151-$200, $201-$250, $251-$350, $351-$500, or more than $500. The association of MS or TNF blocker abandonment rate with OOP expense was tested with logistic

  15. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Development and application of high-precision laser welding technology for manufacturing Ti alloy frames of glasses

    Kim, S. S.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Leem, B. C.; Shin, J. S.; Lee, D. H.

    1999-12-01

    The research and development efforts of the high precision laser welding technology for manufacturing titanium alloy frames of glasses. For this purpose, laser welding device with the high beam quality is designed and fabricated, which consists of a optical fiber transmission part, a welding monitoring part and a welding controller. The welding nozzle and holding fixtures for manufacturing titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses. Titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses to be developed were experimentally manufactured by utilizing the laser welding using the optical fiber of GI 400 μm. As a result, the seam welding with the bead width of 0.3 mm or less and the weld penetration of 0.3-0.4mm could be accomplished. The fundamental technology was established through design of welding jigs with a variety of configurations and adequate welding conditions. Also, for the purpose to enable the companies participating in this project to commercialize the developed technology acceleratedly, a training program for the engineers belonging to such companies was conducted along with the technology transfer through joint experiments with the engineers. (author)

  17. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Volume 1. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules and survey and research on analyzing how to put products into practical use); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to assist research and development to put thin film solar cells for power use into practical use and a research to put thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies into practical use, survey and research have been performed on trends in the technologies inside and outside the country. Characteristic points in thin film solar cells during the current fiscal year include: expansion of production scale of amorphous silicon solar cells, rapid progress in poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cell technologies, and enhancement of performance in large-area modules in the a-Si, CIGS, and CdTe systems. In the trends in research and development of amorphous systems, expectation is heightening on elucidation of optical deterioration phenomena, and establishment of suppression technologies thereof. Although the highest efficiency was not renewed in thin film solar cells of small areas, progress was seen in the post-stabilization efficiency in large-area modules. A thin film solar cell manufacturing plant having an annual production capacity of 20 MW was put into operation in October in Japan. Micro (poly) crystalline silicon based solar cells have high possibility of being compatible in cost reduction and performance improvement, and energetic researches are being carried out on them in recent years as the most promising candidate of the next generation solar cells. (NEDO)

  18. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets.

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I C; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A; Paranthaman, M Parans

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm 3 , and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity H ci  = 688.4 kA/m, remanence B r  = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH) max  = 43.49 kJ/m 3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  19. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost and Throughput Improvements for Thin Film CIGS-Based Modules: Final Technical Report, July 1998 -- September 2001

    Britt, J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the marked improvements made of the production line under the PVMaT program: successfully developed a high-speed, all-laser, monolithic integration process for CIGS-based modules on polyimide substrates; exceeded PVMaT goals for scribing rate and total interconnect width; developed robust, well-controlled techniques for selective scribing; improved CIGS evaporation sources to allow uniform, controllable delivery; completed foundation required to integrate higher CIGS deposition rates into the production line; developed well-controlled Se delivery system to minimize Se consumption; successfully integrated the parallel-detector spectroscope ellipsometer (PDSE) into a production CIGS deposition chamber; collected useful, in-situ data with PDSE; validated the performance of the X-ray fluorescometry (XRF) sensor in the production CIGS deposition chamber; and successfully incorporated the XRF sensor into the control architecture of the production CIGS deposition chamber .

  20. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers

    Mangun, Christian

    2003-01-01

    .... EKOS has developed a novel activated carbon fiber - (ACF) that combines the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical agents...